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  • 101. Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Nordborg, Maria
    Cederberg, Christel
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Sörme, Louise
    Palm, Viveka
    Stamyr, Kristin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Molander, Sverker
    The Zinc Paradox – a Problem for USETox-based indicators of national chemical footprint2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the immense problem of chemical pollution worldwide, there is a great need for methods that can be used to calculate indicators of chemical footprints. Such indicators can be calculated for products and services using life cycle assessment (LCA), but also for whole nations. Indicators of natio- nal chemical footprints may include emissions within the nation’s borders only, or also emissions related to consumption (thus having a life cycle perspective). A limited number of studies (< 5) have attempted to calculate indicators of national chemical footprints using the USEtox consensus model for toxicity impact assessment in LCA. One of these is our calculation of indicators of a national chemical footprint for Sweden. Two other studies have made similar assessments for Europe. Using the national perspective of these studies enables a rough validation of USEtox results, since the indicators of national chemiABSTRACTS 62 63 cal footprint based on USEtox can be compared to non-LCA toxicity assessments done on national levels. Such validations are not possible for LCA studies of single products. Notably, the results of existing assessments of indicators of national chemical footprints, including our Swedish study, all pinpoint zinc as the dominating substance. Zinc typically accounts for >50% of the toxicity impacts for both ecotoxicity and human toxicity. For ecotoxicity, this is not unreasonable considering the notable toxicity of zinc to aquatic organisms. For human toxicity, this result is more surprising. Zinc is an essential trace element for humans that many take as a dietary supplement to prevent zinc deficiency. Non-LCA sources describe zinc as “relatively harmless” to human health. The World Health Organisation (WHO) does not list zinc among the top ten chemicals of major public health concern, although there are other metals on the list (mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic). These contradictory claims about zinc’s health impact seem to constitute a paradox. We present a review of existing studies assessing indicators of national chemical footprints, and of toxicological research related to zinc. We further discuss potential causes of this zinc paradox, as well as implications for assessments of indicators of national chemical footprints with USEtox.

  • 102.
    Ashok, Archana
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Textile paper as a circular material2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing resource efficiency by utilising secondary raw material is one of the key characteristics of a circular economy. Textile dust fibre, a waste generated from textile mechanical recycling has the prospect to be utilised as secondary raw material for producing novel material: textile paper suitable for packaging and other applications. A comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of carrier bags made from one ton of virgin paper, recycled paper and novel textile paper (~22584paper bags with grammage of 100 g/m2 and same dimensions for all 3 types of bags) showed that textile paper bag is more environmentally friendly in terms of carbon footprint. The largest environmental contributors were energy consumed in the pulping and paper making processes, followed by the use of adhesives and printing ink in the conversion process of paper to papercarrier bags.

    A comparative Techno-economic Assessment (TEA) was carried out for the operating cost of producing the three selected carrier bag types. The analysis conveyed that textile paper bags are more economically attractive, mainly due to the partial substitution of paper fibre with low-cost textile dust fibre.

    Furthermore, a simple tool was developed with an attempt to assess and compare materials suitability for the circular economy considering life cycle thinking and business perspectives. Assessment of textile paper using the Circular material assessment tool indicated that there is still scope for improvement on the following circularity characteristics of circular material: scarcity of raw material, local supply of resources, clean and non-toxic resources. Textile paper material scored high in the following circularity characteristics: secondary raw material, industrial symbiosis, recycling, resource efficiency in manufacturing and use. In the final step, the textile paper bag was eco-designed through the combined and iterative LCA and TEA approach with the aim to achieve improved scores as a circular material. In order to understand the overall sustainability advantages and trade-offs, further research is recommended on different textile dust fibre grades as well as textile paper performance based on mechanical properties. It is also recommended to investigate textile paper in other applications like one time fashion clothes, reusable paper bags as textile hangers etc.

  • 103.
    Asimakopoulos, George
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Start–up of a Thermophilic Digestion of Sewage Sludge from Mesophilic Conditions.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this Master thesis is to study two different ways of start-up in anaerobic digesters under thermophilic conditions. As awareness for energy supply is growing, municipal waste water treatment uses a common treatment to stabilize sewage sludge which is called, anaerobic digestion (AD). Anaerobic digestion can transform the organic matter to combustible biogas which contains 60-70% methane. Biogas is usually referred to as a mixture of carbon dioxide (C02) and methane gas (CH4). The most common way to anaerobically treat sewage sludge at wastewater treatment plants in Sweden is on mesophilic conditions (30-40℃). Only 12 plants in the country treat sewage sludge in thermophilic conditions 50-60℃. Mesophilic digestion is considered as a more stable process but requires a longer hydraulic retention time to reach digestibility compared to thermophilic digestion. The higher temperature also enables a pathogenic destruction capacity which means that thermophilic digestion can be used as a sanitation method for sewage sludge.

  • 104.
    Askew, Robin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Carlberg, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Office chairs in circular business models2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This is a master’s thesis project of 30 credits written with guidance from the Swedish research institute ICT Viktoria and Industrial Ecology at KTH. This thesis is conducted by two students at KTH, one with a background in Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Ecology and the other with a background in Energy and Environmental Technology. This study focuses on circular economy linked to the furniture industry in Sweden and how the transition from theoretical to practical concepts can be improved.

    The methods of this thesis consist of three semi-structured interviews, a survey and an analytical comparative literature review. The interviews, survey and literature review is analyzed with the purpose of finding important criteria relevant for office chairs in circular business models. The interviews are performed face-to-face with three different key persons; an office supply manager, a CEO at a refurbishing company and a product manager.

    The study focuses on product design within the Swedish furniture industry although some aspects regarding circular business models, logistics and psychological values are included.

    The results are design criteria for office chairs in circular business models and a design evaluation program for the industry built on these. The program, based on multi criteria analysis, can help reduce the gap between theory and practice of how circular economy should be implemented in the industry. By giving early feedback during the design phase on how well an office chair and a company’s structure meet circular economy criteria the authors hope to ease and speed up this transition.

    The main characteristics of an office chair designed for circular business models are:

    • Durable

    • Easy to service

    • Adaptable

    • Modular

    • Homogeneous material composition in modules

      Although the transition to circular business models can be a comprehensive process the authors believe that if furniture manufacturers would integrate circular business models for office chairs into their business structure this would be both economically viable and highly beneficial for their environmental profile which can strengthen their position on the market. 
  • 105.
    Askew, Robin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Rönnberg-Halvorsen, Arvid
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    GRINDA WÄRDSHUS: Hållbart värmesystem i form av värmepump för Grinda Wärdshus2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Grinda Wärdshus är beläget på ön Grinda i Stockholms nordöstra skärgård. Detta projekt har till avsikt att på Skärgårdsstiftelsens förfrågan inventera värdshusets nuvarande oljebaserade värmesystem för att finna ett mer hållbart alternativ baserat på en värmepump. En omfattande litteraturstudie samt ett flertal studiebesök genomförs för att införskaffa nödvändig bakgrund kring nuvarande samt alternativa värmesystem. Med hjälp av årlig oljeförbrukning samt värdshusets maxeffektbehov dimensioneras ett system baserat på en värmepump. Ekonomiska, sociala samt miljömässiga aspekter av systembytet utvärderas. Huvudsyftet med projektet är att minska värdshusets miljöpåverkan men då ett byte till värmepump innebär stora investeringskostnader ligger det i Skärgårdsstiftelsens intresse att hitta ett ekonomiskt fördelaktigt alternativ. Därmed genomförs även en långsiktig ekonomisk analys.

    Värdshusets värmebehov uppskattas till 160 MWh med en årlig kostnad på 228 000 kr. Med en bergvärmepump blir kostnaden 62 000 kr per år vilket medför en årlig besparing på 166 000 kr. En bergvärmepump med 40 kW är lämplig för systemet. Vald värmepump kan leverera upp till 188.5 MWh per år vilket ger marginaler för framtida ökat värmebehov. Investeringskostnaden för bytet uppgår till ca 600 000 kr som återbetalas inom 4 år och nuvärdet av projektet är 2.4 miljoner kr. Nuvarande system ger upphov till 53 ton CO , vid ett byte till rekommenderad bergvärmepump 2reduceras dessa utsläpp till noll.  

  • 106.
    Ast, Eric
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    The state of long-term climate action planning in megacities: Planning and demographic trends among 17 of the world’s leading cities aiming to reduce emissions by 80% by the year 20502015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report reviews the current state of long-term climate action planning in 17 cities which have publicly communicated carbon reducttargets in line with the IPCC recommended 80% reduction by 2050 (80x50) for stabilizing the impacts of climate change at 2°C.  The aim of this report is to provide a foundation of support for cities in achieving their deep carbon reduction goals through a comprehensive understanding of leading climate action plans and the context under which they were created, including current city emissions and demographic data, climate plan reduction strategies and targets, and feedback on plan creation and needs from city planning staff.  By achieving this aim, cities are in a better position to understand where their plans fit in the global context and connect with other cities around common issues, research institutions have a new benchmark analysis of leading action plans to build further research upon, and city-level climate action organizations have a clearer idea of how to focus efforts in helping cities achieve carbon reduction goals.  This aim is achieved through the application of a framework for comparing city plans and targets, an analysis of current city emissions and demographic data, and synthesis of key findings from city planning staff discussions.  

