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  • 101.
    Li, Qiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philip
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Simulations of heat transfer in a boundary layer subject to free-stream turbulence2010In: Journal of turbulence, ISSN 1468-5248, E-ISSN 1468-5248, Vol. 11, no 45, p. 1-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the effects of ambient free-stream turbulence (FST) on the momentum and heat transfer in a spatially developing, turbulent flat-plate boundary layer via large-eddy simulations using the ADM-RT model. Due to a local turbulence intensity Tu of 7% in the free stream, the skin-friction coefficient cf and Stanton number St are substantially elevated up to 25% and 32%, respectively, in the fully turbulent region (Reτ=300). This observation is in qualitative agreement with earlier experimental studies. Moreover, the Reynolds analogy factor is found to increase with the FST intensity Tu. The depression of both mean velocity and temperature profiles in the wake region due to FST is observed. In addition, the pre-multiplied spanwise spectra show that the outer peak residing in the logarithmic region in the case without FST is replaced by a new peak located near the boundary layer edge with a spanwise scale of about 3-4δ95. It is suggested that these large-scale events and their imprint throughout the boundary layer cause the elevation of both the skin friction and heat transfer on the solid surface.

  • 102.
    Li, Qiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philip
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Spectral simulations of wall-bounded flows on massively-parallel computers2008Report (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Li, Qiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Large-eddy simulation of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer with passive scalar transport: Part I-flow statistics2011Report (Other academic)
  • 104.
    Li, Qiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Large-eddy simulation of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer with passive scalar transport: Part II-turbulence structures2011Report (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Li, Qiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent boundary layer with passive scalar transport2010In: Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation 7, 2010, p. 321-327Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fully-resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer with passive scalars over a flat plate under zero pressure gradient (ZPG) has been carried out using a spectral method with about 40M grid points. The highest Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness and free-stream velocity is Re θ = 850 and the molecular Prandtl numbers for the scalars range from 0.2 to 2.0. The intermittent region near the boundary-layer edge was identified by investigating the high-order moments and PDF. In addition, it was found that the streamwise velocity is similar to the scalar distribution at Pr = 0. 71 with isoscalar wall boundary condition. Far away from the wall, the two quantities become less correlated.

  • 106.
    Li, Qiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    DNS of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer with passive scalar transport2009In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 916-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate under zero pressure gradient (ZPG) has been carried out. The evolution of several passive scalars with both isoscalar and isoflux wall boundary condition are computed during the simulation. The Navier-Stokes equations as well as the scalar transport equation are solved using a fully spectral method. The highest Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity U-infinity and momentum thickness 0 is Re-0 = 830, and the molecular Prandtl numbers are 0.2, 0.71 and 2. To the authors' knowledge, this Reynolds number is to date the highest with such a variety of scalars. A large number of turbulence statistics for both flow and scalar fields are obtained and compared when possible to existing experimental and numerical simulations at comparable Reynolds number. The main focus of the present paper is on the statistical behaviour of the scalars in the outer region of the boundary layer, distinctly different from the channel-flow simulations. Agreements as well as discrepancies are discussed while the influence of the molecular Prandtl number and wall boundary conditions is also highlighted. A Pr scaling for various quantities is proposed in outer scalings. In addition, spanwise two-point correlation and instantaneous fields are employed to investigate the near-wall streak spacing and the coherence between the velocity and the scalar fields. Probability density functions (PDF) and joint probability density functions (JPDF) are shown to identify the intermittency both near the wall and in the outer region of the boundary layer. The present simulation data will be available online for the research community.

  • 107.
    Li, Qiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Comparison of SGS models for passive scalar mixing in turbulent channel flows2010In: Proceedings of Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation VIII: Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 2010, 2010, p. 131-136Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Li, Qiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Simulations of heat transfer in a boundary layer subject to free-stream turbulence2009In: 6th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2009, International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP , 2009, p. 195-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the effects or the ambient, free-stream turbulence (FST) on the momentum and heat transfer in a turbulent flat-plate boundary layer via large-eddy simulations (LES) using the ADM-RT model. Due to a FST of 20%, the skin-friction coefficient c/and Stanton number St are substantially elevated up to 15% in the fully turbulent region. The depression of both the mean velocity and temperature profiles in the wake region due to the FST is observed, however, the influence on the wall-normal heat flux in the near-wall region is negligible. © 2009 International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP09. All rights reserved.

