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  • 101.
    Ehsani, Amir Houshang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Miljö- och resursinformation.
    Quiel, Friedrich
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Miljö- och resursinformation.
    A semi-automated method for analysis of landscape elements using shuttle radar topography mission and landsat ETM+data2009Inngår i: Computers & Geosciences, ISSN 0098-3004, E-ISSN 1873-7803, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 373-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we demonstrate artificial neural networks-self-organizing map (SOM)-as a semi-automatic method for extraction and analysis of landscape elements in the man and biosphere reserve "Eastern Carpathians". The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) collected data to produce generally available digital elevation models (DEM). Together with Landsat Thematic Mapper data, this provides a unique, consistent and nearly worldwide data set.

    To integrate the DEM with Landsat data, it was re-projected from geographic coordinates to UTM with 28.5 m spatial resolution using cubic convolution interpolation. To provide quantitative morphometric parameters, first-order (slope) and second-order derivatives of the DEM-minimum curvature, maximum curvature and cross-sectional curvature-were calculated by fitting a bivariate quadratic surface with a window size of 9 x 9 pixels. These surface curvatures are strongly related to landform features and geomorphological processes.

    Four morphometric parameters and seven Landsat-enhanced thematic mapper (ETM +) bands were used as input for the SOM algorithm. Once the network weights have been randomly initialized, different learning parameter sets, e.g. initial radius, final radius and number of iterations, were investigated. An optimal SOM with 20 classes using 1000 iterations and a final neighborhood radius of 0.05 provided a low average quantization error of 0.3394 and was used for further analysis. The effect of randomization of initial weights for optimal SOM was also studied. Feature space analysis, three-dimensional inspection and auxiliary data facilitated the assignment of semantic meaning to the output classes in terms of landfonn, based on morphometric analysis, and land use, based on spectral properties.

    Results were displayed as thematic map of landscape elements according to form, cover and slope. Spectral and morphometric signature analysis with corresponding zoom samples superimposed by contour lines were compared in detail to clarify the role of morphometric parameters to separate landscape elements. The results revealed the efficiency of SOM to integrate SRTM and Landsat data in landscape analysis. Despite the stochastic nature of SOM, the results in this particular study are not sensitive to randomization of initial weight vectors if many iterations are used. This procedure is reproducible for the same application with consistent results.

  • 102.
    Ehsani, Amir Houshang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Miljö- och resursinformation.
    Quiel, Friedrich
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Miljö- och resursinformation.
    Artificial neural networks for landscape analysis of the biohere reserve "Eastern Carpathians" with landsat ETM+and SRTM data2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 103.
    Ehsani, Amir Houshang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Miljö- och resursinformation.
    Quiel, Friedrich
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Miljö- och resursinformation.
    Terrain Features Analysis using Morphometric Parameterization and Neural Networks2007Inngår i: Geomorphology, ISSN 0169-555X, E-ISSN 1872-695XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 104. Eklind, Y.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Dep. of Biometry and Engineering, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science.
    Smårs, S.
    Steger, K.
    Sundh, I.
    Kirchmann, H.
    Jönsson, H.
    Carbon turnover and ammonia emissions during composting of biowaste at different temperatures2007Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 1512-1520Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of different process temperatures (40, 55, and 67 degrees C) during composting of source-separated household waste were studied in a 200 L compost reactor at an oxygen concentration of 16%. The overall decomposition measured as carbon mineralization, decomposition of different carbon constituents, and the dynamics of nitrogen mineralization and the microbial community, are reported. Ammonia emissions at 67 degrees C were more than double those at lower temperatures, and they were lowest at 40 degrees C. The decomposition rate, measured as CO2 emission, was highest at 55 degrees C. Decomposition of crude fat was slower at 40 degrees C than at 55 and 67 degrees C. The peak in microbial biomass was largest in the run at 40 degrees C, where substantial differences were seen in the microbial community structure and succession compared to thermophilic temperatures. Biowaste composting can be optimized to obtain both a high decomposition rate and low ammonia emissions by controlling the process at about 55 degrees C in the initial, high-rate stage. To reduce ammonia emissions it seems worthwhile to reduce the temperature after an initial high-temperature stage.

  • 105.
    Ekstrand, Charlotte
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hamberg, Camilla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Fosforsorptionskapaciteten i djupa jordlager: En kemisk analys av fosforadsorption i svenska grus- och sandjordar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det största hotet mot våra vattenmiljöer idag är eutrofieringen - överskottet av näringsämnen orsakat av avlopp och jordbruk. För att motverka detta krävs mer kunskap kring uppträdandet av fosfor i jord och, mer specifikt, fosforsorptionskapaciteten i sand- och grusjordar. Särskilt intressant är detta då enskilda avlopp (som är en stor källa till fosforutsläpp i Sverige) är uppbyggda av infiltrationsbäddar bestående av sand- och grusjordar.

    Syftet med denna rapport har varit att bestämma fosforsorptionskapaciteten i olika sand- eller grusbaserade jordar. Undersökningen har genomförts med hjälp av skakförsök och verktyg såsom MS Excel och Visual MINTEQ, och resultaten modellerades utifrån Freundlichekvationen. Även kemisk analysutrustning såsom ICP och AutoAnalyzer har använts för att analysera elementkoncentrationer i jordproverna. Resultaten visar att det finns ett positivt linjär-logaritmiskt samband mellan mängden adsorberat P och mängden tillsatt P i proverna. Det visade sig att de undersökta jordarna i snitt kunde binda 0.56 mmol fosfor/kg jord, eller 26.01 g fosfor per m3 jord.

    Vidare konstaterades även att mängden adsorberat P korrelerar linjärt med mängden oxalatlösligt Al och Fe i jordprovet. För majoriteten av jordproverna som uppvisade ett pH-värde högre än 8, verkade utfällningar av kalciumfosfater öka mängden bunden P. Då svenska mineraljordar med låg halt humusämnen oftast har ett pH-värde på 5.2-5.4, kan det argumenteras för att Al- och Fe-(hydr)oxider är av större betydelse för lösligheten av P än förekomsten av kalcium. Vidare undersökningar skulle kunna genomföras för att öka förståelsen för hur närvaron av humusämnen och jorddjupet påverkar fosforsorptionen, samt dess pH-beroende.

  • 106.
    Ekström, Amanda
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ekosystemtjänster: - med exempel från Flens kommun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekosystemen bidrar med många olika tjänster som är en förutsättning för att människans och samhällets behov ska kunna tillgodoses. Av den anledningen är det av största vikt att hänsyn tas till ekosystemtjänsterna och att de planernas för i stads- och samhällsplaneringen. Bland Sveriges miljömål finns ett par etappmål som handlar specifikt om ekosystemtjänster. Där framgår att vikten av ekosystemtjänsterna samt vad de påverkas av ska identifieras. Ekosystemtjänster kan delas in i fyra olika kategorier: Reglerande-, försörjande-, kulturella-, och stödjande ekosystemtjänster. De stödjande tjänsterna är en förutsättning för övriga tjänster och kan vara till exempel jordmånsbildning och geokemiska kretslopp. De kulturella tjänsterna är tjänster som bidrar till människans välbefinnande och hälsa, såsom friluftsliv och estetiska värden. De reglerande tjänsterna fås från naturens reglering vilket kan vara reglering av vattenflöden eller klimat. De försörjande tjänsterna är produkter som fås av naturen såsom livsmedel och vatten. Ekosystemtjänsterna påverkas av klimatförändringarna som innebär varmare och torrare klimat med risk för mer extrem nederbörd, exempelvis våtmarker riskerar att torka ut. Samtidigt är ekosystemtjänster viktiga då de motverkar effekter av klimatförändringarna. Bland annat minskar risken för översvämningar på grund av naturens förmåga att reglera vattenflöden och även hindra vatten från att nå markytan.