    Key findings show no clear demographic and environmental biases exist within these 17 cities, indicating long-term climate action planning can be undertaken by cities across the full spectrum of size, climate, and current per capita emissions output, though regional geographic and development bias exists.  Plans for carbon reduction are highly concentrated among a small number of actions, indicating the movement has coalesced around a standard set of strategies for achieving deep carbon reductions.  Finally, the relative newness of plans, with the majority less than 5 years old, and the lack of commonality among cities in emissions methodology and communication of reduction strategies, shifts a short-term focus towards standardization methodologies which enable deeper comparison between cities and plans.

  • 107.
    Atabas, Burak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Yildirim, Siho
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Optimering av vägdataleveranser till den nationella vägdatabasen med hjälp av byggnadsinformationsmodellering2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikverket använder den nationella vägdabatasen, NVDB, för att samla in och hantera levererad vägdata. Den nationella vägdatabasen är därför väldigt avgörande för förvaltning och underhåll av vägar. Trafikverket driver projekt där nya vägar för fordon, cyklister och fotgängare byggs och slutligen tas i bruk. Information om vägdata från dessa projekt levereras sedan till NVDB och med hjälp av informationen kan de nya vägarna underhållas för att kunna behålla en lång livslängd.

    Enligt Trafikverket kan leveranser av vägdata från projekt till den nationella vägdatabasen fortfarande förbättras då de för närvarande inte är tillräckligt effektiva. Trafikverket har intresset att förbättra leveranser av vägdata till NVDB för att uppnå en högre och förenklad kontroll över Sveriges infrastruktur. Potentialen för ökad digitalisering och automatisering av hantering av vägdata finns för att Trafikverket ska kunna uppnå en mer hållbar infrastruktur med så låg miljöbelastning som möjligt.

    Syftet med arbetet är att hjälpa Trafikverket att uppnå en mer hållbar infrastruktur genom förenkling av underhåll av vägar. Arbetet är uppdelat i två frågeställningar varav den första frågeställningen belyser Trafikverkets kravställningar generellt för leverans av vägdata till NVDB från projekt för att undersöka om de är tillräckligt omfattande och tydliga. Den andra frågeställningen undersöker i en fallstudie hur leveranser av vägdata till NVDB i projektet E4 Förbifart Stockholm Lindvreten Norra kan optimeras.

    Metoderna som användes i studien är främst kvalitativa och inkluderar en litteraturstudie, en fallstudie och intervjuer. Även kvantitativa metoder användes genom dataanalys och framtagning av ett lösningskoncept, vilket testades i projektet med syfte att förenkla och effektivisera hanteringen av vägdata.

    Resultaten tyder på att Trafikverkets kravställningar för vägdataleveranser till NVDB från projekt har vissa brister. Ett antal åtgärder har föreslagits och en åtgärd är att varje vägdataleverans ska vara i ett fastställt filformat. Fortsättningsvis ska direktiven i kravställningen förtydligas och effektiviseras. Vägdata ska alltid innehålla X-, Y- och Z-koordinater samt vara konverterade till ett bestämt koordinatsystem. Inför varje projekt ska det i ett tidigt skede kravställas att vägens geometri representeras i en referenslinje med ett bestämt filformat. Referenslinjen ska vara anknuten till vägens tillhörande komponenter.

    Ytterligare erhållna resultat i studien har varit ett antal föreslagna åtgärder för optimering av vägdata som levereras till NVDB från projektet Lindvreten Norra. I första hand bör en referenslinjefil skapas som tidigare nämnt. Därefter ska en mall iordningställas och fyllas i med nödvändig information. Slutligen ska informationen i mallen integreras med geometrin i referenslinjefilen för att skapa en leveransfärdig fil i korrekt format på ett automatiserat sätt till NVDB.

    Avslutningsvis dras slutsatsen att Trafikverkets kravställningar för leverans av vägdata till NVDB från projekt är otydliga och alltför omfattande. Med hjälp av det framtagna lösningskonceptet kan vägdataleveranser till NVDB från projektet Lindvreten Norra optimeras. På så vis kan Trafikverkets underhållsavdelning få mer korrekta planeringsunderlag för vägarna och kan därmed upprätta underhållsplaner som bidrar till en mer hållbar infrastruktur.

  • 108.
    Atasoy, Merve
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Resursåtervinning.
    Owusu-Agyeman, Isaac
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Resursåtervinning.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Resursåtervinning.
    Bio-based volatile fatty acid production and recovery from waste streams: Current status and future challenges2018Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 268, s. 773-786Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-based volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from waste-stream is getting attention due to increasing market demand and wide range usage area as well as its cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach. The aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of bio-based VFA production and recovery methods and to give an opinion on future research outlook. Effects of operation conditions including pH, temperature, retention time, type of substrate and mixed microbial cultures on VFA production and composition were reviewed. The recovery methods in terms of gas stripping with absorption, adsorption, solvent extraction, electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and membrane contractor of VFA were evaluated. Furthermore, strategies to enhance bio-based VFA production and recovery from waste streams, specifically, in-line VFA recovery and bioaugmentation, which are currently not used in common practice, are seen as some of the approaches to enhance bio-based VFA production.

  • 109. Augustsson, A.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Uddh T.
    Jarsjö, J.
    Åström, M.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Destouni, G.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, s. 1420-1431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.

  • 110.
    Axelsson, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Jennerot, Mikaela
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Restaurangers förhållningssätt till hållbar matkonsumtion: En studie av restauranger på KTH campus med tonvikt på animaliska livsmedel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens livsmedelproduktion står för uppemot 30 % av världens totala växthusgasutsläpp. Den grad av klimatpåfrestning ett livsmedel har beror på olika faktorer som t ex produktionsmetod och transport, där tidigare forskning visat på att animaliska produkter är de livsmedel som har störst klimatavtryck. Mot målet att uppnå en mer hållbar matkonsumtion har det blivit allt viktigare i dagens samhälle att kartlägga matflöden och utifrån denna kunskap upprätta handlingsåtgärder för att minska på konsumtionen av livsmedel med sämre klimatpåverkan. Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka i vilka mängder olika slags livsmedel, med tonvikt på animaliska produkter, serveras på restauranger på KTH campus samt att undersöka restaurangernas befintliga arbete relaterat till hållbar utveckling. Undersökningen har avgränsats till två restauranger, Open Café och Restaurang Nymble, och den information som studien baserats på har erhållits från restaurangerna genomdatainsamlingar och intervjuer.

    Utifrån resultaten av studien kan konstateras att bägge restauranger arbetar med hållbar matkonsumtion, däremot har olika prioriteringsområden valts. Open Café har huvudfokus på inköp av KRAV-märkta produkter medan Restaurang Nymble arbetar mycket med att minimera sitt matsvinn. Beträffande lunchmåltider så förekommer animaliska livsmedel såväl som vegetabiliska på bägge restaurangers veckomenyer. Kött- fisk och vegetariska rätter erbjuds, där Open Café serverar helvegetariska måltider två gånger per vecka och Restaurang Nymble erbjuder ett vegetariskt alternativ varje dag.

    Genom kartläggning av animalieprodukterna i ingående lunchrätter, med hjälp av verktygen KöttP och Fiskguiden, visar det sig att båda restauranger använder produkter som klassas som bättre för miljön, men även produkter som har för hög påverkan på planeten och därför borde undvikas. Mängden animalieprodukter per lunchrätt beror på restaurangens hållbarhetstänk, vilket serveringskoncept man valt samt huruvida näringsrekommendationer tillämpas eller inte.

  • 111.
    Azar, Christian
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Gothenburg University.
    Johansson-Stenman, Olof
    Gothenburg University.
    Ledin, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Munthe, John
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Smith, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Turesson, Anders
    Swedish Ministry of Environment and Energy.
    Vahter, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Miljöpolitikens spelplan: Rapport från Miljöforskningsberedningen2014Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 112.
    Azar, Christian
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Gothenburg University.
    JohanssonStenman, Olof
    Gothenburg University.
    Ledin, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Munthe, John
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Smith, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Vahter, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Inrätta ett miljöpolitiskt råd direkt under statsministern2014Inngår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 2014-10-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 113.
    Azcarate, Juan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Beyond impacts: Contextualizing strategic environmental assessment to foster the inclusion of multiple values in strategic planning2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has the potential to improve strategic planning. However, meeting this expectation is a major challenge since SEA practice still constraints itself to assess the impacts of strategic planning initiatives. To advance the role of SEA beyond impact assessment, it has been argued that SEA needs to adapt to strategic planning contexts. Yet, there is a lack of consensus on how SEA should adapt to strategic planning contexts as these are complex, vary considerably and carry high levels of uncertainty. Against this background, the aim of this thesis is to contribute to the development of SEA by creating knowledge on ways in which it can be contextualized to different strategic planning situations. Three case studies addressing different values and strategic planning contexts were designed from which experiences on SEA conceptualization were drawn. The results show that developing strategic focused SEA frameworks that enhance dialogue, collaboration and knowledge generation on multiple values can address issues such as: the lack of data and objectives in developing planning contexts; gaps in knowledge and uncertainty associated to environmental monitoring in transboundary contexts; and the recognition of the importance of ecosystem services and their needed green qualities in urbanizing contexts. Based on the gained case study experiences, it is argued that SEA contextualization can mean addressing strategic planning intentions, identifying and engaging actors, deriving and prioritizing key values, collaborating to generate knowledge on key issues, and using this knowledge to shape strategic planning. Due to the complexity of the issues involved, contextualizing SEA is considered to be challenging to achieve and requires time and resources. However, based on the SEA case studies, it can be argued that the value added to strategic planning outweighs these requirements. Continuing to study the practice of context adaptable, strategic focused and participatory based SEA processes may contribute to advance SEA’s role beyond impact assessment and enable reaching its expected potentials.

