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  • 101.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Karami, Peyman
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Vakuumisoleringspaneler2013Inngår i: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 105, nr 8, s. 25-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vakuumisoleringspaneler erbjuder ett spännande alternativ till traditionella isoleringsmaterial eftersom de kräver endast en bråkdel av isoleringstjockleken. Det finns dock några områden som kräver ytterligare forskning om vakuumisolering ska till fullo kunna användas i byggnader.

  • 102.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Sjöström, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Norberg, Peter
    Wolfram, Trinius
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Twumasi, Ebenezer
    Durable and robust vacuum insulation technology for buildings2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 103.
    Gullberg, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Katyega, Maneno
    Tanzania Elec. Supply Company Ltd..
    Kjellström, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Village electrification technologies: an evaluation of photovoltaic cells and compact fluorescent lamps and their applicability in rural villages based on a Tanzanian case study2005Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 33, nr 10, s. 1287-1298Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrification of remote sites in developing countries is often realised trough diesel generator sets and an electric distribution network. This was also the technology used in the village Urambo, where the first rural electrification co-operative in Tanzania was started in 1994. Climate change however calls for decreased fossil fuel combustion worldwide and new technologies have been further developed since the erection of the diesel generator sets in Urambo. It is therefore not obvious that electrification of other rural areas shall follow the Urambo example.

    In this article, the situation for 250 electricity consumers in Urambo will be demonstrated and the implications for them of introducing new technologies will be evaluated. Technology options regarded in the study are individual photovoltaic (PV) power systems and either incandescent lamps, tube lights or compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) supplied by diesel generation. The different options have been evaluated with respect to consumer costs and environmental impact.

    The results of the comparison show that PV generation is able to compete with diesel generation if combined with incandescent lamps, but not when tube lights or CFLs are used in the conventional supply system. It should be noted, however, that while the diesel option offer financially more attractive solutions, individual PV systems do not result in any CO, emissions. Furthermore, PV systems normally have a higher reliability. However, since the diesel option is not only cheaper but also offers a wider range of energy services and facilitates, future connection to the national electric grid, the conclusion is that this is preferable before individual PV systems for communities similar to Urambo, if the consumers shall pay the full cost of the service.

  • 104. Haagenrud, Svein
    et al.
    Cole, Ivan
    Sjöström, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Esposito, M. A.
    Geographical Information Systems for Sustainable Management of Built Environment2004Inngår i: Proc. of CIB World Building Congress 2004, 2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the building and construction sector all features are location based. The world of geographic information and application orientation is moving extremely fast, and there is a real danger that the slow uptake of new technology and applications in the building sector will again leave the sector trailing behind, also implying a loss in sustainable development and competitive edge. In order to deal with this issue CIB in 1996 established the task group CIB/TG20-GIS. Based on the report CIB 256 from this group and its recommendations, CIB in 2000 established the working commission CIB W106 "Geographical Information Systems", with the overall objectives to provide an international platform for R and D of GIS in the building sector. The W106 has members from 14 countries/organisations and will present its progress report at this Congress, while its final report with conclusions and recommendations is due for the 10DBMC conference in 2005. The work is divided into the following four Tasks: TG1 - GIS-requirements and availability of geographic standards-, data and infra-structures, TG2 - GIS-based analysis and modelling of flow and distribution of materials in the built environment, TG3 - Spatial dynamic modelling for simulation of the interaction between the natural and the built environment, TG4 - GIS in Education and Info sources. Objectives and work programme for each of these tasks are given and illustrated with examples, taken from state-of-the-art reports on the use of GIS elaborated by the participating countries/organisations.

  • 105. Haagenrud, Svein
    et al.
    Cole, Ivan
    Sjöström, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Esposito, M. A.
    Vanier, D. J.
    CIB W106 Geographical Information Systems: Work Period Report2005Inngår i: 10th International conference on durability of building materials and components: Lyon, France, 17-20 April 2005, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the building and construction sector all features are location based. The world of geographic information and application orientation is moving extremely fast, thus challenging the building sector to facilitate and implement this new technology and applications. In order to deal with these issues CIB in 1996 established the task group CIB/TG20-GIS. Based on the report CIB 256 from this group and its recommendations, CIB in 2000 established the working commission CIB W106 - Geographical Information Systems., with the overall objectives to provide an international platform for R&D of GIS applications for the built environment, and to promote and encourage the use of GIS in the building sector. The W106 has members from 14 countries/organisations and will present its final report for work period 2001-04 due for the 10DBMC conference in 2005. The work is divided into the following four Tasks: TG1- GIS-requirements and availability of geographic standards-, -data and infra -structures, TG2- GIS-based analysis and modelling of flow and distribution of materials in the built environment, TG3- Spatial dynamic modelling for Simulation of the interaction between the natural and the built environment, TG4- GIS in Education and Info sources. Objectives and work programme for each of these tasks are given and illustrated with examples, taken from state .of-the-art reports on the use of GIS elaborated by the participating countries/organisations. With the rapid development of IFC based standards for digital object oriented models of building products there is a huge need for property sets, such as environmental exposure data, reference service life, service life models, factor distributions, LCA and LCC data, which can be linked directly to the building elements. The significant drive within the AEC/IFC to provide for relevant location based data (GIS) via IFC format will be a major facilitator for access to relevant durability data on the specific building site. It is concluded that time is ripe for a broad implementation of GIS based applications in the building sector. Hence, it is recommended that the work programme of W106 for the coming working period includes a focus on support for an IFC based fully integrated design and planning process for the built environment, as well as a close link to the European based R&D frameworks for integrated life cycle management of the built environment.

