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  • 101.
    Elmertoft, Emelie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Johansson, Victoria
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Potentiell miljöpåverkan från kontorsstol 6110: En livscykelanalys samt rekommendationer för Kinnarps AB2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Livscykelanalys (LCA) är ett verktyg för att analysera potentiell miljöpåverkan från en produkts livscykel. I studien undersöks vilka som är de mest betydande processerna och de mest utmär- kande potentiella miljöpåverkanskategorierna i livscykeln för Kinnarps kontorsstol 6110, samt vilka potentiella förbättringsåtgärder som kan utföras för förbättrad miljöprestanda. Analysen syftar även till att ge rekommendationer hur verktyget LCA kan implementeras i Kinnarps håll- barhetsarbete. Programvaran SimaPro från PRé, data från Ecoinvent och företagsspecifika uppgifter används i analysen. De huvudsakliga resultaten visar att störst miljöpåverkan åter- finns inom kategorierna ekotoxicitet, övergödning och naturlig landtransformation. Stolsmekanismen är den komponent på kontorsstolen som får störst genomslag i analysen till följd av sin stora massa och sitt höga stålinnehåll. Även ullklädseln får stort genomslag, vilket beror på produktionen av råull. I verkligheten bör denna påverkan vara större eftersom pro- duktionen av tyg från råull inte varit möjlig att inkludera. Vilket material som väljs för olika komponenter visar sig ha stor betydelse för livscykeln och LCA kan användas redan i konstrukt- ionsfasen för att rådgöra vilka val som ger lägst påverkan. En fördel med att bygga upp kompetens internt inom Kinnarps är att ökad kunskap om såväl metodiken LCA som produkt- sortimentet erhålls. Om Kinnarps väljer att implementera verktyget inom företaget har det även fördelar ur ett marknadsföringsperspektiv eftersom de då kan uppvisa detaljkännedom om sina produkters miljöprestanda. 

  • 102.
    Enefalk, Tommy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Ersöz, Timur
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Optimal rening av biogas för småskalig produktion och användning: En studie om energioptimering av biogasanläggningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Biogas är ett förnybart bränsle, och intresset för detta bränsle ökar runt om i världen. För att kunna använda biogas som fordonsbränsle måste biogasen uppgraderas innan användning. Koldioxid och andra föroreningar skiljs av, så att metanhalten i den råa biogasen höjs och gasen kan användas i motorer. Flera olika reningstekniker finns, men detta arbete fokuserar på vattenskrubbning. Arbetet syftar till att undersöka den optimala metanhalten i biogasen med hänsyn till nettoenergin och livslängden för de motorer som används. Undersökningen fokuserar på reningsprocessen i biogasproduktionen på små och mellanstora gårdar. Arbetet utfördes genom att ställa upp en energibalans över komponenterna i biogasproduktionen. Energibalansen användes för att skapa en matematisk modell av anläggningen, och beräkningarna gjordes med datorprogrammet Matlab. Den optimala metanhalten för biogasen beräknades till kring 80 % (78 – 83 %) vilket är lägre än den gräns på 85 % som rekommenderas av andra källor. Reningsanläggningens eget energibehov befanns motsvara 2,5 – 8,6 % av biogasens energiinnehåll, beroende på om högtryckskompression används eller inte. Dessa värden har god överensstämmelse med tidigare forskning. Den beräknade metanhalten är inte så låg så att motorernas livslängd förkortas nämnvärt, men det finns en risk för misständningar som kan ge skador på katalysatorn. Eftersom den beräknade metanhalten är lägre än 85 % är det lämpligt att genomföra ytterligare tester för att avgöra om gasen är lämplig som fordonsbränsle. Resultaten påverkas kraftigt av motorns verkningsgrad, vilket också är ett relevant ämne för framtida studier. 

  • 103.
    Engstrand, Olivia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    An Analysis and Classification of Smartphones’ Sustainability Performance2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a lack of official environmental labels for mobile phones. In addition, at the moment it does not necessarily mean that a product is more sustainable because it is marketed as green or as environmentally friendly. It has to be easier for consumers to evaluate and pit “green” products against each other, as well as create a picture of which model is the most environmentally adopted and within which issues the biggest environmental benefits lay.

    The aim of this study is to analyse a selection of smartphones, which are sold by TDC SE, through a lifecycle perspective. The selection will be limited to the major suppliers and

    their most commonly sold phones by TDC. The purpose of the analysis is to classify the selected models based on their environmental and social impacts in their different lifecycle stages, and to present the results to the customers so they can consider that in their decisions. The following models were assessed in the study: iPhone 5s, iPhone 6 and iPhone 6s from Apple; Lumia 550, Lumia 650 and Lumia 950 from Microsoft; Galaxy A3 2016, Galaxy Xcover3 and Galaxy S6 from Samsung; as well as Xperia Z5, Xperia M4 Aqua and Xperia M5 from Sony.

    The study has developed a tool for analysing and characterizing the Smartphones’ sustainability performance. Several sustainability categories was developed, which each consists of a set of sustainability criterions, in order to analyse the models sustainability performances. The analysis has considered key issues, problem areas and impacts reading the smartphones sustainability performance. The characterization applies a scoring system in regards to how the models perform within the selected criteria compared to the industry’s average performance level (representing industry standard) as well as best practice examples. The assessed sustainability criterions are then additionally analysed through a multi-criteria analysis (MCA). In the MCA the criterions relevance are weighted and combined to an overall sustainability score of the models performance in each category. The study also examines the possibility for consumers to weight the different sustainability categories into an overall sustainability score for each model. This enable the customers to rank the models sustainability performance based on their preference (which categories that is more or less important to them).

    Regarding the models characterised sustainability performance it is clear that Samsung Galaxy S6 overall performs the highest of the studied models. In addition, all the Samsung models preformed high in general (except that Galaxy Xcover3 and A3 preformed the lowest of all the models in regards to environmentally preferable alternatives). Microsoft generally performed quite high and especially high in regards to life prolonging features and the use phase (were Lumia 950 scored especially high). Although, Microsoft performed quite low in regards to environmentally preferable alternatives as well as lifecycle thinking.

    Apple preformed high (scored higher than the other suppliers) in regards to environmentally preferable alternatives. However, in general Apple performed quite low, especially regarding life prolonging features and iPhone 5s also scored the lowest of all models in regards to substances of concern. Sony preformed very high in regards to lifecycle thinking and the use phase and in general quite high in most categories (expect that the Xperia M5 model preformed among the lowest in regards to transportation).

    The result of the study has been highly affected by the degree of available information concerning the different models and suppliers. It is also interesting that models from different suppliers (with similar degree of available information) ranked differently relative to each other depending on the weighting (preference) between the different sustainability categories. Moreover, the study had to consider and find a balance between available information and desirable information. This mainly refers to the development and definition of industry standards and best practice levels. The study had to consider and decide what could be expected and measured/evaluated in regards to the independent demands, criticism and issues which the industry face.

    After concluding the study it is clear that the result has been greatly affected by the degree of available information for the studied models. It is also clear that today there is a great lack of model specific information and data. The study also found that it is important with feedback and follow-up communication with the suppliers, in order to correct misunderstandings and provide clarifications. In conclusion, the result of the study can be used as a decision basis for customers who wish to consider the smartphones’ sustainability performance is their choice. 

  • 104.
    Engstrand, Olivia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Miljövinster vid minskad förbränning av hushållsavfall i Stockholms kommun: En systemanalys av energi och koldioxid för plastförpackningar, pappersförpackningar och matavfall2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report intends to investigate the environmental benefits from replacing the combustion of household waste with anaerobic digestion and recycling. The study includes plastic packaging, paper packaging and food waste within Stockholm. This will be done by looking at the flows of energy and carbon dioxide for the different processes. The flows will be analyzed in a system analysis, which in addition to the process includes the produced products and their profits as well as lost resources. This will provide a comprehensive picture and a more qualitative analysis and not only look at the net values for the processes. The study also consists of some limitations, for example it disregards from the waste transportations within the city and the comparisons are made on the processes net profits.

    The report describes the different waste disposal processes for the different categories of household waste. It became clear that both anaerobic digestion and recycling result in reduced energy consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide for all the studied categories of waste. Finally, it also showed that combustion with energy production have an ultimate application: waste which for different reasons are unsuitable for recycling. The conclusion is that combustion should be considered as a complementary and not a competing treatment. 