  • 114.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University.
    Strategic environmental assessment and monitoring: Arctic key gaps and bridging pathways2013Inngår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 044033-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic region undergoes rapid and unprecedented environmental change. Environmental assessment and monitoring is needed to understand and decide how to mitigate and/or adapt tothe changes and their impacts on society and ecosystems. This letter analyzes the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and the monitoring, based on environmental observations, that should be part of SEA, elucidates main gaps in both, and proposes an overarching SEA framework to systematically link and improve both with focus on the rapidly changing Arctic region. Shortcomings in the monitoring of environmental change are concretized by examples of main gaps in the observations of Arctic hydroclimatic changes. For relevant identification and efficient reduction of such gaps and remaining uncertainties under typical conditions of limited monitoring resources, the proposed overarching framework for SEA application includes components for explicit gap/uncertainty handling and monitoring, systematically integrated within all steps of the SEA process. The framework further links to adaptive governance, which should explicitly consider key knowledge and information gaps that are identified through and must be handled in the SEA process, and accordingly (re)formulate and promote necessary new or modified monitoring objectives for bridging these gaps.

  • 115.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University.
    Scenario-based Transboundary Approach to Shape Arctic Futures2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advances, climate change and increased strategic interest in the Arctic are causing rapid and long lasting transformations that challenge established governance and collaboration practices, and increase information demands to support regional decision making. In the rapidly transforming Arctic, however, scenarios of environmental change risk being insufficiently accounted for in adaptation planning, as monitoring of key environmental parameters has declined or is poorly optimized. Furthermore, application of support instruments for environmental planning, such as strategic environmental assessment, has been limited. This poster presents recent advancements in efforts to combine quantitative analysis of environmental monitoring in the Arctic with strategic governance research to develop instruments, such as scenarios, projections and assessment processes, which can facilitate relevant planning and decision making for change adaptation. The research explores and aims to improve the preconditions for and links between environmental management, policy-relevant monitoring, and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic. Results include environmental monitoring assessment for the Arctic, and design of a transboundary strategic environmental assessment approach that includes scenarios as a main component for enabling strategic dialogues, information exchange and decision support. In this proposed approach, focus is placed on identifying conflicts of interest, gaps of knowledge and uncertainties, and on developing inclusive scenarios and future projections that could be used by different actors to facilitate improved understanding of climate change impacts on sensitive and unique Arctic ecosystems. The approach can be used to discuss and arrive at shared projections, visions and objectives for the Arctic, and its application and testing in research may aid in enabling Arctic actors to establish networks, interact, share information and develop their capacities to improve decisions on Arctic futures.  

  • 116.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University.
    Transboundary approach proposal for sustainable and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Decisions on the development of the Arctic should be given increased attention as its environmental, socio-economic and political circumstances are being significantly influenced by major trends that reinforce and support each other and together are causing long lasting transformations in the region.

    Increased strategic interest in the Arctic combined with rapid technological advances and climate change are leading to growing economic activities and natural resource extraction that challenge regional sustainable management and governance practices and international collaboration.

    Furthermore, environmental transformations risk being insufficiently accounted for in adaptation planning as environmental assessment application in the Arctic has been limited and monitoring of key environmental parameters has declined or is poorly optimized just when better information is a strong need. 

    In an effort to better understand the forces behind rapid Arctic transformations and to support key development decisions, a collaborative research project between the Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University has been established.1

    The aim of the project is to combine recent frontline research on strategic governance with quantitative analysis of environmental monitoring to develop decision making tools and assessment processes and explore and improve the preconditions for and links between environmental management, policy-relevant monitoring and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic.

    Methods

    A context analysis of Arctic institutional and governance frameworks is being carried out, where policies, sustainability objectives, environmental assessment practice, actors, and the effects of climate change are compiled, systematized and synthesized.

    Furthermore, a transboundary and participative strategic environmental assessment for information and skill exchange is being developed. Focus is placed on identifying conflicts of interest, gaps of knowledge and uncertainties, and on developing inclusive scenarios of future development possibilities that could be used by different stakeholders to discuss and arrive at shared development visions and objectives for the Arctic.

    Results and Discussion

    The collaborative research will enable Arctic actors to interact, increase and share information, skills and knowledge, build networks and, by this, develop their capacities. Moreover, experience will be gained in developing transboundary and participative assessment approaches that can be used to arrive at accepted and inclusive scenarios, visions and objectives for the Arctic, facilitating an improved understanding of climate change impacts on sensitive and unique Arctic ecosystems. Most importantly, it is thought that the research project will support decision makers to consider sustainability issues when deciding upon the measures and choices that will shape the future development of the Arctic.2

    Conclusion

    The proposed collaborative research project serves to develop transboundary and participative assessment approaches and tools to identify strategies towards sustainable development in the Arctic. This is done by creating platforms for stakeholder participation and dialogue where inclusive and accepted development objectives are formulated to address the rapid and profound changes that confront the Arctic. Depending on the results of the Arctic case study, similar transboundary approaches can be applied in other regions where there is a need to involve a plurality of stakeholders to take fair, legitimate and sustainable decisions.    

    1(http://www.kth.se/abe/inst/lwr/grupper/ema/research/shaping-a-sustainability-strategy-for-the-arctic-1.82268).

    2(http://iaia.org/conferences/iaia11/uploadedpapers/final%20drafts/Shaping%20a%20Sustainability%20Strategy%20for%20the%20Arctic.pdf).

  • 117.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Green qualities in transport efficient cities2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A main stream postulation in urban planning is that denser cities enhance energy efficiency and city attractiveness by offering shorter travel distances and a variety of functions that reduce car traffic and facilitate walking, biking and public transit. However, the complex links that exist between city density and its implications for energy efficiency and city attractiveness call for a better understanding of the factors that influence an integrated planning of regional cities. In this context, one factor that could be of interest to study is that of green urban open spaces such as green wedges, parks, wetland areas, shore lines, gardens, cemeteries, golf courses and treed boulevards that provide protection for biodiversity as well as many other valuable ecosystem services. However, discussions on developing compact, energy efficient and attractive regional cities are raising conflicts with policies that aim at conserving green urban open spaces. The aim of this paper is to increase knowledge on and contribute to the development of strategies and measures to best manage the conflicts that are emerging between developing dense, low traffic cities and planning for good quality, valuable and accessible green urban open spaces. To achieve this aim, a conflict mapping exercise is being carried out by identifying, reviewing and assessing literature on the subject. In parallel, relevant examples are being analyzed and seminars, workshops and interviews are taking place with actors of the Stockholm city region. Obtained results are conflicting perceptions on the role that green urban open spaces should play in city development, conflicts of governance and collaboration, conflicts between different objectives at varying decision making scales, and significant limitations to integrated and systemic socio-ecological understandings of the city region and its changing values. The conflict mapping exercise is a valuable starting point to identify the proposal of alternative land use practices, discuss how these can be assessed, and define measures that can enhance compactness, energy efficiency and green qualities in city region planning and development.

  • 118.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Khoshkar, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Practitioner perspectives on conflicts and measures for green qualities in the Stockholm regionManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 119.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gordon, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    CES provision and pressure in compacting Stockholm2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 120.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Haas, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Reaching compact green cities: A study of the provision of and pressure on cultural ecosystem services in StockholmManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 121.
    Azeez Mohamed, Hussain
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Campos, Leonel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    OIL SHALE ASH UTILIZATION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AS AN ALTERNATIVE RAW MATERIAL2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Oil shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock with the potential to yield significant amounts of oil and combustible gas when retorted. Oil shale deposits have been found on almost every continent, but only Estonia, who has the 8th largest oil shale deposit in the world has continuously utilized oil shale in large scale operations. Worldwide, Estonia accounts for 80% of the overall activity involving oil shale, consuming approximately 18 million tons while producing 5–7 million tons of oil shale ash (OSA) annually. Since the amounts are quite significant, Estonia has made the choice to store OSA outdoors as ash heaps, which currently average a height of 45m and overall cover an area of approximately 20 km2. Oil shale is primarily composed of organic matter (15%–55%), low–magnesium calcite (>50%), dolomite (<10%–15%), and siliciclastic minerals (<10–15%). When oil shale is combusted in thermal power plants (TPP), temperatures as high as 1500˚C are reached; calcining CaCO3 into CaO in the process. It is the high CaO content (30%–50%; Free CaO 8%–23%) along with trace elements that makes OSA a threat to the environment; it is mainly the CaO and to a lesser degree the trace elements found in OSA that are exploited in this thesis. Currently, only about 5% of the 5–7 million tons of OSA produced annually is being utilized as an alternative raw material, mostly in the construction industry for the production of Portland cement. Multiple studies have been conducted on OSA in the past by various institutions in an attempt to increase its use in industry and reduce the negative environmental effects of storing large quantities of the highly alkaline material.