     

    Syftet med rapporten är att identifiera ekosystemtjänster i Flen samt beskriva dess koppling till klimatförändringar. Resultatet kommer att fokusera på reglerande och kulturella ekosystemtjänster vilka har en stor betydelse i den bebyggda miljön. Resultatet fås och presenteras genom en litteraturstudie och inspiration från Metrias, Naturvårdsverkets, Huddinge kommuns och Högskolan i Gävles arbete med identifiering av ekosystemtjänster genom att studera ett områdes marktäcke. En karta tas fram över marktäcket i Flen och ekosystemtjänsterna presenteras sedan i en tabell, kopplande till marktäcke. Flens kommun består av mycket skog och sjöar. Där finns även åkermark och våtmark. Dessa marktäcken bidrar med många viktiga ekosystemtjänster från samtliga kategorier. 

  • 107. Elberling, Bo
    et al.
    Søndergaard, Jens
    Jensen, Louise A.
    Schmidt, Lea B.
    Hansen, Birger U.
    Asmund, Gert
    Balic-Zunic, Tonci
    Hollesen, J. Orgen
    Hanson, Susanne
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Friborg, Thomas
    Arctic vegetation damage by winter-generated coal mining pollution released upon thawing2007Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, nr 7, s. 2407-2413Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Acid mine drainage (known as AMD) is a well-known environmental problem resulting from the oxidation of sulfidic mine waste. In cold regions, AMD is often considered limited by low temperatures most of the year and observed environmental impact is related to pollution generated during the warm summer period. Here we show that heat generation within an oxidizing, sulfidic, coal-mining waste-rock pile in Svalbard (78 degrees N) is high enough to keep the pile warm (roughly 5 degrees C throughout the year) despite mean annual air temperatures below -5 degrees C. Consequently, weathering processes continue year-round within the waste-rock pile. During the winter, weathering products accumulate within the pile because of a frozen outer layer on the pile and are released as a flush within 2 weeks of soil thawing in the spring. Consequently, spring runoff water contains elevated concentrations of metals. Several of these metals are taken up and accumulated in plants where they reach phytotoxic levels, including aluminum and manganese. Laboratory experiments document that uptake of Al and Mn in native plant species is highly correlated with dissolved concentrations. Therefore, future remedial actions to control the adverse environmental impacts of cold region coal-mining need to pay more attention to winter processes including AMD generation and accumulation of weathering products.

  • 108.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jögen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Krook, J.
    Björkman, M.
    Sundin, E.
    Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments2016Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 57, nr SI, s. 17-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist.

  • 109.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Kemiteknik.
    Environmental impacts from Swedish food production and consumption2004Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 110.
    Enroth, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media (stängd 20111231).
    Developing tools for sustainability management in the graphic arts industry2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this thesis is to develop and test industry-specific, applied work procedures and tools for environmental and emerging sustainability work in the graphic arts industry. This includes methods to quantify, follow-up, evaluate, manage, improve and communicate the environmental performance of activities in the graphic arts supply chain and printed products.

    In order to achieve the aims of the thesis, a selection of work areas were chosen as the basis for developing the industry-specific work procedures and tools. The selected work areas are the following: environmental management (being a part of sustainability management), environmental and sustainability strategies, environmental indicators and design for environment (DfE).

    The research presented in this thesis was based on survey research methods, case studies and multi-company studies. Within the framework of these methods, quantitative and qualitative techniques for data gathering were used. The companies included in the studies were selected according to their willingness, interest and motivation to participate and develop their environmental or sustainability work.

    The most significant results of the research presented in this thesis regarding the selected work areas are the following:

    • An evaluation of early certified environmental management systems (EMSs) in Sweden identified four areas as priorities in making the EMSs more efficient. Two of them, viz. improvement in the follow-up of environmental work, and the linking of EMSs to product design, were developed for the graphic arts industry. The remaining two areas were clarifying the identification process and assessment of environmental aspects, and streamlining and co-ordinating different management systems.

    • An established and successfully tested working method for formulating and realising corporate sustainability strategies in the graphic arts industry.

    • Industry-specific environmental indicator models for the graphic arts industry with defined methods for standardised inventorying and calculations. These models have been tested, used and approved of by the industry itself.

    • Collected and compiled data for the developed environmental indicator models. Data have been collected from quite a large number of companies (10-20 companies for each of the printing techniques covered, i.e. coldset offset, heatset offset and gravure) over a period of several years.

    • The use of the industry-specific environmental indicator models was developed and illustrated.

    • A described and recommended work procedure for DfE in graphic arts companies including industry-specific tools for applying DfE to printed products, in the form of a manual and a checklist. The checklist was designed so that it can serve as a simple tool for the environmental assessment of printed products. The tools were tested by graphic arts companies.

  • 111.
    Enroth, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media (stängd 20111231).
    How to formulate and realise a corporate sustainability strategy2007Inngår i: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 4, nr 1-2, s. 103-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study is to develop, test and implement a working method for the graphic arts industry to formulate and realise a corporate sustainability strategy. This study is based on the case studies of two companies in the supply chain for printed products. The working method is inspired by the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) methodology in ISO 14001 and the SWOT methodology. The working method established and successfully tested consists of six stages. The initial stages include an analysis of the current business climate in society and in the company, an identification of the significant sustainability aspects and a formulation of a shared vision. Examples of a sustainability strategy, long-term objectives, short-term targets, activities in working programmes and indicators are given. The results contribute to the process of bringing the thoughts of conceptual sustainability into practice in industrial applications.

  • 112. Enroth, Maria
    Promoting sustainability using business specific indicators2001Inngår i: Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Eco-Management and Auditing Conference, Nijmegen School of Management, The Netherlands, ERP Environment, UK, 2001, s. 60-67Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 113.
    Enroth, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media (stängd 20111231).
    Johansson, Martin
    Environmental data on gravure and offset printing2006Inngår i: Acta Graphica, ISSN 0353-4707, E-ISSN 1848-3828, Vol. 18, nr 1-4, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents environmental data relating to gravure and offset printing. It focuses on theprinting steps in the production chain of publication printed products. The other steps in the life-cycleof printed products have also been studied but they are not the subjects of this paper.The study is based on case studies, where almost twenty gravure printers and ten offset printers fromaround Europe and the United States have been involved.The general, significant environmental aspects of publication printed products have been identified as thefollowing; use of paper, use of energy, consumption (loss) of volatile organic compounds (VOC), includingtoluene, hazardous waste and environmental management. Transport has also been identified as asignificant environmental aspect for printed products but, to a great extent, its magnitude depends on theparticular product. The data collected from printers in different parts of the world were compared toenvironmental data provided by offset printers in Sweden, which were mainly taken from coldset printers.This paper presents significant environmental data for a fairly large number of companies representing aconsiderable part of the printing capacity, not only in Europe but also worldwide. These data canprovide guidance for both printers and buyers of printed products working to achieve continualimprovements and striving towards more environmentally adapted printed products. To some extent,the data can also be used as reference values, since there are few compilations of data providing ageneral coverage of printers in different parts of the world.