  • 105.
    Engström, Adam
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Integrating sustainability aspects into the business development processes of Hemfrid2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is becoming more of a strategic tool in many companies today and will become even more important in the future. Hemfrid is today looking at many new business areas and has realized the importance of including sustainability in its new businesses. However, the link between sustainability and business development has not been researched in a larger extent and therefore there are no good methods to use. Therefore, the aim of this report is to provide a method and tool for Hemfrid to integrate sustainability aspects into their business development processes. To fulfil this aim, an analysis of current scientific literature and models within the areas of sustainability and business development was done. Based on those models, with a foundation in the Sustainable Development Goals, a model was created. To be able to weigh different impact area against each other, an MCA was conducted. Finally, the model was assessed through external feedback and through a SWOT analysis. The model is based on 14 of the 17 SDGs with specific impact categories for all of them. A tool was created in Excel to easily assess the impact of the new business development projects. Lastly a seminar was held with Hemfrid’s management team facilitating the model.

  • 106.
    Engström, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Digitala hållbarhetsverktyg – Åsikter, attityder och framtidsutsikter: En undersökning kring användningen av mjukvara som stöd i hållbarhetsarbetet bland företag2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökade krav på hållbarhet bland företag tillsammans med en allt mer komplex leverantörskedja medför ett ökat behov av nya verktyg. Ett sådant verktyg är mjukvara specifikt utvecklad för att hantera hållbarhet. I denna undersökning inkluderas små, medelstora och stora företaget och syftet har varit att ta reda på hur dessa nya digitala verktyg kan förbättra företagens hållbarhet samt utreda vad företagen har för inställning till användning av mjukvara för hållbarhet. Undersökningen bestod av en litteraturstudie, enkätundersökning samt intervjuer. Litteraturstudien genomfördes för att få en överblick över den nuvarande situationen på marknaden för hållbarhetsmjukvara, samt för att få en djupare förståelse för ämnet. Enkätundersökningens syfte var att få en överblick över företagens inställning och attityd kring hållbarhetsmjukvara. Intervjuerna genomfördes sist för att få en djupare förståelse och insikt i företagens arbetsmetoder och deras inställning till användningen av digitala verktyg som stöd i hållbarhetsarbetet. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att företagen överlag är positivt inställda till att användningen av hållbarhetsmjukvara. De verktyg som finns tillgängliga i dagsläget är ofta inte anpassade till arbetet med hållbarhet men används ändå. Vidare visar denna undersökning att företagen kan tänka sig att börja använda hållbarhetsmjukvara, så länge mjukvaruleverantörerna kan uppvisa någon form av nytta med att börja använda dessa verktyg. Nytta i det här fallet kan innebära allt från sparad arbetstid till underlättande av kommunikation. Företagen är försiktigt positiva och inser själva att nya sätt att jobba är nödvändigt för att hänga med i utvecklingen på hållbarhetsområdet där kraven hela tiden ökar. Det främsta användningsområdet för hållbarhetsmjukvara är i dagsläget insamling och sammanställning av hållbarhetsdata och den viktigaste egenskapen hos hållbarhetsmjukvara är enligt företagen användarvänlighet. Slutligen konstateras att marknaden för hållbarhetsmjukvara väntas växa. Det gäller därför för mjukvaruleverantörer att erbjuda en produkt som underlättar företagens hållbarhetsarbete. Företagen är villiga att undersöka införandet av hållbarhetsmjukvara, så länge implementeringen kan motiveras med någon form av affärsnytta. 

  • 107.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Åtgärdspaket och omvärldsscenarier för de svenska miljömålen2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 108.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Howells, Mark I.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre of Climate Research, Stockholm University.
    Water impacts and water-climate goal conflicts of local energy choices – notes from a Swedish perspective2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, ISSN 2199-899X, Vol. 376, s. 25-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet both the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), nations, sectors, counties and cities need to move towards a sustainable energy system in the next couple of decades. Such energy system transformations will impact water resources to varying extents, depending on the transformation strategy and fuel choices. Sweden is considered to be one of the most advanced countries towards meeting the SDGs. This paper explores the geographical origin of and the current water use associated with the supply of energy in the 21 regional counties of Sweden. These energy-related uses of water represent indirect, but still relevant, impacts for water management and the related SDG on clean water and sanitation (SDG 6). These indirect water impacts are here quantified and compared to reported quantifications of direct local water use, as well as to reported greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as one example of other types of environmental impacts of local energy choices in each county. For each county, an accounting model is set up based on data for the local energy use in year 2010, and the specific geographical origins and water use associated with these locally used energy carriers (fuels, heat and electricity) are further estimated and mapped based on data reported in the literature and open databases. Results show that most of the water use associated with the local Swedish energy use occurs outside of Sweden. Counties with large shares of liquid biofuel exhibit the largest associated indirect water use in regions outside of Sweden. This indirect water use for energy supply does not unambiguously correlate with either the local direct water use or the local GHG emissions, although for the latter, there is a tendency towards an inverse relation. Overall, the results imply that actions for mitigation of climate change by local energy choices may significantly affect water resources elsewhere. Swedish counties are thus important examples of localities with large geographic zones of water influence due to their local energy choices, which may compromise water security and the possibility to meet water-related global goals in other world regions.

  • 109.
    Ercan, Elif Mine
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Global Warming Potential of a Smartphone: Using Life Cycle Assessment Methodology2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The global development and usage of smartphones are rapidly increasing. Further, the high capacity and functionality of these devices indicate high technological manufacturing processes and complex supply chains. Thus it is of interest to investigate the potential environmental impacts of a smartphone, from a life cycle perspective.

    This study uses a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology in order to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a smartphone, in particularly the smartphone Sony XperiaTM T. Environmental in- and outflows, including resources, emissions to air, water and soil as well as waste treatment and electric energy consumption are quantified for the entire life cycle of the smartphone. The system boundary for the LCA includes raw material acquisition, production, in- and outbound transportation, utilization and end-of-life treatment for a smartphone with an estimated lifetime of 3 years. All phone components and processes as well as the charger, USB-Cable, headset, delivery box, instruction manuals and the use of network infrastructure have been included within this boundary. The data collection process involved dismantling and analyzing a Sony XperiaTM T smartphone to gain knowledge on the hardware and collecting information from Sony Mobile and Ericsson Research and partially from external sources for major smartphone processes. GaBi 6.0 Software was used for the modeling and analysis. Sensitivity analysis was performed on different parameters of the model to evaluate the effects of the assumptions and methodological choices adopted for the study. The chosen characterization model for this study is established by the Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML). The analysis of the LCA results focus on the CML global warming potential (GWP) impact category and present figures representing the carbon dioxide equivalents (kg CO2e) for each life cycle stage of the smartphone.

    According to this LCA study, the Sony XperiaTM T smartphone, excluding accessories and network usage, produces a total of 45 kg CO2e to the atmosphere during its entire lifetime, when considering medium usage and a Swedish electricity mix for the use stage. This corresponds to the amount released when driving an average European car for approximately 300 km. The life cycle stage that is calculated to have the most significant environmental impact on the results is the production stage, accounting for just above 30 kg CO2e. Activities with main contributions to the total GWP impact include integrated circuit (IC) production, phone shell raw material acquisition and production followed by smartphone assembly and distribution. If accessories and mobile network are included, the total life cycle impact is 68 kg CO2e for the assessed scenario. As no results are available for other impact categories, no conclusions can be made related to impacts such as eutrophication and acidification.

    If a global electricity mix is applied, the total results for the smartphone including accessories and network usage increase to 117 kg CO2e for the moderate user scenario for the 3 year life cycle period. This corresponds to approximately 40 kg CO2e per year which is equivalent to the amount released when driving an average European car for 270 km. Excluding accessories and network usage, the life cycle impact for the smartphone for this alternative is 51 kg CO2e.

    A parameter model in Microsoft Excel, based on multiple parameters, has also been constructed as an integrated part of this study. This parameter model is aimed to provide results for smartphone models that differ in look and performance and also aimed to be applied for tablets.

  • 110.
    Eriksson, Erica
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Johansson Gunnarsson, Sofia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    En sammanställning av problem i hushåll i Linga Linga, Moçambique: Samt utvärdering av möjliga tekniska lösningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med projektet var att via en fältstudie på plats i Linga Linga, Moçambique, finna tekniska lösningar till problem kopplade till det privata hushållet. Via observationer och intervjuer identifierades de huvudsakliga problemen, varefter fokus lades på att finna lösningar till problematiken med stora mängder rök vid matlagning, att inomhustemperaturen blir väldigt hög, att det inte finns möjlighet att kylförvara mat samt att det råder stor brist på ordentliga toaletter. De lösningar på problemen som via en litteraturstudie identifierats utvärderades utifrån vad som ansågs rimligt att genomföra i Linga Linga, med avstamp i ekonomisk kostnad, materialtillgång och tekniska svårigheter. Slutsatsen blev att en enkel anordning kallad Mewar Angithi är lämplig för att minska mängden luftburna partiklar. Att kyla husen kan eventuellt vara möjligt med en Eco-cooler, men effekterna av denna är oklar. Att kyla mat visade sig tekniskt svårt utan ett kylskåp, och ett kylskåp är inte en ekonomisk möjlighet för gemene man på Linga Linga. Däremot finns olika lösningar på att förlänga hållbarheten på frukt och grönsaker. Slutligen identifierades ett par olika varianter av toaletter som skulle vara lämpliga att implementera i byn.

