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  • 101. Citrin, J.
    et al.
    Garcia, J.
    Görler, T.
    Jenko, F.
    Mantica, P.
    Told, D.
    Bourdelle, C.
    Hatch, D. R.
    Hogeweij, G. M. D.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Pueschel, M. J.
    Schneider, M.
    Electromagnetic stabilization of tokamak microturbulence in a high-beta regime2015Inngår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 57, nr 1, s. 014032-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of electromagnetic stabilization and flow shear stabilization on ITG turbulence is investigated. Analysis of a low-beta JET L-mode discharge illustrates the relation between ITG stabilization and proximity to the electromagnetic instability threshold. This threshold is reduced by suprathermal pressure gradients, highlighting the effectiveness of fast ions in ITG stabilization. Extensive linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are then carried out for the high-beta JET hybrid discharge 75225, at two separate locations at inner and outer radii. It is found that at the inner radius, nonlinear electromagnetic stabilization is dominant and is critical for achieving simulated heat fluxes in agreement with the experiment. The enhancement of this effect by suprathermal pressure also remains significant. It is also found that flow shear stabilization is not effective at the inner radii. However, at outer radii the situation is reversed. Electromagnetic stabilization is negligible while the flow shear stabilization is significant. These results constitute the high-beta generalization of comparable observations found at low-beta at JET. This is encouraging for the extrapolation of electromagnetic ITG stabilization to future devices. An estimation of the impact of this effect on the ITER hybrid scenario leads to a 20% fusion power improvement.

  • 102. Citrin, J.
    et al.
    Jenko, F.
    Mantica, P.
    Told, D.
    Bourdelle, C.
    Dumont, R.
    Garcia, J.
    Haverkort, J. W.
    Hogeweij, G. M. D.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Pueschel, M. J.
    Ion temperature profile stiffness: non-linear gyrokinetic simulations and comparison with experiment2014Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 54, nr 2, s. 023008-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent experimental observations at JET show evidence of reduced ion temperature profile stiffness. An extensive set of nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are performed based on the experimental discharges, investigating the physical mechanism behind the observations. The impact on the ion heat flux of various parameters that differ within the data-set are explored. These parameters include the safety factor, magnetic shear, toroidal flow shear, effect of rotation on the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium, R/L-n, beta(e), Z(eff), T-e/T-i, and the fast-particle content. While previously hypothesized to be an important factor in the stiffness reduction, the combined effect of toroidal flow shear and low magnetic shear is not predicted by the simulations to lead to a significant reduction in ion heat flux, due both to an insufficient magnitude of flow shear and significant parallel velocity gradient destabilization. It is however found that nonlinear electromagnetic effects due to both thermal and fast-particle pressure gradients, even at low beta(e), can significantly reduce the ion heat flux, and is a key factor in explaining the experimental observations. A total of four discharges are examined, at both inner and outer radii. For all cases studied, the simulated and experimental ion heat flux values agree within reasonable variations of input parameters around the experimental uncertainties.

  • 103. Citrin, J.
    et al.
    Jenko, F.
    Mantica, P.
    Told, D.
    Bourdelle, C.
    Garcia, J.
    Haverkort, J. W.
    Hogeweij, G. M. D.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Pueschel, M. J.
    Nonlinear stabilization of tokamak microturbulence by fast ions2013Inngår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 111, nr 15, s. 155001-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear electromagnetic stabilization by suprathermal pressure gradients found in specific regimes is shown to be a key factor in reducing tokamak microturbulence, augmenting significantly the thermal pressure electromagnetic stabilization. Based on nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations investigating a set of ion heat transport experiments on the JET tokamak, described by Mantica et al., this result explains the experimentally observed ion heat flux and stiffness reduction. These findings are expected to improve the extrapolation of advanced tokamak scenarios to reactor relevant regimes.

  • 104. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Alves, E.
    Barradas, N. P.
    Baron-Wiechec, A.
    Catarino, N.
    Heinola, K.
    Likonen, J.
    Mayer, M.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Surface analysis of tiles and samples exposed to the first JET campaigns with the ITER-like wall2014Inngår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T159, s. 014012-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the first post-mortem analyses of tiles removed from JET after the first campaigns with the ITER-like wall (ILW) during 2011-12 [1]. Tiles from the divertor have been analysed by ion beam analysis techniques and by secondary ion mass spectrometry to determine the amount of beryllium deposition and deuterium retention in the tiles exposed to the scrape-off layer. Films 10-20 mu m thick were present at the top of tile 1, but only very thin films (<1 mu m) were found in the shadowed areas and on other divertor tiles. The total amount of Be found in the divertor following the ILW campaign was a factor of similar to 9 less than the material deposited in the 2007-09 carbon campaign, after allowing for the longer operations in 2007-09.

  • 105. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Andrew, P.
    Erents, S. K.
    Hole, D. E.
    Likonen, J.
    Mayer, M.
    Pitts, R.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Strachan, J. D.
    Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.
    Widdowson, A.
    Erosion and deposition in the JET MkII-SRP divertor2007Inngår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 363, s. 287-293Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon-13 labelled methane was injected into the outer divertor during a series of H-mode discharges on the last day of operations with the JET MkII-SRP divertor. Tiles from around the vessel were removed during the subsequent shutdown and surface deposits were analysed by IBA techniques and SIMS. First attempts to model the pattern of 13 C deposition using EDGE2D are reported. Erosion of W markers at the outer divertor was observed, with implications for the ITER-like wall experiment planned for JET, whilst thin film growth in the same region has been followed by the effect on infrared measurements. The composition of thick films deposited at the inner divertor during the MkII-SRP campaign, and the migration to the inner corner of the divertor observed by a quartz micro-balance, provide further information on divertor transport. Crown

  • 106. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Esser, H. -G
    Likonen, J.
    Mayer, M.
    Neill, G.
    Philipps, V.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Vince, J.
    Diagnostics for studying deposition and erosion processes in JET2005Inngår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 74, nr 1-4, s. 745-749Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of erosion, deposition and H-isotope retention in JET from previous divertor campaigns have relied on analysis of in-vessel components removed at shutdowns. The components analysed have also provided an incomplete coverage of the vessel. In 2004, new diagnostics are being installed to give a more complete picture (such as smart tiles) and to provide some time resolution. The latter includes further quartz microbalances (QMB), following the successful operation of a prototype in 2002-2004 [H.-G. Esser, G. Neill, P. Coad, G.F. Matthews, D. Jolovic, D. Wilson, M. Freisinger, V. Philipps, Quartz microbalance: a time-resolved diagnostic to measure material deposition in JET, Fusion Eng. Des. 66-68 (2003) 855-860; H.-G. Esser, V. Philipps, M. Freisinger, G.F. Matthews, J.P. Coad, G.F. Neill, JET EFDA Contributors, Effect of plasma configuration on carbon migration measured in the inner divertor of JET using quartz microbalance, J. Nucl. Mater. 337-339 (2005) 84-87], which will also have temperature control. Other diagnostics include rotating collectors and deposition monitors [M. Mayer, V. Rohde, P. Coad, P. Wienhold, ASDEX Upgrade Team, JET EFDA Contributors, Carbon erosion and migration in fusion devices, Phys. Scr. T111 (2004) 55-59]. Units are also being installed to provide information on mirrors for ITER.