  • 106. Haagenrud, Svein
    et al.
    Krigsvoll, Guri
    Lisö, K. R.
    Thiis, T.
    Sjöström, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Environmental Characterisation and Mapping with respect to Durability: LYON [France] 17-20 April 20052005Inngår i: 10th International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Service life planning calls for characterisation and classification of the exposure environment for theconstructed asset(s) in question. Lack of knowledge of environmental exposure data and modelsamong the building sector players is an important barrier for further progress towards service lifeprediction. The ever more evident climate change highlights even more the need for data and modelson the exposure, when it comes to address its impact on the built environment.In general, requirements for establishing and implementing systems for quantitative characterisationand classification of durability of materials and components are: 1) well defined, and relatively simpledamage functions for the materials in question, 2) availability of environmental exposure data/loads,including methods and models for assessing their geographical distribution, and 3) user friendly ITsystems for storage, processing and modelling the environmental loads onto structures.Service life functions related to environmental degradation are today available for a range of buildingmaterials and components. As for availability of environmental data and models, as well as proper ITsystems, it is shown that for most European countries, such data and models are available frommeteorological offices and the environmental research area, and that these data and the workperformed are directly applicable for service life planning and life cycle management of constructedassets. A short review of some of the most applicable models for environmental exposure and fordegradation and damage of building materials and structures is included.

    The global climate system is likely to undergo changes, regardless of the implementation of abatementpolicies under the Kyoto Protocol or other regimes. Both the functionality of the existing builtenvironment and the design of future buildings are likely to be altered by climate change impacts, andthe expected implications of these new conditions are now investigated.

    The data and models are often directly exhibited in computer-based systems, often on GIS basedplatforms. With the rapid development of IFC based standards for digital object oriented models ofbuilding products there is a huge need for property sets, such as durability and service life data, linkeddirectly to the building elements. The significant drive within the AEC/IFC community to provide forrelevant location based data (GIS) via IFC format will be a major facilitator for access to site specificdurability data, described by degradation models containing environmental (and other) degradationfactors.

  • 107.
    Halabi, Amer
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Måradson, Edwin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Villa Thermoplus – ett plusenergihus2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 108.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Sjöström, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Prediktivt underhåll av fasader2007Inngår i: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, nr 8, s. 46-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 109.
    Hassan, Qalil
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Termisk värmelagring i kontorsbyggnader2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 110.
    Hedenstedt, Erika
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Kemppainen, Tina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Fuktskydd och planering i byggprojekt – Erfarenheter från Eolshäll2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    When the Eolshällproject was completed for the first time, a great deal of moisture

    damage was discovered. Therefore the structure completion was removed and

    reinstalled. The project was originally planned to cost a total of 126 million SEK, but the

    final costs landed on 271 million SEK. What caused this failure? Were the designs poor,

    was the technology used too advanced, or was the project not managed properly?

    Based on the Eolshällproject, theses will be presented about what may have caused the

    moisture damage. On the basis of interviews and documentation from the project,

    selected structural components have been analyzed. We have studied how these

    components are designed traditionally and presented our own suggestions.

    When it comes to traditional building techniques the design itself is not likely to be the

    source of great damage. In these cases it is more likely that the problems are caused by

    inappropriate handling of material components and lack of competence.

    These factors are usually caused by poor communication at the building site and the

    communication between the site and the client. It is therefore important that the

    drawings are detailed and understandable for all parties.

    When building, one should take deep consideration to the moisture aspect in the design

    due to the fact that these kind of damages can be difficult to repair or adjust. A

    constructor need to think in a long-term perspective. Buildings that will remain for 100

    years require good design and good execution. Besides quality, time and money are two

    important aspects when constructing a building. Good planning is vital to bring these

    three aspects together, which is achieved through good communication

  • 111.
    Hellers, Bo Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    The BCE-system, prestressed hybrids of AAC and HPC2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The BCE technology opens up a new method to reinforce Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) by separating the production into two stages, primarily a block production from a traditional plant and secondarily the combining of blocks with affusion of High Performing Concrete (HPC) into prestressed hybrid panels, vertical or horizontal. The first stage means a continuous output of a limited number of standardized format blocks, up to 300 mm height, the second stage a non-standard production of individual panels following a CAD/CAM managed procedure, giving full freedom to architectural variation. The second stage can be added to existing block producing facilities, even in cases when a genuine PFA recipe is applied. The BCE horizontal panels have a higher capacity of up to 9 m span, carrying a live load of up to 6 kN/ than those with unstressed reinforcement from a traditional AAC plant. Industrial wall panels as well as roof panels may be 12 m, the latter under limited snow loads as is the case on most locations. Vertical wall panels can be designed with reduced depth but with retained capacity. In comparison with existing concrete alternatives the BCE panels are carrying a lower embodied energy, generating lower emissions in production of carbon dioxide. 

  • 112.
    Hjortling, Camilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik. Vattenfall AB, Sverige.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Berg, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik. Vattenfall AB, Sverige.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik. Vattenfall AB, Sverige.
    Energy mapping of existing building stock in Sweden - Analysis of data from Energy Performance Certificates2017Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 153, s. 341-355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to defining the current energy consumption baseline for buildings in Sweden. The data used for the analysis are extracted from the database of the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning and consists of 186,021 measured energy performance certificates issued for commercial buildings (355 Mm(2)), collected during 2007-2015. The results from this study for certain building types, construction periods, climate zones and energy use is presented. Building codes have influence of the buildings energy performance. When new building codes have been adopted and energy performance requirement been stricter the measured energy consumption have been lowered compared to buildings built earlier. New buildings have nevertheless often higher energy consumption than stipulated by the building code. Climate zone have less impact on energy consumption than type of building. Building units in the warmer climate zones generally have slightly lower energy consumption than those in colder zones. This implies that the buildings are well adapted to the climates at hand. The results may help public authorities to plan future business strategies and energy policies. The Swedish Energy Performance Certificates are quite reliable because they are based on energy bills and not on theoretical calculations.

