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  • 101.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi (Stängd 20130101). KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi (Stängd 20130101). KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    FDI Inflows to Sweden: Consequences for Innovation and Renewal2011Inngår i: New Dimensions in  Regional Economic Development: The Role of Entrepreneurship Research, Practice and Policy / [ed] S. Desai, P. Nijkamp and R. Stough, Elsevier, 2011, s. 310-339Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 102.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi (Stängd 20130101).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi (Stängd 20130101).
    FDI Inflows to Sweden: Consequences for Innovation and Renewal2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    FDI inflows have expanded rapidly during the past decade. This paper analyses if such inflows dointroduce new characteristics of the innovation systems at national and regional levels. The paperstudies two phenomena. First, what novelties are brought into the host region (country) when FDIinflows occur? Second, what are the consequences for the innovation intensity, technology transferand economic performance of firms in a regional (national) economy that experiences FDI inflows?These issues are assessed by examining the characteristics of foreign multinationals and comparingthem with the characteristics of multinational, uninational and non-affiliate firms, respectively. Theanalyses control for location, examine regional impacts, and are based on CIS data (CommunityInnovation Survey III). The paper contributes to earlier studies in two important ways. First, itcompares FDI firms with three other distinct types of corporate structure. Second, it combines resultsfrom both parametric and non-parametric estimations. The results indicate that FDI inflows in anunambiguous way renew the local economy when acquiring or replacing domestic multi-unit firms(uninationals). Compared to other types of corporate structure, FDI firms do not seem to improveinnovation characteristics of the local economy.

  • 103.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Firm Strategy, Location and MNE-networks2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper asks three explicit questions, where the first one concerns the impact of a firm’s choice of innovation strategy and knowledge resources. The study aims at confirming that firms with a strategy with R&D persistency have a markedly higher productivity, profitability and wage level than other firms. The second question is focused on the location of firms, with a distinction between firms dwelling in a metropolitan region and other firms. The hypothesis is that a metropolitan knowledge milieu may augment the performance of firms. The third question concerns knowledge exchange in regional and global networks that pertain to multinational affiliates. Applying Swedish data on individual firms and their location, the paper shows that firm performance is significantly higher when the three factors R&D persistency, metropolitan location and affiliation to a multinational group are combined.

  • 104.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Global Location Patterns of R&D Investments2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns offshore R&D investments, focusing mainly on largemultinational companies within the industrialized world. What do we know aboutoffshore R&D activities regarding trends, scope and destinations, driving forcesand constraints? What do we know about consequences for the R&D investingcompany, as well as for national systems of innovation, regional R&Dexternalities, agglomeration and urban economies of home and host countries aswell?

  • 105.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    INNOVATION ACTIVITIESEXPLAINED BY FIRM ATTRIBUTES AND LOCATION2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines systematically the importance of location versus a vector of firmattributes on firms’ innovation engagements. The various factors that can influence a firm’sinnovation efforts are divided into (i) firm location, reflecting the regional milieu, and (ii)firm attributes such as corporate structure, nature of the knowledge production, type ofindustry and a set of specific firm characteristics. The study is based on information about2, 094 individual Swedish firms, where a firm may be non-affiliated or belong to a group(multi-firm enterprise), domestically or foreign owned. The study concludes that thepropensity to be innovative differs between the five macro-region investigated. Amonginnovative firms, however, the R&D intensity as well as most other innovation-activitycharacteristics remain invariant with regard to location, when controlling for the skillcomposition, physical capital intensity, industry, corporate structure firm, size and marketextension.

  • 106.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Innovation Strategy and Firm Performance: What is the long-run impact of persistent R&D?2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There are systematic long-run differences in the performance of firms explained by the R&D-strategy that each firm employs. Controlling for unobservable heterogeneity, past performance and other firm characteristics, this paper shows that labour productivity is, on average, 13 percent higher among firms with persistent R&D commitment and 9 percent higher among firms which make occasional R&D efforts when compared with non-R&D-firms. Furthermore, firms which employ a strategy with persistent R&D efforts are rewarded with a productivity growth rate that on average is about 2 percent higher than for other firms. The results are similar when firm performance is measured as total sales or exports per labor input.

  • 107. Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Productivity, networks and knowledge flows2015Inngår i: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 24, s. 1-4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the special issue of EINT surveys a collection of eight papers that study innovation and productivity at the firm level and the industry level for a number of European countries. This focus is supported by the view that an innovating firm can maintain a favourable position in terms of profits, productivity and growth by following a path along which its knowledge-creation efforts have become a regular activity. The performance of an innovating firm is also affected by the firm's accession of external knowledge sources, and this gives firms an incentive to develop innovation networks.

