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  • 101.
    Laskaris, Georgios
    et al.
    University of Luxembourg.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Rinaldi, Marco
    University of Luxembourg.
    Viti, Francesco
    University of Luxembourg.
    Real Time Holding Control for Multiline Networks2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a rule based multiline holding criterion for regularity in branch and trunk networks accounting for all passenger groups. On the shared transit corridor, we consider synchronization at the merging or the diverging stop. The decision between holding for regularity or synchronization is taken by comparing the expected passenger cost of each control action. The proposed criterion is tested through simulation in a synthetic double fork network with different shares of transferring passengers, control schemes for regularity and synchronization. The results show that multiline control outperforms the state of the art schemes at the network level, stemming from benefits occurring at the first part of the route and the shared transit corridor and a 3.5% more stable joint headway compared to the other schemes. Additionally, it is advised to perform the synchronization at the diverging stop, as it proves to result in a more stable transferring time equal to the joint frequency of the corridor while reducing the transfer time variability up to -42.7%.

  • 102.
    Laskaris, Georgios
    et al.
    University of Luxembourg.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Rinaldi, Marco
    University of Luxembourg.
    Viti, Francesco
    University of Luxembourg.
    Real time multiline holding control for networks with shared transit corridor2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Laskaris, Georgios
    et al.
    University of Luxembourg.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Viti, Francesco
    University of Luxembourg.
    Coordinating merging public transport operations using holding control strategies2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104. Laskaris, Giorgos
    et al.
    Cats, Oded
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Viti, Francesco
    A real-time holding decision rule accounting for passenger travel cost2016In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 2410-2415Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Holding has been extensively investigated as a strategy to mitigate the inherently stochastic nature of public transport operations. Holding focuses on either regulating vehicle headways using a rule-based approach or minimizing passenger travel cost by employing optimization models. This paper introduces a holding decision rule that explicitly addresses passenger travel cost. The decision to hold relies on the passenger demand distribution along the line. The passenger cost holding rule is tested using simulation for a high frequency bus line in Stockholm, Sweden and is compared with a no-control scheme and the currently used headway-based strategy. The results indicate that the new decision rule results in relatively minor reductions of passenger cost compared to the currently adopted strategy, and that it allocates the greatest share of holding time at the beginning of the route.

  • 105.
    Leffler, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    An adaptive route choice model for integrated fixed and flexible transit systemsIn: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in the transport community in the application of agent-based simulation models to evaluate flexible transit solutions characterized by different degrees of short-term flexibility in routing and scheduling. A central modeling decision in the development of an agent-based simulation model for the evaluation of flexible transit is how one chooses to represent the mode- and route-choices of travelers. The real-time adaptive behavior of travelers is intuitively important to model in the presence of a flexible transit service, where the routing and scheduling of vehicles is highly dependent on supply-demand dynamics at a closer to real-time temporal resolution. We propose a utility-based transit route-choice model with representation of within-day adaptive travel behavior and between-day learning where station-based fixed-transit, flexible-transit, and active-mode alternatives may be dynamically combined in a single path. To enable experimentation, this route-choice model is implemented within an agent-based dynamic public transit simulation framework. Model properties are first explored in a choice between fixed- and flexible-transit modes for a toy network. The framework is then applied to illustrate level-of-service trade-offs and analyze traveler mode choices within a mixed fixed- and flexible transit system in a case study based on a real-life branched transit service in Stockholm, Sweden.

  • 106.
    Leffler, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    An adaptive route choice model for integrated fixed and flexible transit systems2024In: Transportmetrica B: Transport Dynamics, ISSN 2168-0566, Vol. 12, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in the application of agent-based simulation models to evaluate flexible transit solutions characterized by different degrees of short-term flexibility in routing and scheduling. A central modelling decision in the development is how one chooses to represent the mode- and route-choices of travellers. The real-time adaptive behaviour of travellers is important to model in the presence of a flexible transit service, where the routing and scheduling of vehicles is highly dependent on supply-demand dynamics at a near real-time temporal resolution. We propose a utility-based transit route-choice model with representation of within-day adaptive travel behaviour and between-day learning where station-based fixed-transit, flexible-transit, and active-mode alternatives may be dynamically combined in a single path. To enable experimentation, this route-choice model is implemented within an agent-based dynamic public transit simulation framework. We first explore model properties in a choice between fixed- and flexible-transit modes for a toy network. The adaptive route choice framework is then applied to a case study based on a real-life branched transit service in Stockholm, Sweden. This case study illustrates level-of-service trade-offs, in terms of waiting times and in-vehicle times, between passenger groups and analyzes traveller mode choices within a mixed fixed- and flexible transit system. Results show that the proposed framework is capable of capturing dynamic route choices in mixed flexible and fixed transit systems and that the day-to-day learning model leads to stable fixed-flexible mode choices.

  • 107.
    Leffler, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft University of Technology, P.O box 5048, Delft 2600 GA, The Netherlands.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Distribution of passenger costs in fixed versus flexible station-based feeder services2020In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier B.V. , 2020, p. 179-186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of demand-responsive and fixed-schedule, fixed route operations for a simplified station-based feeder to mass transit scenario. Traffic dynamics, demand-responsive fleet coordination, and the behaviour of individual transit users are represented using a public transit simulation framework. Each operational strategy is simulated for varying levels of demand and two fleet compositions with respect to vehicle capacities and fleet size are compared. The services are evaluated based on resulting passenger waiting times, in-vehicles times and additional waiting time if one is denied boarding a fully occupied vehicle. Results indicate that dividing planned service capacity into larger fleets of smaller vehicles can provide a higher level-of-service to passengers. On an aggregate level, utilizing a fixed operational policy results in shorter and more reliable waiting times for levels of demand where there is slack in service capacity. In scenarios where planned service capacity is sometimes exceeded, the on-demand service provides a more even spatial distribution of passenger waiting times, relative to a fixed service.

