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  • 101. Lv, Yuexia
    et al.
    Yu, Xinhai
    Tu, Shan-Tung
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Experimental studies on simultaneous removal of CO2 and SO2 in a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, p. 283-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane gas absorption technology is a promising alternative to conventional technologies for the mitigation of acid gases. In this study, simultaneous removal of SO2 and CO2 from coal-fired flue gas was carried out in a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor using aqueous monoethanolamine as the absorbent. The influences of liquid and gas flow rates on the simultaneous absorption performance of CO2 and SO2 were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the membrane contactor could eliminate these two sour gases simultaneously and effectively. Absorption of SO2 and CO2 was enhanced by the increase in liquid flow rate and decrease in gas flow rate. It was observed that a small amount of SO2 in the flue gas had a slight influence on the absorption of CO2. In addition, the membrane contactor was operated continuously for two weeks to evaluate its duration performance. The results showed that the CO2 mass transfer rate was decreased significantly with the operating time due to partial wetting of membrane pores. After 14 days of continuous operation, the CO2 mass transfer rate of the wetted membrane contactor was decreased by 41% but could be retrieved to 86% of the fresh one by increasing the gas phase pressure.

  • 102.
    Lv, Yuexia
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Pressurized Systems and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology.
    Yu, Xinhai
    Key Laboratory of Pressurized Systems and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology.
    Tu, Shan-Tung
    Key Laboratory of Pressurized Systems and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University.
    Wetting of polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactors2010In: Journal of Membrane Science, ISSN 0376-7388, E-ISSN 1873-3123, Vol. 362, no 1-2, p. 444-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane wetting by absorbents leads to an Increase in mass transfer resistance and a deterioration in CO2 absorption performance during the membrane gas absorption process In order to better understand the wetting mechanism of membrane pores during their prolonged contact with adsorbents, polypropylene (PP) hollow fibers were Immersed in three different absorbents for up to 90 days Monoethanolamine, methyldiethanolamine, and deionized water were applied as absorbent solutions The characterization results of membrane samples confirm that the absorbent molecules diffuse into PP polymers during the exposure process, resulting in the swelling of the membranes The absorption-swelling wetting mechanism is proposed to explain observations made during the wetting process The strong reduction of contact angles indicates that the membrane surface hydrophobicity decreases remarkably during immersion due to membrane-absorbent interaction Membrane surface morphologies and surface roughness suffer from significant and complicated changes after immersing the membrane fibers in the absorbents. Immersion in an absorbent with a high surface tension results in small changes in membrane surface morphology. As indicated by the experimental results, improving membrane surface hydrophobicity may be an effective way of overcoming wetting problems.

  • 103. Lyngfelt, Anders
    et al.
    Epple, Bernd
    Adanez, Juan
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    The 3rd International Conference on Chemical Looping 20142015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 157, p. 285-287Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 104. Markovska, Natasa
    et al.
    Klemes, Jiri Jaromir
    Duic, Neven
    Guzovic, Zvonimir
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Lund, Henrik
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Malardalen University (MDU), Sweden .
    Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems2014In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 76, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 105. Markovska, Natasa
    et al.
    Klemes, Jiri Jaromir
    Duic, Neven
    Guzovic, Zvonimir
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Lund, Henrik
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 135, p. 597-599Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 106. Maunsbach, K.
    et al.
    Isaksson, A.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Svedberg, G.
    Eidensten, L.
    Integration of advanced gas turbines in pulp and paper mills for increased power generation2001In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 123, no 4, p. 734-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry handles large amounts of energy and today produces the steam needed for the process and some of the required electricity. Several studies have shown that black liquor gasification and combined cycles increase the power production significantly compared to the traditional processes used today. It is of interest to investigate the performance when advanced gas turbines are integrated with next-generation pulp and paper mills. The present study focused on comparing the combined cycle with the integration of advanced gas turbines such as steam injected gas turbine (STIG) and evaporative gas turbine (EvGT) in pulp and paper mills. Two categories of simulations have been performed: (1) comparison of gasification of both black liquor and biomass connected to either a combined cycle or steam injected gas turbine with a heat recovery steam generator: (2) externally fired gas turbine in combination with the traditional recovery boiler The energy demand of the pulp and paper mills is satisfied in all cases and the possibility to deliver a power surplus for external use is verified. The study investigates new system combinations of applications for advanced gas turbines.

  • 107. Mollersten, K.
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Moreira, J. R.
    Potential market niches for biomass energy with CO2 capture and storage - Opportunities for energy supply with negative CO2 emissions2003In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 273-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an analysis of biomass energy with CO2 capture and storage (BECS) in industrial applications. Sugar cane-based ethanol mills and chemical pulp mills are identified as market niches with promising prospects for BEGS. Calculations of CO2 balances of BECS in these applications show that the introduction of CO2 capture and storage in biomass energy systems can significantly increase the systems' CO2 abatement potentials. CO2 emissions of the total systems are negative. The CO2 reduction potentials of these technologies are discussed in regional and global contexts. An economic assessment of each system is carried out and opportunities for cost-effective technologies for CO2 capture, transportation and storage are identified. Furthermore, potentials for system improvements that could substantially decrease the CO2 abatement cost are addressed.

  • 108. Mollersten, K.
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Westermark, Mats
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Potential and cost-effectiveness of CO2 reductions through energy measures in Swedish pulp and paper mills2003In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 691-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the two criteria of potential CO2 reduction and Cost Of CO2 reduction, technical energy measures in Swedish pulp. and paper mills are investigated. Principal CO2-reducing measures analysed are: decreased specific energy utilisation, fuel switch, and CO2 capture and sequestration. Among the investigated measures, conventional technologies for electricity conservation and improved electrical conversion efficiency in existing systems for cogeneration of heat and power are identified as the most cost-effective alternatives that also have large CO2 reduction potentials. For commercially available technologies, the results indicate an accumulated reduction potential of up to 8 MtCO(2)/y (14% of the Swedish net emissions). If emerging technologies for black liquor gasification (BLG) with pre-combustion CO2 capture and sequestration are considered, the CO2 reduction potential increases by up to 6 MtCO(2)/y (10% of the Swedish net emissions). Commercialised BLG, CO2 capture and reliable CO2 sequestration technologies are identified as important potential contributors to Swedish compliance with Kyoto Protocol targets, especially in a scenario of nuclear power closure.