  • 111.
    Ermolaev, E.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Box 7032, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Resurser, energi och infrastruktur. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Box 7032, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.
    Pell, M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Molecular Sciences, Box 7015, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.
    Smårs, S.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Box 7032, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.
    Jönsson, H.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Box 7032, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.
    Effects of moisture on emissions of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from food and garden waste composting2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 240, artikkel-id 118165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, waste generation is continually increasing, with landfill as the main destination for biological waste. Composting is a simple alternative for handling waste, but when poorly managed poses a risk of greenhouse gas emissions. The moisture content of substrate affects emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from composting, but the scale and mechanisms behind these effects are poorly understood. This study examined effects of different moisture levels (44–66%) on CH4, N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during 20 days of composting food and garden waste under controlled conditions (55 °C, 16% oxygen) in a 200-L reactor. Total CO2 emissions were 400–500 g CO2-C kg−1 initial C. Total CH4 emissions were highest, 35 g CH4-C kg−1 initial C, for the wettest substrate (66% moisture) and decreased exponentially with declining moisture content, with the lowest total emissions, 0.04 g CH4-C kg−1 initial C, observed with the driest substrate. Total N2O emissions were negatively correlated with moisture content, decreasing from 1.2 g N2O-N kg−1 initial N at 44% moisture to 0.3 g N2O-N kg−1 initial N at 59%, but the wettest substrate (66% moisture) had the highest N2O emissions, 1.4 g N2O-N kg−1 initial N. NH4-N accumulated in the wettest material, suggesting that the increased N2O emissions were due to reduced oxygen availability. The results indicate potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from large-scale composting by adjusting the moisture content at different stages of composting, thus lowering its overall environmental impact. This finding can be used in guidelines for large-scale composting process to avoid moisture conditions causing large greenhouse gas emissions.

  • 112.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Pyrolysis and Detoxification of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) for Feedstock Recycling2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The trends in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) generation shows that their volume constantly increases, while the current waste management technologies have proven to be insufficient in order to meet the strict criteria and the new legislations of the European Union. Pyrolysis and thermal treatment in general could be a valuable solution for closing the loop of materials and could contribute to the energy demands of modern society.

    Pyrolysis as a process and combination of other pre-treatment techniques was investigated with a focus on energy production, metal separation and feedstock recycling. In this work, several fractions of real WEEE have been tested based on the process requirements and the focus of each individual study.

    Firstly, the investigation was focused on the primary products of the process, revealing most of the environmental pollutants as well as the valuable monomers that can enhance feedstock recycling. A correlation of the process’ final temperature with the evolution of the major products was performed. Moreover, a conceptual reaction mechanism of Bisphenol A decomposition was suggested based on the process products.

    Then, a reduction of the bromine content of the initial WEEE fraction was achieved by solvent extraction pre-treatment. Isopropanol and toluene were tested as solvents capable of removing one of the main flame retardants at WEEE fractions, Tetrabromobisphenol A. The results indicate that the reduction of bromine was successfully performed even at ~37%. This result was further confirmed by the reduction or total removal of brominated species in the pyrolysis products. The toluene seems to be a valuable option for the pre-treatment, since it can be provided by the pyrolysis process itself, making the entire treatment more sustainable and in accordance with the concept of circular economy.

    Density separators used in the sorting of WEEE materials usually produced high moisture content fractions. As soon as those fractions follow thermal treatment, the moisture will eventually become steam, which influences the process. Therefore, WEEE materials were pyrolysed in nitrogen and steam atmospheres and their decomposition was evaluated. Steam had a negative impact on the products, since several high molecular weight products were detected, revealing that steam limits secondary cracking reactions. Additionally, the results show that the presence of steam complicates the separation of oils and favours the migration of antimony to the gas phase. Therefore, a drying step before using pyrolysis for this fraction is necessary.

    Low temperature pyrolysis was also investigated for making the WEEE more fragile to enhance metal separation from the carbonised solid residue while the fate of bromine was also monitored. The results indicate that the separation is possible at low temperatures for minimising the energy consumption of the process but it should be at least 40 ° higher than the onset temperature of the selected material. The separation was also evaluated with fractionation of the solid residue, revealing that the produced bromine-free solid carbonised material can be further utilised for energy production.

    Finally, the entire process was tested in a continuous screw reactor for overall process evaluation. The results indicate that the liquid products of pyrolysis can be used for feedstock recycling, producing necessary organic compounds that can be used for manufacturing new plastics or can be used as liquid fuel. The brominated compounds tend to migrate to the gas phase, as the temperature of the process increases, making the recycling of metals from the solid residue easier. The process in general can be self-sustained since the energy needed for the system to heat up can be covered from its gas production.

  • 113.
    EVANGELOPOULOS, PANAGIOTIS
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Pyrolysis of Waste Electrical and Electric Equipment (WEEE) for Energy Production and Material Recovery2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis focuses on pyrolysis of electronic waste (e-waste) for energy production and material recovery. Firstly, in the theoretical section a description of electronic waste their composition and the current waste management techniques is presented in order to get insights about their properties. As more and more sustainable solutions are required for waste handling, the advantages and disadvantages of the current treatment methods are analyzed in order to compare them with the innovative technique of waste pyrolysis. The substrate used for pyrolysis in terms of this master thesis was the printed circuit boards’ fraction (PCBs) and thus a particular description of this fraction is included. Furthermore, the pyrolysis as a thermal treatment method is fully described for getting an overview of the entire process.

    The next section of the current master thesis includes a description of the instrumentation used for conducting the experimental part, the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the Analytical Pyrolysis (PY-GC-MS).

    The experimental part included as well the samples preparation in order to obtain a homogeneous mixture since various substances are used for PCBs manufacturing. Furthermore, samples were sent to an external company for elemental, proximate and ultimate analysis. After the samples preparation, the TGA and GC-MS were both used as analytical tools in order to identify the main substances produced, the reactions kinetics taking place, and various others important parameters. Furthermore, the results derived from the experimental were further analyzed using various calculations tools such as Microsoft Office Excel and Matlab as well as the software of GC-MS. The results section also includes a deep discussion of the results since the pyrolysis of electronic waste is still under research an extensive analysis is necessary.

    Summarizing, the results illustrates all the data gathered from the composition analysis, the TGA curves and a qualitative and quantitative analysis. The main product of pyrolysis of printed circuit boards is phenol and hydrocarbons with high heating value, while the increased ash content is promising for the recovery of metals.

    Finally, the report includes several recommendations for the future work to be done and the basic directions for the research of pyrolysis process for materials and energy recovery should get. 

  • 114.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Arato, Samantha
    Persson, Henry
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Kantarelis, Efthymios
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Reduction of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by solvent extraction and the influence on their thermal decompositionInngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption of electronics increases due to modern society’s growing needs, which leads to increasing generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Recycling of WEEE has been a global concern during the last few decades because of the toxic compounds that are produced during recycling. Different recycling techniques have been adapted on a commercial scale in order to overcome this issue, but the recycling of WEEE still lacks the technology to treat different kinds of feedstocks and to maximise the recycling rates. Pyrolysis is an alternative that has not been commercialised yet. One of the challenges for the implementation of this technology is the toxic brominated organic compounds that can be found in the pyrolysis oils.

    In this study, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), one of the major flame retardants, is reduced in three different WEEE fractions through solvent extraction as a treatment prior to pyrolysis. Two solvents have been experimentally investigated: isopropanol and toluene, the latter of which can be derived from pyrolysis oil. The results indicate that TBBPA was extracted during pre-treatment. Moreover, the total bromine content of WEEE material was reduced after the treatment with a maximum reduction of 36.5%. The pyrolysis experiments indicate that reduction of several brominated organic compounds was achieved in almost all the tested cases, and two brominated compounds (2,4,6-tribromophenol and 2,5-Dibromobenzo(b)thiophene) reached complete removal. Also, the thermal decomposition behaviour of the raw samples and the treated was investigated, showing that the reduction of TBBPA influences the decomposition by shifting the starting decomposition temperature.

  • 115.
    Evliati, Maria-Angeliki
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    To renew a new city from niche to regime level: Actor network properties and inertia in the transition to electric vehicles and energy management. The citizens’ initiative of Hammarby Sjöstad 20202013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are receiving increasing attention in sustainability research as the appropriate spatial entities for local solutions to global problems. In this context, urban components tend to demonstrate great inertia against socio-technical innovations.