  • 114. Enroth, Maria
    et al.
    Johansson, Martin
    Moberg, Åsa
    Environmental indicators in the newspaper industry2003Inngår i: Acta Graphica, ISSN 0353-4707, E-ISSN 1848-3828, Vol. 15, nr 3-4, s. 105-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental indicators promote the eco-efficient development of companies, as demonstrated in earlier study. This study builds on a previously developed model and inventory tools for industry specific environmental indicators for the graphic arts industry.This study is based on case studies from 14 newspaper companies with experience of the use of theseindustry-specific environmental indicators in actual production.This paper presents data on industry-specific environmental indicators for the newspaper industry.The data describes the average situation and the range of values for the indicators in 14 environmentally aware newspaper companies in Sweden in 2001. The data is also grouped so as toillustrate average values for various classes:Newspaper companies with printing facilities. Newspaper companies with no printing facilities. Newspaper printing companies.In addition, a preliminary comparison has been carried out using equivalent data for the commercial printing industry.The indicators calculated for each specific company, together with average values for these indicators, have been used to identify areas for action for the various companies and to formulate action plans. The aim of this is to promote more eco-efficient activities. The study also summarizes measures already implemented at the various companies.The use of indicators within these companies has been linked with the current and predicted futureeed to communicate environmental issues. Financial and social aspects have been considered to alimited extent in the study in order to put forward the concept of sustainable development in the newspaper industry in Sweden.

  • 115. Enroth, Maria
    et al.
    Widing, Angelica
    Environmental indicators in the graphic arts industry2000Inngår i: Advances in Printing Science and Technology, ISSN 0065-3209, Vol. 26, s. 337-356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 116. Enroth, Maria
    et al.
    Widing, Angelica
    Tools for design for environment (DfE): application in the printing industry2006Inngår i: TAGA Journal, ISSN 1748-0337, E-ISSN 1748-0345, Vol. 2, s. 205-223Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 117. Ermolaev, E.
    et al.
    Jarvis, Å.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    Smårs, S.
    Pell, M.
    Jönsson, H.
    Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from food waste composting at different temperatures2015Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 46, s. 113-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from composting of source-sorted food waste were studied at set temperatures of 40, 55 and 67 degrees C in 10 trials performed in a controlled environment 200 L compost reactor. CH4 and N2O concentrations were generally low. In trials with 16% O-2, the mean total CH4 emission at all temperatures was 0.007% of the mineralized carbon (C), while at 67 degrees C this fraction was 0.001%. Total CH4 production was higher in the 40 degrees C trial and the limited oxygen (1% O-2) trial, with emissions of 0.029 and 0.132% of the mineralized C respectively. An early increase in N2O production was observed in trials with higher initial nitrate contents. Increased CH4 and N2O production in trials at 40 and 55 degrees C after 50% of the initial C was mineralized resulted in higher total greenhouse gas emissions. Overall, the global warming potentials in CO2-equivalents from CH4 emissions were higher than from N2O, except for composts run at 67 degrees C.

  • 118. Ermolaev, E.
    et al.
    Pell, M.
    Smårs, S.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Jönsson, H.
    Greenhouse gas emission from covered windrow composting with controlled ventilation2012Inngår i: Waste Management and Research, ISSN 0734-242X, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 155-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from full-scale composting of municipal solid waste, investigating the effects of process temperature and aeration combinations, is scarce. Oxygen availability affects the composition of gases emitted during composting. In the present study, two experiments with three covered windrows were set up, treating a mixture of source separated biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions from Uppsala, Sweden, and structural amendment (woodchips, garden waste and re-used compost) in the volume proportion 1:2. The effects of different aeration and temperature settings on the emission of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) during windrow composting with forced aeration following three different control schemes were studied. For one windrow, the controller was set to keep the temperature below 40 °C until the pH increased, another windrow had minimal aeration at the beginning of the process and the third one had constant aeration. In the first experiment, CH4concentrations (CH4:CO2 ratio) increased, from around 0.1% initially to between 1 and 2% in all windrows. In the second experiment, the initial concentrations of CH4 displayed similar patterns of increase between windrows until day 12, when concentration peaked at 3 and 6%, respectively, in two of the windrows. In general, the N2O fluxes remained low (0.46 ± 0.02 ppm) in the experiments and were two to three times the ambient concentrations. In conclusion, the emissions of CH4 and N2O were low regardless of the amount of ventilation. The data indicates a need to perform longer experiments in order to observe further emission dynamics.

  • 119. Ermolaev, E.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Pell, M.
    Jönsson, H.
    Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting in practice2014Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 151, s. 174-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, 16% of all biologically treated food waste is home composted. Emissions of the greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O and emissions of NH3 from home composts were measured and factors affecting these emissions were examined. Gas and substrate in the compost bins were sampled and the composting conditions assessed 13 times during a 1-year period in 18 home composts managed by the home owners. The influence of process parameters and management factors was evaluated by regression analysis. The mean CH4 and N2O concentration was 28.1 and 5.46 ppm (v/v), respectively, above the ambient level and the CH4:CO2 and N2O:CO2 ratio was 0.38% and 0.15%, respectively (median values 0.04% and 0.07%, respectively). The home composts emitted less CH4 than large-scale composts, but similar amounts of N2O. Overall NH3 concentrations were low. Increasing the temperature, moisture content, mixing frequency and amount of added waste all increased CH4 emissions.

  • 120.
    Eveborn, David
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Bed filters for phosphorus removal in on-site wastewater treatment: Removal mechanisms and sustainability2010Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For many surface waters, phosphorus (P) leaching is a serious problem that should be minimized to prevent eutrophication. In Sweden there is a demand for physical and technical development of high-performance P removal techniques to reduce phosphorus leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems to the Baltic Sea. However, although these systems are designed to reduce eutrophication there are also other environmental impacts to be considered when implementing them in on-site systems; energy use and global warming potential are two examples. This study has investigated several bed filter materials (reactive media and natural soils) for their total environmental impact (in commercial applications) as well as for the predominating chemical phosphorus removal mechanisms. The use of life cycle assessment revealed that several reactive bed filters are relatively energy-consuming due to the material manufacturing process. Characterization of phosphorus compounds in used reactive media provided evidence for calcium phosphate precipitation as the predominating P removal mechanism in alkaline filter materials. However, in soil treatment systems with noncalcareous soils, batch experiments and extractions suggested that aluminium compounds were important for P removal. According to mass balance calculations that compared accumulated P with the estimated P load in a soil treatment system, the long term P removal capacity was very low; only 6.4 % of the applied phosphorus had been removed during 16 years of operation.