  • 109. Mundaca, Luis
    et al.
    Neij, Lena
    Markandya, Anil
    Hennicke, Peter
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Towards a Green Energy Economy?: Assessing policy choices, strategies and transitional pathways2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 179, p. 1283-1292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term 'Green Energy Economy' (GEE) received increasing policy and scientific attention following the 2008-2009 global financial crisis, leading to the implementation of numerous 'Green Growth' economic stimulus packages that targeted low-carbon energy technologies. These initiatives were portrayed as key elements in the transition to a green economy, in which low-carbon energy systems would play a vital role. However, and setting aside conceptual variations, uncertainties and fragmented knowledge remain in the interplay between a green economy, low-carbon energy systems and governance. This research area raises various questions regarding the performance, implications and complexities of policies and strategies addressing GEE transitional pathways. In addition, achieving a GEE compatible with climate, social and economic goals is an enormous challenge for society, and goes beyond the technological domain. This special issue provides a series of articles that critically investigate these concerns from an interdisciplinary point of view, and provide relevant policy insights using a variety of analytical approaches. Overall, they call for strong leadership, ambitious policy instruments, rigorous assessments, effective multi-level governance, inter/national cooperation, institutional capacity development, and the immediate alignment of the financial system with the energy sector on numerous challenges associated with the GEE transition. It is concluded that not only from an environmental point of view, but also due to economic and social reasons, the GEE transition needs to be accelerated and that a radical transformation is required.

  • 110. Naqvi, M.
    et al.
    Dahlquist, E.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Complementing existing CHP plants using biomass for production of hydrogen and burning the residual gas in a CHP boiler2017In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 675-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefinery systems at combined heat and power (CHP) plants represent numerous technical, economic and environmental benefits by utilizing the existing biomass handling infrastructure and producing biofuels together with heat and power. This study evaluates the economic feasibility of integrating biomass gasification to an existing CHP plant. Integration includes biomass gasification with downstream processing of the synthesis gas to remove particles and tars, condense out water, remove CO2 and use membrane filtration (polyamide membrane) to extract hydrogen. The separated residual gas components are utilized as extra fuel to the boiler in the CHP plant. Approximately 58.5 MWth of synthesis gas can be produced from a 90 MWth plant that represents 16.4 MWth of hydrogen. The rest of the heating value of produced synthesis gas (in the form of methane and carbon monoxide) is utilized for heat and power production. From an economic perspective, the production cost of hydrogen is estimated to be 0.125–0.75 €/kg. This can be compared to the US governments goal that H2 produced by wind power plus electrolyzers should have a maximum cost of 2.8–3.4 €/kg. The lower cost is for a unit operating at 3 bar and assuming that the costs are split between H2 and the syngas residue that is combusted, while the higher prices assume an atmospheric gasifier and all costs are put on the H2 produced.

  • 111. Naqvi, M.
    et al.
    Dahlquist, E.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Naqvi, S. R.
    Nizami, A. S.
    Salman, C. A.
    Danish, M.
    Farooq, U.
    Rehan, M.
    Khan, Z.
    Qureshi, A. S.
    Polygeneration system integrated with small non-wood pulp mills for substitute natural gas production2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 224, p. 636-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the potential substitute natural gas (SNG) production by integrating black liquor gasification (BLG) island with a small wheat straw-based non-wood pulp mills (NPM), which do not employ the black liquor recovery cycle. For such integration, it is important to first build knowledge on expected improvements in an overall integrated non-wood pulp mill energy system using the key performance indicators. O2-blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification with direct causticization is integrated with a reference small NPM to evaluate the overall performance. A detailed economic analysis is performed together with a sensitivity analysis based on variations in the rate of return due to varying biomass price, total capital investment, and natural gas prices. The quantitive results showed considerable SNG production but significantly reduced electricity production. There is a substantial CO2 abatement potential combining CO2 capture and CO2 mitigation from SNG use replacing compressed natural gas (CNG) or gasoline. The economic performance through sensitivity analysis reflects significant dependency on both substitute natural gas production and natural gas market price. Furthermore, the solutions to address the challenges and barriers for the successful commercial implementation of BLG based polygeneration system at small NPMs are discussed. The system performance and discussion on the real application of integrated system presented in this article form a vital literature source for future use by large number of small non-wood pulp industries.

  • 112.
    Naqvi, Muhammad Raza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Gujrat, Pakistan .
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden .
    Dahlquist, E.
    System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthetic gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, p. 1275-1282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The black liquor gasification based bio-fuel production at chemical pulp mill is an attractive option to replace conventional recovery boilers increasing system energy efficiency. The present paper studies circulating fluidized bed system with direct causticization using TiO2 for the gasification of the black liquor to the synthesis gas. The advantage of using direct causticization is the elimination of energy-intensive lime kiln which is an integral part of the conventional black liquor recovery system. The study evaluates the effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on the fluidized bed gasification system, the synthesis gas composition, and the downstream processes for the synthesis gas conversion to the synthetic natural gas (SNG). The results showed higher synthetic natural gas production potential with about 10% higher energy efficiency using oxygen blown gasification system than the air blown system. From the pulp mill integration perspective, the material and energy balance results in better integration of air blown system than the oxygen blown system, e.g. less steam required to be generated in the power boiler, less electricity import, and less additional biomass requirement. However, the air blown system still requires a significant amount of energy in terms of the synthesis gas handling and gas upgrading using the nitrogen rejection system.