  • 108.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    R&D-Persistency, Metropolitan Externalities and Productivity2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms display persistent differences as regards both internal and external characteristics, and these differences correspond to asymmetries in the performance of firms with regard to productivity level and growth as well as innovativeness. This paper focuses on one internal characteristic and one external factor by distinguishing between firms with persistent R&D efforts and other firms and firms located in a metropolitan region versus firms with other locations. Applying Swedish data on individual firms and their location, the paper shows that firms that follow a strategy with persistent R&D efforts have a distinctly higher level of productivity across all types of location. In addition, the productivity level of firms with persistent R&D is augmented in a significant way when such firms have a metropolitan location and, in particular, a location in a metropolitan city.

  • 109.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Ebersberger, B.
    Does Ownership Matter?: The Impact of Foreign Takeovers on Innovation and Productivity Performance2007Inngår i: Commercialization and Transfer of Technology: Major Country Case Studies / [ed] A. Heshmati, Y.-B. Sohn and Y.-R. Kim, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2007Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 110.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Ebersberger, Bernd
    The Innovation and Productivity Effect of Foreign Take-Over of National Assets2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the foreign-ownership offirms in the four Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. This increasehas generated interest in the welfare effect of foreign take-over of national assets. In thispaper we ask: how would a firm’s behaviour and performance have been if a foreignowner had not acquired the firm? The analysis is based on a sample of 5 186 firm-levelobservations in four Nordic countries, of which close to 30 percent are owned by foreigncompanies. Using an empirical approach that accounts for both selection bias andsimultaneity bias, we establish some new findings regarding foreign ownership. First, norobust difference in the propensity to be innovative can be established. Second, amongthe group of innovative firms, foreign-owned multinationals are generally outperformedby domestic multinationals in R&D and innovation engagement. Third, despite the factthat domestic multinationals are considerably more involved in national innovationsystems than other firms, they are not producing more innovation per R&D-dollar,controlling for firm size, human capital and industry. Finally, we find that foreign takeoverof firms is neutral with respect to labour productivity, and hence that no evidence ofwelfare gain or welfare drain of foreign ownership can be established.

  • 111.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Firm Location, Corporate Structure,R&D Investment, Innovation and Productivity2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study elucidates how firm location and corporate structure influence R&D-intensity, externalcollaboration on innovation, return on R&D and economic performance. The study, based on 1,907 firmlevel observations, essentially compare a functional region with four other regional areas in Sweden. Inthis context, the Stockholm region is assumed as an integrated functional urban region with innovationproximitycharacteristics. The paper examines systematically the influence of location versus various firmcharacteristics. The econometric results suggest the following: First, a typical Stockholm firm has asignificantly larger likelihood than other firms of being engaged in innovation activities. Second, amonginnovative firms, the R&D intensity and global collaboration on innovation is primarily determined by itscorporate structure, not geographic location. Third, the embeddedness in regional and national scientificand vertical innovation systems is relatively more intense outside Stockholm. Finally, the advantage ofbeing located within Sweden’s most strongest concentration of R&D spending, universities, human capitaland multinational enterprises with their global networks is reflected by a superior return on R&Dinvestments and higher productivity, when controlling for firm size, human capital, physical capital, R&Dintensity,market orientation and sector classification.

  • 112.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Rader-Olsson, A.
    Localization, Corporate Structure, R&D, Innovation and Productivity2006Inngår i: Innovations and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions / [ed] I. Johansson, Trollhättan/Uddevalla University, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 113. Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Savin, M.
    European R&D efficiency2015Inngår i: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 24, s. 140-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the capacity to produce new knowledge proxied by patents granted in 18 industries in 11 European economies. For each industry in each country, the number of granted U.S. Patent and Trademark Office patents is recorded over the 1991–2005 period. Controlling for research and development, industry composition, and institutional setting, the paper shows that systematic differences in patent intensity exist between the studied countries, such that almost all industries are affected by country-specific conditions, suggesting that the countries’ innovation systems differ in efficiency. The countries with the highest R&D efficiency are Sweden and Finland, followed by the Netherlands and Germany.

  • 114.
    Johansson, Börje M.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Johansson, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Wallin, Tina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Internal and external knowledge and introduction of export varieties2015Inngår i: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 629-654Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms in local industries maintain their capability to generate new export varieties by simultaneously exploiting internal and external knowledge resources. The paper introduces the notion 'variety triplet' to distinguish individual export varieties, where a triplet is a unique combination of a firm, a product code and a destination country. For each date, the set of variety triplets in each local industry records all remaining export varieties introduced in the past. In view of this, the paper examines how internal and external knowledge of local industries influence the industry's scope and value of export varieties. First, the paper contributes by considering a local industry's internal and external knowledge, as well as the conjunction of its internal and external knowledge sources. Second, the knowledge sources are shown to influence both the stock and the dynamics of a local industry's variety triplets, using firm-level data from Sweden.