  • 109.
    Li, Qiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Simulations of heat transfer of a boundary layer subject to free-stream turbulence2009In: Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena 6, 2009, p. 195-200Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Malm, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningston, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Koopman mode decomposition of a minimal channel flow2010Report (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Malm, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Fischer, Paul F.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Stabilization of the Spectral Element Method in Convection Dominated Flows by Recovery of Skew-Symmetry2013In: Journal of Scientific Computing, ISSN 0885-7474, E-ISSN 1573-7691, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 254-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate stability properties of the spectral element method for advection dominated incompressible flows. In particular, properties of the widely used convective form of the nonlinear term are studied. We remark that problems which are usually associated with the nonlinearity of the governing Navier-Stokes equations also arise in linear scalar transport problems, which implicates advection rather than nonlinearity as a source of difficulty. Thus, errors arising from insufficient quadrature of the convective term, commonly referred to as 'aliasing errors', destroy the skew-symmetric properties of the convection operator. Recovery of skew-symmetry can be efficiently achieved by the use of over-integration. Moreover, we demonstrate that the stability problems are not simply connected to underresolution. We combine theory with analysis of the linear advection-diffusion equation in 2D and simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in 2D of thin shear layers at a very high Reynolds number and in 3D of turbulent and transitional channel flow at moderate Reynolds number. For the Navier-Stokes equations, where the divergence-free constraint needs to be enforced iteratively to a certain accuracy, small divergence errors can be detrimental to the stability of the method and it is therefore advised to use additional stabilization (e.g. so-called filter-based stabilization, spectral vanishing viscosity or entropy viscosity) in order to assure a stable spectral element method.

  • 112.
    Malm, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Coherent structures and dominant frequencies in a turbulent three-dimensional diffuser2012In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 699, p. 320-351Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Malm, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Sandham, N. D.
    A vorticity stretching diagnostic for turbulent flows2011In: 7th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2011, International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vorticity stretching in wall-bounded turbulent and transitional flows has been investigated by means of a new diagnostic, designed to pick up regions with large amounts of vorticity stretching. It was found that the largest occurrence of vorticity stretching in fully turbulent channel flows is present at a wall-normal distance of y+ = 6.5, i.e. in the transition between the viscous sublayer and the buffer region. Instantaneous data showed that the coherent structures associated with these stretching events have the shape of flat ‘pancake structures’ in the vicinity of high-speed streaks, here denoted ‘h-type’ events. The other event found, also studied in an asymptotic suction boundary layer, is the ‘l-type’ event present on top of an unstable low-speed streak. These events are further thought to be associated with the exponential growth of streamwise vorticity in the turbulent near-wall cycle.

  • 114.
    Malm, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Sandham, Neil D.
    A vorticity stretching diagnostic for turbulent and transitional flows2012In: Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, ISSN 0935-4964, E-ISSN 1432-2250, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 485-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vorticity stretching in wall-bounded turbulent and transitional flows has been investigated by means of a new diagnostic measure, denoted by , designed to pick up regions with large amounts of vorticity stretching. It is based on the maximum vorticity stretching component in every spatial point, thus yielding athree-dimensional scalar field. The measure was applied in four different flows with increasing complexity: (a) the near-wall cycle in an asymptotic suction boundary layer (ASBL), (b) K-type transition in a plane channelflow, (c) fully turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 180 and (d) a complex turbulent three-dimensional separated flow. Instantaneous data show that the coherent structures associated with intense vorticity stretching in all four cases have the shape of flat ‘pancake’ structures in the vicinity of high-speed streaks, here denoted ‘h-type’events. The other event found is of ‘l-type’, present on top of an unstable low-speed streak. These events (l-type) are further thought to be associated with the exponential growth of streamwise vorticity in the turbulent near-wall cycle. It was found that the largest occurrence of vorticity stretching in the fully turbulent wall-bounded flows is present at a wall-normal distance of y + = 6.5, i.e. in the transition between the viscous sublayer and buffer layer. The associated structures have a streamwise length of ∼200–300 wall units. In K-type transition, the -measure accurately locates the regions of interest, in particular the formation of high-speed streaks nearthe wall (h-type) and the appearance of the hairpin vortex (l-type). In the turbulent separated flow, the structures containing large amounts of vorticity stretching increase in size and magnitude in the shear layer upstreamof the separation bubble but vanish in the backflow region itself. Overall, the measure proved to be useful inshowing growing instabilities before they develop into structures, highlighting the mechanisms creating high shear region on a wall and showing turbulence creation associated with instantaneous separations.

  • 115. Marin, O.
    et al.
    Merzari, E.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Siegel, A.
    Proper orthogonal decomposition on compressed data2017In: 10th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2017, International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP10 , 2017, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main approach to identifying coherent structures in a flow field is the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. However it is a data intensive method which becomes more expensive as the data field increases in size. The difficulty pertains mostly when a three-dimensional decomposition is performed, and the limiting factor is storing and loading large data fields of up to billions of gridpoints. This restriction is a conseuqence of the fact that the I/O bandwidth of supercomputers has not been at the same developmental pace as the CPUs. Lossy compression can reduce the size of the data fields and accelerate the computations. The strategy we suggest here relies on data compression via Discrete Chebyshev Transform (or alternatively Discrete Legendre Transform) which leaves invariant the auto-correlation matrix which lies at the core of the POD method. We show that by discarding over 90% of the data we can still retrieve a good proper ortohonal basis of the data set which deviates from the original by 10-2 in the L2 norm.