  • 113.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Bio-refinery system in a pulp mill for methanol production with comparison of pressurized black liquor gasification and dry gasification using direct causticization2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 24-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) for bio-fuel or electricity production at the modern pulp mills is a field in continuous evolution and the efforts are considerably driven by the climate change, fuel security, and renewable energy. This paper evaluates and compares two BLG systems for methanol production: (i) oxygen blown pressurized thermal BLG; and (ii) dry BLG with direct causticization, which have been regarded as the most potential technology candidates for the future deployment. A key objective is to assess integration possibilities of BLG technologies with the reference Kraft pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) pulp/day replacing conventional recovery cycle. The study was performed to compare the systems’ performance in terms of potential methanol production, energy efficiency, and potential CO2 reductions. The results indicate larger potential of black liquor conversion to methanol from the pressurized BLG system (about 77 million tonnes/year of methanol) than the dry BLG system (about 30 million tonnes/year of methanol) utilizing identical amount of black liquor available worldwide (220 million tDS/year). The potential CO2 emissions reduction from the transport sector is substantially higher in pressurized BLG system (117 million tonnes/year CO2 reductions) as compared to dry BLG system (45 million tonnes/year CO2 reductions). However, the dry BLG system with direct causticization shows better results when considering consequences of additional biomass import. In addition, comparison of methanol production via BLG with other bio-refinery products, e.g. hydrogen, dimethyl ether (DME) and bio-methane, has also been discussed.

  • 114.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Black liquor gasification integrated in pulp and paper mills: A critical review2010In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, no 21, p. 8001-8015Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) has potential to replace a Tomlinson recovery boiler as an alternative technology to increase safety, flexibility and energy efficiency of pulp and paper mills. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the research and development of various BLG technologies over recent years based on low and high temperature gasification that include SCA-Billerud process, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International (MTCI) process, direct alkali regeneration system (DARS), BLG with direct causticization, Chemrec BLG system, and catalytic hydrothermal BLG. A few technologies were tested on pilot scale but most of them were abandoned due to technical inferiority and very fewer are now at commercial stage. The drivers for the commercialization of BLG enabling bio-refinery operations at modern pulp mills, co-producing pulp and value added energy products, are discussed. In addition, the potential areas of research and development in BLG required to solve the critical issues and to fill research knowledge gaps are addressed and highlighted. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 115.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Energy conversion performance of black liquor gasification to hydrogen production using direct causticization with CO2 capture2012In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 110, p. 637-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates potential hydrogen production via dry black liquor gasification system with direct causticization integrated with a reference pulp mill. The advantage of using direct causticization is elimination of energy intensive lime kiln. Pressure swing adsorption is integrated in the carbon capture process for hydrogen upgrading. The energy conversion performance of the integrated system is compared with other bio-fuel alternatives and evaluated based on system performance indicators. The results indicated a significant hydrogen production potential (about 141MW) with an energy ratio of about 0.74 from the reference black liquor capacity (about 243.5MW) and extra biomass import (about 50MW) to compensate total energy deficit. About 867,000tonnes of CO2 abatement per year is estimated i.e. combining CO2 capture and CO2 offset from hydrogen replacing motor gasoline. The hydrogen production offers a substantial motor fuel replacement especially in regions with large pulp and paper industry e.g. about 63% of domestic gasoline replacement in Sweden.

  • 116.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Integrated Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Oxygen Blown Dry Black Liquor Gasification Process with Direct Causticization2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Sustainability Aspects of Transport Bio-fuels from Black liquor gasification – a System Analysis2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO2 capture2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from dry black liquor gasification (DBLG) system is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions replacing natural gas. This article evaluates the energy conversion performance of SNG production from oxygen blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) black liquor gasification process with direct causticization by investigating system integration with a reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The direct causticization process eliminates use of energy intensive lime kiln that is a main component required in the conventional black liquor recovery cycle with the recovery boiler. The paper has estimated SNG production potential, the process energy ratio of black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG, and quantified the potential CO2 abatement. Based on reference pulp mill capacity, the results indicate a large potential of SNG production (about 162 MW) from black liquor but at a cost of additional biomass import (36.7 MW) to compensate the total energy deficit. The process shows cold gas energy efficiency of about 58% considering black liquor and biomass import as major energy inputs. About 700 ktonnes per year of CO2 abatement i.e. both possible CO2 capture and CO2 offset from bio-fuel use replacing natural gas, is estimated. Moreover, the SNG production offers a significant fuel replacement in transport sector especially in countries with large pulp and paper industry e.g. in Sweden, about 72% of motor gasoline and 40% of total motor fuel could be replaced.

  • 119.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden .
    Dahlquist, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production at pulp mills from a circulating fluidized bed black liquor gasification process with direct causticization2010In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2010, Åbo Akademi University Press, 2010, Vol. 2, p. 83-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from black liquor gasification (BLG) replacing conventional recovery cycle at chemical pulp mills is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions and replace fossil natural gas. This paper evaluates the potential of SNG production from a circulating fluidized bed BLG process with direct causticization by investigating synthesis gas composition, purity requirements for SNG and process integration with the reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The objective of this study is to estimate the integrated process efficiency from black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG and to quantify the differences in overall process efficiencies of various bio-refinery options. The models include a BLG Island including BL gasifier, synthesis gas cooling and cleaning unit, methanation with SNG upgrading and a power boiler. The result indicates a large potential of SNG production from BL but at a cost of additional biomass import to compensate energy deficit in terms of BL conversion to SNG. In addition, the study shows a significant CO2 abatement when CO2 capture is carried out in SNG upgrading and also reducing CO2 emissions when SNG potentially replaces fossil natural gas.

  • 120.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthesis gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems2012In: International Conference on Applied Energy, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 121. Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Naqvi, Salman Raza
    Off-grid electricity generation using mixed biomass compost: A scenario-based study with sensitivity analysis2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 201, p. 363-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to investigate the viability of waste gasification based off-grid electricity generation utilizing mixed biomass composts (mixture of rice hulls with cow/poultry manure compost). The economic viability is studied on the different scenarios with considerations of (1) levels of electricity demand and utilization, (2) costs of variable biomass mix, (3) combined domestic and cottage industry business model, and (4) influence of governmental investments. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is used as an indicator to measure the competitiveness of gasification based off-grid electricity generation. The plant loading and the capacity factor have been used to assess the impacts of different scenarios. A sensitivity analysis of key parameters based on variations in annual operational hours, plant efficiency, plant cost and biomass supply cost is conducted. Based on levels of electricity demand and utilization, the LCOE ranged between 40 US cents/kW h and 29 US cents/kW h based on the plant loading and the capacity factor. The business revenue would not change considerably despite better plant utilization and reduced levelized cost of electricity if all the consumers, both basic or medium, are charged with the flat tariff. The part load operation will be costly despite considerably low capital investment per kW in comparison with PV or solar based plants. There is a large potential of off-grid electricity generation but the estimated off-grid electricity price is found to be higher in all scenarios than average grid-based electricity tariff. Moreover, the challenges for the implementation of the real off-grid electricity generation plant are discussed.