  • 121.
    Eveborn, David
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Hesterberg, Dean
    University Raleigh, Department of Soil Science, North Carolina, USA.
    Hillier, Stephen
    Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, UK.
    XANES Speciation of P in Environmental Samples: An Assessment of Filter Media for on-Site Wastewater Treatment2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 17, s. 6515-6521Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopyis a useful technique for characterization of chemical speciesof phosphorus in complex environmental samples. To developand evaluate bed filters as sustainable on-site wastewater treatment solutions, our objective in this study was to determine the chemical forms of accumulated phosphorus in a selectionof promising filter materials: Filtralite P, Filtra P, Polonite, Absol, blast furnace slag, and wollastonite. Full-scale operational wastewater-treatment systems were sampled and in addition, filter samples collected from laboratory studies provided access to additional media and complementary samples.Phosphorus species were characterized using phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, complemented by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and attenuated total reflectance Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). No systematic differences could be seen in the results between laboratory and full-scale samples. All six filter media contained significant amounts of crystalline calcium phosphates. Some samples also contained amorphous calcium phosphate (>60 % of totalP in Absol). In Filtralite P and blast furnace slag, more than 35 % of the accumulated phosphorus was associated with Fe or Al. Both the power and shortcomings of XANES analysis for characterizing P species in these filter media are discussed.

  • 122.
    Eveborn, David
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Kong, Deguo
    Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal2012Inngår i: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 140, s. 24-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P. it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  • 123.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Suggestions for process improvement for the application of environmental requirements in Swedish road maintenance contracts2005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 124.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    The application of environmental requirements in procurement of road maintenance in Sweden2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road Administration (SRA) is responsible for maintenance of the state-run roads in Sweden. The SRA also has an overarching responsibility for the state of the environment in the road transport sector. The overall aim of this thesis is to examine the implementation of environmental requirements in SRA road maintenance contracts and to develop an improved model for the implementation of environmental requirements, making it easier for the SRA to establish an optimal contracting strategy for routine road maintenance. Using several qualitative methodologies, the thesis is mainly based on a content analysis of 18 tender documents, two case studies consisting of five cases and a questionnaire. The study shows that the SRA have stipulated environmental requirements in procurements of routine road maintenance since 1997. The formulation of the environmental requirements was initially carried out at the Regional Road Management Directorates. However, in the case of trucks and construction vehicles relevant organisations were given the opportunity to actively participate in the development of environmental requirements. The contractors in the study fulfil about three-quarters of the environmental requirements in the contracts. The main reasons for not complying with the environmental requirements are: i) absence of consultation with municipalities and competent authorities, and ii) inadequate communication of environmental requirements to subcontractors. The benefit to the environment of laying down environmental requirements for road maintenance is difficult to assess, due to unclear environmental requirements and the fact that the SRA does not systematically follow up the environmental requirements. The findings of the research indicate that the SRA have made a serious effort to integrate environmental aspects in their maintenance contracts through the use of environmental requirements. However, the SRA need to adopt a more systematic approach towards road maintenance contracts in order to make green procurement an effective tool for environmental adaptation of road maintenance. The thesis proposes an improved process for development, implementation and follow-up of environmental requirements. The proposed process can be summarised in five criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to achieve an environmentally efficient application of environmental requirements: i) the environmental requirements have to be based on legislation, environmental quality objectives, identified environmental problems and/or research, ii) environmental indicators and baselines have to be established in order to facilitate follow-up of compliance with the requirements, iii) the environmental requirements have to be stated clearly in order to limit misinterpretations and to facilitate follow-up, iv) the contractors have to develop working processes, routines and training based on the environmental requirements, v) routines for following-up compliance with the requirements and the environmental effectiveness need to be developed, and there has to be a feedback of the results. Furthermore, the purchasing function needs to be integrated with the implementation of the contracts. Although, having faced several problems during the introduction of environmental requirements, the SRA have managed to meet the main arguments that are used for justification of green procurement. However, if slightly changed, the process of green procurement has the potential of becoming an important tool in the work for enhancing the environmental performance of the SRA.

  • 125.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    The introduction of environmental requirements for trucks and construction vehicles used in road maintenance contracts in Sweden2005Inngår i: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 62-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the development and implementation of environmental requirements for trucks and construction vehicles in Swedish road maintenance contracts. The process in which the road administration involved relevant organizations in the development of a model for emission-based payment for the vehicles was analysed in a participatory study. Intentions behind the requirements were investigated using interviews and questionnaires. The results point to the importance of actively involving, informing and training all relevant parties. Transparency towards sub-contractors and the public is needed to justify the requirements. The payment model, based on environmental performance, is also suggested for use in other types of requirement in road maintenance contracts. To make green procurement an effective policy instrument, the model needs further development, e.g. systematic information, training of clients and contractors, and follow-up of the requirements.

  • 126.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Environmental requirements in procurement of road maintenance in Sweden2005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 127.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    The application of environmental requirements in Swedish road maintenance contracts2006Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 163-171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports two studies of the implementation of environmental requirements in Swedish road maintenance contracts. It aims to examine the fulfillment and follow-up of the requirements, the client intentions behind the requirements, and factors influencing the contractors' environmental performance. The study shows that a serious effort to integrate environmental aspects into the contracts has been made. However, the application of the requirements is hampered by deficient information transfer to key actors and a lack of systematic follow-up of the requirements. In order to make green procurement effective, simpler and clearer requirements and effective follow-up routines are needed.

  • 128.
    Fan, Hongchao
    et al.
    Department of Cartography, Technical University of Munich.
    Mao, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Shen, Jie
    Nanjing Normal University.
    Meng, Liqiu
    Department of Cartography, Technical University of Munich.
    Shell model representation as a substitute of LOD3 for 3D modeling in CityGML2011Inngår i: Geo-spatial Information Science, ISSN 1009-5020, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 78-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The OGC standard for 3D city modeling is widely used in an increasing number of applications. It defines five consecutive Levels of Detail (LoD0 to LoD4 with increasing accuracy and structural complexity), in which LoD3 includes all exterior appearances and geometrical details and subsequently requires much storage space. A new LoD is introduced as shell model with the exterior shell of the LoD3 model and the opening objects like windows, doors as well as smaller façade objects are projected onto walls. In this paper, a user survey is presented. The results of this survey show that the shell model can give users almost the same visual impression as the LoD3 model. Furthermroe, algorithms are developed to extract the shell model from LoD3 model. Experiments show that this shell model can reduce up to 90% storage of the original LoD3 model. Therefore, on one hand it can be used as a substitute for a LoD3 model for the visualization on small displays. On the other hand, it can be treated as a sub-level of detail (SLoD3) in CityGML, since it retains almost the same amount of information but requires much less storage space.