  • 116. Marin, O.
    et al.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Obabko, A. V.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Characterization of the secondary flow in hexagonal ducts2016In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 28, no 12, article id 125101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we report the results of DNSs and LESs of the turbulent flow through hexagonal ducts at friction Reynolds numbers based on centerplane wall shear and duct half-height Re-tau,Re- c similar or equal to 180, 360, and 550. The evolution of the Fanning friction factor f with Re is in very good agreement with experimental measurements. A significant disagreement between the DNS and previous RANS simulations was found in the prediction of the in-plane velocity, and is explained through the inability of the RANS model to properly reproduce the secondary flow present in the hexagon. The kinetic energy of the secondary flow integrated over the cross-sectional area < K >(yz) decreases with Re in the hexagon, whereas it remains constant with Re in square ducts at comparable Reynolds numbers. Close connection between the values of Reynolds stress (uw) over bar on the horizontal wall close to the corner and the interaction of bursting events between the horizontal and inclined walls is found. This interaction leads to the formation of the secondary flow, and is less frequent in the hexagon as Re increases due to the 120 degrees aperture of its vertex, whereas in the square duct the 90 degrees corner leads to the same level of interaction with increasing Re. Analysis of turbulence statistics at the centerplane and the azimuthal variance of the mean flow and the fluctuations shows a close connection between hexagonal ducts and pipe flows, since the hexagon exhibits near-axisymmetric conditions up to a distance of around 0.15D(H) measured from its center. Spanwise distributions of wall-shear stress show that in square ducts the 90 degrees corner sets the location of a high-speed streak at a distance z(nu)(+) similar or equal to 50 from it, whereas in hexagons the 120 degrees aperture leads to a shorter distance of z(nu)(+) similar or equal to 38. At these locations the root mean square of the wall-shear stresses exhibits an inflection point, which further shows the connections between the near-wall structures and the large-scale motions in the outer flow. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 117.
    Marstorp, Linus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Li, Qiang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Validation of SGS models in large eddy simulation of turbulent zero pressure gradient boundary layer flow2008Report (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Monokrousos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    DNS and LES of estimation and control of transition in boundary layers subject to free-stream turbulence2008In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 841-855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition to turbulence occurring in a flat-plate boundary-layer flow subjected to high levels of free-stream turbulence is considered. This scenario, denoted bypass transition, is characterised by the non-modal growth of streamwise elongated disturbances. These so-called streaks are regions of positive and negative streamwise velocity alternating in the spanwise direction inside the boundary layer. When they reach large enough amplitudes, breakdown into turbulent spots occurs via their secondary instability. In this work, the bypass-transition process is simulated using direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large-eddy simulations (LES). The ADM-RT subgrid-scale model turned out to be particularly suited for transitional flows after a thorough validation. Linear feedback control is applied in order to reduce the perturbation energy and consequently delay transition. This case represents therefore an extension of the linear approach (Chevalier, M., Hoepffner, J., Åkervik, E., Henningson, D.S., 2007a. Linear feedback control and estimation applied to instabilities in spatially developing boundary layers. J. Fluid Mech. 588, 163-187, 167-187.) to flows characterised by strong nonlinearities. Control is applied by blowing and suction at the wall and it is both based on the full knowledge of the instantaneous velocity field (i.e. full information control) and on the velocity field estimated from wall measurements. The results show that the control is able to delay the growth of the streaks in the region where it is active, which implies a delay of the whole transition process. The flow field can be estimated from wall measurements alone: The structures occurring in the "real" flow are reproduced correctly in the region where the measurements are taken. Downstream of this region the estimated field gradually diverges from the "real" flow, revealing the importance of the continuous excitation of the boundary layer by the external free-stream turbulence. Control based on estimation, termed compensator, is therefore less effective than full information control.

  • 119.
    Negi, Prabal Singh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Mishra, Maneesh
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Mech & Aerosp Engn, Singapore 639798, Singapore..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Skote, Martin
    Cranfield Univ, Sch Aerosp Transport & Mfg, Cranfield MK43 OAL, Beds, England..
    Bypass transition delay using oscillations of spanwise wall velocity2019In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 4, no 6, article id 063904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large eddy simulations are performed to investigate the possibility of bypass transition delay in spatially developing boundary layers. An open loop wall control mechanism is employed which consists of either spatial or temporal oscillations of the spanwise wall velocity. Both spatial and temporal oscillations show a delay in the sharp rise in skin friction coefficient which is characteristic of laminar-turbulent transition. An insight into the mechanism is offered based on a secondary filtering of the continuous Orr-Sommerfeld-Squire (OSQ) modes provided by the Stokes layer, and it is shown that the control mechanism selectively affects the low-frequency penetrating modes of the OSQ spectrum. This perspective clarifies the limitations of the mechanism's capability to create transition delay. Furthermore, we extend the two-mode model of bypass transition proposed by T. Zaki and P. Durbin [j Fluid Mech. 531, 85 (2005)] to cases with wall control and illustrate the selective action of the wall oscillations on the penetrating mode in this simplified case.