  • 108.
    Leffler, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, POB 5048, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands..
    Simulation of fixed versus on-demand station-based feeder operations2021In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 132, article id 103401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper develops a simulation model and evaluates fixed versus on-demand operational designs of a station-based automated feeder service. The evaluation considers the operational cost and average passenger level-of-service trade-offs as well as distributional differences in waiting times. Two case studies are used to evaluate such trade-offs under different fleet compositions; (1) a simple circular network feeder service; (2) a case based on a real-world coordinated branched service in Stockholm, combining fixed-line services on the trunk portion with a flexible feeder service on the branches. Results for the circular network indicate that there are benefits in utilizing an on-demand operational policy for the lowest and highest demand levels tested. When fixed service capacity is exceeded, it is found that there are potential benefits in on-demand operations with respect to average level-of-service, as well as delivering a more even distribution of passenger waiting times. Results for the real-world case show that combining DRT on branches with fixed services on the trunk improves the overall median waiting times for all DRT scenarios and provides substantial improvements for passengers on the trunk, at the cost of more variable, and less equitable waiting times on the branches. For larger fleet sizes, generalized travel costs are reduced with and without rebalancing and level-of service provided to branch-to-branch passengers is improved considerably by rebalancing idling vehicles to branch end-stops. The case studies demonstrate the usefulness of the simulation framework in evaluating trade-offs between fixed and on-demand service design variables and their effects on disaggregate level-of-service provided for stop-based feeder services.

  • 109.
    Leffler, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Gavrilidou, Alexandra
    Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Laskaris, Georgios
    Faculty of Sciences, Technology and Communication, Transport group, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Analys och utveckling av realtids-kontrollstrategier för bussar genom mesoskopisk simulering2017Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 110.
    Leffler, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Real-time short-turning in high frequency bus services based on passenger cost2017In: 5th IEEE International Conference on Models and Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems, MT-ITS 2017 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 861-866, article id 8005633Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of determining when and where a bus should short-turn on a single bi-directional line in real-time. We formulate a decision rule for when to short-turn among candidate short-turning locations that is based on the objective of minimizing total generalized passenger travel cost including waiting times and forced transfer. Computational results and analysis are provided via a simulation study in BusMezzo, a dynamic, agent-based transit operations and assignment model that represents both vehicle as well as passenger progression. The simulation framework allows us to evaluate the resulting trade-off between passenger costs and transit performance that occur when a decision to short-turn is made. The proposed short-turning strategy is applied to a real-world high-frequency transit line in Stockholm, Sweden.

  • 111.
    Leffler, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Simulation based evaluation of fixed versus on-demand feeder operations2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Leffler, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Simulation of fixed versus on-demand station-based feeder operationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by lower predicted operational costs, and opportunities for efficient real-time control, automated, centrally coordinated vehicles have in many studies shown great potential as a shared resource within public transit. One particular use case that has grown in popularity over recent years is the application of smaller, automated shuttles as an on-demand feeder to mass transit solution. To investigate differences in fixed versus on-demand operational policies, this paper discusses the operational design and analysis of an automated feeder solution. To this end, a simulation model of demand-responsive transit is developed and incorporated into the transit simulation model BusMezzo. An estimation of operational cost reductions with vehicle automation motivates the case study of two fleets that are deemed comparable with respect to service capacity and operational cost per hour. Results from simulation studies of varying levels of demand indicate that the on-demand policy reduces average total passenger travel times and, for the larger fleet, lowers average vehicle-kilometers traveled per passenger relative fixed service operations. Without achieving a competitive reduction in waiting times, however, on-demand coordination often underperforms with respect to level-of-service and reliability when compared with fixed service operations. When there is slack in fixed service capacity, the performance of the on-demand service outperforms the fixed service with respect to both level-of-service and vehicle utilization only for the lowest demand level tested and the smaller fleet. Average total system costs under on-demand operations improve, however, for the lowest demand levels and the larger fleet due to a reduction in vehicle-kilometers traveled relative a fixed service. When fixed service capacity is exceeded it is found that on-demand coordination outperforms fixed operations with respect to average level-of-service, vehicle-kilometers traveled, and total system costs. Furthermore, when planned service capacity is exceeded, it is found that total passenger waiting time is more equally distributed under on-demand operations relative to fixed.

  • 113.
    Leffler, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Utvärdering av delade självkörande fordon inom efterfrågestyrd kollektivtrafik genom simulering2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det finns påståenden om att genom användning av delade självkörande fordon inom flexibel-, eller efterfrågestyrd kollektivtrafik (EKT) skulle man kunna förbättra mobiliteten för personer med begränsad tillgång till en privat bil och för personer utan adekvat tillgång till högkapacitets kollektivtrafik. Oavsett om det är automatiserat eller inte, så är dock kostnadseffektiviteten och servicenivån som förses en passagerare av en EKT-flotta starkt beroende av förmågan att effektivt kunna matcha fordon till passagerarbegäran i realtid. Vidare kan flexibla rutter och tidtabeller öka osäkerheten om förväntade väntetider och restider för passagerare i förhållande till en traditionell tjänst med fast tidtabell och rutt. Den uppfattade tillförlitligheten hos tjänsten kan i sin tur kraftigt påverka en resenärs val av rutt och transportmedel när det finns tillgång till andra alternativ, vilket i sin tur bidrar till osäkerheten i uppskattningar av framtida efterfrågan när den matchas till EK-flottan i realtid.