    HS2020 is a citizens’ initiative in Stockholm, Sweden, with the aim to “renew a new city” through developing an actor network involving citizens, research institutes, private companies and public authorities. Two subprojects – transition to electric vehicles (EVs) and energy management in residential buildings are the focus of this analysis. Empirical data from the case study were analysed using Strategic Niche Management (SNM) and Social Network Analysis (SNA) in order to map the actor networks and their properties, the milieu within which they are developing and assess their potential to move from niche to regime level. The results of the analysis highlight the need for more formalised partnerships for the stability of the actor network and continued learning processes for better vision alignment. 

  • 116.
    Fahlberg, Kristin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Local Climate Mitigation in Sweden2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 117.
    Fahlberg, Kristin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Kommuner och klimatåtgärder: En litteraturstudie av det aktuella kunskapsläget om klimatåtgärdernas potential och kostnadseffektivitet2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 118.
    Falk, Helena
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Tyvik, Sofia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Sustainability in willow cultivation: A case study with scenario simulation in CoupModel2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    One of Sweden’s visions set to be real before 2050 is to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources; this could be done partly by using biomass as a substitute. One kind of common energy crop is short-rotation willow coppice (SRWC) which is a fast growing energy crop cultivated by farmers in the agricultural landscape. In this report a SRWC cultivation in Västergörland, Sweden was studied and modelled with CoupModel to evaluate the sustainability in the cultivation, especially focusing on the green house gas balance in the system and eutrophication enhancing substances. One reference case and two different scenarios where modelled and evaluated (with enhanced fertilizing and a different climate) and a brief economic calculation was made for the farmer and the thermal station that buys the SWRC to judge the economic sustainability in the system. The study showed that there are several advantages with SRWC cultivation. In the studied case it was an economically sustainable substitute to fossil fuels, and an economically profitable crop for the farmer. It contributes to a renewable fuel mix and therefore to a reduced climate impact, and it appears to contribute less to eutrophication than traditional agricultural crops. In an area where the SRWC does not restrain food production it might be a sustainable energy source. 

  • 119.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Methods for assessing future scenarios from a sustainability perspective2017Inngår i: European Journal of Futures Research, ISSN 2195-4194, E-ISSN 2195-2248, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikkel-id UNSP 17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Future scenarios are often used to address long-term challenges characterised by uncertainty and complexity, as they can help explore different alternative future pathways. Scenarios can therefore be a useful tool to support policy and guide action towards sustainability. But what sustainability aspects are put forward in scenarios and how are they assessed? This paper aims to explore how to assess future scenarios, categorised according to Borjeson et al. (Futures 38: 723-739, 2006) i.e. predictive, explorative and normative scenarios. By conducting a literature review and a document analysis, we map tools and methods that are currently used to assess environmental and social sustainability aspects in scenarios. We also draw on experiences from methods for impact assessments of Swedish municipal comprehensive plans, which can be considered as future scenarios. We identify whether some sustainability aspects are less recurrent than others in the reviewed assessments or even left out. We find that there is no single tool that can be used to assess scenarios. Some quantitative tools based on databases may be more suitable for assessing scenarios within a shorter time horizon, whereas qualitative assessment methods might better fit the purpose of long-term transformative scenarios. We also find that assessment frameworks may be useful to guide the assessment, as to what its intended purpose is and which sustainability aspects to include. Finally we discuss whether further assessment tools are needed in order to include a wider array of potential environmental or social consequences of the content of scenarios.

  • 120.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Avfallsförbränning – en klimatpolitisk gökunge2017Inngår i: Ny Teknik, ISSN 0550-8754Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 121.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Plastförbränning ger avfallssektorn klimatproblem2017Inngår i: Ny Teknik, ISSN 0550-8754Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 122.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    University-wide integration of sustainable development in education2017Inngår i: Educating for Sustainable Development, 2017 Sustainable Campus Best Practices from ISCN and GULF Universities, International Sustainable Campus Network , 2017Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 123.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Brandao, Miguel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Department of Bioeconomy and Systems Analysis, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Czartoryskich 8 Str., 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.
    Exergy as a Measure of Resource Use in Life Cycle Assessment and Other Sustainability Assessment Tools2016Inngår i: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 5, nr 3, artikkel-id 23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A thermodynamic approach based on exergy use has been suggested as a measure for the use of resources in Life Cycle Assessment and other sustainability assessment methods. It is a relevant approach since it can capture energy resources, as well as metal ores and other materials that have a chemical exergy expressed in the same units. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the use of the thermodynamic approach in case studies and to compare the results with other approaches, and thus contribute to the discussion of how to measure resource use. The two case studies are the recycling of ferrous waste and the production and use of a laptop. The results show that the different methods produce strikingly different results when applied to case studies, which indicates the need to further discuss methods for assessing resource use. The study also demonstrates the feasibility of the thermodynamic approach. It identifies the importance of both energy resources, as well as metals. We argue that the thermodynamic approach is developed from a solid scientific basis and produces results that are relevant for decision-making. The exergy approach captures most resources that are considered important by other methods. Furthermore, the composition of the ores is shown to have an influence on the results. The thermodynamic approach could also be further developed for assessing a broader range of biotic and abiotic resources, including land and water.

  • 124.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Carstedt, Göran
    Friman, Eva
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Mogren, Anna
    Palmer, Henrietta
    Robertsson, Barbro
    Rodhe, Håkan
    Sund, Per
    Svärd, Linn
    Evaluation of integration of sustainable development in higher education in Sweden.2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 125.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Egan, Erica-Dawn
    KTH.
    Sandberg, Teresia
    KTH.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    A Holistic Approach for Integration of Sustainable Development in Education, Research, Collaboration and Operations2017Inngår i: Handbook of Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development in Higher Education / [ed] Leal Filho, W. et al, Springer, 2017, s. 287-303Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011 KTH Royal Institute of Technology started several new sustainable development initiatives. This paper will report on the journey. An Environmental Management System for the entire university has been established and KTH became ISO 14001 certified during 2015. The system includes operations but also education, research and collaboration. In this way we ensure that sustainability goals are integrated in the management system and that improvements are required continuously. For education an aim is that all educational programs should be able to report how they have integrated sustainability. The activities are focused on two complementary approaches: evaluation of the program’s work and providing tools and support for teaching staff and program directors. Preliminary results from the on-going evaluation indicate that progress has been made in several programs, but there is still room for improvements. For research, several bibliometric and external funding indicators show progress. During the winter of 2015 an evaluation was conducted and based on this it was decided that the activities should continue. A new policy for sustainable development as well as new sustainable development goals were decided during 2015.

  • 126.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Friman, Eva
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Palmer, Henrietta
    Robertsson, Barbro
    Rodhe, Håkan
    Sund, Per
    Carstedt, Göran
    Mogren, Anna
    Svärd, Linn
    Sätt fart på universitetens hållbarhetsarbete.2017Inngår i: CurieArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 127.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Schneider, André
    Corporate-University Dialogue on Sustainable Development in Education2017Inngår i: Educating for Sustainable Development, 2017 Sustainable Campus Best Practices from ISCN and GULF Universities, International sustainable campus network , 2017Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 128.
    Fivel, Johannes Bedoire
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Falk, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Framtidens avloppsvattenreningsverk – en modern energiproducent: En fallstudie av Himmerfjärdsverket2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In a sustainable society the use of renewable energy and recycling of materials is of high importance. Wastewater treatment plants use large amounts of energy in the processing of wastewater. This study seeks to evaluate wastewater as an energy resource and to examine treatment plants potential to become sustainable energy producers. The study is based upon the internal processes of Himmerfjärdsverket. Wastewater has a high content of heat energy because of its origin from households and industries. It also holds high concentrations of chemically bound energy as organic compounds and nutrients. The flow of chemically bound energy at Himmerfjärdsverket corresponds to a power of 15 MW. During the treatment processes sludge is separated from the wastewater. The sludge can be used for biogas production by anaerobic digestion. At Himmerfjärdsverket, 8 million m3 of biogas are produced every year. The reminder from the biogas production can be used as fertilizer in the farming industry. 56 % of the biogas is sold as fuel and the remaining gas is used for internal processes. Himmerfjärdsverket could reduce its energy need for heating by half by installing a heat pump system. This would lead to annual savings of two million SEK. The conclusion is that modern wastewater treatment plants have the potential to become an important part of the next generation’s renewable energy system. 