  • 107. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Gruenhagen, S.
    Hole, D. E.
    Hakola, A.
    Koivuranta, S.
    Likonen, J.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Overview of JET post-mortem results following the 2007-9 operational period, and comparisons with previous campaigns2011Inngår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T145, s. 014003-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, all the plasma-facing components were removed from JET so that the carbon-based surfaces could be replaced with beryllium (Be) or tungsten as part of the ITER-like wall (ILW) project. This gives unprecedented opportunities for post-mortem analyses of these plasma-facing surfaces; this paper reviews the data obtained so far and relates the information to studies of tiles removed during previous JET shutdowns. The general pattern of erosion/deposition at the JET divertor has been maintained, with deposition of impurities in the scrape-off layer (SOL) at the inner divertor and preferential removal of carbon and transport into the corner. However, the remaining films in the SOL contain very high Be/C ratios at the surface. The first measurements of erosion using a tile profiler have been completed, with up to 200 microns erosion being recorded at points on the inner wall guard limiters.

  • 108. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Hole, D. E.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Vince, J.
    Deposition results from rotating collector diagnostics in JET2009Inngår i: Physica scripta. T, ISSN 0281-1847, Vol. T138, s. 014023-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotating collectors (RC) were installed in JET during the period 2005-2007, each providing a time-resolved deposition pattern on the surface of a rotating silicon disc, which could be analysed once retrieved from the vessel. This paper reports results from the silicon disc removed from the RC located under the load-bearing septum replacement plate in JET in 2007. Nuclear reaction analysis results of the deposits on the disc have been correlated directly with the pattern of erosion and deposition observed by the quartz microbalance (QMB) located in an equivalent position. The thickest film in the time-resolved region (i.e. deposited in similar to 60 pulses) was similar to 250 nm, and the Be/C ratio was generally found to be 0.1 or lower, with two regions where the ratio rose to 0.2. The deposition observed with the QMB appears to be about a factor of four less.

  • 109. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Likonen, J.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.
    Hole, D. E.
    Sajavaara, T.
    Renvall, T.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Overview of material re-deposition and fuel retention studies at JET with the Gas Box divertor2006Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 350-366Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    in the period 1998-2001 the JET tokamak was operated with the MkII Gas Box divertor. On two occasions during that period a number of limiter and divertor tiles were retrieved from the torus and then examined ex situ with surface sensitive techniques. Erosion and deposition patterns were determined in order to assess the material erosion, material migration and fuel inventory on plasma facing components. Tracer techniques, e.g. injection of C-13 labelled methane and tiles coated with a low-Z and high-Z marker layer, were used to enhance the volume of information on the material transport. The results show significant asymmetry in the distribution of fuel and plasma impurity species between the inner (net deposition area) and the outer (net erosion) divertor channels. No significant formation of highly hydrogenated carbon films has been found in the Gas Box structure. The important processes for material migration, and the influence of operation scenarios on the morphology of the deposits are discussed. Comparison is also made with results obtained following previous divertor campaigns.

  • 110. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Bekris, N.
    Brennan, D.
    Hole, D.
    Likonen, J.
    Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.
    Distribution of hydrogen isotopes, carbon and beryllium on in-vessel surfaces in the various jet divertors2005Inngår i: Fusion science and technology, ISSN 1536-1055, E-ISSN 1943-7641, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 551-556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    JET has operated with divertors of differing geometries since 1994. Impurities accumulated in the inner leg of all the divertors, and operation of the first (Mk I) divertor with beryllium tiles demonstrated that most are eroded from the main chamber walls and swept along the scrape-off layer to the inner divertor. Carbon deposited at the inner divertor is then locally transported to shadowed regions such as the inner louvres, where, for example, most of the tritium was trapped during the deuterium-tritium experiment (DTE1). Factors affecting these transport processes (e.g. temperature) are important for ITER, but are not well understood.

  • 111. Coda, S.
    et al.
    Ahn, J.
    Albanese, R.
    Alberti, S.
    Alessi, E.
    Allan, S.
    Anand, H.
    Anastassiou, G.
    Andrèbe, Y.
    Angioni, C.
    Ariola, M.
    Bernert, M.
    Beurskens, M.
    Bin, W.
    Blanchard, P.
    Blanken, T. C.
    Boedo, J. A.
    Bolzonella, T.
    Bouquey, F.
    Braunmüller, F. H.
    Bufferand, H.
    Buratti, P.
    Calabró, G.
    Camenen, Y.
    Carnevale, D.
    Carpanese, F.
    Causa, F.
    Cesario, R.
    Chapman, I. T.
    Chellai, O.
    Choi, D.
    Cianfarani, C.
    Ciraolo, G.
    Citrin, J.
    Costea, S.
    Crisanti, F.
    Cruz, N.
    Czarnecka, A.
    Decker, J.
    De Masi, G.
    De Tommasi, G.
    Douai, D.
    Dunne, M.
    Duval, B. P.
    Eich, T.
    Elmore, S.
    Esposito, B.
    Faitsch, M.
    Fasoli, A.
    Fedorczak, N.
    Felici, F.
    Février, O.
    Ficker, O.
    Fietz, S.
    Fontana, M.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Furno, I.
    Galeani, S.
    Gallo, A.
    Galperti, C.
    Garavaglia, S.
    Garrido, I.
    Geiger, B.
    Giovannozzi, E.
    Gobbin, M.
    Goodman, T. P.
    Gorini, G.
    Gospodarczyk, M.
    Granucci, G.
    Graves, J. P.
    Guirlet, R.
    Hakola, A.
    Ham, C.
    Harrison, J.
    Hawke, J.
    Hennequin, P.
    Hnat, B.
    Hogeweij, D.
    Hogge, J. -P
    Honoré, C.
    Hopf, C.
    Horáček, J.
    Huang, Z.
    Igochine, V.
    Innocente, P.
    Ionita Schrittwieser, C.
    Isliker, H.
    Jacquier, R.
    Jardin, A.
    Kamleitner, J.
    Karpushov, A.
    Keeling, D. L.
    Kirneva, N.
    Kong, M.
    Koubiti, M.
    Kovacic, J.
    Krämer-Flecken, A.
    Krawczyk, N.
    Kudlacek, O.
    Labit, B.
    Lazzaro, E.
    Le, H. B.
    Lipschultz, B.
    Llobet, X.
    Lomanowski, B.
    Loschiavo, V. P.
    Lunt, T.
    Maget, P.
    Maljaars, E.
    Malygin, A.
    Maraschek, M.
    Marini, C.
    Martin, P.
    Martin, Y.
    Mastrostefano, S.
    Maurizio, R.
    Mavridis, M.
    Mazon, D.
    McAdams, R.
    McDermott, R.
    Merle, A.
    Meyer, H.
    Militello, F.
    Miron, I. G.
    Molina Cabrera, P. A.
    Moret, J. -M
    Moro, A.
    Moulton, D.
    Naulin, V.
    Nespoli, F.
    Nielsen, A. H.
    Nocente, M.
    Nouailletas, R.
    Nowak, S.
    Odstrčil, T.
    Papp, G.
    Papřok, R.
    Pau, A.
    Pautasso, G.
    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.
    Piovesan, P.
    Piron, C.
    Pisokas, T.
    Porte, L.
    Preynas, M.
    Ramogida, G.
    Rapson, C.
    Juul Rasmussen, J.
    Reich, M.
    Reimerdes, H.
    Reux, C.
    Ricci, P.
    Rittich, D.
    Riva, F.
    Robinson, T.
    Saarelma, S.
    Saint-Laurent, F.
    Sauter, O.
    Scannell, R.
    Schlatter, C.
    Schneider, B.
    Schneider, P.
    Schrittwieser, R.
    Sciortino, F.
    Sertoli, M.
    Sheikh, U.
    Sieglin, B.
    Silva, M.
    Sinha, J.
    Sozzi, C.
    Spolaore, M.
    Stange, T.
    Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.
    Tamain, P.
    Teplukhina, A.
    Testa, D.
    Theiler, C.
    Thornton, A.
    Tophøj, L.
    Tran, M. Q.
    Tsironis, C.
    Tsui, C.
    Uccello, A.
    Vartanian, S.
    Verdoolaege, G.
    Verhaegh, K.
    Vermare, L.
    Vianello, N.
    Vijvers, W. A. J.
    Vlahos, L.
    Vu, N. M. T.
    Walkden, N.
    Wauters, T.
    Weisen, H.
    Wischmeier, M.
    Zestanakis, P.
    Zuin, M.
    Overview of the TCV tokamak program: Scientific progress and facility upgrades2017Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, nr 10, artikkel-id 102011Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The TCV tokamak is augmenting its unique historical capabilities (strong shaping, strong electron heating) with ion heating, additional electron heating compatible with high densities, and variable divertor geometry, in a multifaceted upgrade program designed to broaden its operational range without sacrificing its fundamental flexibility. The TCV program is rooted in a three-pronged approach aimed at ITER support, explorations towards DEMO, and fundamental research. A 1 MW, tangential neutral beam injector (NBI) was recently installed and promptly extended the TCV parameter range, with record ion temperatures and toroidal rotation velocities and measurable neutral-beam current drive. ITER-relevant scenario development has received particular attention, with strategies aimed at maximizing performance through optimized discharge trajectories to avoid MHD instabilities, such as peeling-ballooning and neoclassical tearing modes. Experiments on exhaust physics have focused particularly on detachment, a necessary step to a DEMO reactor, in a comprehensive set of conventional and advanced divertor concepts. The specific theoretical prediction of an enhanced radiation region between the two X-points in the low-field-side snowflake-minus configuration was experimentally confirmed. Fundamental investigations of the power decay length in the scrape-off layer (SOL) are progressing rapidly, again in widely varying configurations and in both D and He plasmas; in particular, the double decay length in L-mode limited plasmas was found to be replaced by a single length at high SOL resistivity. Experiments on disruption mitigation by massive gas injection and electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) have begun in earnest, in parallel with studies of runaway electron generation and control, in both stable and disruptive conditions; a quiescent runaway beam carrying the entire electrical current appears to develop in some cases. Developments in plasma control have benefited from progress in individual controller design and have evolved steadily towards controller integration, mostly within an environment supervised by a tokamak profile control simulator. TCV has demonstrated effective wall conditioning with ECRH in He in support of the preparations for JT-60SA operation.