  • 113.
    Hoffman, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Lugn, Jon
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Besiktning, underhåll och drift av Skansens kulturhus2004Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 114.
    Holm, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Rockström, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Utformning & placering av vädringskanaler i ett passivhus, drivet av naturliga krafter2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A passive house in Norra Djurgårdsstaden drawn by Tengbom Arkitekter is going to be built. A shaft for airing is needed for a few apartments in the house.

    The airing shaft is designed for a few two room apartments in the house, which are not able to achieve satisfactory airing, as their outer walls are facing a single direction. The other apartments on the same floor are corner apartments. These apartments do not have the same difficulty with airing since they have their outer walls in different directions, with different pressures at the facades. The airflow in the airing shaft is supposed to be driven only by natural forces, by the sun. The purpose of natural driven forces is to achieve low energy consumption for the house.In this thesis, a design of the shaft for airing has been developed.Initially an open shaft for all apartments was analyzed. The shaft was not possible to implement due to risk of fire spread, acoustic problems and odor contamination between the apartments.Inspired by natural ventilation and the principle of double-skin facade, the idea of separate channels for each apartment with a glass facade on the outside emerged. The air in the channels is heated by solar energy on the glass facade to achieve a rising force in the channels.An air current is achieved in the apartment, through an opening to the shaft while a window is opened at the same time, due to the pressure difference. Through analytical calculations, the air flows in the channels are studied at different temperatures during the summer when the airing is most needed.Results show that it is possible to create a flow in channels with solar energy. According to the calculations, the air flow will be enough for airing of the two room apartments. Further studies are needed to ensure the shaft ability.

  • 115.
    Holm, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Brinkenklint, Lasse
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Moderna takterrasser2002Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 116.
    Hoseini, Hanif
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Temperature and moisture modelling of rendering on light weight constructions2005Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics in the Nordic countries, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rendered light weight constructions have a low thermal inertia witch makes them especially sensitive towards changes in temperature. The lack of thermal inertia causes the construction to give a much quicker response to ambient temperature. Calcium cement rendering is a commonly used material for weather protection but will expand and shrink with temperature and moisture changes. When the changes occur rapidly the fast movement of the material can cause it to crack and lose its moisture-proof characteristics. To study the drying out of the rendering, the phenomena was simulated using numerical calculations. A comparative calculation model with coupled heat and moisture transfer was created to evaluate the effects of mass transport on the heat distribution. The construction studied is a so called Symphony outer wall element which is a light weight construction. The rendering layer is assumed to have been saturated after a rain period. The drying out of the construction during a five day period is then studied. The calculations performed with the first model show large variations in temperature and moisture content which may cause the rendering to crack. The results are then compared with the second calculation model with coupled mass and heat transfer calculations which takes into account the thermal inertia of the moisture and its effects on the temperature variations. The purpose of this is to try to evaluate the significance of mass transfer in temperature simulations.

  • 117.
    Hoseini, Hanif
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Jóhannesson, Gudni
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Symphony: industrial production of MULTI-STOREY buildings: report from the research tower project2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 118.
    Hysek, Jiri
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Nursing home for elder people: Wooden building in passive standard2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Subject of the diploma project is to design nursing home for elder people. The thesis is based on architectural study that I worked out in my previous studies (Studio 3). The diploma project takes over basic parameters of that study - programme, location and vision of the project. However, due to the newly set goals the thesis assumes a completely new design.

     

    The aim of the diploma project is integrated architectural, structural and energy design. The goal of the thesis is to design the building in the passive standard. This means achieving values:

     

    • the annual heat demand < 15 kWh per m² of floor area,
    • the annual demand of primary energy < 60 kWh per m² of floor area,
    • air temperature in rooms < 27°C.

     

    The thesis assumes that the above ground parts of the building will be designed as wooden-structured; with exceptions where other solution would be more suitable (e.g. the entrance section of the building).

     

  • 119.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Kjellström, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Gullberg, Monica
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Katyega, Maneno
    Tanzania Electric Supply Co. Ltd..
    Chambala, William
    Urambo Elec. Consumers Cooperative.
    Electrification co-operatives bring new light to rural Tanzania2005Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 33, nr 10, s. 1299-1307Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One possibility to accelerate the progress of rural electrification in developing Countries could be to form independent electrification co-operatives that are allowed to generate and distribute electric power and set their own tariffs. This approach has been successfully tried in the village Urambo, located about 80 km west of Tabora in Tanzania. The co-operative was formed in 1993 and started regular operation in 1994 with 67 consumers. The co-operative received initial financial support for rehabilitation of a diesel power plant and some other investments. The national utility TANESCO has provided technical support and training for operators and an accountant. Despite a tariff more than 15 times higher than in the nearby town Tabora that is served by TANESCO, the number of consumers in Urambo has been growing and reached 241 in October 2002. About 70% of the Supplied electricity in 2002 was used by households, 15% in businesses, 12% in institutions and public buildings and approximately 3% for street lighting. The reliability of the supply has improved from 80% in 1994, to 97% during 2002. The experiences must be considered as very promising. Several more electrification co-operatives have been formed in Tanzania and are looking for financing for the necessary initial investments.

  • 120.
    Ivarsson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Överby, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Kvarteret Kajutan - Från lågenergi till plusenergi2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and environmental demands regarding buildings have become an increasingly

    discussed topic, both in Sweden and in Europe as a whole. The general trend indicates

    that greater efforts are being put into the energy efficiency of the built environment.

    There are already numerous examples of houses with a low energy demand, and the

    number of low energy buildings is constantly growing.

    At the time being, the maximum level for energy demands for housing in Stockholm is

    110 kWh/m

    2year, but as soon as next year the limit will be changed to 90. The Swedish

    agency Energimyndigheten is currently conducting a project to interpret the EU Directive

    on the so-called Nearly zero energy buildings, and the preliminary results indicate that

    the level of requirements for purchased energy will end up with about 55 kWh / m

    2year,

    which is in line with

    today’s recommendationsfound in FEBY's Kravspecifikation för

    Passivhus.