  • 129.
    Francart, Nicolas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Buildings in municipal climate change mitigation strategies: towards life cycle thinking2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fulfilling climate targets requires ambitious changes. The building sector is a large contributor to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), but also offers opportunities for climate change impact reductions. This thesis aims at supporting strategic decisions to reach climate change mitigation targets in the building sector, based on knowledge about what factors contribute significantly to climate impact from buildings in a life cycle perspective and how practitioners can influence these factors. More specifically, a first point of investigation concerns what aspects play a key importance in buildings’ climate impact, and what climate change mitigation strategies for the building sector should focus on. A quantitative analysis of backcasting scenarios for 2050 was performed using a spreadsheet model to estimate GHG emissions for the building sector. The parameters were adjusted to ensure that a GHG emission quota was reached in every scenario. This provided an illustration of four very different ways the building sector could contribute to the fulfillment of a global climate change mitigation target. The results were used to discuss what aspects of buildings were particularly important for target fulfillment. These aspects include a low-carbon energy mix, a reduction of GHG emissions from construction materials and an optimized use of space. A second point of investigation concerns how municipalities can influence practices through the use of environmental requirements in construction, in particular requirements based on a life cycle approach. A survey of Swedish municipalities was used to assess their current practices and knowledge level regarding mitigating climate change impact from construction, as well as the influence of a municipality’s size on these practices. It was followed up by semi-structured interviews investigating barriers to the use of environmental requirements in construction. Barriers were identified regarding in-house skills, access to data, resources, ambiguities regarding the law and guidance from national authorities. A stepwise strategy was suggested to overcome these barriers and successfully implement environmental requirements. Therefore, the thesis as a whole provides insight on how municipalities could use environmental requirements in construction to influence current practices in the building sector, so that the changes needed to fulfill the 1.5℃ target are implemented.

  • 130.
    Francart, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsmaterial.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Larsson, Mathias
    Florell, Josefin
    Requirements set by Swedish municipalities to promote construction with low climate change impact2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 208, s. 117-131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how Swedish municipalities work to reduce the climate change impact of building construction. It focuses on current practices related to promoting the use of sustainable construction materials and on barriers to environmental requirements in construction, in particular environmental performance requirements based on LCA procedures. Municipalities were surveyed about the existence of municipal policies dealing with environmental issues in construction, the knowledge level about these issues, and the measures and requirements used to promote materials with low climate change impact. The survey was followed by semi-structured interviews about current practices and barriers to environmental requirements in construction. Results show that large municipalities are more likely to have dedicated policies and implement more measures than their smaller counterparts. However, willingness to implement future measures and knowledge of sustainable construction do not vary significantly with municipality population. Efforts are often limited to procurement, municipal construction projects and discussions with stakeholders. When requirements are set, they are almost always based on prescribing a technical solution (e.g. use of timber) rather than assessing environmental performance (e.g. calculating greenhouse gases emissions with a LCA tool). Measures that municipalities can take as public authorities are restricted by the law, which remains ambiguous as to the legality of environmental performance requirements. Legal issues, limited knowledge and resources appear to be the main barriers to environmental performance requirements in construction. A strategy is proposed to o​v​e​r​

  • 131.
    Fransson, Jimmy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Sahlsten, Minna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Life Cycle Cost: Studie om LCC som verktyg att utvärdera geoenergianläggningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Life Cycle Cost, often abbreviated as LCC, is a common tool for comparing the total cost of different alternatives, such as heating and cooling methods. Common heating and cooling methods in Sweden are geothermal energy, district heating and district cooling. This report aims to evaluate how different heating and cooling methods differ from each other while being applied on three different types of buildings, using selected LCC-models. Information about the selected LCC-models wasretrieved from each separate model and its website. Reports and agencies were used as sources for information about the heating and cooling methods. Tendersby established energy companies in Sweden were used as input data to form different alternatives for each building. From the comparison between the selected LCC-models, both similarities and differences were identified. The differences vary both in scale and how they affect the result. Nonetheless two of the models show the same results for some of the alternatives. In order to approximate the environmental effects for each heating and cooling method, carbon dioxide emissions were compared. The conclusion of this report is that while there are significant differences between the different LCC-models, the results only differ marginally for most models. 

  • 132.
    Franzen, Johan.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Infantes, Eduardo
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Kristineberg Stn, Kristineberg 566, SE-45178 Fiskebackskil, Sweden..
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Beach-cast as biofertiliser in the Baltic Sea region-potential limitations due to cadmium-content2019Inngår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 169, s. 20-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroalgal mass blooms and accumulating beach-cast are increasing problems in many coastal areas. However, beach-cast is also a potentially valuable marine bioresource, e.g. as a biofertiliser in coastal agriculture. One limiting factor in use of beach-cast as a fertiliser is uncertainty regarding the cadmium (Cd) concentration depending on beach-cast composition and location. In this study, chemical analyses were performed on beach cast from Burgsviken Bay off Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. The results revealed large variations in cadmium concentration depending on sampling location and beach-cast composition, with levels ranging between 0.13 and 2.2 mg Cd/kg dry matter (DM). Of 15 beach-cast samples analysed, one had a cadmium content above the Swedish statutory limit for sewage sludge biofertiliser (2 mg Cd/kg DM) and four had values above the limit suggested by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for 2030 (0.8 mg/kg DM). Species-specific analysis revealed that eelgrass (Zostera marina) contained significantly higher cadmium concentrations than filamentous red algae species (Ceramium and Polysiphonia spp.). Avoiding eelgrass-rich beach-cast by seasonal timing of harvesting and monitoring differences in cadmium concentrations between harvesting sites could thus facilitate use of beach-cast as biofertiliser.

  • 133.
    Franzén, Linda
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Water flow analysis of Jästbolaget: An assessment of the yeast production’s environmental impact, caused by its water consumption2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is carried out for the department of Industrial Ecology at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.

    Water in Sweden is a resource in abundance. Even so, it is an expensive one and may even become more expensive due to climate changes. Hence, there are for companies’ both economic and environmental benefits to induce minimization of the water flow.

    The aim of this report is to assess the sustainability of the water usage within the production of liquid, active dry and compressed fresh yeast which also goes under the common name of baking yeast. The assessment has been done through a water flow analysis in addition with a water footprint. The system borders for the water flow analysis comprises the outtake of water from Mälaren, the production at Jästbolaget and the final treatment at Käppala wastewater treatment plant. The water considered in the production is mainly the municipal-water flow within the production and to a less extent the water used for cooling. Substances contained in the water flow which are paid particular attention are the amount of total organic carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen.

    The method for gathering information and data has been through interviews and mail correspondence with employees at Jästbolaget and Käppala. Furthermore, a literature study has been conducted.

    The conclusion of this report is that the water flow has a low impact and that Jästbolaget has taken appropriate measures to minimize their impact and usage of water. However, improvements can always be made but it is rather a matter of the methods efficiency to further decrease the usage of water and emission of phosphorus and nitrogen. 

  • 134.
    Fredheim, Jessica
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Hållbar avfallshantering i Stockholms kommun: En analys av hushållsavfallens energi- och materialflöden för en hållbar framtid2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time our material and energy resources have been exploited for human consumption. It seemed at first like our resources were infinite, until it was proved differently. Since the issue was brought to light efforts have been made, for instance by changing our way of consuming. Additionally our waste management is now established which seeks to reimport material and energy to the cycle to form a more cyclic flow of material and energy.

    The purpose of this report is to analyze the waste management of the municipality of Stockholm, and the energy and material flow in particular. It will handle the management of recyclable material, food waste and domestic waste but not the hazardous waste, electric waste or bulky waste.

    The energy and material analysis was made through calculations on energy recovery, material recovery and biogas production. This was made for three different scenarios. Calculating the energy recovery that would be gained if all household waste were put through combustion made the first scenario. The second scenario was a calculation of the material recovery, energy recovery and the energy through biogas production if the amounts of waste and sorting were the same as today. The last scenario showed what energy recovery, material recovery and biogas production could be made if a maximum sorting was made. A calculation of energy saves from material recovery was also made. Additionally, energy losses from transportations when gathering household waste were calculated based on the transportations today.

    The results from this investigation showed that the energy from when all household waste was put through combustion was larger than the total energy from biogas and combustion in both the second and third scenario. However, the energy save from material recovery together with the energy from biogas and combustion was larger than when all household waste was put through combustion in both the second and third case. It also showed that the energy losses from the transportations are small in comparison to the energy recovery. This proves that material recovery should always be prioritized and that efforts must be made to improve the collection of household materials.

    Correspondingly, the waste management in the municipality of Stockholm must be enhanced. It is showed both in customer research and the low amount of gathered recyclable materials and food waste that improvements can be made. The suggestion is to instate curbside collection, preferably bins with four pockets for houses and separate bins for apartment blocks. These systems have proved to lead to both increased amounts of food waste and recyclable material and customer satisfaction. 