  • 120.
    Negi, Prabal Singh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Unsteady aerodynamic effects in small-amplitude pitch oscillations of an airfoil2018In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 71, p. 378-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-fidelity wall-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) are utilized to investigate the flow-physics of small-amplitude pitch oscillations of an airfoil at Rec=100,000. The investigation of the unsteady phenomenon is done in the context of natural laminar flow airfoils, which can display sensitive dependence of the aerodynamic forces on the angle of attack in certain “off-design” conditions. The dynamic range of the pitch oscillations is chosen to be in this sensitive region. Large variations of the transition point on the suction-side of the airfoil are observed throughout the pitch cycle resulting in a dynamically rich flow response. Changes in the stability characteristics of a leading-edge laminar separation bubble has a dominating influence on the boundary layer dynamics and causes an abrupt change in the transition location over the airfoil. The LES procedure is based on a relaxation-term which models the dissipation of the smallest unresolved scales. The validation of the procedure is provided for channel flows and for a stationary wing at Rec=400,000.

  • 121.
    Negi, Prabal Singh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Unsteady aerodynamic effects in pitching airfoils studied through large-eddy simulations2017In: 10th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2017, International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP10 , 2017, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wall-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) are utilized to investigate the flow-physics of an airfoil undergoing pitch oscillations. A relaxation-term (RT) based filtering procedure is employed to add limited high order dissipation to account for the dissipation from the smallest scales which are not resolved. Validation of the procedure is presented for turbulent channel flows and for flow around a wing section. The procedure is then used for the simulation of small-amplitude pitching airfoil at Rec = 100;000 with a reduced frequency k = 0:5. The investigation of the unsteady phenomenon is done in the context of a natural laminar flow airfoil, the performance of which depends critically on the suction side transition characteristics. The dynamic range of the pitch cycle sees the appearance, destabilization and disappearance of a laminar separation bubble at the leading edge. An abrupt change is seen in the lift coefficient, which is linked to a rapid movement of the transition point over the suction side. Destabilization of the laminar separation bubble is the cause of these rapid transition movements which occur near the end of the pitch-up phase of the cycle.

  • 122.
    Negi, Prabal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Unsteady aerodynamic effects in small-amplitude pitch oscillations of an airfoilManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Negi, Prabal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Unsteady aerodynamic effects in small-amplitude pitch oscillations of anairfoil2018In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 71, p. 378-391Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Noorani, Azad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    El Khoury, George. K.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Evolution of turbulence characteristics from straight to curved pipes2013In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 41, no SI, p. 16-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fully developed, statistically steady turbulent flow in straight and curved pipes at moderate Reynolds numbers is studied in detail using direct numerical simulations (DNS) based on a spectral element discretisation. After the validation of data and setup against existing DNS results, a comparative study of turbulent characteristics at different bulk Reynolds numbers Re-b = 5300 and 11,700, and various curvature parameters kappa = 0, 0.01, 0.1 is presented. In particular, complete Reynolds-stress budgets are reported for the first time. Instantaneous visualisations reveal partial relaminarisation along the inner surface of the curved pipe at the highest curvature, whereas developed turbulence is always maintained at the outer side. The mean flow shows asymmetry in the axial velocity profile and distinct Dean vortices as secondary motions. For strong curvature a distinct bulge appears close to the pipe centre, which has previously been observed in laminar and transitional curved pipes at lower Re-b only. On the other hand, mild curvature allows the interesting observation of a friction factor which is lower than in a straight pipe for the same flow rate. All statistical data, including mean profile, fluctuations and the Reynolds-stress budgets, is available for development and validation of turbulence models in curved geometries.

  • 125.
    Noorani, Azad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Peplinski, Adam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Informal introduction to program structure of spectral interpolation in nek5000Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The algorithm of the interpolation implementation in the spectral element codenek5000is documented informally. The original code is written by James Lottes at Argonne National Laboratories. The various steps of the operations are generally described and visualised for a typical deformed mesh. The corresponding routines and their argument lists for each stage of the interpolation are also explained. The memory structure of the implementation is briefly discussed. Finally, the code overview of the routines is presented.

  • 126.
    Noorani, Azad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Sardina, Gaetano
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Particle dispersion in turbulent curved pipe flowManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Noorani, Azad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Sardina, Gaetano
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Particle transport in turbulent curved pipe flowManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 128.
    Noorani, Azad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Sardina, Gaetano
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Particle transport in turbulent curved pipe flow2016In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 793, p. 248-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of particle-laden turbulent flow in straight, mildly curved and strongly bent pipes are performed in which the solid phase is modelled as small heavy spherical particles. A total of seven populations of dilute particles with different Stokes numbers, one-way coupled with their carrier phase, are simulated. The objective is to examine the effect of the curvature on micro-particle transport and accumulation. It is shown that even a slight non-zero curvature in the flow configuration strongly impact the particle concentration map such that the concentration of inertial particles with hulk Stokes number 0.45 (based on hulk velocity and pipe radius) at the inner bend wall of mildly curved pipe becomes 12.8 times larger than that in the viscous sublayer of the straight pipe. Near-wall helicoidal particle streaks are observed in the curved configurations with their inclination varying with the strength of the secondary motion of the carrier phase. A reflection layer, as previously observed in particle laden turbulent S-shaped channels, is also apparent in the strongly curved pipe with heavy particles. In addition, depending on the curvature, the central regions of the mean Dean vortices appear to he completely depleted of particles, as observed also in the partially relaminarised region at the inner bend. The turbophoretic drift of the particles is shown to he affected by weak and strong secondary motions of the carrier phase and geometry-induced centrifugal forces. The first- and second-order moments of the velocity and acceleration of the particulate phase in the same configurations are addressed in a companion paper by the same authors. The current data set will be useful for modelling particles advected in wall-bounded turbulent flows where the effects of the curvature are not negligible.