    This thesis primarily focuses on the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) and the production of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) using OSA. In Sweden, CaO is utilized in treating AMD in historical mine sites and in the production of PCC used in the paper industry. Oil shale ash has the potential to become a substitute for lime (CaO) utilized in various industries while Estonia transitions into renewable energy. The mining industry has been abundant in Sweden for hundreds of years, but the poor mining techniques of the past have led to a significant number of mines that require immediate AMD remediation. The Swedish EPA has declared that 600 mines currently need attention, which may cost approximately 2–3 billion SEK (232–350 million USD).

    1:200, 1:500, and 1:1000. All ratios yielded a pH greater than 10, most likely inducing the formation and precipitation of secondary minerals such as Schwertmannite and Ferrihydrite. The reduction of metallic cations such as Cu (maximum reduction 99.9%), Pb (99.8%), V (95.5%), Cd (99.9%), As (88.7%), and Ni (99.9%) from AMD waters was observed. The previously mentioned metallic cations most likely adsorbed and co-precipitated to the negatively charged surfaces of Schwertmannite and Ferrihydrite minerals. Metals such as Ba, Cr, and Sb were observed to leach out of OSA, increasing their concentrations in the treated AMD waters, but still within Swedish regulatory limits. Acid mine drainage treatment with OSA significantly reduces heavy metal concentrations; transforming the polluted waters from hazardous to non-hazardous waste (below Swedish leaching limit values). Precipitated calcium carbonate is utilized in many industries, such as in the production of paper, sealants and adhesives, paint, food, and pharmaceuticals. In Sweden, it is common for paper producers to have satellite PCC plants in close proximity so that CO2 (from the paper facility) is used in the carbonation of Ca(OH)2 to form PCC. The CaO in OSA may be mixed with H2O to form the required Ca(OH)2 for PCC production. Potentially replacing raw CaO currently purchased for the production of PCC.

    The conducted PCC production experiments directly carbonized vacuum filtered OSA leachate with a steady flow of CO2 gas to yield PCC. Precipitate obtained yielded 94%–99% of CaCO3 theoretical values. Throughout the carbonation process; OSA leachate’s pH began >12 and continuously decreased with time, maximum PCC production occurred at pH 9–10, and stabilized at pH 8.

    Although, the polymorphism and purity of the PCC is not known, the conducted experiments and previous studies on the topic indicate the feasibility of producing high quality PCC from OSA to be used in industry. Additionally, oil shale thermal power plants have the potential to produce PCC and other minerals by injecting flue gases into the highly alkaline (Ca(OH)2) water used to hydraulically transport OSA from the furnaces to ash heaps; reducing or seizing the production of alkaline leachates and emission of gases that currently contaminate the environment. Other applications for OSA were also investigated and reviewed, such as the lucrative extraction and refinement of rare earth elements. Estonian oil shale ash was tested for Ce, Nd, Y and Sc using ICP-MS and compared to Chinese OSA and selected European REE ores. Estonian OSA had the lowest concentrations of REEs in the comparison, nevertheless, previous studies have shown up to 80%-90% REE recovery via an acid leaching process. Rare earth recovery from OSA may be successful in the future if a practical and cost-effective method is developed. Reducing Europe’s dependence on China for REE.

  • 122.
    Aziz, Md. Tanjil Al
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Potential Utilization of Municipal Organic Solid Waste: Case Study: Dhaka City Corporation Area, Bangladesh2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste management is a concern of high priority for any city authority. Without proper management of this waste great problems may occur for society. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is a developing city. The population load and energy demand is increasing day by day. The city authority, Dhaka City Corporation (DCC), is responsible for managing the city’s solid waste.

    In Dhaka city waste is collected from door to door then put into dustbins and finally transported and dumped in the landfill sites. This unplanned waste management system creates environmental problems, such as water pollution and metal contamination, as well as social and health problems, for example skin diseases, headache, vomiting, and increases in mosquitoes, flies, and bad odour. Since the generated waste has more than 50% organic content, it can be a good source for energy generation.

    New technological solutions and a systematic approach can be a great option for management of waste. In Dhaka City Corporation Area this study addresses anaerobic digestion as a new option for energy generation. Among various types of existing technologies based on the climatic factor, waste stream, social and cultural factors, and environmental factors, the anaerobic treatment method is considered the best possible alternative method. The environmental system analysis tool, cost benefit analysis, is used in combination with the technology for determining the suitability of the system.

    By analysing technological treatment methods and environmental system analysis tools, comparisons are conducted between the present situation and a proposed scenario. The comparisons were conducted based on various considerations, such as net present benefit of total life time, net present benefit considering only economic value, net present benefit considering economic value including environmental and social value, and so on. In all cases, values for the proposed project show positive outcomes and for the present scenario they show negative ones. By analysing an environmental system analysis approach of anaerobic digestion of proposed project, it can be considered as a beneficial project for the DCC authority from environmental, social, and economic points of view. 

  • 123.
    Azzi, Elias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Waste Management Systems in Lebanon: The benefits of a waste crisis for improvement of practices2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste management is a public service which, when it fails, can rapidly become overwhelming for communities and authorities. It is also during the deepest crisis that incentives change and new practices emerge. Lebanon went through an 8-months waste crisis after the closure of the country’s main landfill. Facing the incapacity of restoring basic services, the monopolistic centralised system was questioned: civil society, social businesses and municipalities organised, at a smaller scale, their own waste management. The thesis aims were to identify the role of the new waste stakeholders in the broader picture, assess the efficiency and needs of municipal projects and suggest some priorities for the country’s solid waste policies. The use of process-flow diagrams and a contextualised classification of actors were used to describe the Lebanese system. Case studies of recent initiatives were made using an adapted ISWM framework. The investigations have shown that, since the crisis, waste management is organised around three complementary systems, with their own legitimacy, supporters and challenges, but overall lacking of cooperation and mutual recognition. The nascent decentralised waste management tends to achieve better than the traditional central system, especially in terms of landfill space saved, resource management and inclusivity of users. However, it faces issues when tackling final disposal, energy recovery and financing. Any future waste policy should include all waste actors, set clear targets and reject any “one-size-fits-all” solution benefiting private corrupted interests.

  • 124.
    Azzi, Elias Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Karltun, Erik
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Prospective Life Cycle Assessment of Large-Scale Biochar Production and Use for Negative Emissions in Stockholm2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 14, s. 8466-8476Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several cities in Sweden are aiming for climate neutrality within a few decades and for negative emissions thereafter. Combined biochar, heat, and power production is an option to achieve carbon sequestration for cities relying on biomass-fuelled district heating, while biochar use could mitigate environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector. By using prospective life cycle assessment, the climate impact of the pyrolysis of woodchips in Stockholm is compared with two reference scenarios based on woodchip combustion. The pyrolysis of woodchips produces heat and power for the city of Stockholm, and biochar whose potential use as a feed and manure additive on Swedish dairy farms is explored. The climate change mitigation trade-off between bioenergy production and biochar carbon sequestration in Stockholm's context is dominated by the fate of marginal power. If decarbonisation of power is achieved, building a new pyrolysis plant becomes a better climate option than conventional combustion. Effects of cascading biochar use in animal husbandry are uncertain but could provide 10-20% more mitigation than direct biochar soil incorporation. These results help design regional biochar systems that combine negative carbon dioxide emissions with increased methane and nitrous oxide mitigation efforts and can also guide the development of minimum performance criteria for biochar products.

  • 125.
    Babelon, Ian
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mapping place values for the green, compact and healthy city: Interlinking softGIS, sociotope mapping and communities of practice.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Urban planning research and practice provides forceful evidence that urban place-making processes should not be driven by experts and planning professionals alone: they should also build on the experiential knowledge and values of lay citizens. Experience shows that the construction of the green, compact, and healthy city fostered by sustainable development policies requires considering how places are used and valued by all relevant stakeholders. SoftGIS is a form of web-based Public Participation Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS) that provides both a method and tools for mapping the values that people attach to places and for integrating these in professional urban planning practice. This report focuses on three softGIS tools: Mapita’s Maptionnaire, Spacescape’s Bästa Platsen, and SKL’s Geopanelen. Five case studies from Finland and Sweden are analysed so as to discuss some of the main substantive issues surrounding the uptake of softGIS applications urban planning practice and decision-making, particularly in the context of urban densification measures. In so doing, the extent to which softGIS can support dialogue between lay citizens and planning professionals is assessed, with a focus on urban ecosystem services in green areas. It is demonstrated that the potential of softGIS to help broaden communities of practice in urban planning hinges on a conducive institutional context for public participation and dialogue. Furthermore, it is argued that the use of softGIS tools is optimised when it is integrated in a comprehensive multifunctional toolbox that combines both physical and digital forms of public participation.