  • 112. Coda, S.
    et al.
    Eriksson, L. -G
    Lennholm, M.
    Graves, J.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    DeBaar, M.
    Howell, D. F.
    Jachmich, S.
    Kiptily, V.
    Koslowski, R.
    Mayoral, M. -L
    Mueck, A.
    Pinches, S.
    Saibene, G.
    Santala, M. I. K.
    Stamp, M. F.
    Valisa, M.
    NTM prevention by ICCD control of fast-ion-stabilised sawteeth2007Inngår i: 34th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2007, EPS 2007 - Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 2007, nr 3, s. 2138-2141Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 113. Coenen, J. W.
    et al.
    Arnoux, G.
    Bazylev, B.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Autricque, A.
    Balboa, I.
    Clever, M.
    Dejarnac, R.
    Coffey, I.
    Corre, Y.
    Devaux, S.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Gauthier, E.
    Horacek, J.
    Jachmich, S.
    Komm, M.
    Knaup, M.
    Krieger, K.
    Marsen, S.
    Meigs, A.
    Mertens, Ph.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Puetterich, T.
    Rack, M.
    Stamp, M.
    Sergienko, G.
    Tamain, P.
    Thompson, V.
    ELM-induced transient tungsten melting in the JET divertor2015Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 55, nr 2, artikkel-id 023010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The original goals of the JET ITER-like wall included the study of the impact of an all W divertor on plasma operation (Coenen et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 073043) and fuel retention (Brezinsek et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 083023). ITER has recently decided to install a full-tungsten (W) divertor from the start of operations. One of the key inputs required in support of this decision was the study of the possibility of W melting and melt splashing during transients. Damage of this type can lead to modifications of surface topology which could lead to higher disruption frequency or compromise subsequent plasma operation. Although every effort will be made to avoid leading edges, ITER plasma stored energies are sufficient that transients can drive shallow melting on the top surfaces of components. JET is able to produce ELMs large enough to allow access to transient melting in a regime of relevance to ITER. Transient W melt experiments were performed in JET using a dedicated divertor module and a sequence of I-P = 3.0 MA/B-T = 2.9 T H-mode pulses with an input power of P-IN = 23 MW, a stored energy of similar to 6 MJ and regular type I ELMs at Delta W-ELM = 0.3 MJ and f(ELM) similar to 30 Hz. By moving the outer strike point onto a dedicated leading edge in the W divertor the base temperature was raised within similar to 1 s to a level allowing transient, ELM-driven melting during the subsequent 0.5 s. Such ELMs (delta W similar to 300 kJ per ELM) are comparable to mitigated ELMs expected in ITER (Pitts et al 2011 J. Nucl. Mater. 415 (Suppl.) S957-64). Although significant material losses in terms of ejections into the plasma were not observed, there is indirect evidence that some small droplets (similar to 80 mu m) were released. Almost 1 mm (similar to 6 mm(3)) of W was moved by similar to 150 ELMs within 7 subsequent discharges. The impact on the main plasma parameters was minor and no disruptions occurred. The W-melt gradually moved along the leading edge towards the high-field side, driven by j x B forces. The evaporation rate determined from spectroscopy is 100 times less than expected from steady state melting and is thus consistent only with transient melting during the individual ELMs. Analysis of IR data and spectroscopy together with modelling using the MEMOS code Bazylev et al 2009 J. Nucl. Mater. 390-391 810-13 point to transient melting as the main process. 3D MEMOS simulations on the consequences of multiple ELMs on damage of tungsten castellated armour have been performed. These experiments provide the first experimental evidence for the absence of significant melt splashing at transient events resembling mitigated ELMs on ITER and establish a key experimental benchmark for the MEMOS code.