  • 135.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Brazilian land use policies and the development of ecosystem services2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns related to global environmental changes due to land use changes have been driving international communities towards more sustainable land use systems. Brazil is a country of global strategic importance in this matter considering that it is the nation with the largest extension of preserved tropical native vegetation, recognised for its ecosystem services and high and unique biodiversity. Expansion of forestry and agriculture is taking place rapidly in Brazil, partly over degraded pastureland, but also over native vegetation. Regulating policies to govern and limit this expansion is crucial to ensure the preservation of the ecosystems services provided by native vegetation.  This thesis aims at improving the understanding of the potential impacts of prevailing public and private policies in the conservation of nature in Brazil. For this end, the Land Use Policy Assessment (LUPA) model was employed to evaluate potential pathways of implementation of the land use policies. Paper 1 evaluated the effects of current private and public command and control regulations in the protection of above-ground carbon stocks, identifying the most relevant stakeholders holding carbon stocks. The findings suggest that about 10% of carbon stocks are unprotected, where other policy instruments based on the market will be mostly required. Paper 2 performed an assessment of the mechanism for offsetting the legal deficit of native vegetation among landholders, evaluating the different offsetting implementation practices and their impacts on nature protection and socio-economic development. The results indicate that the offsetting mechanism may have little or no additional effects on protection of native vegetation and its ecosystem services because most of the offsetting is likely to take place where native vegetation is already protected by current legislations. However, it is viable to maximise environmental and socio-economic returns from the offsetting mechanism.

  • 136.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Brazilian public protection regulations and the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Brazil is significant for sustaining ecosystems services and biodiversity of global importance. However, the expansion of forestry and agriculture to supply national and international markets often results in loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Public protection regulations play a crucial role in setting limits for agricultural expansion. This thesis aims at improving the understanding of the potential impacts of prevailing policies in the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity associated with the native vegetation in Brazil. The Land Use Governance Assessment (LUGA) model was developed to simulate the implementation of existing public protection regulations, in particular, the Brazilian Forest Act.

    The results suggest that command and control regulations do not protect about 28 % of the above-ground carbon in Brazil. The regularisation process of undesignated land is expected to expand protection to an additional 18 % of the above-ground carbon stocks, leaving about 10 % of the carbon stocks unprotected. On the other hand, the preservation of viable populations of several threatened mammal species is highly dependent on an urgent expansion of protected areas in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes. Furthermore, the results from this thesis indicate that offsetting legal deficit of native vegetation may have little or no additional effects on the protection of native vegetation. The potential loss of forest protection due to reduced legal reserve requirements in the Amazon could potentially range from 6.5 Mha to more than 15 Mha.

    There are critical gaps in the land use policies in Brazil that threaten the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity associated with native vegetation. Market-driven mechanisms can potentially contribute to filling this gap, protecting nature beyond the legal requirements. Yet, additional regulations may be necessary to improve the efficiency of the trading system of legal deficit of native vegetation among farmers, ensuring environmental and socio-economic functions of this system, and effectively balancing production with conservation.

  • 137.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Faurby, Søren
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Persson, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Energy and Environment.
    Guidotti, Vinicius
    d Institute of Agricultural and Forest Management and Certification – Imaflora.
    Antonelli, Alexandre
    Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Department of Space, Earth and Environment.
    Pinto, Luis F. G.
    d Institute of Agricultural and Forest Management and Certification – Imaflora.
    Verdade, Luciano
    University of São Paulo.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Recent political development threaten terrestrial mammal diversity in BrazilManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent political developments may weaken the legal protection of native vegetation in Brazil, which holds large areas of high biodiversity value. We assess the extent to which legislation protects terrestrial mammal species in Brazil. To this end, we quantify the natural population of mammal species in each fragment of native vegetation and relating this quantification to relevant legislation. We also assess the urgency of interventions to improve the protection of the mammal species. The results indicate that the legislation concerning private and public lands protects at least 40%, and about one-third, of the habitats where half of the threatened mammal species live, respectively. In scenarios of full compliance with relevant legislation, at least 40% of habitats supporting about one-third of these species are unprotected or undesignated lacking command and control regulations protecting the native vegetation. The implications of these results are discussed in light of recent policy developments in Brazil.

  • 138.
    Frid, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Integrating sustainability in the core business: From global goals to local application2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016, the work towards a more sustainable world increased momentum when the new 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) came into force. Now the SDGs will serve as a global agreement in the work towards ending all forms of poverty, fight inequality and tackle climate change for the next fifteen years. By using standardized Environmental Management Systems (EMS) together with global goals, the author aims on finding ways in how consultancy companies can develop their environmental and sustainability work even further. The purpose of the outcome is to contribute with knowledge in on how to become a leader within sustainable performance and environmental management as well as providing Pöyry Sweden with the basic knowledge in how to develop its performance in order to meet the new ISO-requirements.

    In the thesis the author developed a matrix-model in which the SDGs where connected to Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) as well as the Sweden’s Environmental Objectives (SEO). The aim of the matrix was to connect the SDGs to local ways of measuring environmental performance, but also on finding the SDGs that the consulting companies were most interested in. In order to collect the information, eight Swedish based consultancy companies (Acando, Accenture, Allies, U&We, Pöyry Sweden, Sweco, WSP and ÅF) where included. All companies where interviewed and took part in the matrix analyse.

    Based on the research question “How can the SDGs together with ISO be integrated within the management system at a private consultancy company in order to create sustainable benefits, focusing on environmental sustainability, for the company, customers and the society where they conduct business?” it was possible to see that the implementation of the SDGs together with ISO provides sustainable benefits as well as new business opportunities. The results showed that the ISO 14001:2015 could be an advantageous and strategic tool for many consultancy companies. A fully integrated strategic management system would help placing the company in an advantageous position, ready for tougher legislation, customer demand and technical innovation. In combination with commitments to the SDGs the company could find new ways of inspiring its employees and finding long-term purpose for the company and its business.

    The study made, proved that several of the SDGs are relevant for the interviewed consultancy companies. In the study the author experienced that three companies distinguished themselves when it came to leadership, internal driving force for finding sustainable business opportunities and finding ways of integrating the SDGs in the business. These companies were Allies, U&We and Accenture. For all interviewed parts, several goals are considered both as highly relevant, holding high business opportunities. A commitment to global goals could therefore have a positive effect on the company, providing a communicative strength and new ways of setting goals and bring visions forward.

    To summarize, the consultancy companies who dare to take a lead in performing sustainable business can send a clear statement and inspiration to customers and the business in general that sustainability is important and should be a desirable goal for the company to achieve. These companies would be considered as role models within sustainability, creating a positive impact reaching beyond the business itself.

  • 139.
    Fröjd, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Energi- och miljövinster med ett bygglogistikcenter i Norra Djurgårdsstaden: Förslag på metod för utvärdering2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I Norra Djurgårdsstaden i Stockholm pågår ett stort stadsutvecklingsprojekt där det planerats för ungefär 12 000 nya bostäder, 35 000 arbetsplatser och 600 000 kvadratmeter kommersiell yta. För att koordinera alla transporter av byggmaterial in till området, samt hantera avfallstransporter ut ur området, har Stockholms stad etablerat ett bygglogistikcenter vars mål bland annat är att reducera antalet transporter.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete har varit att ta fram en metod för utvärdering av potentiella miljöeffekter med bygglogistikcentret i Norra Djurgårdsstaden. Examensarbetet har tittat på byggtransportlogistik ur ett livscykelperspektiv för jämförelse mellan två olika scenarion, då ett bygglogistikcenter finns (scenario 1) respektive då ett sådant inte finns (scenario 2). De parametrar som ingått är partiklar och energianvändning samt CO2, NOx och SO2.

    Två olika beräkningsverktyg har jämförts och valet föll på ett verktyg från NTM, Nätverket för Transporter och Miljön. En genomgång av vilken information som erfordras för att göra beräkningar har gjorts och för att undersöka tillgången till dessa data har ett antal intervjuer samt en workshop genomförts med olika aktörer, både inom Norra Djurgårdsstaden men också utifrån. Andra saker som diskuterades var aktörernas syn på bygglogistikcentret, vad som kan förbättras med det samt hur själva utfallet av en utvärdering skulle kunna förbättras, exempelvis genom styrning i upphandlingsprocessen. Intervjuer och workshop har också varit viktiga i syfte att förankra den föreslagna utvärderingsmetoden hos aktörerna själva.

    Under intervjuer och workshop har det bland annat framkommit en del konstateranden och några förslag till förbättringar. Exempelvis sades att logistikfrågor lyfts upp enbart genom att bygglogistikcentret finns och att den största förbättringen med bygglogistikcentret anses vara att framkomligheten är mycket bättre än vad den annars hade varit. En annan sak som de flesta var eniga om var att krav i upphandling bör ställas så tidigt som möjligt för att de ska kunna få så stor effekt som möjligt.

    För att göra en utvärdering krävs data om alla olika transporter och för varje transporttyp behövs information inom tre olika kategorier: fordonet, lasten samt själva körvägen. Eftersom alla data inte finns tillgängliga idag kommer en del antaganden att behöva göras, hur många beror på när i tiden utvärderingen ska göras och hur noggrann den ska vara. Om en utvärdering ska göras snarast rekommenderas att ett antal manuella mätningar genomförs men för att utvärderingar ska kunna göras kontinuerligt föreslås att en del åtgärder vidtas för att automatisera insamlingen av data.