  • 122. Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Naqvi, Salman Raza
    Waste biomass gasification based off-grid electricity generation: A case study in Pakistan2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY INTEGRATION WITH MINI/MICROGRID (REM2016) / [ed] Yan, J Zhai, Y Wijayatunga, P Mohamed, AM Campana, PE, Elsevier, 2016, p. 406-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to investigate the waste gasification based off-grid electricity generation in developing countries like Pakistan utilizing mixed biomass composts (mixture of agricultural wastes including rice hulls and wheat straw with cow/poultry manure compost). Different scenarios are compared; ( 1) levels of electricity demand and utilization, ( 2) costs for variable biomass mix, ( 3) combined domestic and cottage industry business model. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is used as an indicator to measure the competitiveness of off-grid electricity generation. There is a large potential of off-grid electricity generation. However, the estimated off-grid electricity price is found to be higher in all scenarios than average governmental electricity tariff.

  • 123. Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Danish, Muhammad
    Farooq, Usman
    Lu, Shuguang
    An experimental study on hydrogen enriched gas with reduced tar formation using pre-treated olivine in dual bed steam gasification of mixed biomass compost2016In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 41, no 25, p. 10608-10618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the effects of pre-treated olivine in dual bed steam gasification (DBSG) of biomass compost in order to produce H-2 enriched synthesis gas with significantly reduced tar formation. The DBSG employed circulating fluidized bed (CFB) of silica sand as first stage and fixed catalytic bed of pre-treated olivine as second stage. The mixed biomass compost contained 15-20 wt. % of agri-residues (mainly wheat straw) and 80-85 wt. % of cow manure. The study compared the synthesis gas distribution and tar reductions using pre-treated olivine in the DBSG scheme with Ni-Al based DBSG scheme. The effects of operating condition on the synthesis gas distribution and tar formation are studied such as: (i) effect of steam to biomass ratio, (ii) effects of relative oxidation (relox), (iii) operating temperature of the reactor, (iv) performance and comparison of employed catalysts, and (v) yield of synthesis gas together with carbon conversion efficiency. Experimental analysis showed that H-2 concentration obtained from pre-treated olivine based DBSG is considerably higher than H-2 produced from compared gasification schemes. The H-2 production is favoured at higher temperatures and higher SBR under the influence of pre-treated olivine catalyst. However, the conditions are less advantageous for the production of CO and CH4. Among all experiments, the synthesis gas composition obtained at SBR = 1.40 and at 800 degrees C consisted of highest H-2 concentration (35 vol.% d.n.f) in the pre-treated olivine DBSG. Higher steam to biomass ratio (SBR) resulted in lower cold gas energy efficiency and lower heating value of the synthesis gas mainly due to large steam content in the gas. The tar removal efficiency of 98% is achieved with the pre-treated olivine DBSG system. The total tar content is significantly reduced (approximate to 40%) in the DBSG with pre-treated olivine. Higher relative oxidation resulted in increased concentration of CO2 in the synthesis gas due to increased partial oxidation of organic matter in the gasifier. The pre-treated olivine catalyst in the DBSG consistently promoted the process of steam reforming and tar cracking and thus improved the quality of the syngas by limiting the tar contents.

  • 124.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Froling, M.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills2010In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 937-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DIME) and methane (CH4) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH4 production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH4 production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

  • 125. Nemet, Andreja
    et al.
    Klemes, Jiri Jaromir
    Duic, Neven
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology. Malardalen University (MDU), Sweden.
    Improving sustainability development in energy planning and optimisation2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 184, p. 1241-1245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of Applied Energy contains articles developed from initial ideas related to the 10th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES) held in Dubrovnik, Croatia during September 27 - October 2, 2015. The main focus of the event is the sustainability development joining all required areas for achieving as improving the knowledge on method, policies and technologies as well as dissemination of the results. Overall, 64 extended manuscripts have been invited as candidate articles. After a thorough review procedure, 23 articles have been selected to be published. The topics attained in the focus of this Special Issue include Integration, Optimisation and Analysis of energy systems as well as dissemination of the developed methodology and results obtained.

  • 126. Nookuea, W.
    et al.
    Zambrano, J.
    Tan, Yuting
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Li, H.
    Thorin, E.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Comparison of Mass Transfer Models on Rate-Based Simulation of CO2 Absorption and Desorption Processes2017In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Applied Energy, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 142, p. 3747-3752Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effective technology for capturing CO2 at the low concentration is chemical absorption, due to the high reactivity between CO2 and aqueous amine solutions. To capture CO2, the process involves complex reactive separations. The accurate calculation of hydrodynamic properties, and mass and energy transfer are of importance for the design of the absorber and desorber columns. This paper performs the rate-based simulations of CO2 absorption by Monoethanolamine in Aspen Plus. In the calculation of the mass transfer coefficients, different mass transfer models were implemented. In comparison with the desorber, the impacts of mass transfer models were more significant in the simulation of the absorber. For both columns, the impacts of the mass transfer models on the concentration profiles were more significant than those on the temperature profiles. For the absorber, the maximum deviations occur at the bottom of the column for both the concentration and the temperature profiles. Different from the absorber, for the desorber, the maximum deviations occur close to the top of the column.