    Starting with a low-energy house in Henriksdalshamnen in Stockholm, we have analyzed

    various energy-efficiency measures and their influence on power and energy needs. The

    financial aspects associated with the measures have been studied using a model of life

    cycle costs.

    The measures were initially studied individually to give an idea of how much impact they

    each had. Three packages of measures were then put together, where the most energyand

    cost-effective solutions were included.

    The first package of measures aimed to achieve the standard for Passive houses, and was

    accomplished by the replacement of windows and an improvement in airtightness. The

    economic analysis showed that this package was not viable. The second package of

    measures aimed to as much as possible reduce the building's energy needs and at the

    same time demonstrate profitability. The results showed a more than halved energy

    demand and the economic calculations indicated that it even turned a profit.

    Finally, the possibility of installing energy-producing systems in order to achieve a plus

    energy house was studied. The idea was to examine whether it was possible to cover up

    the need for purchased energy by using solar and wind power, while maintaining

    profitability. The analysis shows that this would be difficult to achieve, primarily because

    of the high investment costs entailed, and the difficulties associated with the regulations

    regarding the sale of energy.

  • 121.
    Jamil, Hilal
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Rashid, Namo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Kulvertar i Södersjukhuset-Undersökning av AGV-system kan användas och rekommendationer för renovering2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökande behov av vård i dagens samhälle kräver ett väl utvecklat transportsystem för en

    effektiv vård. För att en god vård räcker det inte bara utveckla vår hälsovård, utan det måste

    också utveckla transportsystem och materialflöde inom sjukhuset. Undersökningsobjektet av

    denna studie är transportsystem i Södersjukhuset, där i nuläget all transport sker i

    korridorerna via förarstyrda truckar.

    Korridorer är de mest besökta rummen i sjukhusen. Det är således viktigt att se till att ha en

    trygg och trivsam miljö i korridorerna. Därför krävs det tillsyn till en hel del normer och

    bestämmelser som framförallt boverket ställer på dessa byggnader.

    I detta arbete har kulvertarna (korridorerna) på Södersjukhuset undersökts. Syftet med detta

    arbete är att i huvudsak undersöka om de nuvarande kulvertarna är anpassade till AVG -

    systemet (automatiserade vagnar). En besiktning har genomförts på kulvertarna, samt en

    beskrivning av det nuvarande skiktet och de brister som råder utifrån ett brand- och akustiskt

    perspektiv. Åtgärdsförslag och rekommendationer vid renovering av kulvertarna har också

    tagits upp.

    Infrastruktur, ekonomi, säkerhet, teknik och kompetens är de faktorer som skall ha betydelse

    för anpassning av AGV system. På grund av patienttransport i kulverten och nuvarande

    hissarnas kapasitet samt transportrutiner finns det ingen chans att anpassa det amerikanska

    AGV systemet som används på Huddinge sjukhuset, i Södersjukhuset.

    Vid avlägsning av patienttransport i kulverten samt öking av hissarnas kapasitet kan AVG

    systemet, JBTC Guided Vehicle [ Type 2], anpassas på Södrasjukhuset.

    Rapporten innehåller även en inventering av korridorernas tekniska status och förslag på hur

    de skulle kunna renoveras för att bli en trevligare miljö för besökare och personal.

  • 122. Jernberg, Per
    et al.
    Lacasse, Michael
    Haagenrud, Svein
    Sjöström, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Guide and Bibliography to Service Life and Durability Research for Buildings and Components2004Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 123.
    Johannesson, Gudni
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Development of various low-ex system components and their integration2007Inngår i: IAQVEC 2007 Proceedings - 6th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Energy Conservation in Buildings: Sustainable Built Environment, IAQVEC 2007; Sendai; Japan; 28 October 2007 through 31 October 2007, 2007, s. 1107-1114Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper deals with modeling of various low-exergy system components and their integration into the energy system for buildings and small communities. The exergy content of a certain amount of energy is defined as the part of this energy that can be used to produce mechanical energy. The quality of a certain amount of energy is defined as the relative exergy content of this energy. Most of our buildings with their heating and cooling systems today are built for conversion of high quality energy sources to low quality use with a huge destruction of the available exergy as a result. Globally we have a huge potential for transforming our processes to more efficient use of the exergy and also for feeding our processes directly from renewable energy sources without the use of high quality energy sources. To develop our building concepts towards a low exergy building we have to analyze all the processes for energy conversion that take place through the operation of the building, to bring down the needed level of quality for the energy used and then make a holistic analysis of the system. Different processes for energy conversion in buildings are discussed especially giving the potential for saving energy and shifting the energy use to lower quality levels, i.e. in many cases to reduce the temperature levels needed for heating and cooling. The major obstacle for an extensive and effective use of renewable energy sources is the investment needed to be able to store heating and cooling energy in time. The paper gives a system concept under evaluation were the ground under the floor slab on grade is used as heat reservoir for the building. The main advantage of the system would be lower investment cost and at the same time give possibilities more effective annual storage compared to a single borehole. The paper also exemplifies how recent finite element technology where multiple physical phenomena can be studied simultaneously can be utilsed for design of low exergy components.

  • 124.
    Johannesson, Gudni A.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    The crawlspace syndrome2006Inngår i: HB - Heal. Build.: Creating Heal. Indoor Environ. People, Proc., 2006, s. 335-340Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Problems with mould growth in outdoor ventilated resulting in health problems and odors indoors have been increasing in frequency. The main root of the problem is that the temperature of the ground beneath the building is not in phase with the annual outdoor temperature variations. The paper shows how a building of a given shape can be efficiently modeled with sufficient accuracy. The calculation work is limited and the model has been implemented into an Excel worksheet. Applications where the calculations are utilized to assess mould risk and to analyze the effect of different measures for risk reduction, are given .