  • 114. Coenen, J. W.
    et al.
    Arnoux, G.
    Bazylev, B.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Jachmich, S.
    Balboa, I.
    Clever, M.
    Dejarnac, R.
    Coffey, I.
    Corre, Y.
    Devaux, S.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Gauthier, E.
    Horacek, J.
    Knaup, M.
    Komm, M.
    Krieger, K.
    Marsen, S.
    Meigs, A.
    Mertens, Ph.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Puetterich, T.
    Rack, M.
    Stamp, M.
    Sergienko, G.
    Tamain, P.
    Thompson, V.
    ELM induced tungsten melting and its impact on tokamak operation2015Inngår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 463, s. 78-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In JET-ILW dedicated melt exposures were performed using a sequence of 3MA/2.9T H-Mode JET pulses with an input power of P-IN = 23 MW, a stored energy of similar to 6 MJ and regular type I ELMs at Delta W-ELM = 0.3 MJ and f(ELM) similar to 30 Hz. In order to assess the risk of starting ITER operations with a full W divertor, one of the task was to measure the consequences of W transients melting due to ELMs. JET is the only tokamak able to produce transients/ ELMs large enough (>300 kJ per ELM) to facilitate melting of tungsten. Such ELMs are comparable to mitigated ELMs expected in ITER. By moving the outer strike point (OSP) onto a dedicated leading edge the base temperature was raised within similar to 1 s to allow transient ELM-driven melting during the subsequent 0.5 s. Almost 1 mm (similar to 6 mm(3)) of W was moved by similar to 150 ELMs within 5 subsequent discharges. Significant material losses in terms of ejections into the plasma were not observed. There is indirect evidence that some small droplets (similar to 80 mu m) were ejected. The impact on the main plasma parameters is minor and no disruptions occurred. The W-melt gradually moved along the lamella edge towards the high field side, driven by j x B forces. The evaporation rate determined is 100 times less than expected from steady state melting and thus only consistent with transient melting during individual ELMs. IR data, spectroscopy, as well as melt modeling point to transient melting. Although the type of damage studied in these JET experiments is unlikely to be experienced in ITER, the results do strongly support the design strategy to avoid exposed edges in the ITER divertor. The JET experiments required a surface at normal incidence and considerable pre-heating to produce tungsten melting. They provide unique experimental evidence for the absence of significant melt splashing at events resembling mitigated ELMs on ITER and establish a unique experimental benchmark for the simulations being used to study transient shallow melting on ITER W divertor PFUs.

  • 115. Coenen, J. W.
    et al.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Krieger, K.
    Iglesias, D.
    Bunting, P.
    Corre, Y.
    Silburn, S.
    Balboa, I.
    Bazylevs, B.
    Conway, N.
    Coffey, I.
    Dejarnac, R.
    Gauthier, E.
    Gaspar, J.
    Jachmich, S.
    Jepu, I.
    Makepeace, C.
    Scannell, R.
    Stamp, M.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Wiesen, S.
    Widdowson, A.
    Heinola, K.
    Baron-Wiechec, A.
    Transient induced tungsten melting at the Joint European Torus (JET)2017Inngår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, artikkel-id 014013Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Melting is one of the major risks associated with tungsten (W) plasma-facing components (PFCs) in tokamaks like JET or ITER. These components are designed such that leading edges and hence excessive plasma heat loads deposited at near normal incidence are avoided. Due to the high stored energies in ITER discharges, shallow surface melting can occur under insufficiently mitigated plasma disruption and so-called edge localised modes-power load transients. A dedicated program was carried out at the JET to study the physics and consequences of W transient melting. Following initial exposures in 2013 (ILW-1) of a W-lamella with leading edge, new experiments have been performed on a sloped surface (15 degrees slope) during the 2015/2016 (ILW-3) campaign. This new experiment allows significantly improved infrared thermography measurements and thus resolved important issue of power loading in the context of the previous leading edge exposures. The new lamella was monitored by local diagnostics: spectroscopy, thermography and high-resolution photography in between discharges. No impact on the main plasma was observed despite a strong increase of the local W source consistent with evaporation. In contrast to the earlier exposure, no droplet emission was observed from the sloped surface. Topological modifications resulting from the melting are clearly visible between discharges on the photographic images. Melt damage can be clearly linked to the infrared measurements: the emissivity drops in zones where melting occurs. In comparison with the previous leading edge experiment, no runaway melt motion is observed, consistent with the hypothesis that the escape of thermionic electrons emitted from the melt zone is largely suppressed in this geometry, where the magnetic field intersects the surface at lower angles than in the case of perpendicular impact on a leading edge. Utilising both exposures allows us to further test the model of the forces driving melt motion that successfully reproduced the findings from the original leading edge exposure. Since the ILW-1 experiments, the exposed misaligned lamella has now been retrieved from the JET machine and post mortem analysis has been performed. No obvious mass loss is observed. Profilometry of the ILW-1 lamella shows the structure of the melt damage which is in line with the modell predictions thus allowing further model validation. Nuclear reaction analysis shows a tenfold reduction in surface deuterium concentration in the molten surface in comparison to the non-molten part of the lamella.

  • 116. Coenen, J. W.
    et al.
    Sertoli, M.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Coffey, I.
    Dux, R.
    Giroud, C.
    Groth, M.
    Huber, A.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Krieger, K.
    Lawson, K.
    Marsen, S.
    Meigs, A.
    Neu, R.
    Puetterich, T.
    van Rooij, G. J.
    Stamp, M. F.
    Long-term evolution of the impurity composition and impurity events with the ITER-like wall at JET2013Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 53, nr 7, s. 073043-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper covers aspects of long-term evolution of intrinsic impurities in the JET tokamak with respect to the newly installed ITER-like wall (ILW). At first the changes related to the change over from the JET-C to the JET-ILW with beryllium (Be) as the main wall material and tungsten (W) in the divertor are discussed. The evolution of impurity fluxes in the newly installed W divertor with respect to studying material migration is described. In addition, a statistical analysis of transient impurity events causing significant plasma contamination and radiation losses is shown. The main findings comprise a drop in carbon content (x20) (see also Brezinsek et al (2013 J. Nucl. Mater. 438 S303)), low oxygen content (x10) due to the Be first wall (Douai et al 2013 J. Nucl. Mater. 438 S1172-6) as well as the evolution of the material mix in the divertor. Initially, a short period of repetitive ohmic plasmas was carried out to study material migration (Krieger et al 2013 J. Nucl. Mater. 438 S262). After the initial 1600 plasma seconds the material surface composition is, however, still evolving. With operational time, the levels of recycled C are increasing slightly by 20% while the Be levels in the deposition-dominated inner divertor are dropping, hinting at changes in the surface layer material mix made of Be, C and W. A steady number of transient impurity events, consisting of W and constituents of inconel, is observed despite the increase in variation in machine operation and changes in magnetic configuration as well as the auxiliary power increase.

  • 117. Coenen, J. W.
    et al.
    Van Rooij, G. J.
    Aho-Mantila, L.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Clever, M.
    Dux, R.
    Groth, M.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Krieger, K.
    Marsen, S.
    Meigs, A.
    Müller, H. W.
    Neu, R.
    Potzel, S.
    Stamp, M. F.
    Tungsten erosion in the all-metal tokamaks JET and ASDEX Upgrade2012Inngår i: 39th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2012, EPS 2012 and the 16th International Congress on Plasma Physics: Volume 1, 2012, 2012, s. 253-256Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The tungsten source in the all W outer divertor and Be main wall configuration has been quantified mainly during L-mode plasmas and compared to AUG Data both gained from local spectroscopy. Results so far show differences between AUG and JET based on impurities in the plasma changing the sputter behavior. This stresses the need for detailed analysis of the divertor impurity composition and detailed molding in the future analysis. The H-Mode examples indicate at ELM dominated sputtering and a rather low averaged sputtering yield in general. Nitrogen seeding can change the divertor conditions significantly either increasing W sputtering or suppressing it due to local cooling, JET and AUG behave similarly. All together it is clear that by having low divertor temperature or a beneficial impurity composition sputtering can be controlled and is rather low as expected in an all metal environment.