  • 129.
    Noorani, Azad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Sardina, Gaetano
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Particle Velocity and Acceleration in Turbulent Bent Pipe Flows2015In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, Vol. 95, no 2-3, p. 539-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the dynamics of dilute micro-size inertial particles in turbulent curved pipe flows of different curvature by means of direct numerical simulations with one-way coupled Lagrangian particle tracking. The focus of this work is on the first and second order moments of the velocity and acceleration of the particulate phase, relevant statistics for any modelling effort, whereas the particle distribution is analysed in a previous companion paper. The aim is to understand the role of the cross-stream secondary motions (Dean vortices) on the particle dynamics. We identify the mean Dean vortices associated to the motion of the particles and show that these are moved towards the side-walls and, interestingly, more intense than those of the mean flow. Analysis of the streamwise particle flux reveals a substantial increase due to the secondary motions that brings particles towards the pipe core while moving them towards the outer bend. The in-plane particle flux, most intense in the flow viscous sub-layer along the side walls, increases with particle inertia and pipe curvature. The particle reflections at the outer bend, previously observed also in other strongly curved configurations, locally alter the particle axial and wall-normal velocity and increase turbulent kinetic energy.

  • 130.
    Noorani, Azad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Evidence of sublaminar drag naturally occurring in a curved pipe2015In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 27, no 3, article id 035105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steady and unsteady flows in a mildly curved pipe for a wide range of Reynolds numbers are examined with direct numerical simulation. It is shown that in a range of Reynolds numbers in the vicinity of Re-b approximate to 3400, based on bulk velocity and pipe diameter, a marginally turbulent flow is established in which the friction drag naturally reduces below the laminar solution at the same Reynolds number. The obtained values for friction drag for the laminar and turbulent (sublaminar) flows turn out to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in the literature. Our results are also in agreement with Fukagata et al. ["On the lower bound of net driving power in controlled duct flows," Phys. D 238, 1082 (2009)], as the lower bound of net power required to drive the flow, i.e., the pressure drop of the Stokes solution, is still lower than our marginally turbulent flow. A large-scale traveling structure that is thought to be responsible for that behaviour is identified in the instantaneous field. This mode could also be extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition. The effect of this mode is to redistribute the mean flow in the circular cross section which leads to lower gradients at the wall compared to the laminar flow.

  • 131.
    Noorani, Azad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Swirl-switching phenomenon in turbulent flow through toroidal pipes2016In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND FLUID FLOW, ISSN 0142-727X, Vol. 61, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations (DNSs), are performed to investigate turbulent flows in toroidal pipes with two different curvatures. By means of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), dominant coherent structures in the flow are identified. The most energetic structures in the strongly curved pipes (with curvature kappa = 0.1 and kappa = 0.3 and Re-b = 11, 700 based on bulk velocity and diameter) are very similar in structure for both configurations studied. The dominant modes (shape and frequency) appear to match the coherent structures responsible for the swirl switching phenomenon found earlier in experimental and numerical studies of turbulent flow in spatially developing 90 bends, with which the current results are compared. The fact that turbulence in the toroidal pipe features low-frequency coherent structures very similar to swirl switching is relevant as it may challenge the current hypothesis regarding the origin of swirl switching, which is usually connected to the conditions in the upstream straight section. However, the toroidal pipe is homogeneous in the streamwise direction and does as such not feature a straight part.

  • 132.
    Noorani, Azad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Swirl-switching phenomenon in turbulent flow through toroidal pipesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Noorani, Azad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Swirl-switching phenomenon in turbulent flow through toroidal pipes2015In: 9th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2015, TSFP-9 , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are performed to investigate turbulent flows in toroidal pipes with mild and strong curvature. By means of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), dominant structures in the flow field are identified. The most energetic structures in the strongly curved pipes (κ = 0.1 and κ = 0.3) are very similar in both configurations studied here. These modes (shape and frequency) also match the coherent structures responsible for swirl switching phenomenon found earlier in experimental and numerical studies of turbulent flow in spatially developing 90° bends with which the current results are compared. The observed swirl switching in toroidal pipes, which is isolated from any upstream and separation conditions, may challenge the current hyphothesis regarding the origin of swirl switching mechanism.