    Metoder: Även om självkörande fordon utvecklas i hög takt, har de fortfarande inte uppnått nivåer av automatisering och säkerhet som möjliggör att de används i bredare tillämpningar. EKT-system är också svåra att pröva, på grund av höga implementeringskostnader samt osäkerheten i efterfrågan som resulterar från varierande design och strategier för hur EKT-flottan samordnas. Simulering är således ett viktigt verktyg för att utvärdera självkörande fordon inom EKT. För att simulera EKT utvecklades en justerbar modell för att dynamiskt matcha delade fordon till stokastiskt genererade passageraranrop. Denna modell integrerades sedan med en simuleringsmodell för kollektivtrafik som representerar både trafikdynamik samt inlärning och adaptering av individuella passagerare.

    Resultat: Med detta ramverk kan vi bättre studera interaktionen mellan operativa egenskaper av en EKT-tjänst och dess resulterande effekter på en resenärs val av rutt, transportmedel och generaliserade kostnader. I denna presentation presenteras ramverket för att studera EKT samt en demonstration av dess tillämpning för att utvärdera en automatiserad EKT-tjänst som ett samexisterande alternativ till en traditionell kollektivtrafiktjänst med förutbestämd tidtabell och rutt.

  • 114.
    Nassir, Neema
    et al.
    The University of Queensland.
    Hickman, Mark
    The University of Queensland.
    Tajtehranifard, Hasti
    Queensland University of Technology.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Exploring train passengers’ arrival rate using smart card data2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of public transport, passengers’ arrivals at a station can indicate their perception of the transit system’s reliability, as well as the extent to which they consult timetables in journey planning. Moreover, the arrival rate is an essential element in determining passenger waiting time at astation, which itself is a critical component of the level of service in public transit journeys.Despite the significance of the passenger arrival rate, researchers often make simplistic assumptions about passenger arrivals in the majority of the literature. In high frequency routes, for instance, passengers are usually assumed to arrive uniformly at the stops without consulting the timetable; in low frequency routes, the arrivals are usually assumed to be mainly concentrated around the scheduled departure times. These assumptions can be validated with on-site manual data collection, but these can be costly and intractable to apply to network-level studies.Consequently, the primary objective of this paper is to develop a more comprehensive methodology forcapturing passengers’ arrival distributions, using the numerous boarding records available from transit smart card data. To serve this purpose, boarding data from a selected set of train stations are extracted from the smart card dataset of Southeast Queensland in Australia. This study analyses how passenger arrival patterns vary as a function of service frequencies. It is hypothesized that there is a threshold where a random arrival regime gradually transforms into a timetable coordination arrival pattern. Furthermore,this threshold is a random variable that varies in the population and results with mixed regimes for intermediate ranges of headways. The dataset includes services with headways ranging from 5 to 60 minutes and hence facilitates this analysis. Furthermore, sinceno real-time information is available to passengers in Southeast Queensland, it is assumed that passengers only consult fixed timetables to arrive at stops. Therefore, the passenger arrival rate is assumed to be a function of the given headway.

  • 115.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Determinants of passengers' metro car choice revealed through automated data sources: A Stockholm case studyIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a methodology based on multiple automated data sources for evaluating the effects of station layout, arriving traveler flows, and platform and on-board crowding on the distribution of boarding passengers between individual cars of metro trains. The methodology is applied to a case study for a sequence of stations in the Stockholm metro network. While train car loads at the analyzed stations are generally skewed towards the leading cars, results indicate that a crowded front car of the arriving train is associated with increasing boarding shares of the middle car. Moreover, higher platform crowding is found to have a positive effect on the boarding share of the middle cars. These findings suggest that passengers opt for less crowded train cars in crowded situations, trading-off walking and in-vehicle crowding while waiting and riding. We find that the boarding car distribution is also affected by the locations of platform access points and the distribution of entering traveler flows. These insights may be used by transit planners and operators to increase the understanding of how passengers behave under varying crowding conditions, identify the factors that affect travelers' choice of metro car and eventually reduce experienced on-board crowding and increase the capacity utilization of the trains through investments in infrastructure or operational interventions.

  • 116.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Determinants of passengers' metro car choice revealed through automated data sources: a Stockholm case study2020In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2324-9943, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 529-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a methodology based on multiple automated data sources for evaluating the effects of station layout, arriving traveler flows, and platform and on-board crowding on the distribution of boarding passengers among individual cars of metro trains. The methodology is applied to a case study for a sequence of stations in the Stockholm metro network. The findings suggest that passengers opt for less crowded train cars in crowded situations, trading-off walking and in-vehicle crowding while waiting and riding. We find that the boarding car distribution is also affected by the locations of platform access points and the distribution of entering traveler flows. These insights may be used by transit planners and operators to increase the understanding of how passengers behave under varying crowding conditions, identify the factors that affect travelers' choice of metro car and eventually reduce experienced on-board crowding and increase the capacity utilization of the trains through investments in infrastructure or operational interventions.