  • 118. Counsell, G.
    et al.
    Coad, P.
    Grisola, C.
    Hopf, C.
    Jacob, W.
    Kirschner, A.
    Kreter, A.
    Krieger, K.
    Likonen, J.
    Philipps, V.
    Roth, J.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Salancon, E.
    Semerok, A.
    Tabares, F. L.
    Widdowson, A.
    Tritium retention in next step devices and the requirements for mitigation and removal techniques2006Inngår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 48, nr 12B, s. B189-B199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanisms underlying the retention of fuel species in tokamaks with carbon plasma-facing components are presented, together with estimates for the corresponding retention of tritium in ITER. The consequential requirement for new and improved schemes to reduce the tritium inventory is highlighted and the results of ongoing studies into a range of techniques are presented, together with estimates of the tritium removal rate in ITER in each case. Finally, an approach involving the integration of many tritium removal techniques into the ITER operational schedule is proposed as a means to extend the period of operations before major intervention is required.

  • 119.
    Dahlin, Jon-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Scheffel, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Advanced Reversed-field Pinch Scaling Laws2005Inngår i: 32nd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Tarragona, Spain 27 June-1 July, P-1.118, 2005, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of resistive magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations are performed to generate scaling laws for energy confinement time τE and poloidal beta βp for the advanced reversed field-pinch (RFP). Strongly improved scaling with basic initial parameters is obtained as compared to the conventional RFP. Early results indicate an improved scaling of τE with plasma current I and line density N compared to the conventional RFP. The improved behaviour of the advanced RFP as compared to the conventional, uncontrolled RFP stems from the introduction of current profile control (CPC). In the present numerical simulations, CPC is performed by implementation of a parameter free automatic feedback algorithm, optimised to reduce the fluctuation caused v × B electric field. The scheme introduces an ad-hoc electric field within the plasma volume, automatically adjusted to dynamically control the plasma into more quiescent behaviour by eliminating current driven tearing mode instabilities and reducing resistive interchange modes.

  • 120.
    Dahlin, Jon-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Scheffel, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Improved Computer Simulations of Energy Confinement in the Advanced Reversed-field Pinch2006Inngår i: 33rd EPS Conference on Plasma Phys, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A revised algorithm for numerical simulations of the advanced reversed-field pinch (RFP) is presented. The results show improved scalings of magnetic fluctuations, energy confinement time τE and poloidal beta βθ with basic initial parameters as compared to what has been presented by the authors in earlier studies of the advanced RFP. The improved behaviour of the advanced RFP stems from the introduction of current profile control (CPC), implemented through a scheme of active feedback of the electric dynamo field. The work, which has an optimistic approach and sweeps over a large parameter domain reaching into the reactor relevant region, is theoretical and claims to answer the question of how far CPC can bring the RFP concept in principle. Experimental implementation is thus a later concern. With this scheme, a state with strongly suppressed tearing mode activity is achieved, which allows for a theoretical study of pressure driven resistive g-modes. This is a task that has been very hard to perform in the past, since tearing modes have always dominated the RFP dynamics. Thus it is now possible, for the first time, to investigate whether pressure driven modes, which are persistent in the RFP, are fatal for the confinement of a high-beta RFP configuration or if they can be accepted in a future reactor.

  • 121.
    Dahlin, Jon-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Scheffel, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Scaling Laws of Confinement Parameters for the Advanced Reversed-field Pinch2005Inngår i: 47th APS Division of Plasma Physics Meeting, Denver, Colorado, 24-28 October, 2005, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 122. de la Luna, E
    et al.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Lomas, P
    Maggi, C
    Brezinsek, S
    Challis, C
    Nunes, I
    Rimini, F
    Type I ELM characterization in JET with the ITER-like wall2015Inngår i: 15th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers, 19-21 October 2015. Garching, Germany, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 123. de la Luna, E
    et al.
    Rimini, F
    Lomas, P
    Sips, A
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Amicucci, L
    Drewelow, P
    Flanagan, J
    Nunes, I
    Saarelma, S
    Recent Results on High-Triangularity H-Mode Studies in JET-ILW2016Inngår i: 26th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, 17-22 October 2016, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 124. De Temmerman, G.
    et al.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Coad, J. P.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Mirror test for ITER: Optical characterisation of metal mirrors in divertor tokamaks2005Inngår i: 32nd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2005, EPS 2005, Held with the 8th International Workshop on Fast Ignition of Fusion Targets: Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 2005, s. 586-589Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 125. de Vries, P. C.
    et al.
    Joffrin, E.
    Hawkes, N. C.
    Litaudon, X.
    Challis, C. D.
    Andrew, Y.
    Beurskens, M.
    Brix, M.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Crombe, K.
    Giroud, C.
    Hobirk, J.
    Johnson, T.
    Lonnroth, J.
    Salmi, A.
    Tala, T.
    Yavorskij, V.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Effect of toroidal field ripple on the formation of internal transport barriers2008Inngår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 50, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a toroidal field (TF) ripple on the formation and performance of internal transport barriers (ITBs) has been studied in JET. It was found that the TF ripple had a profound effect on the toroidal plasma rotation. An increased TF ripple up to delta = 1% led to a lower rotation and reduced the rotational shear in the region where the ITBs were formed. ITB triggering events were observed in all cases and it is thought that the rotational shear may be less important for this process than, for example, the q-profile. However, the increase in the pressure gradient following the ITB trigger was reduced in discharges with a larger TF ripple and consequently a lower rotational shear. This suggests that toroidal rotation and its shear play a role in the growth of the ITB once it has been triggered.

  • 126. de Vries, P. C.
    et al.
    Salmi, A.
    Parail, V.
    Giroud, C.
    Andrew, Y.
    Biewer, T. M.
    Crombe, K.
    Jenkins, I.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Kiptily, V.
    Loarte, A.
    Lonnroth, J.
    Meigs, A.
    Oyama, N.
    Sartori, R.
    Saibene, G.
    Urano, H.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Effect of toroidal field ripple on plasma rotation in JET2008Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 48, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dedicated experiments on TF ripple effects on the performance of tokamak plasmas have been carried out at JET. The TF ripple was found to have a profound effect on the plasma rotation. The central Mach number, M, defined as the ratio of the rotation velocity and the thermal velocity, was found to drop as a function of TF ripple amplitude (3) from an average value of M = 0.40-0.55 for operations at the standard JET ripple of 6 = 0.08% to M = 0.25-0.40 for 6 = 0.5% and M = 0.1-0.3 for delta = 1%. TF ripple effects should be considered when estimating the plasma rotation in ITER. With standard co-current injection of neutral beam injection (NBI), plasmas were found to rotate in the co-current direction. However, for higher TF ripple amplitudes (delta similar to 1%) an area of counter rotation developed at the edge of the plasma, while the core kept its co-rotation. The edge counter rotation was found to depend, besides on the TF ripple amplitude, on the edge temperature. The observed reduction of toroidal plasma rotation with increasing TF ripple could partly be explained by TF ripple induced losses of energetic ions, injected by NBI. However, the calculated torque due to these losses was insufficient to explain the observed counter rotation and its scaling with edge parameters. It is suggested that additional TF ripple induced losses of thermal ions contribute to this effect.