  • 134.
    Noorani, Azad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Aspect ratio effect on particle transport in turbulent duct flows2016In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 28, no 11, article id 115103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of dilute micron-sized spherical inertial particles in turbulent duct flows is studied by means of direct numerical simulations of the carrier phase turbulence with one-way coupled Lagrangian particles. The geometries are a square and a rectangular duct with width-to-height aspect ratio AR of 3 operating at Re-tau,Re-c = 360 (based on the centerplane friction velocity and duct half-height). The present study is designed to determine the effect of turbulence-driven secondary motion on the particle dynamics. Our results show that a weak cross-flow secondary motion significantly changes the cross-sectional map of the particle concentration, mean velocity, and fluctuations. As the geometry of the duct is widened from AR = 1 to 3, the secondary vortex on the horizontal wall significantly expands in the spanwise direction, and although the kinetic energy of the secondary flow increases close to the corner, it decays towards the duct centreplane in the AR = 3 case so as the turbulent carrier phase approaches the behavior in spanwise-periodic channel flows, a fact that significantly affects the particle statistics. In the square duct the particle concentration in the viscous sublayer is maximum at the duct centreplane, whereas the maximum is found closer to the corner, at a distance of |z/h| approximate to 1.25 from the centreplane, in the AR = 3 case. Interestingly the centreplane concentration in the rectangular duct is around 3 times lower than that in the square duct. Moreover, a second peak in the accumulation distribution is found right at the corners for both ducts. At this location the concentration increases with particle inertia. The secondary motion changes also the cross-stream map of the particle velocities significantly in comparison to the fluid flow statistics. These directly affect the particle velocity fluctuations such that multiple peaks appear near the duct walls for the particle streamwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations.

  • 135.
    Noorani, Azad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Aspect-ratio effect on particle transport in turbulent duct flowsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 136.
    Offermans, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Marin, O.
    Schanen, M.
    Gong, Jing
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for High Performance Computing, PDC. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Fischer, P.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    On the strong scaling of the spectral element solver Nek5000 on petascale systems2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 Exascale Applications and Software Conference (EASC2016): April 25-29 2016, Stockholm, Sweden, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, article id a5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is targeted at performing a strong scaling study of the high-order spectral element uid dynamics solver Nek5000. Prior studies such as [5] indicated a recommendable metric for strong scalability from a theoretical viewpoint, which we test here extensively on three parallel machines with different performance characteristics and interconnect networks, namely Mira (IBM Blue Gene/Q), Beskow (Cray XC40) and Titan (Cray XK7). The test cases considered for the simulations correspond to a turbulent ow in a straight pipe at four different friction Reynolds numbers Reτ = 180, 360, 550 and 1000. Considering the linear model for parallel communication we quantify the machine characteristics in order to better assess the scaling behaviors of the code. Subsequently sampling and profiling tools are used to measure the computation and communication times over a large range of compute cores. We also study the effect of the two coarse grid solvers XXT and AMG on the computational time. Super-linear scaling due to a reduction in cache misses is observed on each computer. The strong scaling limit is attained for roughly 5000 - 10; 000 degrees of freedom per core on Mira, 30; 000 - 50; 0000 on Beskow, with only a small impact of the problem size for both machines, and ranges between 10; 000 and 220; 000 depending on the problem size on Titan. This work aims at being a reference for Nek5000 users and also serves as a basis for potential issues to address as the community heads towards exascale supercomputers.

  • 137.
    Offermans, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Peplinski, Adam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Marin, Oana
    Fischer, Paul
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Towards adaptive mesh refinement for the spectral element solver Nek50002017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypre, a library for linear algebra, is used to replace a Matlab code for performing the setup step of an Algebraic Multigrid Method (AMG). The AMG method is used to compute part of the preconditioner in Nek5000, a code for Computational Fluid Dynamics based on the spectral element method. However, the solution of the AMG problem is not performed via Hypre but by Nek5000’s internal solver. The new AMG setup is shown to be faster by at least one order of magnitude, while it does not significantly impact the efficiency of the AMG solver, as is shown from its application to relevant test cases.

  • 138.
    Offermans, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Peplinski, Adam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Marin, Oana
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Fischer, Paul
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Towards Adaptive Mesh Refinement for the Spectral Element Solver Nek50002019In: Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation XI, Springer, 2019, 25, p. 9-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypre, a library for linear algebra, is used to replace a Matlab code for performing the setup step of an Algebraic Multigrid Method (AMG). The AMG method is used to compute part of the preconditioner in Nek5000, a code for Computational Fluid Dynamics based on the spectral element method. However, the solution of the AMG problem is not performed via Hypre but by Nek5000’s internal solver. The new AMG setup is shown to be faster by at least one order of magnitude, while it does not significantly impact the efficiency of the AMG solver, as is shown from its application to relevant test cases.

  • 139.
    Offermans, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Peplinski, Adam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Marin, Oana
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Merzari, Elia
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Performance of preconditioners for large-scale simulations using Nek50002019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BoomerAMG, the algebraic multigrid solver from the hypre library, is used to solve a coarse grid problem which is part of the preconditioning strategy for thepressure equation arising from the numerical resolution of the Navier–Stokes equations. A set of optimal parameters for the setup phase is determined and used for selected strong scaling tests on two different supercomputers, namely Mira and Hazel Hen, on up to 131, 072 compute cores. The results are compared to an existing algebraic multigrid solver, designed specifically for the coarse gridproblem at hand. It is shown that the BoomerAMG solver is fast and scalable, and that performance depends on the computer architecture. The test cases considered are the turbulent flow past a NACA4412 airfoil and the turbulent flow inside wire-tapped pin bundles.