  • 125.
    Johansson, Cimone
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Klemedtson, Ida
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Studium av stomsystem och övrigt klimatskal m.a.p. produktion och långsiktig förvaltning av passivhus2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The passive house concept has been known for many years, but it is not yet very

    well known in Sweden. The increased energy requirements places greater

    demands on our buildings and to meet these requirements, passive houses is a

    good option.

    Svenska Bostäder have built passive houses with good results and intend to

    continue design some of their new buildings as passive houses. This study is

    meant to support Svenska Bostäder in their planning of new buildings by

    analyze and compare the different frameworks and building shells of passive

    houses.

    In the first chapters (1,2 and 3) we presents the conditions for passive houses

    and the differing objects we have examined more generally for the reader to

    become familiar with the concept and the objects.

    The subsequent chapter presents an analysis of each object partial based on the

    specifications from FEBY and finally, in Chapter 5, you will find a table of

    values where the objects are put into relation to each other and valued there by,

    together with a brief explanation for the table.

    This chapter also contains texts on the environment, design and future

    development which all includes our own thoughts and reflections.

    Finally, the gist of the whole work and our conclusion is presented and

    discussed.

    On the whole, the work has been very enlightening for us and we hope that the

    concept of passive houses have a wider impact in the future.

  • 126. John, Vanderley
    et al.
    Cincotto, M. A.
    Sjöström, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Agopyan, V.
    Oliveira, C. T. A.
    Durability of slag mortar reinforced with coconut fibre2002Inngår i: Journal of Cement and Concrete CompositesArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 127. John, Vanderley
    et al.
    Sjöström, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Agopyan, V
    Durability in the Built Environment and Sustainability in Developing Countries2001Inngår i: Building Research and Information: Special issue on Agenda 21 for Sustainable Construction in Developing CountriesArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 128.
    Johnsson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Sandén, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    FMV, Ledningscontainer AMF LEDNCO20PA - Utvärdering av klimatstyrning och komfort2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 129.
    Jóhannesson, Gudni
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Lazzarotto, Alberto
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Ground Storage Heat Transfer with Non-Linear Features Modeled in the Frequency Domain2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The strategy chosen in the present work is to use standard finite element software which gives the possibility touse triangular elements and to run different physical models in parallel and with interaction between the models.This creates possibilities of rational solution of large thermal field problems. The modern finite elementsoftware gives the user the possibility to create macros or scripts for administration of calculations giving thepossibility within the software environment to convert real time data into Fourier series, run the solution for alarge set of frequencies and to carry out the inverse transformation of the results to time series. By separation ofthe ground heat flow and the duct heat balance a technique for the introduction of variable air flow is developed.The use of the technique is demonstrated for annual ground heat storage in a duct under a building. As shown bythe examples in the paper the new tools for finite element modeling of different processes opens up a new fieldof opportunities in the treatment of problems within building physics. An advantage is that the solution forvarious processes can be interlinked and the high level script formalism gives the possibility to implement thefield problems in the treatment of whole systems in a rational way. In the paper it is shown how the frequencydomain solution for heat transfer can be implemented into existing finite element software and how the solutioncan be combined with constant mass flow in pipes and ducts. It is furthermore outlined and demonstrated howthe treatment of variable mass flow can be carried out in reasonable time utilizing advanced iterative solutions.

  • 130. Jóhannesson, Gudni
    et al.
    Molinari, Marco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Exergy Analysis of Single and Multi-Step Thermal Processes2012Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, Vol. 6, nr 10, s. 1384-1391Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper introduces the concepts of exergy and treats it applications to analysis of the gain in exergy efficiency between one-step and multi-step thermal processes. The analysis, which is carried out with the Excel-based SEPE program, is exemplified with the comparison between single-step and two-steps heat pump setup for providing heat to a floor heating system and for domestic hot water. The paper discusses the use of the concept of exergy efficiency as a measure of success for design of a heat pump application and how the use of information on exergy destruction and temperature levels in different parts of the system add a new perspective to the analysis and the evaluation of the system performance. The paper shows how this information can be used to improve the system configuration and also the operation of the system for given boundary conditions. This is especially useful when the energy from the low temperature sources can be utilized at different temperature or quality levels such as for space heating and domestic hot water.

  • 131. Kalema, Timo
    et al.
    Jóhannesson, Gudni
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Pylsy, Petri
    Hagengran, Per
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Buildings: A Comparison of a Monthly Energy Balance Method and Simulation Methods in Calculating the Energy Consumption and the Effect of Thermal Mass2008Inngår i: JOURNAL OF BUILDING PHYSICS, ISSN 1744-2591, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 101-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the effects of thermal mass oil heating and cooling energy in Nordic climate and for modern, well-insulated Nordic buildings. The effect of thermal mass is analyzed by calculations made by seven researchers and by seven different calculation programs. Six of these programs are simulation programs (Consolis Energy, IDA-ICE, SciaQPro, TASE, VIP, VTT House model) and one monthly energy balance method (maxit energy) based on the standard EN 832, which is the predecessor of ISO DIS 13790. It is purpose to evaluate the reliability of the monthly energy calculation method and especially its gain utilization factor compared with the simulation programs. In addition some sensitivity analysis concerning e.g., the effects of the size and the orientation of windows and the weather data on the energy consumption are made. The results show that the simplified standard methods of EN 832 and of ISO DIS 13790 generally give accurate results in calculating the annual heating energy, e.g., in the context of energy design and energy certification. However, the gain utilization factor of these standards is too low for very light buildings having no massive surfaces resulting in a too high energy consumption. The study shows, that the differences in input data cause often greater differences in calculation results than the differences between various calculation and simulation methods.