  • 127. De Vries, P. C.
    et al.
    Salmi, A.
    Parail, V.
    Giroud, C.
    Andrew, Y.
    Biewer, T. M.
    Crombé, K.
    Jenkins, I.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Kiptily, V.
    Loarte, A.
    Lönnroth, J.
    Meigs, A.
    Oyama, N.
    Sartori, R.
    Saibene, G.
    Urano, H.
    Zastrow, K. -D
    Effect of toroidal field ripple on plasma rotation in JET2007Inngår i: 34th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2007, EPS 2007 - Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 2007, nr 1, s. 603-606Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 128. Dejarnac, R.
    et al.
    Podolnik, A.
    Komm, M.
    Arnoux, G.
    Coenen, J. W.
    Devaux, S.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Gunn, J. P.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Numerical evaluation of heat flux and surface temperature on a misaligned JET divertor W lamella during ELMs2014Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 54, nr 12, s. 123011-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of experiments has been performed on JET to investigate the dynamics of transient melting due to edge localized modes (ELMs). The experiment employs a deliberately misaligned lamella in one module of the JET bulk tungsten outer divertor, allowing the combination of stationary power flux and ELMs to transiently melt the misaligned edge. During the design of the experiment a number of calculations were performed using 2D particle-in-cell simulations and a heat transfer code to investigate the influence on the deposited power flux of finite Larmor radius effects associated with the energetic ELM ions. This has been performed using parameter scans inside a range of pedestal temperatures and densities to scope different experimentally expected ELM energies. On the one hand, we observe optimistic results, with smoothing of the heat flux due to the Larmor gyration on the protruding side of the lamella which sees the direct parallel flux-the deposited power tends to be lower than the nominal value expected from geometric magnetic field line impact over a distance smaller than 2 Larmor radii, a finding which is always valid during ELMs for such a geometry. On the other hand, the fraction of the flux not reaching the directly wetted side is transferred and spread to the top surface of the lamella. The hottest point of the lamella (corner side/top) does not always benefit from the gain from the Larmor smoothing effect because of an enhanced power deposition from the second contribution.

  • 129. Di Siena, A.
    et al.
    Görier, T.
    Doerk, H.
    Citrin, J.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Schneider, M.
    Poli, E.
    Non-Maxwellian background effects in gyrokinetic simulations with GENE2016Inngår i: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 775, nr 1, artikkel-id 012003Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between fast particles and core turbulence has been established as a central issue for a tokamak reactor. Recent results predict significant enhancement of electromagnetic stabilisation of ITG turbulence in the presence of fast ions. However, most of these simulations were performed with the assumption of equivalent Maxwellian distributed particles, whereas to rigorously model fast ions, a non-Maxwellian background distribution function is needed. To this aim, the underlying equations in the gyrokinetic code GENE have been re-derived and implemented for a completely general background distribution function. After verification studies, a previous investigation on a particular JET plasma has been revised with linear simulations. The plasma is composed by Deuterium, electron, Carbon impurities, NBI fast Deuterium and ICRH 3He. Fast particle distributions have been modelled with a number of different analytic choices in order to study the impact of non-Maxwellian distributions on the plasma turbulence: slowing down and anisotropic Maxwellian. Linear growth rates are studied as a function of the wave number and compared with those obtained using an equivalent Maxwellian. Generally, the choice of the 3He distribution seems to have a stronger impact on the microinstabilities than that of the fast Deuterium.

  • 130. Doveil, F.
    et al.
    Cherigier-Kovacic, L.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Lamb-shift and electric field measurements in plasmas2017Inngår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, nr 1, artikkel-id 014020Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric field is a quantity of particular relevance in plasma physics. Indeed, its fluctuations are responsible for different macroscopic phenomena such as anomalous transport in fusion plasmas. Answering a long-standing challenge, we offer a new method to locally and non-intrusively measure weak electric fields and their fluctuations in plasmas, by means of a beam of hydrogen ions or atoms. We present measurements of the electric field in vacuum and in a plasma where Debye shielding is measured. For the first time, we have used the Lamb-shift resonance to measure oscillating electric fields around 1 GHz and observed the strong enhancement of the Lyman-alpha signal. The measurement is both direct and non-intrusive. This method provides sensitivity (mV cm(-1)) and temporal resolution (ns) that are three orders higher compared to current diagnostics. It thus allows measuring fluctuations of the electric field at scales not previously reached experimentally.

  • 131. Drake, J. R.
    et al.
    Scheffel, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Calculations of Toroidal Extrap Equilibria for Different Toroidal Ring-Current Configurations1985Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 132.
    Drake, James Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bolzonella, T.
    Olofsson, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Baruzzo, T. M.
    Brunsell, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Guo, S. C.
    Igochine, V.
    Liu, Y. Q.
    Marchiori, G.
    Paccagnella, R.
    Rubinacci, G.
    Soppelsa, A.
    Villone, F.
    Yadikin, D.
    Martin, P.
    Zohm, H.
    Reversed-Field Pinch Contributions to Resistive Wall Mode Physics and Control2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal feedback control of resistive-wall modes (RWM) is of common interest for toroidal fusionconcepts that use conducting walls for stabilization of ideal MHD modes. From the RWM control point of view,the RFP situation is in many respects similar to the advanced tokamak situation in the presence of very lowplasma rotation, where the most effective stabilizing mechanism is the feedback action of a set of active coils.Results from EXTRAP T2R (Sweden) and RFX-mod (Italy) RFP experiments have shown that full feedbackcontrol of multiple RWMs is possible and their deleterious effects can be completely suppressed. However it isnow important to optimize the RWM control systems both for the RFP and tokamak configuration for futureimplementation. Important aspects of optimization are effective mode identification and tracking capability,avoidance of the harmful effects of sideband modes (aliasing) in the control spectrum, minimized powerrequirements and robust controller stability. The paper describes collaborative work carried out on the two RFPexperiments. Controller models based on the mode harmonic control concept and on a state-space multipleinputmultiple-output intelligent shell concept are studied. Progress in development of optimal control schemesare presented both through experimental studies and simulations.

  • 133.
    Drake, James Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Yadikin, Dmitriy
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Cecconello, Marco
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hedqvist, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Kuldkepp, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Experiments on feedback control of multiple resistive wall modes comparing different active coil arrays and sensor types2006Inngår i: IAEA-F1-CN-149, 2006, s. Paper EX/P8-11-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 134. Dunne, M
    et al.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Poetzel, S
    Reimold, F
    Wischmeier, M
    Wolfrum, E
    Bernerdt, M
    The Role of the Density Profile Location on Pedestal Stability in ASDEX-Upgrade2016Inngår i: 26th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, 17-22 October 2016, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 135. Dunne, M. G.
    et al.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Beurskens, M.
    Cavedon, M.
    Fischer, R.
    Huijsmans, G. T. A.
    Laggner, F. M.
    McDermott, R. M.
    Tardini, G.
    Viezzer, E.
    Wolfrum, E.
    Impact of nitrogen seeding on the AUG pedestal: Experiments and modelling2015Inngår i: 42nd European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics, EPS 2015, European Physical Society (EPS) , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 136. Dunne, M. G.
    et al.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Beurskens, M. N. A.
    Cavedon, M.
    Fietz, S.
    Fischer, R.
    Giannone, L.
    Huijsmans, G. T. A.
    Kurzan, B.
    Laggner, F.
    McCarthy, P. J.
    McDermott, R. M.
    Tardini, G.
    Viezzer, E.
    Willensdorfer, M.
    Wolfrum, E.
    Global performance enhancements via pedestal optimisation on ASDEX Upgrade2017Inngår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, nr 2, artikkel-id 025010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of experimental scans of heating power, plasma shape, and nitrogen content are presented, with a focus on global performance and pedestal alteration. In detailed scans at low triangularity, it is shown that the increase in stored energy due to nitrogen seeding stems from the pedestal. It is also shown that the confinement increase is driven through the temperature pedestal at the three heating power levels studied. In a triangularity scan, an orthogonal effect of shaping and seeding is observed, where increased plasma triangularity increases the pedestal density, while impurity seeding (carbon and nitrogen) increases the pedestal temperature in addition to this effect. Modelling of these effects was also undertaken, with interpretive and predictive models being employed. The interpretive analysis shows a general agreement of the experimental pedestals in separate power, shaping, and seeding scans with peeling-ballooning theory. Predictive analysis was used to isolate the individual effects, showing that the trends of additional heating power and increased triangularity can be recoverd. However, a simple change of the effective charge in the plasma cannot explain the observed levels of confinement improvement in the present models.