  • 140.
    Offermans, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Peplinski, Adam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Marin, Oana
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Adaptive mesh refinement for steady flows in Nek5000Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive mesh refinement is performed in the framework of the spectral element method augmented by approaches to error estimation and control. The h-refinement technique is used for adapting the mesh, where selected grid elements are split by a quadtree (2D) or octree (3D) structure. Continuity between parent–child elements is enforced by high-order interpolation of the solution across the common faces. Parallel mesh partitioning and grid management respectively, are taken care of by the external libraries ParMETIS and p4est. Two methods are considered for estimating and controling the error of the solution. The first error estimate is local and based on the spectral properties of the solutionon each element. This method gives a local measure of the L2-norm of the solution over the entire computational domain. The second error estimate uses the dual-weighted residuals method — it is based on and takes into account both the local properties of the solution and the global dependence of the error in the solution via an adjoint problem. The objective of this second approach is to optimize the computation of a given functional of physical interest. The simulations are performed by using the code Nek5000 and three steady-state test cases are studied: a two-dimensional lid-driven cavity at Re = 7, 500, a two-dimensional flow past a cylinder at Re = 40, and a three-dimensional lid-driven cavity at Re = 2, 000 with a moving lid tilted by an angle of 30 degrees. The efficiency of both error estimators is compared in terms of refinement patterns and accuracy on the functional of interest. In the case of the adjoint error estimators, the trend on the error of the functional is shown to be correctly represented up to a multiplicative constant.

  • 141.
    Offermans, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Peplinski, Adam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Marin, Oana
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Adjoint error estimators and adaptive mesh refinement in Nek50002017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of adaptive mesh refinement capabilities in the field of computational fluid dynamics is an essential tool for enabling the simulation of larger and more complex physical problems. In this report, we describe recent developments that have been made to enable adaptive mesh refinement in Nek5000 and we validate the method on simple, two-dimensional, steady test cases.We start by describing the modifications brought to Nek5000 that enable the presence of hanging nodes in the mesh. Thanks to this new feature, we can use the h-refinement technique for mesh adaptation, where selected elements are split via quadtree (2D) or octree (3D) structures. Then, two methods are considered to estimate and control the error. The first method is local and based on the spectral properties of the solution on each element. The second method is goal-oriented and takes into account both the local properties of the solution and the global dependence of the error in the solution via the resolution of an adjoint problem. Finally, the use of automatic mesh refinement is demonstrated in Nek5000 on two test cases: the lid-driven cavity at Re = 7, 500 and the flow past a cylinder at Re = 40. Both error estimation methods are compared andare shown to efficiently reduce the number of degrees of freedom required to reach a given tolerance on the solution compared to conforming refinement. Moreover, the gains in terms of mesh generation, accuracy and computational cost are discussed by analysing the convergence of some functional of interest and the evolution of the mesh as refinement proceeds.

  • 142.
    Offermans, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Peplinski, Adam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Unsteady adjoint error estimators and adaptive mesh refinement in Nek50002019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsteady adjoint error estimators based on the dual-weighted residuals method are implemented for the spectral element method in Nek5000. The time-integration of the adjoint problem is performed based on the nonlinear direction solution recomputed via the revolve algorithm, which uses an optimal check-pointing strategy. Adaptive mesh refinement is performed on the flow inside a constricted periodic channel, the so-called periodic hill case, at four different Reynolds numbers, Re = 700, 1400, 2800 and 5600. This case is fully turbulent at all regimes, with significant flow separation, requires curved meshes, but yet has a number of accurate reference solutions in the literature. The chosen method to adapt the mesh is h-refinement, where selected elements are split by an oct-tree structure in three dimensions. The objective function for the adjoint estimators is the integral of the friction forces along the flat bottom wall between the hills, for which the location of the reattachment becomes crucial. The refinement process is compared between the adjoint error estimators and classical straightforward a posteriori spectral error indicators based on the local approximation properties of the solution.The turbulent simulations using mesh adaptation are stable, free of spurious numerical noise and accurate, as shown by comparing the statistical profiles of relevant flow quantities with reference data. The comparison between the error estimators shows that the adjoint error estimators tend to refine the mesh only around localized regions in the computational domain while leaving other areas under-resolved. However, only the locally refined regions are shown to have a significant impact on the value of the objective function and thus on the location of the reattachment point. Conversely, the spectral error indicatorstend to homogenize the error on the solution over the whole domain but have a lesser direct influence on the location of the reattachment point.