  • 115.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    GLOBALIZATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF EXPORTS2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1980s many economists started to use the term globalisation as a catchword for  an increased interaction between countries in world trade. The literature does not provide a clear definition of globalisation. We set up a number of criteria and formulate hypotheses about globalisation that we explore for Swedish export flows during the years 1965-2000. Globalisation, in this study, is referred to as increases in country diversity, extended transport radii, less effect of distance on trade flows, and the ratio of exports to the importing countries’ incomes. The results from the empirical analysis do not support the hypotheses of increasing trade globalisation It is rather the case that export flows are becoming more internationally regionalised.

  • 116. Karlsson, C.
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden .
    Stough, R. R.
    Introduction2010Inngår i: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: Local Processes and Global Patterns, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, s. 1-27Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 117. Karlsson, C.
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Stough, R. R.
    Preface2012Inngår i: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions, s. xii-xiiiArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 118. Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. University West, Sweden .
    Entrepreneurial knowledge, technology and the transformation of regions: An introduction2013Inngår i: Entrepreneurial Knowledge Technology and the Transformation of Regions, Taylor & Francis, 2013, s. 1-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 119.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Johansson, B.
    Stough, R. R.
    Preface2012Inngår i: The Regional Economics of Knowledge and Talent: Local Advantage in a Global Context, s. ix-xArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 120.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden .
    Johansson, BörjeKTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi (Stängd 20130101). KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.Stough, R.
    Innovation, Agglomeration and Regional Competition 2009Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    'The rise of globalization has triggered a fundamental rethinking about the role of regions in economic development policy. In this important new book, Karlsson, Johansson and Stough assemble a cast of leading international scholars to unravel the new role for regions and local economic development policy to harness the possibilities unleashed by the forces of globalization. This book contains important new insights and ideas that will be welcomed by both scholars and policymakers.

  • 121. Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.). KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Stough, Roger
    Entrepreneurship and dynamics in the knowledge economy2006Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of entrepreneurship has attracted researchers from a variety of disciplines and a diverse number of analytical approaches. Currently, there is a considerable amount of confusion and a variety of conflicting theories which are being used interchangeably and ambiguously. In this important new book, the authors argue that there are analytically distinct forms of entrepreneurship, each of them having an individual logic of their own. They highlight the role of individual economic agents with endowments of new knowledge or new combinations of old knowledge as entrepreneurs, and thus identify them as dynamic factors in the knowledge economy. Overall, this book not only provides a contemporary overview of current research in the field, but also summarizes the policy conclusions that can be drawn from current research.

  • 122.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Jönköping Int Business Sch, Sweden.
    Tavassoli, Sam
    Innovation strategies of firms: What strategies and why?2016Inngår i: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 1483-1506Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes various innovation strategies of firms. Using five waves of the Community Innovation Survey in Sweden, we have traced the innovative behavior of firms over a 10-year period, i.e. between 2002 and 2012. We distinguish between sixteen innovation strategies, which compose of Schumpeterian four types of innovations (process, product, marketing, and organizational) plus various combinations of these four types. First, we find that firms are not homogenous in choosing innovation strategies, instead, they have a wide range of preferences when it comes to innovation strategy and some of the innovation strategies are "commonly" used among firms. Second, using Transition Probability Matrix, we found that firms also persist to have such a diverse innovation strategy preferences. Finally, using Multinomial Logit model, we explained the determinant of each and every innovation strategies, while we gave special attention to the commonly used innovation strategies among firms.

  • 123. Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Warda, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. JIBS, Jonkoping, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurship and innovation networks2014Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 393-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we give a general introduction to the notion of entrepreneurship and how it has many complex meanings. Entrepreneurs in new firms but also in incumbent firms have a key role in local, regional and national economic development by taking risks to get things done by developing new combinations of ideas and/or doing things differently. In view of this, two of the main questions that are dealt with are: (1) which features make structural differences in institutions and innovation networks remain invariant between decades, and (2) how knowledge about such features can be employed in policy at the national and the regional level. The research questions highlighted in this special issue relate to many pertinent national and regional policy issues. The most apparent concerns conditions conducive for entrepreneurship in the form of new firms and firm growth. In this paper, we also introduce the different contributors to this special issue.