  • 127. Nookuea, Worrada
    et al.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Evaluation of Solar PV and Wind Alternatives for Self Renewable Energy Supply: Case Study of Shrimp Cultivation2016In: CUE 2015 - APPLIED ENERGY SYMPOSIUM AND SUMMIT 2015: LOW CARBON CITIES AND URBAN ENERGY SYSTEMS, Elsevier, 2016, p. 462-469Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges in shrimp cultivation are the intensive electricity consumptions with associated greenhouse gases emissions, security of power supply, and environmental impact from the discharged waste water. Following Thailand energy roadmap, the renewable energy share in power production sector is targeted to be increased, for energy security and climate change mitigation. This paper evaluates six different scenarios of renewable energy implementation for shrimp farm in Thailand. The results show that the system with solar PV has higher reliability compared to the one with wind turbine at equal life cycle cost. The reliability of the system with solar PV and solar PV with battery varies significantly with the life cycle cost at low cost range then becomes stable. On the other hand, it was found to be quite stable in the cases of wind turbine with and without battery. Adding battery to the system significantly increases the reliability of solar PV and slightly increases for wind turbine. At the life cycle cost lower than $1 million, maximum reliability of the system with solar PV is around 53%. By adding battery, the reliability of the system can be up to 90%. The different magnitudes of the reliability between these two scenarios are higher at higher life cycle cost. For this case study, to reach higher than 50% reliability, the recommended renewable alternative is solar PV with battery.

  • 128. Nookuea, Worrada
    et al.
    Tan, Yuting
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Li, Hailong
    Thorin, Eva
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Impacts of thermo-physical properties of gas and liquid phases on design of absorber for CO2 capture using monoethanolamine2016In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 52, p. 190-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorption of CO2 with aqueous amines in post-combustion capture is characterized as a heat and mass transfer processes with chemical reaction, which is sensitively affected by the thermo-physical properties of fluids. In order to optimize the design of the absorber of CO2 capture process, in this paper, the impacts of thermo-physical properties on the column design were investigated. Furthermore, the property impacts on the capital cost of the absorber unit were also identified and analyzed. Results show that the gas phase density has the most significant effect on the column diameter. Underestimation of the gas phase density of 10% may result in an increase of about 6% of the column diameter. For the packing height, the liquid phase density has the most significant effect. 10% underestimation of the liquid phase density may result in an increase of 8% of the packing height. Moreover, the effect from the liquid phase viscosity is also significant. For the annual capital cost, the liquid phase density also shows the most significant effect. Underestimation of the liquid phase density of 10% leads to the cost overestimation of $1.4 million for the absorption column for a 400 MW coal-fired power plant. Therefore, the development of the flue gas density model and liquid phase density and viscosity models of the aqueous amine solution with CO2 loading should be prioritized.

  • 129. Nookuea, Worrada
    et al.
    Tan, Yuting
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Li, Hailong
    Thorin, Eva
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sensitivity study of thermo-physical properties of gas phase on absorber design for CO2 capture using monoethanolamine2015In: CLEAN, EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, 2015, p. 2305-2310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorption of CO2 with aqueous amines in post-combustion capture is characterized as mass transfer process with chemical reaction. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer in gas and liquid phases in a packed column have significant influences on absorber design especially for the design of packing height. In this paper, the sensitivity study has been conducted to investigate the impacts of gas phase density, viscosity and diffusivity on the hydrodynamics and mass transfer and further the total packing height of a countercurrent flow with random packing column, using reactive absorption process and integral rate-based models. Results show that density and diffusivity have opposite effect to viscosity. Amongst various properties, diffusivity has the most significant effect on the packing height compared to density and viscosity. Overestimation of diffusivity of 5% may result in decrease of 3.2% of packing height. Moreover, developing more accurate diffusivity model should be prioritized for more accurate absorber design. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 130. Nordlander, E.
    et al.
    Thorin, E.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Investigating the possibility of applying an ADM1 based model to a full-scale co-digestion plant2017In: Biochemical engineering journal, ISSN 1369-703X, E-ISSN 1873-295X, Vol. 120, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the possibility of using a model based on the anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) on a full-scale 4000 m3 digester in order to understand how such theoretical models can be applied to a real industrial process. The industrial scale digester co-digests the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, grease trap sludge, and ley crop silage with varying feed rates and amounts of volatile solids. A year of process data was collected. Biogas flow, methane content/flow, and ammonia nitrogen were the variables that the model was best at predicting (index of agreement at 0.78, 0.61/0.77, and 0.68, respectively). The model was also used to investigate the effect of increasing the volatile solids (VS) concentration entering the digester. According to simulation results, increasing the influent VS concentration will increase biogas and methane outflow (from 1.5 million Nm3 methane to more than 2 million Nm3 methane), but decrease the amounts of biogas/methane per unit of volatile solids (from about 264 Nm3 methane per tonne VS to below 215 Nm3 methane per tonne VS).

  • 131. Obersteiner, M.
    et al.
    Azar, C.
    Kauppi, P.
    Mollersten, K.
    Moreira, J.
    Nilsson, S.
    Read, P.
    Riahi, K.
    Schlamadinger, B.
    Yamagata, Y.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    van Ypersele, J. P.
    Managing climate risk2001In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 294, no 5543, p. 786-787Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Olsson, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Lind, Mårten
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden .
    Potential for carbon sequestration and mitigation of climate change by irrigation of grasslands2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 136, p. 1145-1154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate change mitigation potential of irrigation powered by a photovoltaic water pumping system (PVWPS) to restore degraded grasslands has been investigated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use. The purpose of this study is to develop a generic and simple method to estimate the climate change mitigation benefit of a PVWPS. The possibility to develop carbon credits for the carbon offset markets has also been studied comparing carbon sequestration in grasslands to other carbon sequestration projects. The soil carbon sequestration following irrigation of the grassland is calculated as an annual increase in the soil organic carbon pool. The PVWPS can also generate an excess of electricity when irrigation is not needed and the emissions reductions due to substitution of grid electricity give additional climate change mitigation potential. The results from this study show that the carbon sequestration and emissions reductions benefits per land area using a PVWPS for irrigating grasslands are comparable to other carbon sequestration options such as switching to no-till practice. Soil carbon in irrigated grasslands is increased with over 60% relative to severely degraded grasslands and if nitrogen fixing species are introduced the increase in soil organic carbon can be almost 80%. Renewable electricity generation by the PVWPS will further increase the mitigation benefit of the system with 70-90%. When applying the methodology developed in this paper to a case in Qinghai, China, we conclude that using a PVWPS to restore degraded grasslands for increased grass production and desertification control has a climate change mitigation benefit of 148 Mg (1 Mg = 1 metric ton) CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq) per hectare in a cold temperate, dry climate during a 20 year process of soil organic carbon sequestration and emissions reductions. Leakage due to an increase in N2O emissions from the additional biomass production and introduction of nitrogen fixing species is included in this result. The most important conclusion from our case is that if soil carbon sequestration is lower than 24 Mg CO2-eq per hectare including leakage, then the climate change mitigation benefit is larger if PV is used to produce electricity for the grid.