  • 126. Babelon, Ian
    et al.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Toward Cyborg PPGIS: exploring socio-technical requirements for the use of web-based PPGIS in two municipal planning cases, Stockholm region, Sweden2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, nr 8, s. 1366-1390Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Web-based Public Participation Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS) are increasingly used for surveying place values and informing municipal planning in contexts of urban densification. However, research is lagging behind the rapid deployment of PPGIS applications. Some of the main opportunities and challenges for the uptake and implementation of web-based PPGIS are derived from a literature review and two case studies dealing with municipal planning for urban densification in the Stockholm region, Sweden. A simple clustering analysis identified three interconnected themes that together determine the performance of PPGIS: (i) tool design and affordances; (ii) organisational capacity; and (iii) governance. The results of the case studies augment existing literature regarding the connections between the different socio-technical dimensions for the design, implementation and evaluation of PPGIS applications in municipal planning. A cyborg approach to PPGIS is then proposed to improve the theoretical basis for addressing these dimensions together.

  • 127.
    Babiker, Dina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ahlstrand, Matilda
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Experimental Study of Mineral Carbonation of Wollastonite for Increased CO2 Uptake2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The cement and concrete industry stand for approximately 8% of the global CO2 emissions. The demand of concrete and cement is expected to increase rapidly with the growing world population and increased urbanization. This makes it of the utmost importance for the industry to try to mitigate its emissions. One way to reduce the industry’s environmental impact is by mineral carbonation curing through which CO2 can be sequestered in the concrete. This investigation studied the CO2 uptake of wollastonite (CaSiO3) which can be used for mineral carbonation. The CO2 uptake of different brands of wollastonite powders for different temperatures, pressures and water to solid ratios were tested through carbonation, and the samples were then analyzed through XRD, SEM and particle size analysis. The results showed large differences in CO2 uptake between the brands of wollastonite powders. They also indicate that lower temperatures lead to higher CO2 uptake but also possibly slow down the reaction rate and that higher CO2 pressures seem to increase CO2 uptake though the effect is small.

    There was significant variation of the effects of the water to solid ratios on CO2 uptake between the tested brands. The morphology of the powders also seemed to be of little relevance as an amorphous and crystalline powder were the two best performing powders, similarly particle size is not indicated by the result to have a large effect on CO2 uptake, though further studies are required to fully determine the effect of the morphology and particle size.

  • 128. Baken, Stijn
    et al.
    Sjöstedt, Carin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Seuntjens, Piet
    Desmet, Nele
    De Schutter, Jan
    Smolders, Erik
    Characterisation of hydrous ferric oxides derived from iron-rich groundwaters and their contribution to the suspended sediment of streams2013Inngår i: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 39, s. 59-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When Fe(II) bearing groundwaters surface in streams, particulate authigenic Fe-rich material is produced by oxidation. Such freshly precipitated Fe minerals may be transported as suspended sediment and have a profound impact on the fate of trace metals and nutrients in rivers. The objective of this study was to monitor changes in mineralogy and composition of authigenic material from its source to streams of increasing order. Groundwaters, surface waters, and suspended sediment in streams of different order were sampled in the Kleine Nete catchment (Belgium), a lowland with Fe-rich groundwaters (3.5-53.8 mg Fe/L; pH 6.3-6.9). Fresh authigenic material (>0.45 mu m) was produced by oxidising filtered (<0.45 mu m) groundwater and surface water. This material contained, on average, 44% Fe, and smaller concentrations of C, P, and Ca. Iron EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) spectroscopy showed that the Fe was present as poorly crystalline hydrous ferric oxides with a structure similar to that of ferrihydrite. The Fe concentration in the suspended sediment samples decreased to 36-40% (stream order 2), and further to 18-26% (stream order 4 and 5). Conversely, the concentrations of organic C, Ca, Si, and trace metals increased with increasing stream order, suggesting mixing of authigenic material with suspended sediment from a different source. The Fe speciation in the suspended sediment was similar to that in fresh authigenic material, but more Fe-Fe interactions were observed, i.e. it was increasingly hydrolysed, suggesting ageing reactions. The suspended sediment in the streams of order 4 and 5 is estimated to contain between 31% and 59% of authigenic material, but more data are needed to refine this estimate. The authigenic material is an important sink for P in these streams which may alleviate the eutrophication risk in this catchment.

  • 129.
    Bakhiet, Omnia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Data collection for management of fuel consumption in vehicles and machinery: A study on the challenges and strategic possibilities in the construction industry2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Energy utilization in Sweden has been on a rise since the 1980’s and the industrial sector has been its highest consumer. The construction industry plays a central role in building and developing cities for a population which is increasing rapidly year by year. Environmental awareness has given incentives to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and to make operations more sustainable. The construction industry faces three main challenges in regards to sustainability which are, material usage, vehicle fleets, and machine parks. Vehicles and machines are integral parts within the construction industry, however, how to reduce their environmental impact is a relatively new research area with many challenges. The conclusion that carbon dioxide emissions must be reduced is one that has been reached by the construction industry in Sweden. One way to study this aspect is by collecting and managing data on their fuel consumption since the vehicles and machines operate almost exclusively on fossil fuels.

    Data collection on fuel consumption by vehicles and machinery will give insight to what factors increase or decrease it. Analyzing these factors will allow for reductions to be made in terms ofcarbon dioxide emissions and costs. The aim of this report is therefore to investigate the aspect of data collection and management on fuel consumption in vehicles and machinery. The report is the result of work conducted in cooperation with the Nordic construction and development company NCC. NCC has set a goal for reducing climate impacts from direct operations by 50% between the years 2015 and 2020. In order for this to be achieved, carbon dioxide emissions resulting from fuel consumption have to be accounted for. As this is a new research area, this report is to serve as a baseline for NCC to get an overview of what challenges and possibilities there are with efficient data collection and management on fuel consumption.

    The study is initiated by analyzing the three main aspects which are taken into consideration within this study. The first aspect is authoritative requirements which are demands from authorities such as municipalities or the Swedish Transport Administration. The second is the contractors such as NCC which have to meet these requirements. The final aspect is the suppliers who contractors hire for projects. Furthermore, interviews are carried out to gain insight on experiences of persons within the field and the challenges they have faced. A study on Norrtälje Harbor, an old industrial harbor turning into a new city district, is also conducted as there is available data from the vehicles and machines in this project. Finally, a gap-analysis is constructed in order to gain an overview of NCC’s present standings, future goals, andlimitations in terms of data collection and management from vehicles and machinery.

    The findings of this report conclude that a lack of standard is the biggest challenge which theindustry is facing. Authorities face challenges on how to set standards while the lack of standardsleads to different methods of data collection from contractors and suppliers. It is possible tocollect data from vehicles and machines but calculations are currently based on patterns and donot give a true view of the fuel consumption. Factors, such as driving habits and environment can affect the fuel consumption, therefore the data collected should take all these factors into consideration. Benefits that a company may gain by having this data include increase incompetitiveness due to environmental awareness and transparency as well as also lower costsas less fuel will be purchased. Reducing fuel consumption will ultimately reduce carbon dioxideemissions, which is the industry’s and NCC overall goal.

  • 130.
    Bakhiet, Omnia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Mustafa, Riham
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Biogas Production in Abu Dhabi: An Evaluation based on Energy and Economy (Comparison of two plant designs)2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abu Dhabi, which is the capital city of the United Arab Emirates, is known for its fast and advanced development in a short period of time. The city however generates a large amount of waste on a daily basis and a large amount of this is dumped or landfilled. Landfilling of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and circa 80 % of the OFMSW is landfilled in Abu Dhabi. However, Abu Dhabi has shown its commitment to reducing GHG emissions by aiming to generate 7% renewable energy by 2030, improving waste management, and developing a strategy for green economy. In this study the approach evaluated is the waste-to-biogas system which utilizes anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Modules based on the Aikan® and REnescience® plant designs were simulated using SuperPro Designer® where energy and economic values were obtained and used for the evaluations. Excel was used to make a cash-flow analysis for both modules. A SWOT analysis was conducted to compare the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats between both modules.

    Energy Returned on Investment is an approach that calculates the efficiency of a fuel by dividing the energy acquired by the energy required in a process. Both modules give an energy returned on investment (EROI) ratio for biogas of slightly below 2:1, in regards to electricity which is considered relatively low when compared to other fuels. Three methods were used for calculating the profitability of the modules, internal rate of return, pay-back period and net present value (NPV). However the net present value (NPV) was found most reliable and showed an NPV of $500 000 and $3 000 000 for module one and two respectively and calculations show that module one has more risks while module two could result in a bigger risk monetarily. The results show that implementing such a system will have a minimal contribution to the city’s aim of 7 % renewable energy generation. However, it will contribute to the city’s target of reducing GHG emission, improve waste management, and lead to a green economy. 