  • 124. Klaesson, J.
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Co-evolution of producer services and other sectors2013Inngår i: Advances in Spatial Science, Springer International Publishing , 2013, s. 47-72Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A major characteristic of the economic development in Sweden during the past 10–15 years is a fast expansion of the producer-service sector. To analyse this process, the present paper employs an approach to identify the spatial pattern of local, regional and extra-regional demand for producer services. In the associated theoretical model producer-service firms grow in locations with large market access. The estimated model predicts that the supply of producer services grows in urban areas with large market access, whereas the rest of the economy shrinks in the same areas and expands in other parts of the urban region. The change process is interpreted as an effect of firms’ outsourcing of service activities when they can rely on accessibility to service suppliers. As a result service suppliers agglomerate in central parts of the urban region, where they obtain high accessibility to their customers. The estimated change process comprises a non-linear response mechanism. 

  • 125. Klaesson, Johan
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Metropolitan Regions: Preconditions and Strategies for Growth and Development in the Global Economy2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of metropolitan regions as national growth and development engines, and in particular as driving forces in national as well as global innovation processes is well recognized. This paper highlights the role of metropolitan regions in different contexts in order to lay a foundation for future research on metropolitan regions and their development. Specifically, the paper dwells on the role of metropolitan regions as nodes in national and international networks and as nodes of knowledge generation and innovation. Further, market potential as a concept describing the economic concentration to and the opportunities of making contacts within and between metropolitan regions is introduced. Additionally, the internal dynamic of metropolitan regions and the role of fast and slow processes is described. Lastly this paper illustrates how the input and output market potentials represent factors that adjust slowly and that play the same role for metropolitan development as metropolitan infrastructure.

  • 126.
    Källner, Emelie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.). KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Ratio Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Entrepreneurial Motivation and Idea Generation by Displaced Employees2018Inngår i: International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 383-404, artikkel-id 1586Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the entrepreneurial motivation and idea generation process of displaced employees. The empirical results are based on both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) data collected from displaced employees who decided to become entrepreneurs after the closure of R&D facilities of the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca in Lund (2010) and Sodertalje (2012), Sweden. The empirical findings show that the previous experience and expertise gained from AstraZeneca greatly influenced the idea generation process. Although the employees were affected by their job displacement, still 70 percent of the entrepreneurial activities could be regarded as opportunity-based, suggesting that many entrepreneurs are driven by a combination of push and pull motives. With regard to the timing of the idea generation process, about one third of the entrepreneurs came up with their business ideas before learning about the facility closures. Hence, in many cases, being affected by the displacement spurred the launch of ideas that already existed.

  • 127. Lohse, Tim
    et al.
    Pascalau, Razvan
    Thomann, Christian
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leibniz University of Hanover, Germany.
    Public enforcement of securities market rules: Resource-based evidence from the Securities and Exchange Commission2014Inngår i: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 106, s. 197-212Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We empirically investigate whether increases in the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) budget have an effect on firms' compliance behavior with securities market rules. Our study uses a dataset on the SEC's resources and its enforcement actions over a period beginning shortly after the Second World War and ending in 2010. We find that increases in the SEC's resources both improve compliance and lead to an increased activity level of the SEC. The higher level of compliance is reflected by a decrease in the numbers of enforcement cases. The increased activity level is reflected by a surge in the number of investigations conducted by the SEC.

  • 128. Lohse, Tim
    et al.
    Thomann, Christian
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany; Ministry of Finance, Sweden.
    Are bad times good news for the Securities and Exchange Commission?2015Inngår i: European Journal of Law and Economics, ISSN 0929-1261, E-ISSN 1572-9990, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 33-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists a considerable debate in the literature investigating how stock market upswings or downswings impact financial market regulation. The present paper contributes to this literature and investigates whether financial market regulation follows a regulative cycle: does regulation, and consequently investor protection, increase as a result of a stock market downturn [as argued by, e.g., Zingales (J Account Res 47(2): 391-425, 2009)] or-contrary to the regulative cycle hypothesis-as a result of an upswing [as claimed by Povel et al. (Rev Financ Stud 20(4): 1219-1254, 2007), or Hertzberg 2003] Following Jackson and Roe (J Financ Econ 93(2): 207-238, 2009), we use funding data on the world's most important financial market regulator, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), as a proxy for the politically desired degree of regulation. We apply time series analysis. Using more than 60 years of data, we show that the SEC's funding follows a regulative cycle: A weak stock market results in increased resources for the SEC. A strong stock market results in reduced resources. Our findings underline the downside of regulation as the regulative cycle amplifies the technical procyclicality inherent in regulation.