  • 117.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Determinants of passengers' metro car choice revealed through automated data sources: A Stockholm metro case study2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Evaluating crowding in individual train cars2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, Delft, Netherlands..
    Evaluating crowding in individual train cars using a dynamic transit assignment model2021In: Transportmetrica B: Transport Dynamics, ISSN 2168-0566, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 693-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As travel demand grows in many cities around the world, overcrowding in public transport systems has become a major issue and has many negative effects for both users and operators. Measures to address on-board congestion span from large-scale strategic investments (e.g. increasing infrastructure capacity), through tactical planning (e.g. stopping pattern) to real-time operational measures (e.g. information provision, gate and escalator control). Thus there is a need to evaluate the impact of these measures prior to their implementation. To this end, this study aims at capturing the effective capacity utilization of the train, by considering passengers' distribution among individual train cars into an agent-based simulation model. The developed model is validated and applied to a case study for the Stockholm metro network. The findings suggest that an increase in peak hour demand leads to a more even passenger distribution among individual train cars, which partially counteracts the increased disutility caused by the higher passenger volumes. Interestingly, the closure of the most popular entrance point at one of the stations leads to lower train crowding unevenness at the downstream stops and consequently reduces passengers' experienced discomfort. We find that the user cost is significantly underestimated when passenger distribution among cars is not accounted for.

  • 120.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Evaluating crowding in individual train cars using a dynamic transit assignment modelIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crowding is one of the major issues of public transport systems and has many negative effects for both users and operators. Passengers can be highly unevenly distributed between individual cars of a train even when the total passenger load exceeds the practical capacity.

    Transit assignment models (TAM) are widely used for describing and evaluating crowding in the vehicle. However, these models usually do not capture how passengers are distributed across the vehicle. To this end, this study introduced to an agent-based simulation model the capability to analyze the effective capacity utilization of the train, by considering passengers' distribution among individual train cars.

    The developed model is validated and applied to a case study for the Stockholm metro network, evaluating three scenarios. The findings suggest that an increase in peak hour demand leads to a more even passenger distribution among individual cars upon train departure from the most crowded stops, where passengers' choices are less flexible. The closure of the most popular entrance point at Danderyds sjukhus stop, where passenger distribution is highly skewed, is found to lead to lower crowding unevenness at the specific stop but also upon departure from the downstream stops.

  • 121.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Evaluating crowding in individual train cars using a dynamic transit assignment model2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crowding is one of the major issues of public transport systems and has many negative effects for both the users and operator. Passengers can be highly unevenly distributed between individual cars of a train even when the total passenger load exceeds the practical capacity. Transit assignment models (TAM) are widely used for describing and evaluating crowding in the vehicle. However, these models usually do not capture how passengers are distributed across the vehicle. This study develops an agent-based simulation model to analyze capacity utilization of the train in a more realistic way, by considering that passengers are not evenly distributed among individual train cars. The developed model is validated and applied to a case study for the Stockholm metro network, evaluating three scenarios. The findings suggest that an increase in peak hour demand leads to a more uniform passenger distribution among individual cars upon train departure from the most crowded stops, where passengers’ choices are less flexible. The closure of the most popular entrance point at Danderyds sjukhus stop, where passenger distribution is highly skewed, is found to decrease the crowding unevenness at the specific station but also upon departure from the downstream station.

  • 122.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Evaluating Crowding in Individual Train Cars Using a Dynamic Transit Assignment Model2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund: Many public transport systems are subject to overcrowding, particularly during peak periods. On-board crowding is associated with many negative effects on passengers, such as increased discomfort and stress, unexpected delays and denied boarding, while it can be highly uneven among individual cars of multi-car rail vehicles even during peak hours. There is a general need to reduce crowding effects and improve the system performance and the level of service. Transit assignment models are widely used to model passenger flows in transit vehicles and evaluate on-board crowding effects. However, these models usually do not capture crowding distribution among individual cars, that might lead to underestimation of the generalized travel cost. This motivates our interest in developing a dynamic model to capture on-board crowding in individual train cars and evaluate crowding effects in a more realistic way. The developed model might be useful for public transport operators to evaluate the effect of potential operational or infrastructure interventions at stations during the planning process on on-board crowding unevenness.

    Metod: A dynamic agent-based public transport operations simulation model, BusMezzo, has been extended in this study for modeling the congestion effects on-board individual cars of the vehicle. Additions to BusMezzo are related to transit network and transit fleet representation as well as dynamic decision making modelling. Each transit stop is divided into a number of sections that is equal to the number of car units that a vehicle consists of and hence, each platform section corresponds to a certain car unit. In modelling individual passengers' travel paths, each passenger makes a sequence of travel decisions, i.e. walking, boarding and alighting decisions, that combined yield to a path alternative. Individual passenger's platform section and car choices are affected by walking and boarding decisions, respectively. The passenger evaluates the alternative platform sections of the stop they want to walk to, considering the walking distance to the platform section and also the total walking distance of the downstream walking links to the destination. When a passenger decides to board a vehicle, they choose the car that corresponds to the selected platform section. Passengers that are denied from boarding the desired car due to car capacity constraints, they stay on the same platform section waiting for other vehicle.