  • 143.
    Ohlsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fischer, Paul F.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Direct numerical simulation of separated flow in a three-dimensional diffuser2010In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 650, p. 307-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent flow in a three-dimensional diffuser at Re = 10 000 (based on bulk velocity and inflow-duct height) was performed with a massively parallel high-order spectral element method running on up to 32 768 processors. Accurate inflow condition is ensured through unsteady trip forcing and a long development section. Mean flow results are in good agreement with experimental data by Cherry et al. (Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow, vol. 29, 2008, pp. 803-811), in particular the separated region starting from one corner and gradually spreading to the top expanding diffuser wall. It is found that the corner vortices induced by the secondary flow in the duct persist into the diffuser, where they give rise to a dominant low-speed streak, due to a similar mechanism as the 'lift-up effect' in transitional shear flows, thus governing the separation behaviour. Well-resolved simulations of complex turbulent flows are thus possible even at realistic Reynolds numbers, providing accurate and detailed information about the flow physics. The available Reynolds stress budgets provide valuable references for future development of turbulence models.

  • 144.
    Ohlsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fischer, Paul F.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    DNS of three-dimensional separation in turbulent diffuser flows2009In: ADVANCES IN TURBULENCE XII: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH EUROMECH EUROPEAN TURBULENCE CONFERENCE / [ed] Eckhardt, B., 2009, Vol. 132, p. 641-644Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Ohlsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fischer, Paul F.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow in a Plane Asymmetric Diffuser by the Spectral-Element Method2010In: Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation VII: Proceedings of the Seventh International ERCOFTAC Workshop on Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation, held at the University of Trieste, September 8-10, 2008 / [ed] Vincenzo Armenio, Bernard Geurts; Jochen Fröhlich, Springer , 2010, 1, p. 193-199Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    LES and no-model LES (coarse-grid DNS) have been performed of turbulent flow in a plane asymmetric diffuser by the Spectral-Element Method (SEM). Mean profile and turbulent stresses compare well to LES results from Herbst e, however the SEM generally predicts a later (i.e. further downstream) separation. It can be concluded that the use of a high-order method is advantageous for flows featuring pressure-induced separation.

  • 146.
    Ohlsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fischer, Paul F.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Performance of the spectral-element code Nek5000 in turbulent and transitional channel flow simulations2009Report (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Ohlsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fischer, Paul F.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Stabilization of the Spectral-Element Method in Turbulent Flow Simulations2011In: Spectral and High Order Methods for Partial Differential Equations: Selected papers from the ICOSAHOM '09 conference, June 22-26, Trondheim, Norway, Springer , 2011, 1, p. 449-458Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of over-integration and filter-based stabilization in the spectral-element method is investigated. There is a need to stabilize the SEM for flow problems involving non-smooth solutions, e.g., turbulent flow simulations. In model problems such as the Burgers’ equation (similar to Kirby and Karniadakis, J. Comput. Phys. 191:249–264, 2003) and the scalar transport equation together with full Navier–Stokes simulations it is noticed that over-integration with the full 3/2-rule is not required for stability. The first additional over-integration nodes are the most efficient to remove aliasing errors. Alternatively, filter-based stabilization can in many cases alone help to stabilize the computation.

  • 148.
    Ohlsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Mavriplis, Catherine
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The Spectral-Element and Pseudo-Spectral Methods: A Comparative Study2011In: Spectral and High Order Methods for Partial Differential Equations: Selected papers from the ICOSAHOM '09 conference, June 22-26, Trondheim, Norway / [ed] Jan S. Hesthaven; Einar M. Rønquist, Springer , 2011, 1, p. 459-467Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent and transitional channel flow simulations have been performed in order to assess the differences concerning speed and accuracy in the pseudo-spectral code simson and the spectral-element code nek5000. The results indicate that the pseudo-spectral code is 4–6 times faster than the spectral-element code in fully turbulent channel flow simulations, and up to 10–20 times faster when taking into account the more severe CFL restriction in the spectral-element code. No particular difference concerning accuracy could be noticed either in the turbulent nor the transitional cases, except for the pressure fluctuations at the wall which converge slower for the spectral-element code.

  • 149.
    Otero, Evelyn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Gong, Jing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, Centre for High Performance Computing, PDC.
    Min, Misun
    Fischer, Paul
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Laure, Erwin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, Centre for High Performance Computing, PDC.
    OpenACC acceleration for the PN-PN-2 algorithm in Nek50002019In: Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISSN 0743-7315, E-ISSN 1096-0848, Vol. 132, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to its high performance and throughput capabilities, GPU-accelerated computing is becoming a popular technology in scientific computing, in particular using programming models such as CUDA and OpenACC. The main advantage with OpenACC is that it enables to simply port codes in their "original" form to GPU systems through compiler directives, thus allowing an incremental approach. An OpenACC implementation is applied to the CFD code Nek5000 for simulation of incompressible flows, based on the spectral-element method. The work follows up previous implementations and focuses now on the P-N-PN-2 method for the spatial discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations. Performance results of the ported code show a speed-up of up to 3.1 on multi-GPU for a polynomial order N > 11.

  • 150.
    Otero, Evelyn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Gong, Jing
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, Centre for High Performance Computing, PDC.
    Min, Misun
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Fischer, Paul
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Laure, Erwin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computational Science and Technology (CST). KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    OpenACC accelerator for the Pn-Pn-2 algorithm in Nek50002018In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Exascale Applications and Software, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
123456 101 - 150 of 264
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