  • 131.
    Bakyayita, Grace Kizito
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik. Makerere University, Kyambogo University.
    Batch Sorption Studies of Aqueous Cadmium and Lead from Contaminated Water onto Selected Biosorbents2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater, wastewater, surface runoff and surface water samples from Lake Victoria basin, Uganda was assessed for trace metals contamination. Untreated, base-treated and peroxide-treated biosorbents from Albizia coriaria, Coffea canephora, Cyperus papyrus, Erythrina abyssinica and Musa spp were investigated for removal of selected trace metals from contaminated water in batch studies. The assessed shallow groundwater and surface water was contaminated with iron and manganese. Selected speciation studies using Visual MINTEQ showed that in leachates from Municipal dumpsites 74% of the metal ions were bound to DOM, 13% were free ions and 13% were in inorganic forms moreover for urban streams 37% of the metal ions were bound to DOM, 44% were free ions and 19% were in inorganic forms. The metal levels in surface water, landfill leachate and surface runoff showed elevated levels and revealed increased risks to environmental health. Risk analysis based on the Swedish EPA showed that varied risks of negative effects in 30% – 76% of the sample sites ranging from high to increased risk in surface water whereas the results from Bio-met tool showed potential risk to toxicity effects of Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ in 15.3% - 30.8% surface water samples and 8.3% - 62.5% groundwater samples. Batch sorption studies revealed that the optimal conditions for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions uptake were; pH 3.5 – 5.0 for contact time 3.0 – 3.5 hours and biosorbent dosage 10 – 12.5 g/L. Base-treated biosorbents showed 10 – 17 % sorption enhancement for Cd2+ ions and 1.6 – 2.3 % uptake reduction for Pb2+ ions. The biomass negative potential for binding base cations was in the order; Musa spp. > A. coriaria > E. abyssinica and base treatment reduced DOC leaching from biosorbents in the order; E. abyssinica > A. coriaria > Musa spp. Speciation studies showed that more ions were complexed to DOC in solutions at various pH levels. The maximum sorption intensities for both Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions uptake onto biomass occurred for low initial metal concentration; 5 mg/L. Freundlich model best fitted data for Pb2+ ions ions uptake whereas Temkin model fitted the sorption data for Cd2+ ions onto both treated and untreated biomass. For peroxide treated biomass, the maximum sorption efficiencies for both Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions were between 95.2 – 98.7% for C.canephora, 79.9 – 92.2% for Musa spp. and 42.0 – 91.3% for C.papyrus in non-competitive media and 90.8 – 98.0% for C.canephora, 56.4 – 89.3% for Musa spp. and 19.5 – 90.4% for C.papyrus in competitive media. The Langmiur model fitted non-competitive sorption data with 0.769 ≤ R2 ≥ 0.999 and the Freundlich model fitted competitive sorption data with 0.867 ≤ R2 ≥ 0.989. The pseudo second order kinetic model fitted the sorption data for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions for untreated, peroxide treated and base treated biomass with 0.917 ≤ R2 ≥ 1.000. The sorption of trace metals was a complex potentially monolayer chemisorption with heterogeneous surface properties exhibited. In competitive sorption, sorption suppression effects observed were greater for Cd2+ than Pb2+ ions. The comparative studies on sorption performance presented agreement and no significant difference between the untreated and base treated biosorbents. 

  • 132.
    Bakyayita, Grace Kizito
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Makerere Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Kampala, Uganda..
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kulabako, R. N.
    Makerere Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Kampala, Uganda..
    Assessment of Levels, Speciation, and Toxicity of Trace Metal Contaminants in Selected Shallow Groundwater Sources, Surface Runoff, Wastewater, and Surface Water from Designated Streams in Lake Victoria Basin, Uganda2019Inngår i: Journal of Environmental and Public health, ISSN 1687-9805, E-ISSN 1687-9813, artikkel-id 6734017Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The levels, speciation of elements, and toxicity of selected trace metals as well as other parameters in selected surface water, shallow groundwater sources, landfill leachate, and associated surface runoff in the Lake Victoria basin, Uganda, were studied. The WHO guidelines, Ugandan standards, Canadian guidelines and Swedish EPA were used for assessment. The shallow groundwater was acidic with pH values below 6.5. The pH, dissolved organic carbon, flouride, and sulphate levels for all springs were below the guideline values although 52.8% was contaminated with nitrates while 39% was contaminated with chloride ions. Some surface water samples had levels of major elements, such as iron, chromium, aluminium, and manganese, above the guideline values. Speciation studies showed that 74% of the metal ions was bound to dissolved organic matter in surface water, whereas in landfill leachates, the dominant ionic species was metal hydroxides or fulvic acid bound. Risk analysis based on the Swedish EPA showed varied risks of negative effects in 30%-76% of the sample sites ranging from high to increased risk in surface water, whereas the results from modelling sorption data using the Bio-met tool showed potential risk to toxicity effects of Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Pb2+ in 15.3%-30.8% surface water samples and 8.3%-62.5% groundwater samples.

  • 133.
    Bakyayita, Grace Kizito
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE). Makerere University and Kyambogo University.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kulabako, Robinah N.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE). Department of Civil Engineering, CEDAT, Makerere University.
    Assessment of levels, speciation and toxicity of trace metal contaminants in selected shallow groundwater sources, surface runoff, wastewater and surface water from designated streams in Lake Victoria Basin, Uganda2019Inngår i: Hindawi Journal of Environmental and Public Health, ISSN 1687-9813, s. 1-18, artikkel-id 6734017Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The levels, speciation of elements and toxicity of selected trace metals as well as other parameters in selected surface water, shallow groundwater sources, landfill leachate and associated surface runoff in the Lake Victoria basin, Uganda were studied. The WHO guidelines, Ugandan standards, Canadian guidelines and Swedish EPA were used for assessment. The shallow groundwater was acidic with pH values below 6.5. The pH, dissolved organic carbon, flouride and suphate levels for all springs were below the guideline values although 52.8% were contaminated with nitrates while 39% were contaminated with chloride ions. The water samples with had levels of major elements; iron, chromium, aluminium and manganese above the guideline values. Speciation studies showed that 74% of the metal ions were bound to dissolved organic matter in surface water whereas in landfill leachates the dorminant ionic species were metal hydroxides or fluvic acid bound. Risk analysis basing on the Swedish EPA showed that varied risks of negative effects in 30% – 76% of the sample sites ranging from high to increased risk in surface water whereas the results from Bio-met tool showed potential risk to toxicity effects of Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+and Pb2+ in 15.3% - 30.8% surface water samples and 8.3% - 62.5% groundwater samples.

  • 134.
    Bakyayita, Grace Kizito
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE). Makerere University, Kyambogo University.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kulabako, Robinah N.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE). Department of Civil Engineering, CEDAT, Makerere University.
    Characterisation and application of untreated and base-treated biosorbents from Albizia coriaria, Erythrina abyssinica and Musa spp. in the uptake of Cd (II) and Pb (II) ions from contaminated waterManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The barks of Albizia coriaria, Erythrina abyssinica and peels of Musa spp. were studied in batch for removal of aqueous Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions at pH 4.5, agitation time 3.0 hours for 10 g/L biomass dosage. The biosorbents’ surfaces contained an array of heterogeneous sorption sites for metal ions. The trace metals in the biomass were in trace amounts.Results form XRD showed that organic species in the biosorbent surfaces were electron rich species expected to play part in the metal ions uptake. The biomass negative potential for binding base cations was in the order; Musa spp. > A. coriaria > E. abyssinica and base treatment reduced DOC leaching from the biosorbents in the order; E. abyssinica > A. coriaria > Musa spp. Speciation studies showed that more ions were complexed to DOC in solutions at various pH levels. The maximum sorption intensities for both Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions uptake onto biomass was highest for lowest initial metal concentration; 5 mg/L. Musa spp had the highest soprtion performance for both Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions. Freundlich model best fitted data for Pb2+ ions uptake whereas Temkin model fitted the sorption data for Cd2+ ions onto both treated and untreated biomass.

  • 135.
    Bakyayita, Grace Kizito
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Makerere univ.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kulabako, Robinah Nakawunde Akawunde
    Makerere univ.
    Competitive and Noncompetitive Batch Sorption Studies of Aqueous Cd(II) and Pb(II) Uptake onto Coffea canephora Husks, Cyperus papyrus Stems, and Musa spp. Peels2015Inngår i: Journal of Chemistry, ISSN 2090-9063, E-ISSN 2090-9071, artikkel-id 696098Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Coffea canephora, Cyperus papyrus, and Musa spp. were studied for competitive and noncompetitive removal of aqueous Cd2+ and Pb2+. The optimal conditions were pH 4.5 and agitation time 3.0 hours. Biomass constituent ions showed no interference effects whereas cation exchange capacity values corresponded to the sorption efficiencies. XRD spectroscopy revealed surface oxygen and nitrogen groups that provide binding sites for metal ions. The maximum sorption efficiency ranges for metal ions in noncompetitive media were 95.2-98.7% for C. canephora, 42.0-91.3% for C. papyrus, and 79.9-92.2% for Musa spp. and in competitive sorption 90.8-98.0% for C. canephora, 19.5-90.4% for C. papyrus, and 56.4-89.3% for Musa spp. The Pb2+ ions uptake was superior to that of Cd2+ ions in competitive and noncompetitive media. In competitive sorption synergistic effects were higher for Cd2+ than Pb2+ ions. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted experimental data with 0.917 <= R-2 >= 1.000 for Pb2+ ions and 0.711 <= R-2 >= 0.999 for Cd2+ ions. The Langmuir model fitted noncompetitive sorption data with 0.769 <= R-2 >= 0.999; moreover the Freundlich model fitted competitive sorption data with 0.867 <= R-2 >= 0.989. Noncompetitive sorption was monolayer chemisorption whereas competitive sorption exhibited heterogeneous sorption mechanisms.