    Resultat och slutsats: The proposed modeling framework is applied to a case study for the metro network in Stockholm. A train crowding unevenness metric has been introduced to enable easy comparisons between passenger distributions. The effect of the station layout and variations in demand on the crowding unevenness is evaluated. Increased demand level is found to significantly reduce on-board crowding unevenness after they are departing from the most crowded stations. This finding suggests that passenger load is close to train capacity at these stations, leading to lower flexibility of how passengers are distributed among the cars of the train. The closure of the most popular entrance point at a selected station is found to significantly decrease the average unevenness of crowding on-board trains at the departure from the specific station, but also the downstream stations.

  • 123.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Evaluating skip-stop policy in urban rail transit systems based on passenger cost2023In: Journal of Public Transportation, ISSN 1077-291X, Vol. 25, article id 100064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the operating speed in public transport systems can increase the system capacity, reduce the overall passenger travel time and improve experienced comfort. Skip-stop operation, where subsets of the trains operating on the same tracks skip certain intermediate stops, can accelerate the service and improve passengers’ overall travel experience. This paper considers the problem of deciding whether skip-stop operation is beneficial for a given line and which stopping scheme is the most effective. In particular, we investigate whether a simple decision rule for determining the stopping pattern under a skip-stop strategy, derived from the expected weighted time benefits to the passengers, can reliably determine the most suitable skip-stop scheme. To evaluate the impact of alternative stop-skipping strategies, we adopt the existing public transit assignment model BusMezzo, which allows for a realistic representation of passengers’ experienced waiting and in-vehicle travel times and the resulting trade-offs between passenger costs and benefits. The decision rule is applied to a set of high-frequency urban rail lines in Stockholm, Sweden. We show that a simple decision rule may not be a robust way of determining a beneficial skip-stop scheme. The results from the case study reveal that the skip-stop operation can have an overall positive impact on passenger generalized travel time but only under certain conditions at the stops along the line.

  • 124.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, Delft, Netherlands..
    Modeling the effect of real-time crowding information (RTCI) on passenger distribution in trains2022In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 166, p. 354-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overcrowding has become a big challenge for public transport systems, affecting passengers' travel experience. At the same time, service supply is often underutilized due to large variations in crowding across services, vehicle trips on the same service and different compartments of the same vehicle. Real-time operational measures, such as information provision, can potentially reduce on-board crowding unevenness and its negative effects. In this study, we extend a dynamic public transport simulation model to provide passengers with predictive real-time crowding information (RTCI) concerning individual train cars. Passengers utilize this information when choosing a specific train car to board. It is demonstrated through a case study for the Stockholm metro network area that in the presence of car-specific crowding information, passengers alter their car boarding choices to avoid on-board crowding, leading to a more even passenger distribution inside trains. We find that passengers' travel experience improves with the provisioning of RTCI, which is a result of the lower on-board crowding unevenness. Moreover, this improvement increases with increased demand levels but only up to a certain point beyond which passengers do not gain from switching train cars.

  • 125.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Modeling the interaction between metro platform and on-board crowding2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many public transport station platforms are overcrowded during the peak periods which affects crowding inside the transit vehicle, especially when passengers are not uniformly distributed between individual car units.

    A methodology based on multiple automated data sources for identifying the factors that affect the distribution of boarding passengers in individual cars of a metro train is proposed. The methodology is applied to a case study for a sequence of stations in the Stockholm metro network. While train car loads are generally skewed towards the leading cars, results indicate that a crowded arriving train is associated with increasing boarding shares in the middle and rear cars. Moreover, higher platform crowding level leads to larger boarding share of the middle cars. These  ndings suggest that  passengers opt for less crowded trains in crowded situations, trading-off walking andcrowding while waiting and riding. We  nd that the boarding car distribution is alsoa ected by the locations of platform access points and the distribution of entering traveler flows.

    To measure the unevenness of the crowding distribution among the cars of rail transit vehicle, a train crowding unevenness metric is introduced. It is defined as the total experienced crowding across all possible distributions of the same total train load. The methodology is demonstrated for the metro network in Stockholm, Sweden based on automated car load data. Train crowding unevenness is found to be lower at departure from inner city metro stations and especially during the highest peak of the morning rush hour; this finding suggests that the uneven distribution of passengers in the trainis critically affected by the total passenger load inside the vehicle. Investigating this interaction, we found that train crowding evenness increases with the on-board passenger load. Certain metro stops are exceptions to the aforementioned finding which could be explained by the existence of a popular or a single station access point that leads to skewed distribution of passengers on the platform prior the arrival of the train.

    Finally, a method to evaluate and forecast crowding in individual car units by using a dynamic and stochastic transit assignment model is developed. The validity of the model and its sensitivity to the valuation of walking time has been examined. It is found that the model reproduces the average car load shares when the walking time is valued higher, and specifically 5 times higher than in-vehicle time. This finding suggests that passengers may value the walking time on the station platform higher than the walking time from/to the station. An intervention scenario has been evaluated, showing that if a second access point is added at Universitetet, the vehicle passenger distribution tends to be more even upon departure from Universitetet and the downstream stations; 3% of the average total vehicle load switches from the front train car to other cars upon train departure from Universitetet and Tekniska högskolan.

    The project insights may be used by transit planners and operators to increase the understanding of how passengers behave under crowding conditions, identify the factors that affect travelers' choice to board a specific metro car and eventually increase the capacity utilization of the trains through investments in infrastructure or operational interventions and thereby reduce the experienced on-board crowding level.