  • 133.
    Olsson, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Lind, Mårten
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    PV water pumping for carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 102, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a novel model for analysing carbon sequestration activities in dry land agriculture considering the water-food-energy-climate nexus. The paper is based on our on-going studies on photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation of grasslands in China. Two carbon sequestration projects are analysed in terms of their water productivity and carbon sequestration potential. It is concluded that the economic water productivity, i.e. how much water that is needed to produce an amount of grass, of grassland restoration is low and that there is a need to include several of the other co-benefits to justify the use of water for climate change mitigation. The co-benefits are illustrated in a nexus model including (1) climate change mitigation, (2) water availability, (3) downstream water impact, (4) energy security, (5) food security and (6) moisture recycling. We argue for a broad approach when analysing water for carbon sequestration. The model includes energy security and food security together with local and global water concerns. This makes analyses of dry land carbon sequestration activities more relevant and accurate. Without the nexus approach, the co-benefits of grassland restoration tend to be diminished.

  • 134.
    Olsson, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Lind, M.
    Yan, Jinyue
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    The elephant in the room - A comparative study of uncertainties in carbon offsets2016In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 56, p. 32-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) is a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, which makes it possible for developed countries to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases through investing in climate change mitigation projects in developing countries. When the mitigation benefit of a CDM project is quantified, measurable uncertainties arise that can be minimised using established statistical methods. In addition, some unmeasurable uncertainties arise, such as the rebound effect of demand-side energy efficiency projects. Many project types related to land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) have been excluded from the CDM in part because of the high degree of statistical uncertainty in measurements of the carbon sink and risk of non-permanence. However, recent discussions within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have opened up for the possibility of including more LULUCF activities in the future. In the light of this discussion, we highlight different aspects of uncertainties in LULUCF projects (e.g. the risk of non-permanence and the size of the carbon sink) in relation to other CDM project categories such as renewables and demand-side energy efficiency. We quantify the uncertainties, compare the magnitudes of the uncertainties in different project categories and conclude that uncertainties could be just as significant in CDM project categories such as renewables as in LULUCF projects. The CDM is a useful way of including and engaging developing countries in climate change mitigation and could be a good source of financial support for LULUCF mitigation activities. Given their enormous mitigation potential, we argue that additional LULUCF activities should be included in the CDM and other future climate policy instruments. Furthermore, we note that Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) are currently being submitted to the UNFCCC by developing countries. Unfortunately, the under-representation of LULUCF in comparison to its potential is evident in the NAMAs submitted so far, just as it has been in the CDM. Capacity building under the CDM may influence NAMAs and there is a risk of transferring the view on uncertainties to NAMAs.

  • 135.
    Olsson, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Lind, M.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    PV water pumping for carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture2014In: Energy Procedia, 2014, p. 1037-1041Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is inspired by theory related to the water-food-energy-climate nexus and suggests a novel model, suited for analysing carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture using irrigation. The model is applied specifically to photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation of grasslands in China. We argue against the narrow approaches to analysing the water issue often found in literature and propose that carbon sequestration, energy security, food security together with local moisture recycling patterns should be included within the system boundary in order to make analyses of dry land agricultural activities more relevant and accurate.

  • 136. Roskilly, A. P.
    et al.
    Palacin, R.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Novel technologies and strategies for clean transport systems2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 157, p. 563-566Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 137. Roskilly, A. P.
    et al.
    Taylor, P. C.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Energy storage systems for a low carbon future - in need of an integrated approach2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 137, p. 463-466Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 138. Roskilly, A. P.
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen Univ..
    Sustainable thermal energy management2017In: APPLIED ENERGY, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 186, p. 249-250Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 139. Salman, C. A.
    et al.
    Naqvi, M.
    Thorin, E.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    A polygeneration process for heat, power and DME production by integrating gasification with CHP plant: Modelling and simulation study2017In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Applied Energy, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 142, p. 1749-1758Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are a good substitute for the transport sector petroleum fuels to minimize carbon footprint and greenhouse gases emissions. Di-Methyl Ether (DME) is one such alternative with properties similar to liquefied petroleum gas but with lower SOx, NOx, and particulate emissions. In this work, a polygeneration process, integrating an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant with biomass gasification to synthesize DME, is proposed and modelled. Process integration is based on a hypothesis that the CHP plant provides the necessary heat to run the co-located gasification plant for DME synthesis and the waste heat from the gasification process is recovered and transferred to the CHP plant. The feed for gasification is taken as refuse derived fuel (RDF) instead of conventional wood derived biomass. The process integration leads to higher overall combined efficiency (up to 71%) which is greater than stand-alone efficiencies (up to 63%) but lower than stand-alone CHP plant efficiency (73.2%). The further technical evaluation shows that the efficiency of the polygeneration process is depends heavily on the gasifier capacity integrated with the existing CHP plant and also on the conversion route selected for DME synthesis i.e. recycling of unconverted syngas to the DME reactor or transferring it to the boiler of the CHP plant. The simulation results also indicate that once-through conversion yields less DME than recycling, but at the same time, once-through conversion affects the district heat and electric power production of the CHP plant lesser than by using the recycling route.