  • 136.
    Bakyayita Kizito, Grace
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Equilibrium and Kinetic Batch Studies of Cadmium and Lead sorption using Low Cost Biosorbents2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural wastes; Albizia coriaria, Coffea canephora, Cyperus papyrus, Erythrina abyssinica and Musa spp were evaluated for uptake of aqueous Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions in single- and binary-component solutions. Untreated, base-treated and peroxide-treated biomasses were employed in batch studies. The optimal conditions for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions biosorption were  pH 3.5 – 5 for contact time 3.0 – 3.5 hours and biosorbent dosage 10 – 12.5 g/L. Base-treated biosorbents showed a 10 – 17 %  sorption enhancement for Cd2+ ions and a 1.6 – 2.3 % uptake reduction for Pb2+ ions. The sorption capacities for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions for base-treated biosorbents were between 1.738 and 1.760 mg g-1 compared to 1.415 – 1.539 mg g-1 for untreated materials. The maximum biosorption of peroxide treated materials in single component media was between 0.819 and 1.595 mg/g for Pb2+ ions and between 0.044 and 1.343 mg/g for Cd2+ ions while in binary component media it was between 0.472 and 1.303 mg/g for Pb2+ ions and between 0.008 and 0.195 mg/g for Cd2+ ions. The pseudo-second order kinetic model suitably fitted the Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions biosorption data with regression coefficients (R2); 0.892 – 1.000 for peroxide-treated materials and 0.9784 – 0.9999 for base-treated biosorbents which implied that the biosorption was mainly a chemisorption process. The base treated biosorbents had better sorption performance for Cd2+ ions than peroxide treated materials and untreated biomass whereas the order for Pb2+ ions biosorption was untreated > base treated > peroxide treated materials. All materials showed superior selectivity for Pb2+ ions biosorption in comparison to that of Cd2+ ions in single- and binary-component media. A. coriaria performed best of the base treated biosorbents while C. canephora performed best amongst peroxide treated materials for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions biosorption in single-and binary-component media. In the competitive biosorption, Cd2+ ions showed higher synergistic effects than Pb2+ ions although Pb2+ ions were preferentially sequestered even when the Cd2+:Pb2+ ions ratio was increased through 3:2, 2:1, 3:1 and 5:1. Of the three isotherm models evaluated against the experimental data, the Langmuir model generally fitted the sorption data for both metals. Regression coefficients for the Langmuir model were; 0.983 ≤ R2 ≥ 1.000 for single-component and 0.939 ≤ R2 ≥ 1.000 for binary-component solutions which revealed that the biosorption was potentially monolayer. The biosorption equilibrium coefficient                          values and change in Gibbs’ free energy  values showed that Pb2+ ions biosorption was more thermodynamically favoured than that of Cd2+ ions in single-component and binary-component media. The materials studied displayed potential for use as biosorbents for remediation of aqueous Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions.

  • 137.
    Bakyayita Kizito, Grace
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kulabako, Robinah
    2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University, Uganda.
    Nalubega, Mai
    Water and Sanitation Department, African Development Bank, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Equilibrium batch studies for biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from single-and binary-component aqueous mediaManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 138.
    Bakyayita Kizito, Grace
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Nalubega, Mai
    Water and Sanitation Department, African Development Bank, Tunis.
    Robinah, Kulabako
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University, Uganda .
    Kinetic studies of Cd (II) and Pb (II) ions biosorption from aqueous media using untreated and chemically treated biosorbents2014Inngår i: Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, ISSN 1606-9749, E-ISSN 1607-0798, Vol. 69, nr 11, s. 2230-2236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Untreated and chemically treated Albizia coriaria, Erythrina abyssinica and Musa spp were studied in batch for uptake of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions at pH 2.0–9.0 and agitation time; 30–390 min. Optimum biosorption conditions were; pH 4 for Pb2+ ions and pH 5 for Cd2+ ions, contact time was 3.5 hours at 24 ± 1 °C for 10 mg/L biosorbent dosage and initial metal ions concentration of 20 mg/L. Chemical treatment had a 10–17% biosorption efficiency enhancement for Cd2+ ions and a 1.6–2.3% reduction effect for Pb2+ ions. The sorption capacities for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions for treated biosorbents were between 1.760–1.738 mg g−1 compared to 1.415–1.539 mg g−1 for untreated materials. The pseudo second order model suitably fitted the Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions biosorption data with regression coefficients (R2) between 0.9784–0.9999. Fitting of the Ho model to the experimental data showed that the biosorption mechanism for both metal ions studied was mainly a chemisorption process. Therefore, treated A. coriaria, E. abyssinica and Musa spp were potential biosorbents for remediation of Cd2+ ions and the untreated materials suitable for removing Pb2+ ions from contaminated aqueous media.

  • 139.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Successful water, waste and energy management2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 140.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Azcarate, Juan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Karlson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Odelius Gordon, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Impacts of urban development on biodiversity and ecosystem services2016Inngår i: Handbook on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Impact Assessment / [ed] Davide Geneletti, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, s. 167-194Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global urbanization has increased rapidly and it is expected to continue. Due to the continuing urbanization process, green areas are transformed into areas for housing, industry and infrastructure. As a consequence, ecosystems in urbanizing areas are affected, which results in degradation of habitats, due to fragmentation and disturbances, with significant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. In cities, green areas are of primary interest to support biodiversity as well as in their role as producers of ecosystem services; that is, services that ecosystems produce to the benefit of humans often without any costs. In addition, publicly accessible urban green areas enhance life quality for urban citizens. To strengthen biodiversity and ecosystem services considerations in the planning process and contribute to the preservation of biodiversity in the long term, a consistent assessment of potential impacts is required. In particular, a landscape approach in urban planning and assessment is needed to address the scales of ecological processes, to strengthen important landscape structures and functions in urban, regional and infrastructure planning. A landscape approach calls for methods for assessing the impacts of human actions on biodiversity at a landscape level, across administrative borders. Such methods should allow an analysis of cumulative impacts of many single planning decisions. Several of the processes involved have a temporal and spatial dimension and are possible to quantify, analyse, and visualize with geographical information systems (GIS) combined with spatial ecological models. This allows for localization and quantification of predicted effects of urbanization on biodiversity components over landscape and regional scales. This chapter addresses impacts of urbanization on biodiversity and urban green areas’ capacity in providing ecosystem services. A brief description of the role of biodiversity and ecosystem services provides a framework for a landscape approach in biodiversity assessments and for the practical examples from the Stockholm region. Related to the assessment, tools for predicting and assessing biodiversity impacts at a landscape level will be discussed as well as planning and management of urban green areas. The chapter concludes with lessons learned and key recommendations for best practice.

  • 141.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Robinson, Tobias
    Strategisk miljöbedömning för nationell transportplanering med fokus på inriktningsunderlaget2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport utgör ett inspel till Trafikverket i en analys om hur strategisk miljöbedömning kan användas i den statliga transportplaneringens tidiga skeden med fokus på inriktningsunderlaget. Rapporten är framtaget inom projektet ”TRAMP- Är långsiktig transportplanering och miljöbedömning kompatibla processer?” som är ett forsknings- och innovationsprojekt (FoI), finansierat av Trafikverket under perioden 2017 - 2019. Deltagande forskare i projektet är Berit Balfors och Ulrika Gunnarsson-Östling, KTH, Kristina Lundberg och Tobias Robinson, Ecoloop, Karolina Isaksson och Linnea Eriksson, VTI.

    FoI-projektet har planerats för att successivt leverera användbart underlag till Trafikverket. Föreliggande rapport är ett underlag inför Trafikverkets arbete med att ta fram ett inriktningsunderlag.

  • 142.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hammer, Monica
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Khoshkar, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ecosystem services and impact assessment: Examples from Swedish municipal planning2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 143.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Wallström, J.
    Anthesis Enveco AB, Barnhusgatan 4, S-11123 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundberg, K.
    Ecoloop AB, Katarinavagen 7, S-11646 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Söderqvist, T.
    Anthesis Enveco AB, Barnhusgatan 4, S-11123 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hornberg, C.
    Environm Law & Dev SWE AB, Birger Jarlsgatan 2, S-11434 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Högstrom, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet och miljöteknik.
    Strategic environmental assessment in Swedish municipal planning. Trends and challenges2018Inngår i: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 73, s. 152-163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    More than a decade after the implementation of the EU Directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) into Swedish legislation, a comprehensive study has been conducted to analyze the development of SEA practice in municipal planning. The analysis was based on a nationwide mapping of SEA in Swedish municipal comprehensive plans and municipal sector plans, such as energy plans and waste plans, which were adopted in the period 2004-2014. The mapping was used for obtaining evidence of, and explanations for, the extent to which SEAs have been carried out and to enable an identification of the presence of alternatives and specified purposes of the plan. In this paper, the result of the analysis of the development of SEA practice is presented, which shows that municipal comprehensive plans had an SEA to an increasingly greater extent, up to on average 90% for the period 2010-2014. For waste plans and energy plans, corresponding figures for the same period were significantly lower. In addition, the result shows a decreasing trend between 2006 and 2014 regarding the proportion of SEAs that included more than one plan alternative. The use of a zero alternative, however, increased from 2006 to 2014. A regression analysis was conducted to identify determinants that explain the variation in the degree to which screening and SEAs were conducted. The findings of the study show that a systematic mapping of SEA practice provides empirical basis for the development of policy measures to enhance the use of SEAS in municipal planning. Furthermore, it is argued that strengthening the link between alternatives and the purposes of the plan may foster a more strategic thinking when identifying reasonable alternatives on how to promote sustainable development within the planning. Moreover, it is argued that mandatory SEA should be considered in municipal comprehensive and sector planning.