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  • 126.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Modelling the effect of real-time crowding information (RTCI) on passenger distribution in trains2022In: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Overcrowding has become a big challenge for public transport systems, affecting passengers' travel experience. At the same time, service supply is often underutilized due to large variations in crowding across services, vehicle trips on the same service and different compartments of the same vehicle.Real-time operational measures, such as information provision, can potentially reduce on-board crowding unevenness and its negative effects. In this study, we extend a dynamic public transport simulation model to provide passengers with predictive real-time crowding information (RTCI) concerning individual train cars. Passengers utilize this information when choosing a specific train car to board. It is demonstrated through a case study for the Stockholm metro network area that in the presence of car-specific crowding information, passengers alter their car boarding choices to avoid on-board crowding, leading to a more even passenger distribution inside trains. We find that passengers' travel experience improves with the provisioning of RTCI, which is a result of the lower on-board crowding unevenness. Moreover, this improvement increases with increased demand levels but only up to a certain point beyond which passengers do not gain from switching train cars.

  • 127.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Modelling the effect of real-time crowding information (RTCI) on passenger distribution in trains2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overcrowding has become a big challenge for public transport systems, affecting passengers' travel experience. At the same time, service supply is often underutilized due to large variations in crowding across services, vehicle trips on the same service and different compartments of the same vehicle. Real-time operational measures, such as information provision, can potentially reduce on-board crowding unevenness and its negative effects.  In this study, we extend a dynamic public transport simulation model to provide passengers with predictive real-time crowding information (RTCI) concerning individual train cars. Passengers utilize this information when choosing a specific train car to board. It is demonstrated through a case study for the Stockholm metro network area that in the presence of car-specific crowding information, passengers alter their car boarding choices to avoid on-board crowding, leading to a more even passenger distribution inside trains. We find that passengers' travel experience improves with the provisioning of RTCI, which is a result of the lower on-board crowding unevenness. Moreover, this improvement increases with increased demand levels but only up to a certain point beyond which passengers do not gain from switching train cars.

  • 128.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Simulation-based evaluation of skip-stop policy in urban rail transit systems based on passenger cost2022In: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the operating speed in public transport systems can increase the system capacity, reduce the overall passenger travel time and improve experienced comfort. Skip-stop operation, where subsets of the trains operating on the same tracks skip certain intermediate stops, can accelerate the service and improve passengers' overall travel experience. This paper considers the problem of deciding whether skip-stop operation is beneficial for a given line and which stopping scheme is the most effective. In particular, we investigate whether a simple decision rule for determining the skipping pattern under a skip-stop strategy, derived from the expected weighted time benefits to the passengers, can reliably determine the most suitable skip-stop scheme. To evaluate the impact of alternative stop-skipping strategies we adopt the existing public transit assignment model BusMezzo, which allows for a realistic representation of passengers' experienced waiting and in-vehicle travel times and the resulting trade-offs between passenger costs and benefits. The decision rule is applied to a set of high-frequency transit lines in Stockholm, Sweden. We show that a simple decision rule may not be a robust way of determining a beneficial skip-stop scheme. The results from the case study reveal that the skip-stop operation can have an overall positive impact on passenger travel experience but only under certain conditions at the stops along the line. 

  • 129.
    Rubensson, Isak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment. Region Stockholm.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kholodov, Yaroslav
    TU Delft.
    Resmönster och fördelningseffekter av taxeförändringanalyserat med hjälp av biljettvalideringsdata2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hur människor reser med kollektivtrafik har historiskt främst analyserats med hjälp av enkäter där svarande har fått ange sitt resande under en slumpmässigt vald resdag. Sådana resvaneundersökningar blir dock mer och mer problematiska att använda då svarsfrekvenserna trendmässigt faller vilket gör att fler enkäter behöver delas ut (vilket ger högre kostnader) samt att den resulterande kunskapen om resvanor blir mindre representativ. En alternativ väg för att förstå resenärers resmönster har öppnat sig i och med inträdet av smarta kort som biljettbärare, med ett sådant kort registreras resor vid biljettvalidering och den informationen kan därefter studeras och analyseras. I region Stockholm har smarta kort (accesskort) använts i kollektivtrafiken sedan 2011 men inte förrän under senare år börjat studerats för att nå förståelse kring resvanemönster. Ett hinder i analysen har varit att korten är så kallade tap-in kort, det vill säga att det endast är vid en resas start som kortet registreras inte vid deras slut. Dessbättre har det internationellt under de senaste åren vuxit fram en välfungerande metodik för att från en serie av inträden i kollektivtrafiken, tillsammans med annan data, sluta sig till var resan slutar samt om det skett några eventuella byten på vägen. Sådan metodik har visats kunna med framgång bestämma uppemot 80-90% av alla registrerade resors rutt och destination.

    Metod: I det här projektet som varit ett samarbete mellan Trafikförvaltningen Region Stockholm, KTH och universitetet TU Delft, Nederländerna har resandet med kollektivtrafik i Stockholm analyserats före och efter de taxe-förändringar som genomfördes i januari 2017, då systemets biljettpriser höjdes generellt och zoner togs bort för enkelbiljetter (det var redan tidigare zon-löst för periodbiljetter). Priselasticiteter (hur mycket resandet förändras vid en prisförändring) har beräknats. Vidare har fördelningseffekter av prisförändringarna studerats, dels genom att jämföra priselasticiteter för de som rest för reducerat biljettpris (barn, studerande, pensionärer) med elasticiteter för de som rest för fullt pris. Dels genom att studera hur antalet resor per capita skiljer sig mellan resande från basområden (Stockholmsregionen består av 1300 basområden) med hög och låg medelinkomst, högt och lågt antal bilar per capita, på långt eller kort avstånd från regioncentrum.