    Det rekommenderas också att en känslighetsanalys av erhållna mätvärden görs för bedömning av vilka data som är i störst behov av ökad noggrannhet för att utvärderingens tillförlitlighet ska öka. Beroende på vad en sådan analys visar ges förslag på några olika åtgärder som kan vidtas, såsom att montera kameror vid grindpassager för information om passerande fordon eller att installera datorer i vissa fordon för att få information om körbeteende. 

  • 140.
    Fröström, Linn
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Lundblad, Therese
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Energieffektivisering av Tjustvallens bandybana: En studie om energieffektivisering av kylsystem med en isbana i Gamleby som fallstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In a world with population growth and a limited amount of resources, it is vital to increase resource usage efficiency in order to ensure a high standard of living for future generations. To achieve this, arrangements aimed towards increasing the energy efficiency and environmental friendliness of new and existing technologies are needed. On behalf of Innovationsverket, an inventor association in Gamleby, this study examines the possibility of making the cooling of an outdoor ice rink in Gamleby more energy and cost efficient.

    This study uses the ice rink at Tjustvallen in Gamleby as a case study. It is cooled with a compression refrigeration cycle consisting of two compressors that conjoined have a maximum input power of 347 kW. The power is adjusted manually based on current weather conditions. The cooling system uses an average of 580 MWh of electricity, equivalent to an annual cost of 534 000 SEK. The purpose of this study is to survey the current energy usage and to find a correlation between power demand and outside temperature. It also aims towards finding suitable actions to increase the system’s energy efficiency and to evaluate whether implementing these actions increase the system’s economic and ecological sustainability.

    The study is based on material gathered through literature studies, on site visits and personal contact with specialists on the subject. Calculations of correlation between energy usage and outside temperature are made based on this information after which energy efficiency increasing methods are presented. Calculations that determine whether or not they decrease energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions are performed.

    Seven profitable methods to increase the energy efficiency are presented. Out of these, changed power adjustment to decrease the usage of low loads and automatic pump power adjustment are recommended to be implemented initially. Installation of a system that makes use of waste heat is the most profitable method, assuming that the heat can be sold to nearby houses. A decrease in ice thickness is recommended as a way to decrease electricity usage without changing the cooling system.

    Great possibilities for increasing the system’s energy efficiency are found. The methods presented decrease energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore it can be concluded that implementation of the presented methods increase the system’s economic and ecological sustainability. 

  • 141.
    Furberg, Dorothy
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Satellie Monitoring of Urban Growth and Indicator-based Assessment of Environmental Impact2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major consequences of urbanization is the transformation of land surfaces from rural/natural environments to built-up land that supports diverse forms of human activity. These transformations impact the local geology, climate, hydrology, flora and fauna and human-life supporting ecosystem services in the region. Mapping and analysis of land use/land cover change in urban regions and tracking their environmental impact is therefore of vital importance for evaluating policy options for future growth and promoting sustainable urban development.

    The overall objective of this research is to investigate the extent of urban growth and/or sprawl and its potential environmental impact in the regions surrounding a few selected major cities in North America, Europe and Asia using landscape metrics and other environmental indicators to assess the landscape changes. The urban regions examined are the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in Canada, Stockholm region and County in Sweden and Shanghai in China. The analyses are based on classificatons of optical satellite imagery (Landsat TM/ETM+ or SPOT 1/5) between 1985 and 2010. Maximum likelihood classification (MLC) under urban/rural masks, objectbased image analysis (OBIA) with rule-based classification and support vector machines (SVM) classification methods were used with grey level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) texture features as input to help obtain higher accuracies. Based on the classification results, landscape metrics, selected environmental indicators and indices, and ecosystem service valuation were calculated and used to estimate environmental impact of urban growth.

    The results show that urban areas in the GTA grew by nearly 40% between 1985 and 2005. Results from the landscape metrics and urban compactness indicators show that low-density built-up areas increased significantly in the GTA between 1985 and 2005, mainly at the expense of agricultural areas. The majority of environmentally significant areas were increasingly surrounded by urban areas between 1985 and 2005, furthering their isolation from other natural areas. Urban areas in the Stockholm region increased by 10% between 1986 and 2006. The landscape metrics indicated that natural areas became more isolated or shrank whereas new small urban patches came into being. The most noticeable changes in terms of environmental impact and urban expansion were in the east and north of the study area. Large forested areas in the northeast dropped the most in terms of environmental impact ranking, while the most improved analysis units were close to the central Stockholm area. The study comparing Shanghai and Stockholm County revealed that urban areas increased ten times as much in Shanghai as they did in Stockholm, at 120% and 12% respectively. The landscape metrics results show that fragmentation in both study regions occurred mainly due to the growth of high density built-up areas in previously more natural environments, while the expansion of low density built-up areas was for the most part in conjunction with pre-existing patches. The growth in urban areas resulted in ecosystem service value losses of approximately 445 million USD in Shanghai, mostly due to the decrease in natural coastal wetlands, while in Stockholm the value of ecosystem services changed very little.

    This study demonstrates the utility of urban and environmental indicators derived from remote sensing data via GIS techniques in assessing both the spatio-temporal dynamics of urban growth and its environmental impact in different metropolitan regions. High accuracy classifications of optical medium resolution remote sensing data are achieved thanks in part to the incorporation of texture features for both object- and pixel-based classification methods, and to the use of urban/rural masks with the latter. The landscape metrics calculated based on the classifications are useful in quantifying urban growth trends and potential environmental impact as well as facilitating their comparison. The environmental indicator results highlight the challenges in terms of sustainable urban growth unique to each landscape, both spatially and temporally. The next phase of this PhD research will involve finding valid methods of comparing and contrasting urban growth patterns and estimated environmental impact in different regions of the world and further exploration of how to link urbanizing landscapes to changes in ecosystem services via environmental indicators.

  • 142.
    Furberg, Dorothy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik (stängd 20110301).
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik (stängd 20110301).
    Satellite Monitoring and Impact Assessment of Urban Growth in Stockholm, Sweden between 1986 and 20062010Inngår i: Imagin[e,g] Europe: Proceedings of the 29th Symposium of the European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories, Chania, Greece / [ed] Ioannis Manakos, Chariton Kalaitzidis, IOS Press, 2010, s. 131-142Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this research is to investigate the extent of land-cover change in and around Stockholm from 1986 to 2006 and the nature of the resulting landscape fragmentation with a particular focus on the possible environmental impact. Four scenes of SPOT imagery over the Stockholm area were acquired for this study: two on 13 June 1986, one on 5 August 2006 and one on 4 June 2008. Various image processing and classification algorithms were tested and compared. The best classification results were obtained using an object-based and rule-based approach with texture measures as well as spectral data as inputs. The image pairs from the two decades were classified into seven land cover categories for Stockholm Municipality, i.e., low-density built-up, high-density built-up, industrial areas, open land, forest, mixed forest and open land, and water. The overall accuracies were 93% (kappa: 0.91) for 1986 and 97% (kappa: 0.96) for 2006. Landscape fragmentation and change was evaluated using spatial metrics. The spatial metric results reveal that urban areas increased at the expense of non-built up areas by around 2% both on the municipal and regional levels. The 2006/2008 classification gives evidence of being a more fragmented landscape than that of 1986. While urban areas have become denser within Stockholm municipality, which is in line with the region's development policy, more natural land cover types have at the same time been eroded; a development not in line with the regional goal of maintaining the area's green spaces. The classification technique used on the municipality will be expanded to the region as a whole, and regional trends and consequent recommendations will be the focus of future research

  • 143.
    Furberg, Dorothy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Satellite Monitoring of Urban Land Cover Change in Stockholm Between 1986 and 2006 and Indicator-Based Environmental Assessment2013Inngår i: Earth Observation of Global Changes (EOGC), Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 205-222Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades, there has been substantial urban growth in Stockholm, Sweden, now the largest city in Scandinavia. This research investigates and evaluates the evolution of land cover/use change in Stockholm between 1986 and 2006 with a particular focus on what impact urban growth has had on the environment using indicators derived from remote sensing and environmental data. Four scenes of SPOT imagery over the Stockholm County area were acquired for this study including two on 13 June 1986, one on 5 August 2006 and one on 4 June 2008. These images are classified into seven land cover categories using an object-based and rule-based approach with spectral data and texture measures as inputs. The classification is then used to generate spatial metrics and environmental indicators for evaluation of fragmentation and land cover/land use change. Based on the environmental indicators, an environmental impact index is constructed for both 1986 and 2006 and then compared. The environmental impact index is based on the proportion and condition of green areas important for ecosystem services, proximity of these areas to intense urban land use, proportion of urban areas in their immediate vicinity, and how impacted they are by noise. The analysis units are then ranked according to their indicator values and an average of the indicator rankings gives an overall index score. Results include a ranking of the landscape in terms of environmental impact in 1986 and 2006, as well as an analysis of which units have improved the least or the most and why. The highest ranked units are located most often to the north and east of the central Stockholm area, while the lowest tend to be located closer to the center itself. Yet units near the center also tended to improve the most in ranking over the two decades, which would suggest a convergence towards modest urban expansion and limited environmental impact.