  • 129. Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Environmental systems analysis tools: an overview2005Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, nr 12, s. 1165-1173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of tools for assessing environmental impacts are available. It is of interest to characterise different tools in order to better understand their relationships and the appropriateness of different tools in different situations. The characteristics used here are whether the tools are procedural or analytical, what types of impacts are included, what the object of the study is and whether the studies are descriptive or change-orientated. For each object discussed here, there is a tool focusing on both use of natural resources and environmental impacts that seems to be the most suitable. Because different tools focus on different objects, different tools cannot in general easily replace each other.

  • 130.
    Forslund, Ted
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Assessing environmental impacts of a packaging product when transitioning towards Circular Economy2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging is a fundamental part of the life cycle of products and today´s life. Its purpose is to protect and maintain the function of the goods during different stages of the life cycle. Hence, the packaging needs to fulfil the functional demands to contribute to a sustainable life cycle of the specific product (Muthu, 2016). Circular Economy (CE) is a methodology which aims to decouple the economic growth and the consumption of finite resources (Hughes, 2017). The idea is to close product and material flow through reuse, repair or recycling methods. The possibilities for circularity is mainly created in the product development and design phase (European-Commission, 2017). The thesis aim is to assess the potential environmental impact of an existing packaging product and investigate how a circular business model affects the environmental performance.

    The objectives to answer the aim was to map the wooden material flows of the packaging product and to assess the potential environmental impacts throughout the Lifecycle of a wooden pallet, i.e. the NONS pallet. The results pointed out that the pallet stands for the largest share of packaging products at the pallet production site at Jularbo. However, it only constitutes for under 1 % of the total outtake of logs (volume) in the supply chain of AB Karl Hedin. The MFA also displayed that the supply chain is utilising the bio-material in the best possible way with little or no possible improvements. Instead, the circularity possibilities were within the distribution phase of the lifecycle.

    The Cumulative Energy Demand of the NONS pallet was 376.4 MJ, with the main contribution from the production of the NONS pallet, including the supply chain. The outcome of the characterised results was that the production including the supply chain and the disposal stage contributed the most in all categories except for one, terrestrial ecotoxicity. The results of the EcoDesign improvements according to CE, show a reduction in 11 of the ReCiPe categories. For example, the global warming was reduced by 58 %. The CED was decreased in all categories, renewable and non-renewable. However, the EcoDesign improvements lead to an increase in five ReCiPe categories. The increase is related to the additional distance because of reverse logistics. Following recommendations are made based on the results.

    • An implementation of a circular business model is recommended. The model is in line with the recommendations from the European Union and has the potential to decrease environmental impacts throughout the lifecycle. The implementation will require changes in the design of the NONS pallet and collaboration between stakeholders in the value chain to assess the trade-offs between impact categories.
    • The plastic sheet has a high contribution to environmental impact categories and is recommended to be redesign in collaboration with stakeholders within the value chain. Temporarily, the plastic sheet should be placed on top of the pallet to improve the possibilities for reuse and recycling.

    The combination of a quantitative tool (LCA) and the qualitative (EcoDesign) provides valuable information on how the potential environmental impacts are affected when implementing a more circular business model. Although, there is difficultness of implementing the tools on an existing design and system. The tools should be implemented early in the product development phase to increase the CE options. The action towards circularity should be a proactive measure to ensure competitive advantages for the future.  

  • 131.
    Forsström, Jennie
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Fundamental Aspects on the Re-use of Wood Based Fibres: Porous Structure of Fibres and Ink Detachment2004Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, different aspects on the re-use of wood based fibres have been studied, focusing on ink detachment of flexographic ink from model cellulose surfaces and changes in porous structure of kraft fibres following different treatments. New model systems for evaluation of ink detachment and ink-cellulose interactions were used. Ink detachment was studied using Impinging jet cell equipment, taking into consideration the influence of storage conditions, surface roughness and surface energy of the cellulose substrate. A micro adhesion measurement apparatus (MAMA) was used to directly study ink-cellulose interactions, from which the adhesive properties between ink and cellulose, having various surface energies, could be derived. UV-light, elevated temperatures, longer storage time, decreased surface energy, i.e. making the cellulose surface more hydrophobic, and high surface roughness all negatively affected ink detachment. Attenuated total reflectance - fourier transform infra red (ATR-FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate structural and chemical changes of ink and cellulose upon storage at elevated temperature or under UV-light. After storage at elevated temperatures, ATR-FTIR spectra indicated that a hydrolysis or an oxidative reaction took place as a peak at 1710 cm-1 appeared. AFM revealed that storage at elevated temperatures caused the latex particles present in the ink to form a film, most likely due to annealing. Less ink detached from hydrophobic cellulose surfaces. Ink detachment decreased for rougher cellulose substrates due to an increased molecular contact area.

    Fibre pore structure and water retaining ability influenced fibre/fibre joint strength and different paper strength properties. Investigations took into account the effect of pulp yield, counter-ion types, pH, salt, hornification and strength enhancing additives. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation (NMR), inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC) and water retention value (WRV) measured the changes that occur in the fibre wall upon varying the conditions. Each different measuring technique contained unique information such that a combination of the techniques was necessary to give as complete a picture as possible over the changes that occurred in the fibre wall upon varying the conditions for the fibre. A correlation between fibre pore radius and sheet strength properties was found, suggesting that fibres with larger pores allow for a larger molecular contact area between fibres to be formed during drying and consolidation of the paper. Fibre/fibre joint strength, fibre flexibility, and the number of efficient fibre/fibre contacts also controlled sheet strength. The effect of different strength enhancing additives on fibre pore structure and paper strength was investigated. Larger pores in the fibres allowed for additives to penetrate into the fibre wall. Additives with low molecular mass (Mw) penetrated into the fibre wall to a larger extent than additives with a high Mw, causing an embrittlement of the fibre. However, low Mw additives gave higher sheet tensile strength despite a leveling out in strength at high additions, indicating that the fibre wall can only adsorb a limited amount of chemical. Polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) and polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of PAH and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were added separately to the pulp. PEC significantly improved both tensile strength and Z-strength, whereas PAH alone did not increase the strength properties to the same extent unless the sheets were heated to 150°C for 10 minutes. The results suggested that the effect of PEC was dominated by an improvement in fibre/fibre joint strength, whereas the effect of PAH was significantly affected by an improvement of the intra-fibre bond strength