  • 129.
    Lougui, Monia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Nationalekonomi.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Nationalekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    The Labor Market Value of Experience from Temporary Self-employment2018Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the evaluation of experience from self-employment on the Swedish labormarket. Specically, we analyze the wage remuneration of individuals moving from a spell inself-employment to regular employment as compared to a control group of individuals withoutsuch experience. To tackle the challenge of estimating the average eect of treatment, we seekto reduce unobserved heterogeneity across groups by only considering individuals moving intoself-employment after being displaced in the context of employer exit, and setting up the controlgroup to consist of individuals moving from the same exiting rms into new employment. Tofurther ensure similarity on key observables with the treated group, we select the control groupthrough coarsened exact matching. Our results demonstrate that the average treatment eect ispositive. In further exploration, we nd evidence suggesting that this eect is at least partiallydriven by self-employment experiences being positively evaluated for jobs requiring general andmanagerial skills rather than industry-specic expertise.

  • 130.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Are Services Different Exporters?2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an unbalanced panel of about 260,000 Swedish firm-level observations over the period 1997-2006, this paper shows that half of the firms exporting goods are service firms that account for a substantial and increasing share of the total value from exports of goods. Between 1997 and 2006 this fraction increased from 25% to 34%. Previous research provides little systematic evidence of this extension of goods exports among service firms or the benefits of exporting. This paper shows that service firms do become exporters for the same reasons as manufacturing firms. Besides, they are a self-selection of larger, more productive and high-equity firms, with more skilled labour, higher capital intensity and stronger links to multinational groups. However, the export productivity premium is larger for service firms than for manufacturers. No evidence is found to indicate that exporting increases the growth rate of productivity. In contrast, the annual employment growth premium from exporting is substantial for business services, 2% per year, compared to 0.5% for the retail and wholesale business. Employment growth among manufacturing firms also benefits from expanded market opportunities in foreign markets.

  • 131.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    The Dynamics of Firm Growth: A re-examination2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides evidence that shed further light on the dynamic relationships between finance,physical investment, R&D, productivity and profit. Estimating relationships for 5,289 observations onSwedish manufacturing firms with 50 or more employees over the 1992-2000 periods, the followingsubstantial empirical findings emerge. First, physical investments are sensitive to both internal financing(profit) and external financing (expressed as leverage, or the ratio of debt over equity and debt) whileR&D is only weakly affected by the firm’s finance conditions. Second, no robust correlation betweenknowledge investments and ordinary investments can be established. Third, R&D has a strong effect onproductivity and profit. The reverse relationship is fragile and typically insignificant. The causalitybetween physical capital and productivity is bidirectional, while increased profit leads to more capital butnot the vise versa.

  • 132.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Andersson, Martin
    Agglomeration and Productivity – evidence from firm-level data2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Do agglomerations stimulate productivity? An extensive literature on agglomeration economies, or urban increasing returns, has analyzed this question with aggregated spatial data. This paper estimates the relationship between agglomeration and productivity at the firm level using static and dynamic models. It makes use of a rich dataset comprising register information on all manufacturing firms in Sweden with 10 or more employees over the period 1997 - 2004. Three things emerge. First, firms located in larger regions are more productive when controlling for size, human capital, physical capital, ownership structure, import and export, industry classification and time trend. Second, results from dynamic panel estimations suggest a learning effect in that agglomeration enhances firms’ productivity. Third, the role of agglomeration phenomena does not seem to have a clear coupling to firm size.

  • 133.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Andersson, Martin
    Imports, Productivity and the Origin Markets: The role of knowledge-intensive economies2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether domestic firms’ productivity is an increasing function of imports fromthe most knowledge intensive economies in the world, i.e. the G7 countries. Using Swedish firm-leveldata, we confirm an instantaneous causality going from imports to productivity. We also show thatproductivity is increasing in the G7-fraction of total imports. Our results highlight the importance ofimport flows from R&D and knowledge intensive economies for productivity and are consistent withimports being a vehicle for technology diffusion. Tests of the sensitivity of the results suggest that G7imports are particularly important for firms in high-technology sectors and for firms belonging tomultinationals and domestic corporations.

  • 134.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Andersson, Martin
    Key Characteristics of the Small Innovative Firm2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite broad agreement on the strategic role of SMEs (Small and Medium Sized Enterprises) in industrial renewal processes, the lack of systematized and comprehensive information on the nature and level of small innovative firms is striking. This bias is partly explained by an empirical shadow created by the limited availability of good, detailed data for comparable firm-level analyses. Based on extensive matched databases, the purpose of this paper is to provide new insights into the roles of micro and small innovative firms in research-based as well as tradition-based manufacture. The data consists of close to 160 000 observations of manufacturing firms in Sweden over the period 2000- 2006, including information on innovation activities captured by patent applications, firm characteristics, international trade and the regional milieu.