  • 140. Salman, C. A.
    et al.
    Naqvi, M.
    Thorin, E.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Gasification process integration with existing combined heat and power plants for polygeneration of dimethyl ether or methanol: A detailed profitability analysis2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 226, p. 116-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion of waste for cogeneration of heat and power is the most convenient and practical choice to carry out through combined heat and power (CHP) plants. But, seasonal variation in heat demand throughout the year affects the operation of CHP plants. This fluctuation in the CHP operation cause less annual operating hours for the plant equipment and is also not profitable for stakeholders. This study aims to assess the technical potential of integrated gasification process with existing CHP plants for either dimethyl ether (DME) or methanol production through refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Process integration considers that the CHP plant provides the necessary heat for biofuel synthesis during off-peak hours. Mass and heat integration methods are used to develop and simulate the polygeneration processes for heat, power, and biofuel production. Both technical and economic indicators are reported and compared to assess the potential for both biofuels through process integration. Annual operation data of a real CHP plant has been extracted to evaluate the integrated processes. A flexible gasification configuration is selected for the integrated approach i.e. CHP runs at full load to provide the heat demand and only the excess heat of CHP plant is utilized for biofuel production. The energetic efficiencies of the polygeneration systems are compared with the standalone systems. Technical analysis of process integration shows the enhancement of the operational capacity of CHP during off-peak hours and it can produce biofuels without compromising the annual heat demand. Production of methanol through process integration shows ∼67% energetic efficiency while methanol production gives ∼65%. The efficiencies are higher than standalone DME and methanol processes (51% and 53%, respectively) but lower than standalone CHP plant i.e. 81%, however the process integration increases the operating time of the CHP plant with more economic benefits. Economic analysis coupled with uncertainty analysis through Monte Carlo simulations shows that by integrating CHP with gasifier to produce biofuels is significantly profitable as compared with only heat and electricity production. But, DME as a potential product shows more economic benefits than methanol. The uncertainty analysis through Monte Carlo simulations shows that the profitable probability of DME as a product in future is also greater than methanol due to higher DME selling price. The uncertainty analysis further shows that prices of DME and methanol with waste biomass prices in future will have a greater impact on the economic performance of the proposed polygeneration process.

  • 141. Salman, C. A.
    et al.
    Naqvi, M.
    Thorin, E.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Malardalens hogskola, Sweden.
    Impact of retrofitting existing combined heat and power plant with polygeneration of biomethane: A comparative techno-economic analysis of integrating different gasifiers2017In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 152, p. 250-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is vital to identify and evaluate the optimal gasifier configuration that could be integrated with existing or new combined heat and power (CHP) plants to maximize the utilization of boiler operating capacity during off-peak hours with minimal effect on the boiler performance. This study aims to identify technically and economically most suitable gasification configuration and the reasonable operational limits of a CHP plant when integrated with different types of gasifiers. The selected gasifiers for the study are, (i) indirectly heated dual fluidized bed gasifier (DFBG), (ii) directly heated circulating fluidized bed gasifier (CFBG), and (iii) entrained flow gasifier (EFG). The gasifiers are selected on their ability to produce high-quality syngas from waste refused derived fuel (RDF). The syngas from the gasifiers is utilized to produce biomethane, whereas the heat and power from the CHP plant are consumed to run the gasification process. A detailed techno-economic analysis is performed using both flexible capacity and fixed capacity gasifiers and integrated with the CHP plant at full load. The results reveal that the integration leads to increase in operating time of the boiler for all gasifier configurations. The indirectly heated DFBG shows the largest biomethane production with less impact on the district heat and power production. Extra heat is available for biomethane production when the district heat and biomethane are prioritized, and the electric power is considered as a secondary product. Furthermore, the economic indicators reflect considerable dependency of integrated gasification performance on variable prices of waste biomass and biomethane.

  • 142. Salman, C. A.
    et al.
    Schwede, S.
    Thorin, E.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Enhancing biomethane production by integrating pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion processes2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 204, p. 1074-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic waste is a mature and increasingly used process for biomethane production. However, the efficient use of different fractions of waste is a big concern in anaerobic digestion plants. This study proposes the use of a new process configuration that couples the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste with the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic or green waste. The biochar obtained from pyrolysis was added to a digester as an adsorbent to increase the biomethane content and to support the development of a stable microbial community. In addition, the bio-oil and syngas produced by the pyrolysis process were reformed into syngas and then converted to biomethane via methanation. Modelling and simulations were performed for the proposed novel process. The results showed an approximately 1.2-fold increase in the biomethane volume produced. An overall efficiency of 67% was achieved, whereas the stand-alone anaerobic digestion system had an efficiency of only 52%. The results also indicated a high annual revenue for the integrated process compared to that for an alternative treatment (incineration) of green waste.

  • 143. Salman, C. A.
    et al.
    Schwede, S.
    Thorin, E.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Predictive Modelling and Simulation of Integrated Pyrolysis and Anaerobic Digestion Process2017In: 8th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2016; Beijing; China; 8 October 2016 through 11 October 2016, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 105, p. 850-857Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion plant with biodegradable organic feedstock separated from municipal solid waste (MSW) have become a mature technology in past decade. The biogas produced can be upgraded to bio-methane or used in heat and power applications. However, not all the municipal waste fractions such as ligno-cellulose and green waste, are suitable for biodegradation. In this work, the non-biodegradable organic waste named as green waste is investigated as a potential substrate for a bio refinery concept based on combination of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion. The main aim of the study was to evaluate whether or not the anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis process coupling could be beneficial from an energy and exergy point of view. The simulation results shows that the integration of pyrolysis process gives approximately 59% overall efficiency as compared to the 52% for anaerobic digestion stand-alone process. The results also revealed that the pyrolysis of green waste is more beneficial than green waste incineration for heat and power production.