  • 144.
    Furberg, Dorothy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Satellite Monitoring of Urban Sprawl and Assessment of its Potential Environmental Impact in the Greater Toronto Area Between 1985 and 20052012Inngår i: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 50, nr 6, s. 1068-1088Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates urban sprawl in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) between 1985 and 2005 and the nature of the resulting landscape fragmentation, particularly with regard to the Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM), an ecologically important area for the region. Six scenes of Landsat TM imagery were acquired in summer of 1985, 1995, and 2005. These images and their texture measures were classified into eight land cover classes with very satisfactory final overall accuracies (93-95 %). Analysis of the classifications indicated that urban areas grew by 20 % between 1985 and 1995 and by 15 % between 1995 and 2005. Landscape fragmentation due to spatio-temporal land cover changes was evaluated using urban compactness indicators and landscape metrics, and results from the latter were used to draw conclusions about probable environmental impact. The indicator results showed that urban proportions increased in nearly all areas outside of the metropolitan center, including on portions of the ORM. The landscape metrics reveal that low density urban areas increased significantly in the GTA between 1985 and 2005, mainly at the expense of agricultural land. The metric results indicate increased vulnerability and exposure to adverse effects for natural and semi-natural land cover through greater contrast and lowered connectivity. The degree of urban perimeter increased around most environmentally significant areas in the region. Changes like these negatively impact species and the regional water supply in the GTA. Further investigation into specific environmental impacts of urban expansion in the region and which areas on the ORM are most at risk is recommended.

  • 145.
    Furberg, Dorothy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Monitoring Urban Green Infrastructure Changes using High-resolution Satellite DataManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 146.
    García Betorz, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    How might the collaborative economy influence sustainability of tourism in Barcelona?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to analyze how the Collaborative Economy (CE) might influence sustainability of tourism in Barcelona.

    Since The Olympic Games in 1992, Barcelona has become a leader in many aspects, but especially in the tourism sector. Nowadays the city is a highly popular tourist destination and the tourism industry has made a significant contribution to the economics of Barcelona with the creation of income, taxes, hard currency and jobs (Sirakaya, Jamal, & Choi, 2001). Despite the high success achieved by “model Barcelona” it is important to take into account some challenges faced by the city in terms of tourism, creating a need for alternative and more environmentally and host-friendly practices in development, planning, and policies (Saarinen, J. 2006).

    One example of this is CE, which, since 2011, has started to have an impact on the Catalan capital, and all indicators show that the peer to peer (P2P) sites are one of the technology trends that are already radically transforming tourism (Sunyer, 2014). Collaborative consumption was named one of TIME Magazine's 10 ideas that will change the world.

    All we do, create and produce has an impact on the environment (tourism generates an impact as well as the CE) and measuring the impact of our actions helps us to know where to improve and develop better strategies. The questions now are: what is the real impact that these new systems have on the city? Do they contribute to the path of sustainable tourism?

    To answer these questions and form a point of departure for this study, I interviewed different stakeholders: twelve experts from CE and tourism in Barcelona and 49 students from UAB University under the Tourism Grade. Interviews made to experts were based on face to face meetings carried out in two parts; firstly semi-structured questions and secondly a survey based on an evaluation of a previously selected tourism system indicator. The survey consisted of the evaluation of the European Tourism Indicators System – ETIS for Sustainable Destinations, where the interviewees had to evaluate the influence of CE through the validation of the 27 core indicators (deciding whether the indicator would increase, decrease or remain equal with the influence of the CE). The interviews conducted with the forty-nine students were made online and based on the survey evaluation of ETIS (like with the experts).

    The results show that CE could generate a better distribution of income around the city and could support the process of descentralization of tourism activity in the city center. Furthermore, it could strengthen social relations between locals and visitors, and thereby improve the negative perception that mass tourism generates in some specific points like Ciutat Vella. According to the stakeholders interviewed, the influence of CE in Barcelona could ensure a higher rate of satisfaction among tourists and increase the number of strategic plans of the city in terms of sustainability. On the other hand, it is noteworthy to consider the negative effects that CE could generate; the more distribution the city has, the more social friction is generated and so more specific managing plans are needed. Furthermore, interviewees considered that the occupancy rate in commercial accommodation and direct tourism employment would decrease, which means less income from the “traditional” tourist enterprises.

    The results also illustrate a lack of understanding of the CE and sustainable tourism concepts. Although experts were familiar to both concepts, researchers and tourism managers had a better understanding of sustainability in tourism while promoters of the CE were the stakeholders with more knowledge about the Collaborative movement. There is still a need of more comprehension of both terms.

    There are three elements to consider for discussions which concern respondents with such a variety of opinions depending on their background; 1) the understanding of the two concepts (CE and sustainable tourism) of the case from the all stakeholders involved. If there is a lack of comprehension of both it is just impossible to apply them; 2) the regulation process of the CE which nowadays has split the opinion of the population and 3) the carrying capacity that the city can support. They are the key elements to discuss in the collaborative economy wave.

    Nonetheless, one must consider what CE means, what its main principles are and why it exists and connect all these with the necessities related with tourism, which presents a considerable challenge in certain parts of the world. Only when an appropriate comprehension of the “core” and “essence” of both concepts is achieved will we be able to connect them, understand their strengths and weaknesses and aim for genuine sustainable development. 

  • 147.
    Gauffin, Alicia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Andersson, Nils A. I.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Storm, Per
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    The Global Societal Steel Scrap Reserves and Amounts of Losses2016Inngår i: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 5, nr 3, artikkel-id 27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a newly developed method called the Progressing and Backcasting models were used to evaluate the annual resource utilizations of steel scrap in Sweden and globally. The model results show that it is possible to assess the amounts of steel scrap available for steelmaking at a given point in time, based on statistical dynamic material flow models. By a better mapping of the available amounts of steel scrap reserves on a country basis, it is possible to ease the trade of scrap across country boarders. This in turn can optimize the supply of recyclable metals as a raw material used in the industry. The results for Swedish steel consumption show that export bans used to secure the domestic market of steel scrap do damage the internal market due to increased amounts of losses. This suggests that export bans should be lifted to optimize recycling in countries. The model results also show that the global losses of steel are higher than for an industrialized country such as Sweden. Furthermore, the results show that the Backcasting and Progressing models can be used to calculate robust forecasts on the long term availability of steel scrap assets. This information could be used for future structural plans of scrap consuming steelmaking mills and waste management facilities. Hence, it is possible to contribute to a sustainable industrial development and a circular economy.

  • 148.
    Ghasemi, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Comparative Life-Cycle Assessment of Slurry vs. Wet Carbonationof BOF Slag2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated carbonation is a new C02 storage method under development as a  solutionfor climatechangecausedbyanthropogenicactivities.Inacceleratedcarbonationanalkalinesourcesuch as minerals or industrial resid ues react with carbon dioxide in a presence of slightly acidicsolution to produce stable solid carbonates. There are varieties of accelerated carbonation routes,which differ in process condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate  and  compare  the potential of a slurry route process and a wet route process for the carbonation of basicoxygenfurnace slag using the C02 emitted by a conventional natural gas power plant. For this pmpose alife cycle assessment (LCA) study was performed based on principles and guidelines provided byISO 14040:2006 and routines and data provided by the SimaPro V8 software  package.Thematerial and energy requirements for each of the steps involved in the carbonation process, i.e.pre-treatment of raw material, C02 compression, transportation, carbonation step, after-treatmentand landfill, were calculated and included in the LCA study. The slurry and wet route resulted innet C02 reduction of 87.4% and 72.3% respectively. However, a positive contribution to otherenvironmental issues was observed with the wet route  leading to higher  impact mainly due  tohigh heating requirement. An exception was the contribution of the slurry route  to  abioticresource depletion, which was higher for the slurry route due to high water  requirement.  Ageneral conclusion was that the electricity consumption is the  main  cause  ofenvironmentalissues. Sensitivity analyses showed that the environmental impacts are dependent on thetransp01iation distance and electricity source, while no dependence was observed with respect toconstruction of the carbonation plant.

  • 149.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Miljövärdering av bebyggelse – EcoEffect-metoden: Bakgrund och sammanfattande beskrivning2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 150.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Peuportier, Bruno
    Wetzel, Christian
    Scarpellini, Sabina
    Zabalza, Ignacio
    Dias de Garayo, Sergio
    Staller, Heimo
    Krigsvoll, Guri
    Stoykova, Evelina
    Horvath, Sarah
    Szalay, Zsuzsa
    Degiovanni, Valeria
    GUIDELINES FOR LCA CALCULATIONS IN EARLY DESIGN PHASES2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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