  • 137. Dunne, M. G.
    et al.
    Potzel, S.
    Reimold, F.
    Wischmeier, M.
    Wolfrum, E.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Beurskens, M.
    Bilkova, P.
    Cavedon, M.
    Fischer, R.
    Kurzan, B.
    Laggner, F. M.
    McDermott, R. M.
    Tardini, G.
    Trier, E.
    Viezzer, E.
    Willensdorfer, M.
    The role of the density profile in the ASDEX-Upgrade pedestal structure2017Inngår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, nr 1, artikkel-id 014017Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental evidence for the impact of a region of high density localised in the high-field side scrape-off layer (the HFSHD) on plasma confinement is shown in various dedicated experiments on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). Increasing main ion fuelling is shown to increase the separatrix density and shift the density profile outwards. Predictive pedestal modelling of this shift indicates a 25% decrease in the attainable pedestal top pressure, which compares well with experimental observations in the gas scan. Since the HFSHD can be mitigated by applying nitrogen seeding, a combined scan in fuelling rate, heating power, and nitrogen seeding is presented. Significant increases in the achievable pedestal top pressure are observed with seeding, in particular at high heating powers, and are correlated with inward shifted density profiles and a reduction of the HFSHD and separatrix density. Interpretive linear stability analysis also confirms the impact of a radially shifted pressure profile on peeling-ballooning stability, with an inward shift allowing access to higher pressure gradients and pedestal widths.

  • 138. Dunne, M
    et al.
    Poetzel, S
    Wischmeier, M
    Wolfrum, E
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Reimold, F
    Predictive  modelling  of  the  impact  of  a  radiative  divertor  on pedestal  con nement  on  ASDEX  Upgrade2015Inngår i: 57rd Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics, November 2015, Savannah, USA, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In future devices, tailoring of the edge density profile and radiation profile for power exhaust control via a deuterium gas puff and extrinsic impurity seeding will be necessary. It has been observed on present day machines that high D fuelling can reduce the plasma stored energy while adding impurity seeding can act to improve confinement by up to 40{\%}. This study presents a combination of observations and modelling completed on AUG with the aim of determining the mechanisms behind the confinement degradation with a gas puff and improvement with impurity seeding. In particular, predictive modelling, based on the EPED pedestal model, has been extensively used. Alterations of the temperature and density at the separatrix are found to have large impacts on pedestal stability. Measured changes in divertor properties are used to inform the direction and magnitude of these alterations, with experimentally relevant confinement changes being recovered via pressure profile shifts.

  • 139. Dunne, M
    et al.
    Potzel, S
    Remold, F
    Viezzer, E
    Wischmeier, M
    Wolfrum, E
    Bernerdt, M
    Beurskens, M
    Cavedon, M
    Fischer, R
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Kurzan, B
    The role of the density profile in the ASDEX-Upgrade pedestal structure2016Inngår i: 43th European Physical Society (EPS) Conference on Plasma Physics. July 4 – July 8, 2016, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 140. Elevant, T.
    et al.
    Hellblom, G.
    Holmqvist, B.
    Malmskog, S.
    Scheffel, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    A Proposed Neutron Spectrometer System for JET1980Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 141. Elevant, T.
    et al.
    Lindén, P.
    Scheffel, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Brelén, H.
    Profile Measurements in ITER by means of Neutron Spectroscopy, Ion Temperature Diagnostics for Experimental Thermonuclear Fusion Reactors1996Inngår i: Workshop on diagnostics for ITER, Varenna, September 1995, proceedings of the International School of Plasma Physics, Edited by P. E. Stott et.al.,  Plenum Press, New York, 1996, 1996, s. 445-450Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on ion temperature profiles will be needed for burn optimisation and transport studies in ITER. The feasibility of deriving these profiles for the core plasma (r< 0.75a) directly from the width of measured 14-MeV neutron energy spectra is demonstrated for Maxwellian ion distributions. Neutron energy spectra and fluxes generated under different heating conditions are calculated by means of Monte-Carlo technique. The computation takes the reaction kinematics and the velocity distributions of the reacting ions into account and calculates the resulting neutron energy distribution and flux into a defined collimator. Energy spectra of neutrons emitted along a line-of-sight are superimposed. The associated correction factor, which depends on the measured ion temperature, can be given an analytical form when fitted to code data and is insensitive to large variations in temperature-, density and magnetic flux profile shapes. The accuracy in ion temperature evaluation is expected to be better than ± 10% and can be improved to ± 5% provided information on fuel density profiles are made available.

  • 142. Elevant, T.
    et al.
    Scheffel, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Role of Neutron Spectrometers for ITER1998Inngår i: Proc. of the Int. School of Plasma Physics "Piero Calderola", Workshop on Diagnostics for Experimental Fusion Reactors, held September 4-12, 1997, in Varenna, Italy. Edited by Stott et al, Plenum Press, New York, 1998, 1998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions for retrieval of ion temperature profiles through measurement and evaluation of neutron energy spectra emitted in ITER-like fusion plasmas are discussed. Spectra from deuterium- and deuterium-tritium plasmas heated by 100 MW, 1 MeV neutral deuterium beams, and ignited H-mode plasmas are simulated by means of a Monte-Carlo Fokker-Planck code. Regions are defined where information on ion temperature clearly is preserved. The correction from line-of-sight integrated measurement to peak temperature is found to be 4–10% for deuterium plasmas of all temperatures and for deuterium-tritium plasmas of temperatures below approximately 5 keV. For higher temperatures the correction equals 10–30% depending on the density and temperature profiles. Ion temperatures can be determined with an accuracy better than 10% in this region only if profile data is made available.

    Several spectrometers have been proposed. Operating ranges in ion temperature and beam power, spatial- and temporal resolution, space requirements and life expectancy are compared with ITER measurement requirements. Necessary R&D work is also discussed.

