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  • 101.
    Hatch, D. R.
    et al.
    Univ Texas Austin, Inst Fus Studies, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Texas Austin, Inst Fus Studies, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Bergsåker, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, S
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, P
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefániková, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Y
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al,
    Direct gyrokinetic comparison of pedestal transport in JET with carbon and ITER-like walls2019Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, nr 8, artikel-id 086056Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the gyrokinetic instabilities and transport in two representative JET pedestals, one (pulse 78697) from the JET configuration with a carbon wall

  • 102. Hedin, J.
    et al.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Eriksson, L. G.
    The influence of non-standard orbits on ICRH power deposition in tokamaks2000Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 40, nr 11, s. 1819-1824Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution function and power deposition during ICRH in a tokamak plasma are analysed. The importance of self-consistent calculations and the formation of son-standard drift orbits are addressed. It is found that for high power ICRH, the presence of non-standard orbits are crucial for describing the distribution function. For a standard minority heating scenario with the ion cyclotron resonance located at the high field side, the absorption of the wave power is shifted to the low field side (LFS) because of the orbit topology and the evolving wave field profile. The high energy tail of the distribution function of the resonating ions is found to be dominated by ions in passing orbits, of which some reside completely on the LFS of the tokamak.

  • 103. Hedin, J.
    et al.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Eriksson, L. G.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    The influence of finite drift orbit width on ICRF heating in toroidal plasmas2002Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 527-540Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating in a toroidal plasma not only increases the perpendicular energy of the resonating ions but also results in their spatial transport. Depending on the direction of propagation of the waves, the ions will either drift inwards or outwards giving rise to an RF induced rotation with the toroidal torque component in the co-current or counter-current directions, respectively. It is found that the spatial transport induced by the RF field, the topology of the ion drift orbits and a wave field consistent with ion absorption are important for determining the distribution function of the heated species. Studies of ICRF heating with the self-consistent code SELFO reveal new features such as the formation of non-standard passing orbits residing on the low field side of the magnetic axis. For a symmetric spectrum the drift terms will in general not cancel. Some classes of orbit will be subjected only to an inward drift and others only to an outward drift. The lack of cancellation of the drift terms is further enhanced by the self-consistent coupling, increasing the absorption for waves propagating parallel to the plasma current, but not for waves propagating in the antiparallel direction. This results in a strong inward pinch also for symmetric wave spectra as well as for typical experimental spectra, with the dominant peak in the counter-plasma-direction.

  • 104. Heinola, K.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Long-term fuel retention and release in JET ITER-Like Wall at ITER-relevant baking temperatures2017Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, nr 8, artikel-id 086024Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fuel outgassing efficiency from plasma-facing components exposed in JET-ILW has been studied at ITER-relevant baking temperatures. Samples retrieved from the W divertor and Be main chamber were annealed at 350 and 240 degrees C, respectively. Annealing was performed with thermal desoprtion spectrometry (TDS) for 0, 5 and 15 h to study the deuterium removal effectiveness at the nominal baking temperatures. The remained fraction was determined by emptying the samples fully of deuterium by heating W and Be samples up to 1000 and 775 degrees C, respectively. Results showed the deposits in the divertor having an increasing effect to the remaining retention at temperatures above baking. Highest remaining fractions 54 and 87% were observed with deposit thicknesses of 10 and 40 mu m, respectively. Substantially high fractions were obtained in the main chamber samples from the deposit-free erosion zone of the limiter midplane, in which the dominant fuel retention mechanism is via implantation: 15 h annealing resulted in retained deuterium higher than 90%. TDS results from the divertor were simulated with TMAP7 calculations. The spectra were modelled with three deuterium activation energies resulting in good agreement with the experiments.

  • 105. Hellesen, C.
    et al.
    Johnson, M. G.
    Sunden, E. A.
    Conroy, S.
    Ericsson, G.
    Ronchi, E.
    Sjostrand, H.
    Weiszflog, M.
    Gorini, G.
    Tardocchi, M.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Kiptily, V. G.
    Pinches, S. D.
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Johnson, M. Gatu
    Anderson-Sunden, E.
    Neutron emission generated by fast deuterons accelerated with ion cyclotron heating at JET2010Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 50, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time, the neutron emission from JET plasmas heated with combined deuterium neutral beam injection and third harmonic ion cyclotron radio frequency heating have been studied with neutron emission spectroscopy (NES). Very high DD neutron rates were observed with only modest external heating powers, which was attributed to acceleration of deuterium beam ions to energies of about 2-3 MeV, where the DD reactivity is on a par of that of the DT reaction. Fast deuterium energy distributions were derived from analysis of NES data and confirm acceleration of deuterium beam ions up to energies around 3 MeV, in agreement with theoretical predictions. The high neutron rates allowed for observations of changes in the fast deuterium populations on a time scale of 50 ms. Correlations were seen between fast deuterium ions at different energies and magnetohydrodynamic activities, such as monster sawtooth crashes and toroidal Alfven eigenmodes.