  • 144.
    Balian, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Greenhouse gas Reduction in Infrastructure Projects: With a case study of California High-Speed Rail2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Infrastructure projects are today major contributors to global warming. However, various strategies for reduction of greenhouse gas emission are available, as described in sustainability assessment schemes and performed in infrastructure projects.

    Beyond the choice of methodology, greenhouse gas reduction represents an important challenge, namely to engage involved actors. The establishment of a common sustainability policy, reflected in procurement requirements could be a solution. However, often in subject of complications such as misunderstandings or increased cost.

    Impres, a research project aiming to streamline the process of greenhouse gas reduction in the infrastructure sector, conducts case studies around the world in which useful methods and examples are assimilated. In cooperation with Impres, the present report includes the case study of California High-Speed Rail (CHSR).

    The aim of this report is to compare strategies for greenhouse gas reduction of sustainability assessment schemes for infrastructure projects, and evaluate the feasibility as procurement requirements. Furthermore, to identify corresponding processes of greenhouse gas reduction in the case study of CHSR, as well as revealing important factors towards realization.

    The course of work involves a study of the schemes Envision, BREEAM Infrastructure, CEEQUAL, IS Rating System as well as the standard PAS 2080. Regarding the case study, the sustainability policy, procurement requirements and project reports are the main used sources. Moreover, qualitative interviews with involved actors have been performed in California. Finally, to create a comparative matrix for greenhouse gas reduction processes, standards ISO and PAS 2080 have been reviewed.

    The results show that greenhouse gas criteria of the studied schemes not are mandatory to perform in anyone but PAS 2080. Which means that further requisites might be needed in order for the schemes to be useful as procurement requirements. Furthermore, the outlining of processes reveals a weakness in the setting of a greenhouse gas reference point, and while every scheme includes a greenhouse gas quantity assessment, there is a difference in the priority of reduction.

    Regarding CHSR, an exclaimed policy goal is to perform climate neutral construction. While procurement requirements are limited to quantification of emitted greenhouse gases and the use of effective construction machinery, which is insufficient to meet the goal. Nevertheless, the Authority in charge is performing CO2 compensating measures, such as planting trees.

    Finally, a variety of driving forces, success factors and challenges for realizing greenhouse gas reduction have been identified. For example, personal motivation and legislation as driving forces. Whereas, sustainability as a core mission, experience and communication are seen as success factors, and resistance to transfer sustainability goals to procurement is an exclaimed challenge.

    As a conclusion, sustainability assessment schemes do have certain processes for greenhouse gas reduction in common. However, they present criteria with different degrees of obligation, affecting feasibility as procurement requirements. In CHSR, similar processes are found, where further reduction of greenhouse gases can be achieved, especially by an optimized choice of construction materials. In the end, personal motivation seems to be an important factor for introducing and realizing greenhouse gas reduction goals in infrastructure projects.

  • 145.
    Balian, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Garis, Sargon
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Granskning av länsstyrelsens arbete för en minskad naturgrusutvinning.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturgrus används i stora delar av byggindustrin i allt från betong till vägkonstruktioner. Det fungerar även som ett skyddande filter i miljön för att bland annat förhindra föroreningar från att nå grundvattnet. Därför är det viktigt att försöka vara sparsam med dessa täkter, vilket Sveriges riksdag klarlagt genom införandet av miljökvalitetsmålen. Det är sedan länens uppgift att stimulera kommuner och andra samhällsaktörer för att gemensamt arbeta mot dessa mål.

    Denna rapport granskar länsstyrelsernas arbete för en minskad utvinning av naturgrus med hänsyn till de uppsatta miljökvalitetsmålen. Arbetet grundas framförallt på intervjuer med representanter från fyra olika län av skild karaktär för att få ett bredare perspektiv. Svaren från intervjuerna jämförs för att tydliggöra skillnader och likheter i de olika länsstyrelsernas miljöarbete. En djupare analys görs för respektive län med hjälp av data från bland annat kartor hämtade från Sveriges geologiska undersökning.

    Resultatet visar bland annat att minskningen av naturgrusutvinningen har stagnerat under senare år, vilket med stor säkerhet beror på att miljökvalitetsmålet kopplat till naturgrus inte har reviderats. Vidare visar studien att det finns skillnader i länens arbetssätt för att nå målen. Detta påvisar behov av ett större utbyte av erfarenheter och idéer mellan länen.

  • 146.
    Balsvik, Jonathan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Svenska företags klimatkompensering: Avlatsbrev eller ansvarsfullt komplement?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatkompensering erbjuder individer, organisationer och företag möjligheten att på annat håll reducera koldioxidutsläpp motsvarande det egna klimatfotavtrycket, ett omdiskuterat verktyg med möjligheter och utmaningar. Denna studie har undersökt hur svenska företag som klimatkompenserar förhåller sig till metoden – varför det infördes, vilken roll det har och om det påverkat det generella hållbarhetsarbetet. Med hjälp av intervjuer, kommunikationsmaterial och hållbarhetsredovisningar har MAX Burgers AB och Folksamgruppen undersökts. Resultatet visar inga tydliga rekyleffekter och att kommunikation, ekologisk avkastning och koldioxidbindning har varit viktiga aspekter. Studien diskuterar hur klimatkompenseringens problematiska aspekter kan vägas upp av att det är ett så pass billigt och lättillgängligt verktyg, i trädplanteringens fall inom ett extra viktigt område; koldioxidsänkor. Ett antal konkreta slutsatser nås genom resultatet, men på grund av studiens avgränsningar skulle ett större arbete med grund i ett genomarbetat frågeformulär behövas för att kunna kvantifiera svenska företags motivationer bakom hållbarhetsarbete och klimatkompensering.

  • 147. Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    Lüdtke, Maximilian
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    Ekengren, Östen
    Slamavvattning i kommunala reningsverk: Nuläget, begränsningar och perspektiv2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 148.
    Barikan, Chirin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hydronic Pavement Systems for Sustainable Winter Road Maintenance in Sweden: A Study of Hamnbacken in Visby2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In countries with harsh winter climates extensive winter road maintenance is necessary to achieve traffic accessibility and road safety. These measures have high economic and environmental costs as snow free roads and winter road maintenance in Sweden today is achieved by a combination of mechanical snow clearance and the spreading of salt to prevent ice formation. The salt ends up in the roadside environment and has negative effects on groundwater and vegetation. An alternative to traditional winter road maintenance to obtain non-skid winter roads is the use of hydronic pavement(HP) systems. Existing HP systems in Sweden are powered by district heating which limits the application to urban locations. The goal is to utilize renewable energy sources such as geoenergy which can be used in both rural and urban locations. This thesis suggests Hamnbacken in Visby as a pilot project for a full-scale application of the proposed HP system using surface water source heat.The weather related road surface conditions on Hamnbacken, and the potential of a renewable energysource have been examined in this study and the proposed location has been found favourable for a HP system.

  • 149.
    Barrios, Fernando
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Towards sustainable consumption patterns: A market feasibility study for a peer-to-peer sharing platform at KTH2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Peer-to-peer sharing platforms appear as a valid option to stop excessive consumerism. The success of a peer-to-peer sharing platform at Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan university mostly depends on the capability to comprehend the potential users’ motives for engagement. To investigate the relative significance of consumer motives for and against this platform, a theoretical model based on a comprehensive set of potential consumer motives was developed. The model was validated by employing a survey of325 participants. Findings suggest ecological sustainability, sense of belonging, trust in other users, and familiarity as the four most important drivers and prerequisites of platform attitude and process risk concerns as the main barrier.

    Moreover, attitude shows the most significant effect on behavioral intention and is slightly influenced by reasons of age, gender, type of participant, and school to which the participant belongs. Services in general and study materials appear as the items with the highest number of potential consumers and suppliers; while the free system proves to be the preferred system. Based on the findings, recommendations for future research and implementation of the peer-to-peer platform are suggested.

  • 150. Bartoli, A.
    et al.
    Hamelin, L.
    Rozakis, S.
    Borzęcka, M.
    Brandão, Miguel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Coupling economic and GHG emission accounting models to evaluate the sustainability of biogas policies2019Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 106, s. 133-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify the impacts of different biogas and related policies on the agricultural sector as well as their performance in terms of climate change mitigation and associated costs. To do so we coupled the partial equilibrium approach simulating the market clearing process with the perspective of Life Cycle Assessment of GHG applying it to the well-documented Lombardy case. Results show that the recent Italian biogas policy – prompting manure utilization and reducing the average subsidy per kWh – effectively increased the environmental sustainability of the system, which only now seems able to counteract global warming. Synergies are observed when the recent Common Agricultural Policy greening reform is simultaneously considered by the model.

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