  • 132.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Hjorth, Katrine
    Lyk-Jensen, Stephanie Vincent
    Between-mode-differences in the value of travel time: Self-selection or strategic behaviour?2010Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 370-381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using stated preference survey data, we measure the value of travel time for several transport modes. We find, like many before us, that the value of travel time varies across modes in the opposite direction of what would be the consequence of differences in comfort. We examine three candidate causes for the observed differences: Comfort effects, self-selection and strategic behaviour of respondents. Using experiments with both the current and an alternative mode we find that the differences in the value of travel time are consistent with self-selection and comfort effects. Moreover, respondents having bus as the current or the alternative mode seem not to value comfort differently across modes. Strategic behaviour seems to play no role. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 133.
    Frampton, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Stochastic analysis of fluid flow and tracer pathways in crystalline fracture networks2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding groundwater flow systems and how these control transport is an essential part in assessing the suitability of subsurface environments as hosts for storage of toxic waste. Therefore it is important to be able to integrate knowledge obtained from field characterisation of the subsurface with methods which can be used to evaluate and predict possible impact on surrounding environments.In this thesis I investigate the characteristics of flow and transport in discrete fracture networks by analysing Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions within a stochastic framework. The analysis is conducted through numerical flow and transport simulations configured according to available field data, combined with independent theoretical analytic and semi-analytic methods which are able to reveal insight to relevant constitutive properties. It is shown that numerical simulations conducted with the discrete fracture network approach can be both conditioned and confirmed against field measurable quantities, and the developed theoretical methods are evaluated against results obtained from simulation. Thereby, a methodology which can provide links between field measurable quantities and tracer discharge is presented, developed and evaluated. It is shown to be robust with respect to underlying assumptions used for flow configurations.In particular, a specific sampling algorithm for obtaining a Lagrangian description of transport based on a Eulerian description of flow is proposed, evaluated and shown to be robust for the cases considered, providing accurate replications. Also a generalisation of both the advection-dispersion solution and the one-sided stable distribution is shown to be able to evaluate advective transport quantities, and combined with a Lagrangian retention model it is shown to be a fairly accurate and robust method for upscaling distributions, enabling predictions of transport in terms of tracer discharge. Evaluation of transport is also conducted against the advective-dispersion assumption, where results indicate advective transport is generally non-Fickian for the fracture networks and domain scales considered, but not necessarily anomalous. Additionally, the impact certain model assumptions have on tracer discharge are analysed. For example, transport is evaluated for assumptions regarding injection mode, fracture network heterogeneity, relationship between aperture and transmissivity, relationship between transmissivity and size, as well as scale and modelling dimension. In relation to hydraulic testing and flow analysis, a method for conditioning fracture transmissivity from field measurements of flow by simulation is developed and evaluated against homogenisation assumptions commonly used in field applications. Results indicate the homogenisation assumption generally fails for current interpretations of field data.

  • 134.
    Frampton, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Numerical and analytical modelling of advective travel times in realistic three-dimensional fracture networks2011Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 47, nr W02506, s. 16pp-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Travel time distributions obtained from advective transport in multiple realisations of realistic discrete fracture network simulations are analysed using the truncated one-sided stable distribution, which has previously been shown to generalise both the advection-dispersion solution as well as one-sided stable distributions. Using this model it is shown that the Fickian assumption inherent in the advection-dispersion equation generally fails, despite that the first two moments of travel time essentially scale linearly with distance. It is also observed that the equally probable realisations drawn from the ensemble can produce a wide range of behaviour under the current configuration, such that Fickian conditions are almost obtained in some cases for increasing scales. Based on a small-scale calibration against particle breakthrough, the model is then shown to successfully predict limiting bounds of transport for a one order of magnitude increase in scale. Correlation in particle velocity is explicitly shown to be significant for scales close to the characteristic Lagrangian segment length. The network configuration is obtained from extensive site characterisation data at the Laxemar region in Sweden, and represents a block scale domain of reasonably sparse background fractures.

  • 135.
    Frampton, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Significance of injection modes and heterogeneity on spatial and temporal dispersion of advecting particles in two-dimensional discrete fracture networks2009Inngår i: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 649-658Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the impact of injection mode (flux and resident injection) and heterogeneity in hydraulic properties on dispersion of advecting particles in two-dimensional discrete fracture network models, using a Monte Carlo method. We find that the injection mode has a significant effect on dispersion: The resident injection mode exhibits anomalous features of transport whereas the flux injection mode tends to Gaussian transport; this observation is easily understood by considering phase diagrams where a limited number of particles entering low velocity fractures greatly increase macrodispersion. In spite of a sizeable portion of negative longitudinal velocities, it is shown that multiple crossings are negligible when quantifying longitudinal macrodispersion. A simple probabilistic expression of particle mass balance is shown to predict well the spatial distribution of advecting particles.

  • 136.
    Frampton, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Upscaling particle transport in discrete fracture networks: 1. Nonreactive tracers2007Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 43, nr 10, s. W10428-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study tracer transport through discrete fracture networks and develop a methodology for upscaling particle breakthrough curves on the basis of fracture segment data. Our prime interest is to model the early arrival and peak of tracer breakthrough curves, i.e., to capture the bulk of the tracer mass arrival. This study is based on two-dimensional discrete fracture network simulations, combined with a truncated one-sided stable distribution as a model for upscaling particle transitions. Results indicate that this model can accurately capture the bulk mass and peak of the breakthrough distributions for an upscaled distance of at least 1 order of magnitude in terms of transport scale, which for our simulations is about 2 orders of magnitude greater than the mean fracture segment scale. We also introduce an accurate mapping algorithm for transforming Eulerian into Lagrangian flow statistics, without a priori knowledge of network connectivity.

  • 137.
    Frampton, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Upscaling particle transport in discrete fracture networks:  2. Reactive tracers2007Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 43, nr 10, s. W10429-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study sorbing tracer transport through discrete fracture networks using astochastic Lagrangian framework, combined with the methodology for upscalingparticle breakthrough curves developed in the first part of this article series.Results indicate that this procedure can accurately predict expected normalizedtracer discharge for an upscaled distance of 1 order of magnitude in terms oftransport scale, which for our simulations is about 2 orders of magnitudegreater than the mean fracture segment scale. Specifically, we show theimportance of retaining the correlation between the water residence time τ andthe hydrodynamic control of retention β in order to make accurate tracerdischarge predictions. Also, we show that the extreme tails of τ and β distributions have essentially no impact on tracer discharge. These results areillustrated using the unlimited diffusion model, and for two hypotheticaltracers with properties designed to capture the behavior of many commonlyoccurring natural radionuclides.

  • 138.
    Frampton, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenvårdsteknik.
    Vladimir, Cvetkovic
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Vattenvårdsteknik.
    Inference of field scale fracture transmissivities in crystalline rock using flow log measurements2010Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 46, nr 11, s. W11502-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterization of transmissivity for crystalline rock is conducted through simulation by conditioning against borehole flow rates obtained from high-resolution, in situ field measurements during extraction pumping. Full three-dimensional discrete fracture network simulations are carried out according to specifications obtained from site characterization data in a stochastic Monte Carlo setting. A novel method of conditioning is thereby introduced and applied using nonparametric comparison tests, which provide quantifiable measures of accuracy enabling evaluation of simulated results against field measurements. The assumption of a constitutive relationship ( perfect correlation) between fracture size and transmissivity is adopted. The method is evaluated against both single and multiple realizations, various domain size, and fracture length configurations and shown to be robust for the cases considered. When the introduced method of conditioning is applied, transmissivity parameterization can be inferred to a narrow range with a quantifiable accuracy in terms of a probability value. Results indicate that elementary interpretation of transmissivity based on homogenization of a porous medium will generally underestimate transmissivity. Further implications on advective transport for natural flow conditions are briefly evaluated, indicating advective breakthrough times can be overestimated up to a factor of about 10 in the median.