  • 135.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Andersson, Martin
    Learning-by-Exporting Revisited: the role of intensity and persistence2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Two not mutually exclusive hypotheses can explain the empirically established exportpremium: self-selection of more productive firms into export markets and learning-byexporting.We reassess the learning-by-exporting hypothesis and maintain that the scope forlearning is related to the persistence and the intensity of a firm’s exporting activity. Using arich panel of Swedish manufacturing firms, we show that there is a causality going fromexports to productivity only for persistent exporters with high export-intensity. No suchrelationship is found for either temporary exporters or persistent exporters with low exportintensity.Learning-by-exporting in the form of a causality going from exports to productivityonly pertains to firms that persistently export a large fraction of their sales on a global scale.Results are robust to the inclusion of several firm characteristics such as imports, physicalcapital, firm size, skilled labour, capital structure, corporate ownership structure, and industryclassification.

  • 136.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi (Stängd 20130101). KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Andersson, Martin
    Baltzopoulos, Apostolos
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi (Stängd 20130101).
    R&D strategies and Entrepreneurial Spawning2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how different R&D strategies of incumbent firms affect the quantity and quality of their entrepreneurial spawning. By examining entrepreneurial ventures of ex-employees of firms with different R&D strategies three things emerge: First, firms with persistent R&D investments with a general superiority in sales, exports, productivity, profitability and wages are less likely to generate entrepreneurs than firm with temporary or no R&D investments. Second, start-ups from knowledge intensive business service (KIBS) firms with persistent R&D investments have a significantly increased probability of survival. No corresponding association between the R&D strategies of incumbents and survival of entrepreneurial spawns is found for incumbents in manufacturing sectors. Third, spin-outs from KIBS-firms are more likely to survive if they start in the same firm, indicating the importance of inherited related knowledge. The findings suggest that R&D intensive firms spur fewer entrepreneurs, but their entrepreneurial spawns tend to be of higher quality.

  • 137.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Cook, Gary
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University.
    Pandit, N.R
    The Influence of Clustering on MNE location and Innovation in Great Britain2011Inngår i: Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship: Economic, Social and Academic Aspects / [ed] Iréne Bernard, ABM-media AS, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses two questions: what, if anything, is the influence of geographicconcentration of economic activity on patterns of foreign direct investment; what is therelationship, if any, between geographic concentration of economic activity, multinationality andinnovation. The paper identifies the consensus view which is emerging in the literature, based onboth theory and evidence, that strong clusters are likely to be attractive for inward directinvestment and that they promote innovation. The paper tests whether this relationship is evidentin Great Britain using data derived from the UK’s Annual Foreign Direct Investment survey andthe UK’s Community Innovation Survey 2007. It addresses a surprising gap in the emergingliterature by also examining the relationship between cluster strength and outward directinvestment, thereby testing Porter’s (1990) claim in The Competitive Advantage of Nations, thatadvantages gained in strong clusters would be the foundations of international competitiveness.The paper also distinguishes between two different types of agglomeration economy, localisationeconomies based on collocation of firms in related lines of activity, and urbanisation economiesbased on the overall concentration of economic activity in a particular region, a distinction mostof the emerging literature in International Business has not made clear. The first set of modelsexamine the propensity to engage in outward direct investment and the geographic pattern offoreign ownership of firms active in Great Britain and find that both are positively related tocluster strength, with localisation economies being more important than urbanisation economies.T wo models of innovation are estimated, the first examines what factors influence firms to beinnovative and the second what influences innovation effort as measured by R&D intensity. Inboth cases there is evidence that regional agglomeration promotes innovation and that there arestronger effects flowing from own industry agglomeration than from broader regional scale.

  • 138.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Ebersberger, Bernd
    Innovation Behaviour andProductivity Performance in the Nordic RegionDoes Foreign Ownership Matter?2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the involvement of foreign companies in domestic economies; the relative engagement offoreign-owned companies in R&D-activities; the relative embeddedness in various national innovation systemsand the relative output performance from R&D and innovation. A comparison is made between the innovationand productivity of foreign owned enterprises, of different corporate styles, (Nordic, Anglo-Saxon andContinental European) and the different corporate structures of domestically owned firms (multinational anduninational). Using 5 186 firm level observations from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, and based onthe international harmonized Community Innovation Survey and uniform econometric approaches; the studyconfirms previous findings, presents new results and identifies country, corporate style and corporate governancedifferences. Some new lights is also shed on a seemingly paradoxical relationship between R&D and innovation,and between R&D and productivity.