    Resultat och slutsats: Vi finner att elasticiteter rör sig i ett historiskt vanligt spann för kollektivtrafik kring -0,3 till -0,6 (en elasticitet på -0,1 betyder att resandet minskar med 1% om priset höjs med 10%). Att de som reser på reducerad biljett, bor i områden med låg inkomst eller områden med lågt bilinnehav har lägre priskänslighet än de som reser på fullt pris, bor i höginkomsttagarområden eller har tillgång till bil. De med högre inkomster reser även fler resor än de med lägre inkomster. Vi tolkar det som att de med alternativ möjlighet att resa har lägre priskänslighet än de som är hänvisade till kollektivtrafiken. Det föreliggande projektet har varit en pilot för att visa hur kraftfullt analyser av resandemönster med hjälp av data från smarta kort är och förhoppningen är att dessa metoder kan komma att bli en permanent del i hur kollektivtrafikmyndigheter generellt använder informationen i biljettsystemet för planering och förbättring av kollektivtrafiksystemet.

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  • 130.
    Rubensson, Isak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment. Stockholm Reg Publ Transport Adm, Dept Strateg Developement, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, Delft, Netherlands..
    Fair accessibility - Operationalizing the distributional effects of policy interventions2020In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 89, article id 102890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fair distribution of public transport benefits is a commonly stated goal of agencies and operators of public transport. However, it is less complicated and costly to provide accessibility in some parts of cities and their surroundings than in other parts. Densely populated areas, and areas situated closer to the city center therefore often have higher public transport accessibility than remote or sparsely populated areas. Neglecting these realities results with an unrealistic assessment of equity in service provision and hampers their consideration when setting policy goals. In this study, we propose a framework for investigating equity in the distribution of accessibility, where the suggested goal is to provide residents with equal accessibility for equally dense and central areas. For the Stockholm County, we show that accessibility may seem to be distributed horizontally inequitable and vertically regressive. However, once controlling for how dense and close to the city center residents live, while still being horizontally inequitable the distribution of accessibility in Stockholm County is found progressive, i.e., benefiting those with lower incomes. We demonstrate the proposed method for the case of skip-stop train operations and find that it shifts our constructed accessibility measure toward a more horizontally inequitable and vertically progressive state. We conclude that our proposed method can be a potent way for public transport agencies to measure and concretize equity goals and evaluate policy changes.

  • 131.
    Rubensson, Isak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. Trafikförvaltningen, Region Stockholm.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Fair accessibility – operationalizing the distributional effects of policy interventionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fair distribution of public transport benefits is a commonly stated goal of agencies and operators of public transport. However, it is less complicated and costly to provide accessibility in some parts of cities and their surroundings than in other parts. Densely populated areas, and areas close to city- and regional centers, therefore often have higher public transport accessibility than remote or sparsely populated areas. However, in traditional studies of public transport equity, these economic realities are seldom considered, making the statements on system equity vague and difficult to operationalize. In this study, we propose a definition of accessibility equity where the system goal is to provide residents with equal accessibility for equally dense and central home areas.  For the Stockholm County, we show that accessibility may seem to be distributed horizontally inequitable and vertically regressive. However, once controlling for how dense and close to the city center residents live, while still being horizontally inequitable the distribution of accessibility in Stockholm County is found progressive, i.e. benefiting those with lower incomes. In our case scenario, the introduction of skip-stop train operations shifts our constructed accessibility measure towards a more horizontally inequitable and vertically progressive state. We conclude that our proposed method can serve as a potent way for public transport agencies to measure and concretize equity goals and evaluate policy changes.

  • 132.
    Rubensson, Isak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. Trafikförvaltningen, Region Stockholm.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Is Flat Fare Fair? Equity Impact of Fare Scheme ChangeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When Public Transport Administrations propose changes in fare schemes or increased fares, they are often met with concerns regarding the proposed fare schemes fairness. Implicit in these concerns is an understanding of relations governing land use and public transport, impacting equity. In this paper, we use socio-economic statistics of census areas in conjunction with public transport travel data from a transport forecast model to assess the geographical and distributional fairness of alternative fare schemes: flat, zone-based and distance-based. We discuss our result in relation to both the scientific literature and the known “truths” in the public debate. The method is applied to the Case study of Stockholm public transport. We find that high-income travelers benefit from all three fare schemes considered but, in contrast to much of the literature, least by flat fares. A strong distance-dependent fare could be horizontally equitable but has poor vertical equity.

  • 133.
    Rubensson, Isak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Urban Planning & Environm, Teknikringen, Stockholm 11428, Sweden..
    Susilo, Yusak
    Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci BOKU, Inst Transport Studies IVe, Vienna, Austria..
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Transport Planning, Stockholm, Sweden.;Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, Delft, Netherlands..
    Is flat fare fair?: Equity impact of fare scheme change2020In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 91, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When Public Transport Administrations propose changes in fare schemes or increased fares, they are often met with concerns regarding the proposed fare schemes fairness. Implicit in these concerns is an understanding of relations governing land use and public transport, impacting equity. In this paper, we use socio-economic statistics of census areas in conjunction with public transport travel data from a transport forecast model to assess the geographical and distributional fairness of alternative fare schemes: flat, zone-based and distance-based. We discuss our result in relation to both the scientific literature and the known "truths" in the public debate. The method is applied to the Case study of Stockholm public transport. We find that high-income travelers benefit from all three fare schemes considered but, in contrast to much of the literature, least by flat fares. A strong distance-dependent fare could be horizontally equitable but has poor vertical equity.