  • 139.
    Fölster, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi, Samhällsekonomi.
    Nystrom, Johan
    Climate Policy to Defeat the Green Paradox2010Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 223-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide emissions have accelerated since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol. This discouraging development may partly be blamed on accelerating world growth and on lags in policy instruments. However, it also raises serious question concerning whether policies to reduce CO2 emissions are as effective as generally assumed. In recent years, a considerable number of studies have identified various feedback mechanisms of climate policies that often erode, and occasionally reinforce, their effectiveness. These studies generally focus on a few feedback mechanisms at a time, without capturing the entire effect. Partial accounting of policy feedbacks is common in many climate scenarios. The IPCC, for example, only accounts for direct leakage and rebound effects. This article attempts to map the aggregate effects of different types of climate policy feedback mechanisms in a cohesive framework. Controlling feedback effects is essential if the policy measures are to make any difference on a global level. A general conclusion is that aggregate policy feedback mechanisms tend to make current climate policies much less effective than is generally assumed. In fact, various policy measures involve a definite risk of 'backfiring' and actually increasing CO2 emissions. This risk is particularly pronounced once effects of climate policies on the pace of innovation in climate technology are considered. To stand any chance of controlling carbon emissions, it is imperative that feedback mechanisms are integrated into emission scenarios, targets for emission reduction and implementation of climate policy. In many cases, this will reduce the scope for subsidies to renewable energy sources, but increase the scope for other measures such as schemes to return carbon dioxide to the ground and to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases from wetlands and oceans. A framework that incorporates policy feedback effects necessitates rethinking the design of the national and regional emission targets. This leads us to a new way of formulating emission targets that include feedback effects, the global impact target. Once the full climate policy feedback mechanisms are accounted for, there are probably only three main routes in climate policy that stand a chance of mitigating global warming: (a) returning carbon to the ground, (b) technological leaps in zero-emission energy technology that make it profitable to leave much carbon in the ground even in Annex II countries and (c) international agreements that make it more profitable to leave carbon in the ground or in forests.

  • 140.
    Gallet, Romain
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Redeveloping Lyon Part-Dieu: Innovative construction sites management in a dense urban area2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at identifying on a concrete example the possible transfer of methods from strategic spatial planning to lower scales of planning like urban programming or operational planning of construction sites. Strategic spatial planning is a participatory and open method establishing the basis for cooperation between public and private stakeholders to achieve what is defined by said stakeholders as the best evolution for the territory it is dealing with, it relies on tools and processes like territorial diagnosis, thematic workshops and roundtables; Objectives are more qualitatively than quantitatively defined to allow flexibility to adapt to internal and external changes. This paper considers the territory of Lyon conurbation, France, as its territory of focus and particularly the redevelopment project of its central business district and multimodal hub, Part-Dieu.

    The planning of Lyon conurbation was in the 80s at the vanguard of strategic planning in France. Driven by Lyon urban planning agency and Grand Lyon, the local authority in charge of the area, under the pressure of local economic actors, Lyon conurbation acquired and integrated new tools and methods from strategic spatial planning. The hypothesis of this study is that, from then on, strategic planning methods and processes got transferred from the field of pure strategic spatial planning to the lower notches of the decision-making chain leading to the realization of a project: the stage of the programming of a neighborhood – the Part-Dieu district – and the stage of the operational planning of a construction or redevelopment operation.

    This study puts forward the following reasoning to explain this transfer of methods: an acculturation process to the collaborative and qualitative methods of strategic spatial planning took place in the territory of Lyon conurbation. It happened between the corporate cultures of spatial planning and those of urban program design and construction operation management. However, more than a way to really involve all stakeholders in the decision-making process in a bottom-up approach, this study suggests that the use of these methods at the stage of construction/redevelopment operation management is more of a facade to make stakeholders better accept decisions already taken by experts and/or public authorities. One could talk about a top-down approach disguised as a bottom-up approach.

  • 141.
    Galli, Ester
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Towards frame analysis in environmental conflict2007Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 142.
    Gebreslassie, Mulualem G.
    et al.
    Mekelle University.
    Gebreyesus, Hailu B.
    Mekelle University.
    Gebretsadik, Mulubrhan T.
    Mekelle University.
    Bahta, Solomon T.
    Mekelle University.
    Birkie, Seyoum Eshetu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Hållbar produktionsutveckling (ML).
    Characterization of Municipal Solid waste’s Potential for Power Generation at Mekelle City as a Waste Minimisation strategy2019Inngår i: International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, ISSN 1939-7038, E-ISSN 1939-7046Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste to energy concept is one of the best methods, which not only consider the environment but alsogenerate energy from municipal solid waste (MSW). Generation of MSWs at Mekelle city, Ethiopia, hasgrown steadily mainly due to migration of people from rural areas. However, the waste has not beenmanaged and utilised as a useful resource due to lack of awareness and proper technology in the city.The objective of this study was to measure the heat content of solid waste generated in the city.Measurement of heating value was performed on collected samples using bomb calorimeter andDulong’s formula. The average heating values obtained from the experimental analysis were 17,001kJ/kg. The energy content obtained from the elemental composition of waste using Dulong’s formulawas 16,853 kJ/kg. These results indicate that it could be possible to generate 8.7 MW of power from thesolid waste composition represented by the sample; it is a good potential to alleviating the powershortage and interruption problems in the city. The results of this study could be used for designconsiderations in the selection and establishment of waste to energy technology in Mekelle city.

  • 143. Gentil, Emmanuel C.
    et al.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Hauschild, Michael
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Thorneloe, Susan
    Kaplan, Pervin Ozge
    Barlaz, Morton
    Muller, Olivier
    Matsui, Yasuhiro
    Ii, Ryota
    Christensen, Thomas H.
    Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions2010Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, nr 12, s. 2636-2648Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results from different LCA studies can be consistent. This paper is an attempt to identify, review and analyse methodologies and technical assumptions used in various parts of selected waste LCA models. Several criteria were identified, which could have significant impacts on the results, such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing waste LCA models. This review infers that some of the differences in waste LCA models are inherent to the time they were developed. It is expected that models developed later, benefit from past modelling assumptions and knowledge and issues. Models developed in different countries furthermore rely on geographic specificities that have an impact on the results of waste LCA models. The review concludes that more effort should be employed to harmonise and validate non-geographic assumptions to strengthen waste LCA modelling.

  • 144.
    Ghebremichael, Kebreab Afwerki
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Moringa seed and pumice as alternative natural materials for drinking water treatment2004Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Pumice and the Moringa oleifera (MO) seed were investigated as alternative natural materials for drinking water treatment based on problems identified at the Stretta Vaudetto water treatment plant in Eritrea.

    Lab and pilot scale studies showed that pumice was a suitable alternative material for dual media filtration. Conversion of the sand filters at Stretta Vaudetto to pumice-sand media would significantly improve performance of the filtration units. The coagulant protein from the MO seed was purified in a single-step ion exchange purification method. The parameters for batch purification were optimized that can be readily scaled up. This will promote its use in water treatment.

    A small volume coagulation assay method was developed that simplified and expedited the coagulation activity experiments. MO coagulant protein (MOCP) possessed considerable coagulation and sludge conditioning properties as alum. It also showed antimicrobial effects against bacteria, some of which are antibiotic resistant. The coagulation and antimicrobial properties of MOCP render it important in water treatment.