  • 132.
    Kamruzzaman, Hasan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Pathway to a sustainable building: JM and SKB at Stockholm Royal Seaport: With focus on energy efficiency; technical design of roof, wall, window, basement and adaptability with climate change.2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 133.
    Karami, Peyman
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Robust and Durable Vacuum Insulation Technology for Buildings2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s buildings are responsible for 40% of the world’s energy use and also a substantial share of the Global Warming Potential (GWP). In Sweden, about 21% of the energy use can be related to the heat losses through the climatic envelope. The “Million Program” (Swedish: Miljonprogrammet) is a common name for about one million housing units, erected between 1965 and 1974 and many of these buildings suffer from poor energy performance. An important aim of this study was to access the possibilities of using Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs) in buildings with emphasis on the use of VIPs for improving the thermal efficiency of the “Million Program” buildings. The VIPs have a thermal resistance of about 8-10 times better than conventional insulations and offer unique opportunities to reduce the thickness of the thermal insulation.

    This thesis is divided into three main subjects. The first subject aims to investigate new alternative VIP cores that may reduce the market price of VIPs. Three newly developed nanoporous silica were tested using different steady-state and transient methods. A new self-designed device, connected to a Transient Plane Source (TPS) instrument was used to determine the thermal conductivity of granular powders at different gaseous pressure combined with different mechanical loads. The conclusion was that the TPS technique is less suitable for conducting thermal conductivity measurements on low-density nanoporous silica powders. However, deviations in the results are minimal for densities above a limit at which the pure conduction becomes dominant compared to heat transfer by radiation.

    The second subject of this work was to propose a new and robust VIP mounting system, with minimized thermal bridges, for improving the thermal efficiency of the “Million Program” buildings. On the basis of the parametric analysis and dynamic simulations, a new VIP mounting system was proposed and evaluated through full scale measurements in a climatic chamber. The in situ measurements showed that the suggested new VIP technical solution, consisting of 20mm thick VIPs, can improve the thermal transmittance of the wall, up to a level of 56%. An improved thermal transmittance of the wall at centre-of-panel coordinate of 0.118 to 0.132 W m-2K-1 and a measured centre-of-panel thermal conductivity (λcentre-of-panel) of 7 mW m-1K-1 were reached. Furthermore, this thesis includes a new approach to measure the thermal bridge impacts due to the VIP joints and laminates, through conducting infrared thermography investigations. An effective thermal conductivity of 10.9 mW m-1K-1 was measured. The higher measured centre-of-panel and effective thermal conductivities than the published centre-of-panel thermal conductivity of 4.2 mW m-1K-1 from the VIP manufacturer, suggest that the real thermal performance of VIPs, when are mounted in construction, is comparatively worse than of the measured performance in the laboratory. An effective thermal conductivity of 10.9 mW m-1K-1 will, however, provide an excellent thermal performance to the construction.

    The third subject of this thesis aims to assess the environmental impacts of production and operation of VIP-insulated buildings, since there is a lack of life cycle analysis of whole buildings with vacuum panels. It was concluded that VIPs have a greater environmental impact than conventional insulation, in all categories except Ozone Depilation Potential. The VIPs have a measurable influence on the total Global Warming Potential and Primary Energy use of the buildings when both production and operation are taken into account. However, the environmental effect of using VIPs is positive when compared to the GWP of a standard building (a reduction of 6%) while the PE is increased by 20%. It was concluded that further promotion of VIPs will benefit from reduced energy use or alternative energy sources in the production of VIP cores while the use of alternative cores and recycling of VIP cores may also help reduce the environmental impact. Also, a sensitivity analysis of this study showed that the choice of VIPs has a significant effect on the environmental impacts, allowing for a reduction of the total PE of a building by 12% and the GWP can be reduced as much as 11% when considering both production and operation of 50 yes.

    Finally, it’s possible to conclude that the VIPs are very competitive alternative for insulating buildings from the Swedish “Million Program”. Nevertheless, further investigations require for minimizing the measurable environmental impacts that acquired in this LCA study for the VIP-insulated buildings.

  • 134.
    Karami, Peyman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik. CBI, Swedish Cement.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    A comparative study of the environmental impact of Swedish residential buildings with vacuum insulation panels2015Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 109, s. 183-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large part of the energy consumption in the European Union member states is related to space heating, a significant share of which is due to transmission losses through the building envelope. Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs), with unique thermal insulation properties, do therefore provide an interesting alternative for the building industry. This paper presents the results of a life cycle analysis (LCA) study that compares the environmental impact of three hypothetical buildings, a standard residential building, a regular well-insulated building and a building insulated with VIPs. The environmental impact includes the global warming potential (GWP) and the primary energy (PE) use, from the material production stage to the building operational phase (50 years). The cradle-to-gate environmental impact categories of ozone depletion potential (ODP), acidification potential (AP) and eutrophication potential (EP) of all building components are also assessed. The study shows a comparatively lower operational energy for the VIP insulated building and a relatively lower total greenhouse gas emission as well as the possibility to save significant living space. The results also show that the VIPs have measurable environmental impact during the product stage while the core material of the VIPs has considerable impact on the results.

  • 135.
    Karami, Peyman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Heymans, Luc
    ETICS with VIPs for improving buildings from the Swedish million unit program “Miljonprogrammet”Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 136.
    Karami, Peyman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Norberg, Peter
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Evaluation of the thermal conductivity of a new nanoporous silica material for VIPs: trends of thermal conductivity versus densityManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 137.
    Karami, Peyman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Twumasi Afriyie, Ebenezer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Norberg, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    A study of the thermal conductivity of granular silica materials for VIPs at different levels of gaseous pressure and external loads2014Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 85, s. 199-211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast and reliable methods for the determination of thermal properties of core materials for vacuum insu-lation panels (VIPs) are needed. It is of great importance to know the thermal performance of a VIP core atdifferent levels of vacuum and external loads. In this study a new self-designed device, consisting of twocylindrical cavities connected to a Transient Plane Source instrument, is used to determine the thermalconductivity of low-density nanoporous silica powders, from atmospheric pressure down to 0.1 mbarwhile applying different levels of external pressure up to 4 bars. The study includes a brief theoreticaldiscussion of methods. The TPS is validated through comparison with available data for commercial silicaas well as through independent stationary measurements with a hot plate apparatus and with a TransientHot Bridge method. The different materials illustrate clear but different trends for the thermal conductiv-ity as a function of the level of vacuum and external pressure. The analysis of experimental results showsthat the transient methods are less suitable for measuring the thermal conductivity of low-density sil-ica powders, especially for the cases when the density is less than a limit at which the heat transfer byradiation becomes dominant compared to pure conduction.