  • 143. Elevant, Thomas
    et al.
    Brelén, Hans
    Lindén, P.
    Scheffel, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ion Temperature Profile Measurements in ITER by means of Neutron Spectroscopy1997Inngår i: Fusion technology, ISSN 0748-1896, Vol. 32, s. 304-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 144.
    Emmoth, Birger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Khartsev, Sergiy
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Materialfysik, MF.
    Pisarev, A.
    Grishin, Alexander
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Karlsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Litnovsky, A.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Wienhold, P.
    Fuel removal from bumper limiter tiles by using a pulsed excimer laser2005Inngår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 337-39, nr 1-3, s. 639-643Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of a limiter tile from the TEXTOR tokamak were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and nuclear reaction analysis both before and after laser heating. SEM images showed spheres and thin flakes covering the surface which are the areas modified by plasma particles striking under grazing angles. Due to roughness of the surface there are shadowed regions between the 'flakes'. Laser pulses did not lead to expected common ablation of the surface. Features that looked like 'melting' of thin surface layers were rather observed. The initial deuterium content in the surface layer of tiles was of the order of 10(18) D atoms per cm(2). After the laser light impact the content decreased with 60-70%; by reducing the deposited power by a factor four, the deuterium content was decreased by 40-50%. We make the interpretation that we approach a threshold of the laser detritiation method in fusion devices.

  • 145.
    Emmoth, Birger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Kreter, A.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Jakubowski, M.
    Lehnen, M.
    Litnovsky, A.
    Petersson, P.
    Philipps, V.
    Possnert, G.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Schweer, B.
    Sundelin, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Unterberg, B.
    Wienhold, P.
    In-situ measurements of carbon and deuterium deposition using the fast reciprocating probe in TEXTOR2009Inngår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 390-91, s. 179-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon samples were exposed in the scrape-off layer of the TEXTOR plasma using a fast reciprocating probe, with the aim of studying carbon deposition and deuterium retention during Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) operation. Separate samples were exposed for 300 ms at the flat-top phase of neutral beam heated discharges. The exposure conditions were varied on a shot-to-shot basis by external magnetic perturbations generated by the DED in the m/n = 3/1, DC regime, base configuration. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was used to characterise collector sample surfaces after their exposure. Enhanced concentrations of both carbon and deuterium (C 3-10 x 10(16) at./cm(2), D 8-60 x 10(15) at./cm(2)) were found. The D/C ratio was less than unity which indicates that most of the carbon and deuterium were co-deposited. Carbon e-folding lengths of about 2 cm were found on both toroidal sides of the probe independent of DED perturbations.

  • 146. Eriksson, J.
    et al.
    Nocente, M.
    Binda, F.
    Cazzaniga, C.
    Conroy, S.
    Ericsson, G.
    Giacomelli, L.
    Gorini, G.
    Hellesen, C.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hjalmarsson, A.
    Jacobsen, A. S.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Kiptily, V.
    Koskela, T.
    Mantsinen, M.
    Salewski, M.
    Schneider, M.
    Sharapov, S.
    Skiba, M.
    Tardocchi, M.
    Weiszflog, M.
    Dual sightline measurements of MeV range deuterons with neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy at JET2015Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 55, nr 12, artikkel-id 123026Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations made in a JET experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to the MeV range by third harmonic radio-frequency (RF) heating coupled into a deuterium beam are reported. Measurements are based on a set of advanced neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers that, for the first time, observe the plasma simultaneously along vertical and oblique lines of sight. Parameters of the fast ion energy distribution, such as the high energy cut-off of the deuteron distribution function and the RF coupling constant, are determined from data within a uniform analysis framework for neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy based on a one-dimensional model and by a consistency check among the individual measurement techniques. A systematic difference is seen between the two lines of sight and is interpreted to originate from the sensitivity of the oblique detectors to the pitch-angle structure of the distribution around the resonance, which is not correctly portrayed within the adopted one dimensional model. A framework to calculate neutron and gamma-ray emission from a spatially resolved, two-dimensional deuteron distribution specified by energy/pitch is thus developed and used for a first comparison with predictions from ab initio models of RF heating at multiple harmonics. The results presented in this paper are of relevance for the development of advanced diagnostic techniques for MeV range ions in high performance fusion plasmas, with applications to the experimental validation of RF heating codes and, more generally, to studies of the energy distribution of ions in the MeV range in high performance deuterium and deuterium-tritium plasmas.

  • 147. Eriksson, L. -G
    et al.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A K
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Holmström, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas Joe
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Nave, F.
    Ongena, J.
    Zastrow, K. -D
    Simulation of fast ion contribution to toroidal rotation in ICRF heated jet plasmas2008Inngår i: EPS Conf. Plasma Phys., EPS - Europhys. Conf. Abstr., 2008, nr 3, s. 1679-1682Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 148. Eriksson, L. G.
    et al.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Nave, M. F. F.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Holmström, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ongena, J.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Holmström, K.
    Toroidal rotation in RF heated JET plasmas2009Inngår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 51, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of bulk plasma rotation in radio frequency (RF) heated JET discharges are reported. This study is concentrated on RF heated L-mode plasmas. In particular, the toroidal rotation profiles in plasmas heated by ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) waves and lower hybrid (LH) waves have been analysed. It is the first time that rotation profiles in JET plasmas with LH waves have been measured in dedicated discharges. It is found that the toroidal plasma rotation in the outer region of the plasmas is in the co-current direction irrespective of the heating scenario. An interesting feature is that the toroidal rotation profile appears to be hollow in many discharges at low plasma current, but a low current in itself does not seem to be a sufficient condition for finding such profiles. Fast ion transport and finite orbit width effects are mechanisms that could explain hollow rotation profiles. This possibility has been investigated by numerical simulations of the torque on the bulk plasma due to fast ICRF accelerated ions. The obtained torque is used in a transport equation for the toroidal momentum density to estimate the effect on the thermal bulk plasma rotation profile.

  • 149. Eriksson, L. -G
    et al.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Nave, F.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Holmström, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ongena, J.
    Zastrow, K. -D
    Toroidal rotation in RF heated JET plasmas2007Inngår i: RADIO FREQUENCY POWER IN PLASMAS, 2007, Vol. 933, s. 59-62Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments have been carried out on JET aimed at studying rotation in RF heated plasmas with low external momentum input. Both plasmas with Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating and Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) have been investigated. The rotation profiles are measured by Charge Exchange recombination spectroscopy, using short diagnostic Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) pulses. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the central rotation could in some cases be deduced from MHD activity. While most of the measurements were focussed on ICRF heating, the profiles measured in plasmas with LHCD are interesting since they are the first reported from JET in such plasmas. In particular, they allowed for studies of rotation in RF heated plasmas with q>1. The experimental results are presented together with an analysis of the torque from ICRF heated fast ions.

  • 150. Eriksson, L. G.
    et al.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Mayoral, M. L.
    Coda, S.
    Sauter, O.
    Buttery, R. J.
    McDonald, D.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Mantsinen, M. J.
    Mueck, A.
    Noterdaeme, J. M.
    Santala, M.
    Westerhor, E.
    de Vries, P.
    On ion cyclotron current drive for sawtooth control2006Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 46, nr 10, s. S951-S964Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments using ion cyclotron current drive (ICCD) to control sawteeth are presented. In particular, discharges demonstrating shortening of fast ion induced long sawteeth reported in (Eriksson et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 235004) by ICCD have been analysed in detail. Numerical simulations of the ICCD driven currents are shown to be consistent with the experimental observations. They support the hypothesis that an increase in the magnetic shear, due to the driven current, at the surface where the safety factor is unity was the critical factor for the shortening of the sawteeth. In view of the potential utility of ICCD, the mechanisms for the current drive have been further investigated experimentally. This includes the influence of the averaged energy of the resonating ions carrying the current and the spectrum of the launched waves. The results of these experiments are discussed in the light of theoretical considerations.

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