  • 144. Salman, Chaudhary Awais
    et al.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Thorin, Eva
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Process simulation and comparison of biological conversion of syngas and hydrogen in biogas plants2017In: International Conference on Advances In Energy Systems And Environmental Engineering (ASEE17) / [ed] Kaamierczak, B Kutylowska, M Piekarska, K Jouhara, H Danielewicz, J, EDP Sciences, 2017, article id UNSP 00151Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic waste is a good source of clean energy. However, different fractions of waste have to be utilized efficiently. One way is to find pathways to convert waste into useful products via various available processes (gasification, pyrolysis anaerobic digestion, etc.) and integrate them to increase the combined efficiency of the process. The syngas and hydrogen produced from the thermal conversion of biomass can be upgraded to biomethane via biological methanation. The current study presents the simulation model to predict the amount of biomethane produced by injecting the hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen injection is modelled both in-situ and ex-situ while for syngas solely the ex-situ case has been studied. The results showed that 85% of the hydrogen conversion was achieved for the ex-situ reactor while 81% conversion rate was achieved for the in-situ reactor. The syngas could be converted completely in the bio-reactor. However, the addition of syngas resulted in an increase of carbon dioxide. Simulation of biomethanation of gas addition showed a biomethane concentration of 87% while for hydrogen addition an increase of 74% and 80% for in-situ and ex-situ addition respectively.

  • 145. Si, Pengfei
    et al.
    Feng, Ya
    Lv, Yuexia
    Rong, Xiangyang
    Pan, Yungang
    Liu, Xichen
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    An optimization method applied to active solar energy systems for buildings in cold plateau areas - The case of Lhasa2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 194, p. 487-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy for building applications may significantly reduce the conventional energy consumption and the related carbon dioxide emissions. The comprehensive utilization of integrated solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is undoubtedly a subject of interest. In the present paper, an optimization model was proposed for integrated solar energy systems, aiming to figure out the optimal utilization and economical efficiency of solar energy resources for buildings in cold plateau areas. A case study in Lhasa city was further carried out in order to evaluate the energy and economic performance of the developed model. The results indicated that solar photovoltaic systems are preferred than solar thermal systems for typical office buildings in cold plateau areas with rich solar energy resources. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the influences of financial subsidies and commercial electricity prices on the system economical performance. Furthermore, life cycle assessment was conducted to compare and analyze the performances of an optimization system and a conventional system.

  • 146. Song, Han
    et al.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Thorin, Eva
    Guziana, Bozena
    Huopana, Tuomas
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    A dynamic model to optimize a regional energy system with waste and crops as energy resources for greenhouse gases mitigation2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 522-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamic model of a regional energy system has been developed to support sustainable waste treatment with greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation, addressing the possibility for development towards a regional fossil fuel-free society between 2011 and 2030. The model is based on conventional mixed integer linear programming (MILP) techniques to minimize the total cost of regional energy systems. The CO2 emission component in the developed model includes both fossil and biogenic origins when considering waste, fossil fuels and other renewable sources for energy production. A case study for the county of Vastmanland in central Sweden is performed to demonstrate the applicability of the developed MILP model in five distinct scenarios. The results show significant potential for mitigating CO2 emission by gradually replacing fossil fuels with different renewable energy sources. The MILP model can be useful for providing strategies for treating wastes sustainably and mitigating GHG emissions in a regional energy system, which can function as decision bases for formulating GHG reduction policies and assessing the associated economic implications.

  • 147. Song, Han
    et al.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Thorin, Eva
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Annual performance analysis and comparison of pellet production integrated with an existing combined heat and power plant2011In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, no 10, p. 6317-6325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three optional pellet production processes integrated with an existing biomass-based CHP plant using different raw materials (wood chips and solid hydrolysis residues) are studied. The year is divided into 12 periods, and the integrated biorefinery systems are modeled and simulated for each period. The annual economic performance of three integrated biorefinery systems is analyzed based on the simulation results. The option of pellet production integrated with the existing CHP plant with the exhaust flue gas and superheated steam as drying mediums has the lowest specific pellet production cost of 105 epsilon/t(pellet), the shortest payback time of less than 2 years and the greatest CO2 reduction of the three options. An advantage in common among the three options is a dramatic increase of the total annual power production and significant CO2 reduction in spite of a small decrease of power efficiency.

  • 148. Song, Han
    et al.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Thorin, Eva
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Techno-economic analysis of an integrated biorefinery system for poly-generation of power, heat, pellet and bioethanol2014In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 551-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioethanol is an alternative to fossil fuels in the transportation sector. The use of pellet for heating is also an efficient way to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. This paper evaluates the techno-economic performance of a biorefinery system in which an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant is integrated with the production of bioethanol and pellet using straw as feedstock. A two-stage acid hydrolysis process is used for bioethanol production, and two different drying technologies are applied to dry hydrolysis solid residues. A sensitivity analysis is performed on critical parameters such as the bioethanol selling price and feedstock price. The bioethanol production cost is also calculated for two cases with either 10 year or 15 year payback times. The results show that the second case is currently a more feasible economic configuration and reduces production costs by 36.4%-77.3% compared to other types of poly-generation plants that are not integrated into existing CHP plants.

  • 149. Song, Han
    et al.
    Starfelt, Fredrik
    Daianova, Lilia
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Influence of drying process on the biomass-based polygeneration system of bioethanol, power and heat2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the by-products from bioethanol production using woody materials is lignin solids, which can be utilized as feedstock for combined heat and power (CHP) production. In this paper, the influence of integrating a drying process into a biomass-based polygeneration system is studied, where the exhaust flue gas is used to dry the lignin solids instead of direct condensation in the flue gas condenser (FGC). The evaporated water vapor from the lignin solids is mixed with the drying medium for consequent condensation. Thus, the exhaust flue gas after the drying still has enough humidity to produce roughly the same amount of condensation heat as direct condensation in the existing configuration. The influence of a drying process and how it interacts with the FGC in CHP production as a part of the polygeneration system is analyzed and evaluated. If a drying process is integrated with the polygeneration system, overall energy efficiency is only increased by 3.1% for CHP plant, though the power output can be increased by 5.5% compared with the simulated system using only FGC.

  • 150. Song, Han
    et al.
    Thorin, Eva
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Nordlander, Eva
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Modeling and optimization of a regional waste-to-energy system: A case study in central Sweden2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 1315-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
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