  • 138.
    Karami, Peyman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Twumasi, Ebenezer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsmaterial.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    A comparative study of methods for evaluating the thermal conductivity of nanoporous silica materials for vacuum insulation panelsArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 139.
    Karlström, Petra
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Soft Heating and Cooling in Humid Climates2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 140.
    Karppinen, Hansi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Taklösningar för kallvindar: - En studie av kallvindar för småhus med passivhusstandard samt evaluering av en taklösning för en kallvind2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 141.
    Kazen, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    von Martens, David
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Byggnadsfysikaliska riskbedömningar: Metod för tidig hantering av fuktsäkerhetsfrågor2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 142.
    Kilkis, Siir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    A New Rational Exergy Management Model Guided Metric for Evaluating Sustainable Cooling Strategies for Low-Exergy Green Buildings and Cities2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2010, Antalya, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies the Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM) to evaluate sustainable cooling strategies for low-exergy green buildings and green cities, mimicking ecosystems that utilize exergy more optimally. The paper includes a special formulation of the exergy demand for space cooling and a definition of an effective temperature of solar insolation based on a technique of exergy-mapping. The alternatives to a base case as characterized by structural exergy overshoots and high avoidable CO2 emissions impacts include absorption cooling with renewable energies for district cooling in high-density areas. A new, REMM guided built environment signature is also provided to monitor transformations towards a foresight for a built ecosystem. The paper concludes that there must be significant progress for more optimal linkages in the exergy supply and exergy demand points to minimize CO2 emissions impacts.

  • 143.
    Kilkis, Siir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    A Rational Exergy Management Model for Curbing Building CO2 Emissions2007Inngår i: ASHRAE Transactions, ISSN 0001-2505, Vol. 113, nr 2, s. 113-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A rational exergy management model was developed, which establishes a common metric and provides a tool for matching the exergy of energy sources with different applications in the built environment for global sustainability. In order to develop and evaluate this model, first a base case was defined, which involves a building using a natural gas boiler for comfort heating and receiving electricity from a remote thermal power plant. For the base case, the rational exergy management efficiency, which is a measure of the level of match in the supply and demand of exergy, is only 4%. To analyze the impact of increasing the rational exergy efficiency on carbon mitigation relative to the base case, three exergy and environment aware cases were considered. These cases were: the same building thermally linked to the power plant through a district energy system (Case One), the same building with a micro CHP using a natural gas internal combustion engine (Case Two), and the same building with a renewable energy driven electric power generator and a ground-source heat pump (Case Three). A detailed analysis of the carbon reduction potential of the three cases revealed that it is possible to realize a new CO2 reducing wedge in addition to the seven wedges that have already been identified by the Carbon Mitigation Initiative (CMI). Calculations show that Case Three may reduce the global emissions to about 6 GtC/year by the year 2055 from the current value of 7 GtC/year. Therefore, the eighth wedge may not only help to stabilize the current levels of emissions but also decrease it below the current level. This paper explains the Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM), its emission projections, and describes the three cases in detail. Results indicate the importance of rational exergy management for global sustainability and next-generation green buildings and show that this metric can manage a robust roadmap to curb CO2 emissions from buildings.

  • 144.
    Kilkis, Siir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    A Rational Exergy Management Model to Curb CO2 Emissions in the Exergy-Aware Built Environments of the Future2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis puts forth the means of a strategic approach to address a persistent problem in the energy system and in this way, to transition the built environment to a future state that is more exergy-aware to curb CO2 emissions. Such a vision is made possible by the six-fold contributions of the research work: I) An analytical model is developed, which for the first time, formulates the CO2 emissions that are compounded in the energy system as a function of the systematic failures to match the supply and demand of exergy. This model is namely the Rational Exergy Management Model or REMM. II) REMM is then applied to analyze the pathways in which it is possible to lead the built environment into addressing structural overshoots in its exergy supply to curb CO2 emissions. The cases that embody these pathways are also analyzed over a base case, including cases for sustainable heating and cooling. III) New tools are designed to augment decision-making and exemplify a paradigm shift in the more rational usage of exergy to curb CO2 emissions. These include a scenario-based analysis tool, new options for CO2 wedges, and a multi-fold solution space for CO2 mitigation strategies based on REMM. IV) The concept of a net-zero exergy building (NZEXB) is developed and related to REMM strategies as the building block of an exergy-aware energy system. The target of a NZEXB is further supported by key design principles, which address shortcomings in state-of-the-art net-zero design. V) A premier building that deployed the key design principles to integrate building technology in an innovative, exergy-aware design and received LEED Platinum is analyzed on the basis of the NZEXB target. The results validate that this building boosts net self-sufficiency and curbs compound CO2 emissions, which are then presented in a proposed scheme to benchmark and/or label future NZEXBs. VI) Based on the scalability of the best-practices of the NZEXB ready building, the means to realize a smarter energy system that has exergy-aware relations in each aspect of the value chain to curb CO2 emissions are discussed. This includes a target for such a network at the community level, namely a net-zero exergy community (NZEXC). As a whole, the results of the thesis indicate that the strategic approach as provided by REMM and the NZEXB target of the research work has the potential to steer the speed and direction of societal action to curb CO2 emissions. The thesis concludes with a roadmap that represents a cyclical series of actions that may be scaled-up at various levels of the built environment in a transition to be in better balance with the Planet.