  • 145.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Assessing the environmental efficiency of Buildings2005Inngår i: Methodologies in housing research / [ed] Vestbro, D-U., Hürol, Y., and Wilkinson, N, Tyne&Wear, Great Britain: The Urban International Press , 2005Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 146. Gold, Moritz
    et al.
    Ddiba, Daniel Isaac Waya
    Seck, Alsane
    Sekigongo, Patrick
    Diene, Alassane
    Diaw, Serigne
    Niang, Seydou
    Niwagaba, Charles
    Strande, Linda
    Faecal sludge as a solid industrial fuel: a pilot-scale study2017Inngår i: Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, ISSN 2043-9083, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 243-251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Revenues from faecal sludge (FS) treatment end products could offset treatment costs and contribute to financially viable sanitation. In urban sub-Saharan Africa, energy-producing resource recovery has the potential to generate greater revenue than use as soil conditioner. In contrast with wastewater sludge, the technical feasibility of using dried FS as solid fuel in industries has not been investigated. This study evaluated it through characterization of dried FS from drying beds and by assessing the combustion performance in two pilot-scale kilns, in Kampala and Dakar. Results from the fuel characterization demonstrate that dried FS had comparable fuel characteristics as wastewater sludge considering calorific value and ash content. The calorific values and ash contents were 10.9–13.4 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 47.0–58.7%, respectively. Results from pilot-scale experiments suggest that dried FS can be effective in providing energy for industries. Temperatures in pilot-scale kilns fueled by FS were 800 °C, sufficient for curing of clay bricks, and 437 °C, sufficient for waste oil regeneration. In Kampala and Dakar, an estimated 20,000 tons of FS DM per year accumulate. Tapping the industrial fuel market and financial benefits could be realized through optimization of onsite sanitation and treatment technologies.

  • 147.
    Gontier, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Biodiversity in environmental assessment: tools for impact prediction2005Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanisation and infrastructure developments impact on the surrounding natural environment and threaten biodiversity. The fragmentation of natural habitats in particular is a major obstacle for the preservation of biodiversity in a long-term perspective. In the planning process, both the environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment processes play a central role in the identification and prediction of impacts on biodiversity. At the same time, the devel-opment of GIS technologies and GIS-based ecological models offer new perspectives in the elaboration of predictions. In order to analyse current practices and identify the need for im-provements in the environmental impact process, a review of environmental impact assessment reports was carried out. Further, a review of existing GIS methods and GIS-based ecological models is presented. The results of the review of environmental impact assessment reports show a lack of predictions in current biodiversity assessments. These asssessments often concentrate on impacts at the local scale, failing to consider large-scale and widespread impacts at the ecosys-tem and landscape levels. The review of GIS methods and GIS-based ecological models demon-strate the possibility to generate quantitative predictions for a specific area as well as for it’s sur-rounding environment. At the same time, the flexibility and reproducibility of such methods would allow predictions to be made for different alternatives or scenarios, therefore providing decision makers with relevant information of potential impacts on biodiversity. This would, in turn, result in an improved integration of biodiversity issues in physical planning and contribute to a sustainable development.

  • 148.
    Gontier, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Integrating landscape ecology in environmental impact assessment using GIS and ecological modelling2006Inngår i: From landscape research to landscape planning / [ed] Tress, B., Tress, G. and Opdam, P., Springer, 2006, s. 345-354Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological assessment in environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment processes requires improvements. The descriptive and qualitative nature of many ecological assessments suggests a need to develop and implement quantitative and predictive methods to assess problems such as fragmentation and impacts on biodiversity. Such tools, from basic GIS applications to more advanced ecological models, already exist and have reached a level of development that allows practical implementation outside the research sphere. The chapter presents a literature review on the potential application and advantages of ecological models and GIS-based methods in carrying out ecological assessments in the Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment processes. The implementation of such tools translates into practice certain concepts of landscape ecology related to ecological dynamic or spatial and temporal scales. Although data requirements and the complexity of ecological models are limitations to their reproducibility and application range, the integration of landscape-ecology concepts in ecological assessment through the use of ecological models and GIS tools would contribute to the sustainable management of landscapes and their ecological resources. Finally, I argue that predictive modelling and GIS tools can also serve as a platform to integrate other landscape components that can be characterized spatially such as recreational and cultural values.

  • 149.
    Gontier, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Scale issues in the assessment of ecological impacts using a GIS-based habitat model: A case study for the Stockholm region2007Inngår i: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 440-459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) provide two interlinked platforms for the assessment of impacts on biodiversity caused by human developments. Although it might be too early to draw conclusions on the efficiency of SEA to assess such impacts, a number of persistent problems have been identified in the case of EIA. Some of these shortcomings concern the lack of proper prediction and impact quantification, and the inadequate/insufficient assessment of cumulative effects. A number of problems are related to the scale(s) at which the assessment is performed. SEA may provide a more adequate framework than EIA to discuss scale-related issues (i.e. cumulative impacts) but it also requires the use of adapted tools. This paper presents a case study where a GIS-based habitat model for the lesser spotted woodpecker is tested, validated and applied to a planning scenario in the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results show that the method adopted offers great prospects to contribute to a better assessment of biodiversity-related impacts. Even though some limitations remain in the form of data requirement and interpretation of the results, the model produced continuous, quantified predictions over the study area and provided a relevant basis for the assessment of cumulative effects. Furthermore, this paper discusses potential conflicts between different scales involved in the assessment - related to administrative boundaries, ecological processes, data availability, the method adopted to perform the assessment and temporal aspects.

  • 150.
    Gontier, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Spatial prediction tools for biodiversity in environmental assessment2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities in the form of land use changes, urbanisation and infrastructure developments are major threats to biodiversity. The loss and fragmentation of natural habitats are great obstacles for the long term preservation of biodiversity and nature protection measures alone may not be sufficient to tackle the problem. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) play a central role in identifying, predicting and managing the impacts of human activities on biodiversity. The review of current practice suggests that the complexity of the task is underestimated and that new methodological approaches encompassing the entire landscape are needed. Spatial aspects of the assessment and the lack of information on scale-related issues are particular problems affecting the appropriate assessment of cumulative effects. In parallel with the development and establishment of EIA and SEA, spatial modelling is an expanding field in ecology and many derived applications could be suitable for the prediction and assessment of biodiversity-related impacts. The diversity of modelling methods suggests that a strategy is needed to identify prediction methods appropriate for EIA and SEA. The relevance and potential limitations of GIS-based species distribution and habitat models in predicting impacts on biodiversity were examined in three studies in the greater Stockholm area. Distinct approaches to habitat suitability modelling were compared from the perspective of environmental assessment needs and requirements. The results showed that model performance, validity and ultimate suitability for planning applications were strongly dependent on empirical data and expert knowledge. The methods allowed visual, qualitative and quantitative assessment of habitat loss, thus improving decision support for assessment of impacts on biodiversity. The proposed methods allowed areas of high ecological value and the surrounding landscape to be considered in the same assessment, thereby contributing to better integration of biodiversity issues in physical planning.

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