  • 139.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Investment and Performance of Firms: Correlation or Causality?2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical analysis of the two-way causalrelationship between some important investment and performance indicators at the firmlevel, in particular controlling for differences in these relationships between twocohorts of small and middle-sized firms and large firms respectively. Investigatedperformance variables include sales, value added, profit, cash flow, capital structureand employment. A multivariate vector autoregressive approach is applied to a panel ofSwedish firms observed between 1992 and 2000. In particular, an attempt is made toinvestigate whether causal relationships between R&D and firm performance are of atransitory nature and whether the causal relationships are similar for small andmedium-sized and large firms. Results show evidence of some two way causalrelationships, which are mainly transitory in character. Significant heterogeneity isobserved in the firms’ investment and performance behavior by their size.

  • 140.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Oh, Donghyun
    Technical Change and Total Factor Productivity Growth for Swedish Manufacturing and Service Industries2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents alternative specifications of the production functions of a large panel of Swedish firms for the period 1992-2000. The period can be characterized as a transition when long-run productivity growth in the Swedish economy improved from being among the weakest to one of the strongest within the OECD. In order to present a detailed exploration of this dramatic change, the time trend and general index models are applied to estimate total factor productivity (TFP) growth, rate of technical change and returns to scale. The models are extended to allow for firm-specific as well as time-varying technical change. The parametric TFP measures are also compared with the non-parametric Solow residual, and several hypotheses are tested to explain the growth patterns in the Swedish economy. It is found that the improved growth rate, initially starting in large exporting manufacturing firms, after a deep economic crisis at the beginning of the 1990s, spilled over to the rest of the economy, both manufacturing and services.

  • 141.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Janz, Norbert
    Peters, Bettina
    Firm Level Innovation and Productivity - Is there a Common Story Across Countries?2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have documented extensive heterogeneity in firm performance within countries, and innovation has been found as an important determinant. This paper addresses the issue of innovation firm performance across countries. A growing number of national firm level studies on the innovation-productivity link have been conducted using new internationally harmonized survey data, known in Europe as Community Innovation Survey (CIS). Mainly due to confidentiality reasons crosscountry comparisons of CIS data are still rare. The contribution of this paper is its unique approach of pooling original firm observations from Germany and Sweden. Applying a knowledge production function that gives the relationship between innovation input, innovation output and productivity, we find to a very large extent a common cross-country story for knowledge intensive manufacturing firms. Some interesting country-specific effects are reported as well.

  • 142.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Innovation, Metropolitan and Productivity2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses the contribution to productivity of firms’ internal innovation efforts and spatially-specific factors. A dynamic GMM-estimator is applied to a panel of close to 3,000 firms located in 81 Swedish regions and observed over a 10-year period. The magnitude of benefits from the knowledge milieu of an agglomeration is sizeable, but varies between firms depending on their particular R&D-strategy and location within a metropolitan region.

  • 143.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jonkoping Int Business Sch; Lund Univ.
    R&D Strategy, Metropolitan Externalities and Productivity: Evidence from Sweden2014Inngår i: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 141-154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the influence of metropolitan externalities on productivity for different types of long-run R&D engagement based on information from the Community Innovation Survey. We apply a dynamic general method of moments model to a panel of manufacturing and service firms with different locations in Sweden, classified as a metropolitan region, the largest metropolitan region, a metropolitan city, the largest metropolitan city and a nonmetropolitan area. This analysis generates three distinct results. First, the productivity premium associated with persistent R&D is close to 8 per cent in nonmetro locations and about 14 per cent in the largest city. Second, a firm without any R&D engagement does not benefit at all from the external milieu in metro areas. Third, no productivity premium is associated with occasional R&D effort regardless of the firm's location.

  • 144.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.). Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Sweden .
    Andersson, Martin
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH. Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Sweden; Blekinge Technical University, Sweden .
    R&D Strategy and Firm Performance: What Is the Long-Run Impact of Persistent R&D?2012Inngår i: Innovation and Growth: From R&D Strategies of Innovating Firms to Economy-wide Technological Change, Oxford University Press, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are systematic long-run differences in the performance of firms. This chapter argues that such persistent performance gaps can be explained by the fact that firms employ different R&D-strategies. Controlling for unobservable heterogeneity, past performance and other firm characteristics, that labour productivity is shown to be, on average, 13 percent higher among firms with persistent R&D commitment and 4 percent higher among firms which make occasional R&D efforts when compared with firms which do not invest in R&D. Furthermore, firms which employ a strategy with persistent R&D efforts are rewarded with a productivity growth rate that, on average, is about 2 percent higher than for other firms. The results are similar when firm performance is measured as total sales or exports per labour input.