  • 145.
    Kilkis, Siir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    An Optimum Decision-Making Algorithm for Efficient Heating and Cooling in Cities: Towards Exergy-Green Cities to Curb CO2 Emissions2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2010, Antalya, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the Rational Exergy Management Model, this paper puts forth a new, multifold decision-making benchmark to develop CO2 mitigation strategies for efficient heating and cooling in cities. In addressing both heating and cooling in the built environment, this paper discusses the low exergy demands for all variants of the annual thermodynamic flows to be counteracted to maintain indoor air temperatures. The new benchmark is particularly useful in strategies to transform districts into exergy-green districts given a critical mass of buildings that adopt appropriate strategies. The results lead to a potential for substantial CO2 savings, better linkages in the supply and demand points of exergy in exergy-green cities, and exergy-led urban symbiosis. A case study on a capital city district is also provided as a sample of a CO2 mitigation strategy utilizing the benchmark over a 10-year strategy timeframe.

  • 146.
    Kilkis, Siir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    An Optimum Decision-Making Algorithm for Energy Efficient Cooling in Green Cities: From Split Systems to District Cooling2010Inngår i: ASHRAE Transactions, ISSN 0001-2505, Vol. 116, nr Part 2, s. 116-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the dilemmas of this decade seems to be the fact that the need for comfort and high-density cooling increases with global warming while global warming further increases with its resultant CO2 emissions. This dilemma can only be solved by achieving cooling systems with smaller CO2 footprints. This effort involves multiple fronts, namely, new, sustainable, and low-exergy cooling systems, highly efficient cooling energy supplies, novel distribution networks, and innovative energy conversion systems. All of these solutions must, however, meet at a common denominator for decision-making. In this paper, the common denominator is defined to be the Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM), which provides a robust algorithm to link the supply and demand exergy points in the cooling sector for a given district. The objective is to minimize the CO2 footprint of the entire cooling sector in a district to guide green cities from split systems to district cooling.

  • 147.
    Kilkis, Siir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Green Cities and Compound Metrics Using Exergy Analysis2012Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Energy Engineering and Technology / [ed] Sohail Anwar, Taylor & Francis, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The entry presents four steps to model the supply and demand of energy resources using exergy analysis to transform the energy base of cities toward reducing CO2 emissions. These steps put forth a systemic view that shows how the mismatch between the supply and demand of exergy results in an excess of energy spending in current cities. Alongside a guide to the key equations of each step, the reference environments of 40 capital cities around the world are provided for ease of application. An analytical model further indicates a causal relation between exergy mismatches and compound CO2 emissions in the energy system. All steps are then exemplified based on a combined heat and power district heating network in Stockholm as the 2010 Green Capital. This entry shows that it is possible to make a difference in the quest to boost the speed and direction of curbing CO2 emissions through exergy matches as an urban goal for green cities of the future.

  • 148.
    Kilkis, Siir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Net-Zero Energy or Net-Zero Exergy Buildings for a Sustainable Built Environment?2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2010, Antalya, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper puts forth a new metric that identifies a net-zero exergy building (ZEXB) target and distinguishes the parameters that affect the results of obtaining a “net-zero” status based on the trade of exergy with the grid and/or thermal energy loop. Key strategies that guide buildings to meet and exceed ZEXB targets are underlined. These include strategies based on the re-linkage of energy resources based on higher exergy matches while reducing any CO2 emission impacts. The means of bringing buildings that deploy on-site, micro production of electricity, heat, and/or cold from renewable energy resources to ZEXB targets are discussed. A net-zero exergy community (ZEXC) target is then provided to set pace for the diversified trade of exergy in the locally more interconnected energy systems of the future. The results expand net-zero targets with exergy based strategies for a sustainable built environment.

  • 149.
    Kilkis, Siir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Optimization of Heat Pump Applications for Net-Zero Exergy Buildings2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th IEA Heat Pump Conference / [ed] Prof. Dr. Thomas Kopp, Zürich, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Steering a change for global sustainability requires a new, rationale driven approach that provides guidance to reduce emissions and protect the environment. The Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM) provides the approach of balancing natural energy resources based on their useful work potential, or exergy. For the first time, REMM formulates the level of match in the supply and demand of exergy to broader impacts on CO2 emissions, which becomes very important to reduce global warming. Furthermore, its new parameter effectively shows the ways to reduce CO2 emissions that have been compounded. The application of REMM to the building sector, the largest contributor of CO2 emissions, presents examples to think beyond the present characteristics of buildings. It also shows that heat pumps must be optimized with exergy matches in combined heat and power systems to reduce compound CO2 emissions. It is expected that this approach will be put into practice to achieve carbon wedges from buildings and set a vision for net-zero exergy buildings. An analysis tool is also developed to support the educational purposes of the REMM model.

  • 150.
    Kilkis, Siir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Optimizing Low CO2 Solutions with Heat Pumps for Net-Zero Exergy Communities of the Future2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference, Tokyo, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Net-zero building design is a potentially transformational concept for the energy systems of today. State-of-the art in net-zero building design, however, is not without major shortcomings, which may be addressed through net-zero exergy buildings (NZEXB). This paper provides key insight into the design principles of NZEXBs based on lessons that are learned from a premier net-zero exergy “ready” building in Ankara. These include building technology integration with better exergy matches in a multi-path approach and diversified thermal energy storage as a buffer between the supply and demand of exergy to reduce CO2 emission impacts. Modeled data indicate that the building will attain “net” self-sufficiency with an annual exergy consumption of 60 kWh/m2-yr and proposed renewable exergy supply of 62 kWh/m2-yr. Furthermore, the building has a 75% savings in compound CO2 emission impacts over a baseline building. The results indicate that NZEXBs are the “building blocks” for the more exergy-aware energy value chains of tomorrow. The strategies that were utilized at the building level are thus applicable to being scaled-up to higher levels in the energy system. The paper concludes with key strategies for the net-zero exergy communities of the future.

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