  • 134.
    Skoufas, Anastasios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Ex-post assessment of public transport on-board crowding induced by new urban development2024Conference paper (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 135.
    Susilo, Yusak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Diana, Marco
    Hrin, Gabriela Rodica
    Woodcock, Andree
    Implementing a Behavioural Pilot Survey for the Stage-Based Study of the Whole Journey Traveler Experience2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European project, METPEX, aims to develop and validate an evaluation tool for the whole journey experience that takes into consideration the point of view of the passenger. The traveller experience is a broader concept compared to the standard notion of the ‘trip’ or one journey, as it embraces pre-trip information acquisition process and ends when the traveller arrives at the final destination. The focus on the whole journey experience thus represents the first distinguishing characteristic of our data collection effort. An additional feature is the inclusion of questions tailored to special user groups within a survey designed for the general public. The third innovating aspect is related to the collection of self-related information (attitudes, perceptions etc.) at the stage- rather than at the trip-level. The fourth innovation is the use of the same variables across five different instruments (face to face interviews, on line questionnaire, web app, game and focus groups).

     

    A pilot survey has been implemented to help identify what kind of information should be collected to sufficiently characterize the different phases of the traveller experience. Five categories of variables that were expected to influence overall travellers’ evaluations were identified and tested: individual attributes, contextual variables, attitudes, travel experience and satisfaction aspects. Administering the pilot survey resulted in a total of 554 interviews in eight different cities across Europe. The experience that was gained from the pilot survey implementation was supplemented by consultation of 45 different stakeholders that reviewed the tool. Potentialities and shortcomings that emerged from these assessment activities are discussed.

  • 136.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Exploring key determinants of travel satisfaction for multi-modal trips by different traveler groups2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 67, p. 366-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a primary dataset from an experimental survey in eight European cities, this study identified the key determinants of satisfaction with individual trip stages as well as overall journey experience for different travel modes and traveler groups. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine the relationships between overall satisfaction and travel experience variables, trip complexity, subjective well-being indices, travel-related attitudes as well as individual- and trip-specific attributes. The results indicate that for certain traveler groups, such as women, young and low-income or unemployed travelers, there are distinctive determinants of satisfaction with trip stages for various travel modes. The results also indicate that satisfaction with the primary trip stage is strongly linked to overall trip satisfaction, while satisfaction levels with access and egress trip stages are strongly related to satisfaction with the primary trip stage. Past experience, traveler expectations and attitudes, and the emotional state of travelers are also significant explanatory variables for travel satisfaction. The results indicate that when an individual consciously chooses a particular travel mode, they will report a higher level of satisfaction with that chosen mode. Notwithstanding, while past experience highly influences an individual's current travel satisfaction, the more they travel with the current mode, the less satisfied they are with their choice. The results of this study highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the interaction between instrumental variables and non-instrumental variables at different trip stages and the influence on user preferences, satisfaction and decision-making processes.

  • 137.
    Toledo, Tomer
    et al.
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris N.
    Manasra, Hend
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.
    Leffler, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    ADAPT‐IT: Improved transit service through real‐time operations control and traveller informationFinal report2017Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 138.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Individual and Synergetic Effects of Transit Service Improvement Strategies: Simulation and Validation2017In: Journal of transportation engineering, ISSN 0733-947X, E-ISSN 1943-5436, Vol. 143, no 6, article id 04017061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of transit service improvements such as bus lanes, allowing boarding through all doors, and headway-based holding control requires detailed simulation capabilities. However, because the usage of models advanced enough to simultaneously analyze physical and operational measures has been limited, their validity has hitherto remained low. This paper assesses the implementation of several bus service improvement measures in a simulation model. The paper analyzes the effect of isolated and combinations of measures, and validates the model using field experiment data. The model predicted travel time improvements accurately (1–2% difference), while overestimating some of the headway variability effects. The three tested measures exercised negative synergy effects, with their combined effect being smaller than the sum of their marginal contributions, except for headway-based holding, which exercised positive synergy effects with the two other measures.

  • 139.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Modelling transit user adaptation and learningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 140. Woodcock, A.
    et al.
    Berkeley, N.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Hrin, G. R.
    O'Reilly, O.
    Markucevičiute, I.
    Pimentel, T.
    Measuring quality across the whole journey2014In: Contemporary Ergonomics and Human Factors 2014: Proceedings of the international conference on Ergonomics & Human Factors 2014, Southampton, UK, 7-10 April 2014, Taylor & Francis, 2014, p. 316-323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries are looking to public transport to alleviate problems of congestion and pollution and increase sustainability. In order to develop a large modal shift in traveller behaviour, transport providers and planners need to deliver a high quality passenger experience. This paper firstly introduces the EU funded METPEX project, the aim of which is to develop a Pan European tool to measure the quality of the whole journey experience, and secondly discusses the results of stakeholder interviews in the UK, which show where such a tool might fill gaps in existing knowledge of passenger behaviour and mobility requirements.

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