  • 145.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Ebersberger, Bernd
    Does Ownership Matter?The Impact of Foreign Takeovers on Innovation andProductivity Performance2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent debate has focused on how foreign direct investments and foreign take-oversmay affect growth and welfare. In this study we have methodologically approximatedforeign-ownership by foreign take-over and raised the question: how would a firm’sbehaviour and performance have been if a foreign owner had not acquired the firm?The analysis is based on a sample of 5 186 firm-level observations in four Nordiccountries, of which approximately 30 percent of the firms have foreign owners. Usingan empirical approach that accounts for both selection bias and simultaneity bias, weestablish some new findings regarding foreign ownership. First, no robust differencein the propensity to be innovative can be established. Second, the group of innovativefirms, foreign-owned multinationals are generally outperformed by domesticmultinationals in R&D and innovation engagement. Finally, the results on laborproductivity are at variance with the findings in a large number of comparisonstudies. We find that foreign take-over of firms is neutral with respect to laborproductivity, and hence the issue of welfare gain and welfare drain is turned into anon-issue.

  • 146.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Nationalekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Mairesse, J.
    Mohnen, P.
    CDM 20 years after2017Inngår i: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 26, nr 1-2, s. 1-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In year 1998, the seminal paper Research Innovation and Productivity: An Econometric Analysis at the Firm Level was published in this journal. The empirical framework, following on ideas in the research of Zvi Griliches at the NBER and commonly labeled CDM (the acronym of the three authors’ names, Crépon, Duguet and Mairesse) is one of the most influential contributions in recent literature on economics of innovation. The original CDM paper and papers inspired by its framework have received hundreds of citations in the empirical innovation literature. Whether directly linked or not to the CDM framework, the flow of studies improving on and enlarging the scope and methods of the empirical literature on R&D, innovation and productivity is continuing. Some of them, for example, focus on financing innovation, innovation and employment, innovation and trade, competition, or intellectual property; some adopt a managerial perspective, while others prefer an innovation system approach in a Schumpeterian tradition, etc. This introduction to the special issue of EINT surveys a collection of 12 papers on the CDM model by 25 authors from eight countries. The papers take stock of the evolution of research based on the original CDM model launched 20 years ago, linking it to the previous literature, and proposing developments and generalizations of it in various dimensions.

  • 147.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Martinsson, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Impact of Economic Crises on Innovation Activity: Firm Level Evidence from Patent Data2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on data from of 2,700 Swedish manufacturing firms, observed through the period 1997-2005, this paper shows that internal finance resources, measured by cash-flow, affect the propensity to apply for a patent as well as the number of patent applications. From a business cycle perspective, cash-flow only plays a role during and after economic contractions. In periods of economic expansion there is no significant association between internal finance and patent applications. Further, the sensitivity of patent applications to cash-flow is limited to firms with low equity-ratio. Among high equity firms the pattern of patent applications are robust over the business cycle.

  • 148.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Nabavi Larijani, Pardis
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Cook, Gary
    Johansson, Börje
    Learning-by-exporting and innovation strategies2015Inngår i: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 24, nr 1-2, s. 52-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the combined effect of exports, innovation and external knowledge on total factor productivity growth among manufacturing firms. This paper distinguishes between frequent and temporary exporters as well as between frequent and temporary innovators. Applying a dynamic approach on an unbalanced panel consisting of 8516 Swedish firms observed over a 12-year period, the results show that among firms with permanent presence in export markets, persistent innovators have 0.5% point higher annual productivity growth than non-innovative exporters and 0.4% higher growth compared to firms that switch between being innovative or not. A similar pattern is found for the group of companies that alternates between exporting and non-exporting; however, the differences in growth rates are not statistically significant. We also show that only persistently innovative exporters and exporters with a large fraction of exports in their sales benefit from their presence in the local milieu with high knowledge intensity.

  • 149.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Exporters, Spin-outs and Firm Performance2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the relationship between exporters, spin-outs and firm performance. A large body of research has shown that exporters perform better than non-exporters. But are also firms spawn out from exporters better than other new firms in terms of survival, productivity and growth? Using a panel of about 2,000 ex-employee starts ups, their parent companies and 10 000 other new firms in Sweden observed over a sequence of 5 years, we provide new evidence on spinouts as a channel of transferring knowledge from exporting firms to new ventures.

  • 150.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Innovation, Spillovers and Productivity Growth: A Dynamic Panel Data ApproachManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines variation in productivity growth within a given lo-cation and between dierent locations. Implementing a dynamic paneldata approach on Swedish micro data, we test the separate and comple-mentary eect of internal innovation eorts and spillovers from the localmilieu. Measuring the potential knowledge spillover by access to knowl-edge intensive services, the estimation results produce strong evidence ofdierences in the capacity to benet from external knowledge among per-sistent innovators, temporary innovators and non-innovators. The resultsare consistent regardless of whether innovation eorts are measured interms of the frequency of patent applications or R&D investments.

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