  • 106. Hellesen, C.
    et al.
    Johnson, M. Gatu
    Sunden, E. Andersson
    Conroy, S.
    Ericsson, G.
    Eriksson, J.
    Gorini, G.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Kiptily, V. G.
    Pinches, S. D.
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Sjostrand, H.
    Nocente, M.
    Tardocchi, M.
    Weiszflog, M.
    Measurements of fast ions and their interactions with MHD activity using neutron emission spectroscopy2010Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 50, nr 8, s. 084006-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) heating can produce fast ion populations with energies reaching up to several megaelectronvolts. Here, we present unique measurements of fast ion distributions from an experiment with 3rd harmonic ICRF heating on deuterium beams using neutron emission spectroscopy (NES). From the experiment, very high DD neutron rates were observed, using only modest external heating powers. This was attributed to acceleration of deuterium beam ions to energies up to about 2-3 MeV, where the DD reactivity is on a par with that of the DT reaction. The high neutron rates allowed for observations of changes in the fast deuterium energy distribution on a time scale of 50 ms. Clear correlations were seen between fast deuterium ions in different energy ranges and magnetohydrodynamic activities, such as monster sawteeth and toroidal Alfven eigen modes (TAE). Specifically, NES data showed that the number of deuterons in the region between 1 and 1.5 MeV were decaying significantly during strong TAE activity, while ions with lower energies around 500 keV were not affected. This was attributed to resonances with the TAE modes.

  • 107. Hellesen, C.
    et al.
    Johnson, M. Gatu
    Sundén, E. Andersson
    Conroy, S.
    Ericsson, G.
    Eriksson, J.
    Sjöstrand, H.
    Weiszflog, M.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Gorini, G.
    Nocente, M.
    Tardocchi, M.
    Kiptily, V. G.
    Pinches, S. D.
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Fast-ion distributions from third harmonic ICRF heating studied with neutron emission spectroscopy2013Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 53, nr 11, s. 113009-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast-ion distribution from third harmonic ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating on the Joint European Torus is studied using neutron emission spectroscopy with the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFOR. The energy dependence of the fast deuteron distribution function is inferred from the measured spectrum of neutrons born in DD fusion reactions, and the inferred distribution is compared with theoretical models for ICRF heating. Good agreements between modelling and measurements are seen with clear features in the fast-ion distribution function, that are due to the finite Larmor radius of the resonating ions, replicated. Strong synergetic effects between ICRF and neutral beam injection heating were also seen. The total energy content of the fast-ion population derived from TOFOR data was in good agreement with magnetic measurements for values below 350 kJ.

  • 108.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Holmström, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bergkvist, Tommy
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Laxåback, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    On ion cyclotron emission in toroidal plasmas2006Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 46, nr 7, s. S442-S454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed study of ion cyclotron interactions in a toroidal plasma has been carried out in order to elucidate the role of toroidal effects on ion cyclotron emission. It is well known that non-relaxed distribution functions can give rise to excitation of magnetosonic waves by ion cyclotron interactions when the distribution function increases with respect to the perpendicular velocity. We have extended and clarified the conditions under which even collisionally relaxed distribution function can destabilize magnetosonic eigenmodes. In a toroidal plasma, cyclotron interactions at the plasma boundary with ions having barely co-current passing orbits and marginally trapped orbits can cause destabilisation by the strong inversion of the distribution function along the characteristics of cyclotron interaction by neo-classical effects. The unstable interactions can further be enhanced by tangential interactions, which can also prevent the interactions from reaching the stable part of the characteristics, where they interact with trapped orbits. Conditions on the localization of the magnetosonic eigenmodes for unstable excitation are analysed by studying the anti-Hermitian part of the susceptibility tensor of thermonuclear alpha-particles. The pattern of positive and negative regions of the anti-Hermitian part of the susceptibility tensor of thermonuclear alpha-particles is, in general, consistent with the excitation of edge localized magnetosonic eigenmodes, even though the eigenmodes are usually not localized in the major radius and for distribution functions that have relaxed to steady state.

  • 109.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hannan, Abdul
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Eriksson, L-G
    Höök, Lars Josef
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Villard, L.
    A model for self-consistent simulation of ICRH suitable for integrating modelling2013Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 53, nr 9, s. 093004-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A self-consistent modelling of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is reviewed with the aim of obtaining a fast robust scheme suitable for routine simulation for transport codes and data analysis. Due to the complexity of calculating the wave field and the distribution function self-consistently simplifications are necessary. To improve modelling of the wave field, methods are developed to include higher order finite Larmor radius terms, up-and downshifts of the parallel wave number and to improve calculations of damping due to the transit time magnetic pumping in finite element wave codes without decomposing the wave locally into planar waves. A new code, SELFO-light, for self-consistent modelling of ion cyclotron heating suitable for routine calculations is developed. The code is based on coupling the global wave code LION with a simple one-dimensional time-dependent Fokker-Planck code. Both the wave and the Fokker-Planck codes use finite element representations. The importance of self-consistent modelling of ion cyclotron heating is illustrated by studying the effect on the power partition for a fast wave current drive scenario at lower harmonic resonances in a deuterium plasma. It is found that the fraction of the power absorbed on the deuterium and the time to reach the steady state vary strongly depending on the position of the resonances. It is found that the deuterium absorption becomes strongly localized to regions where the resonances are tangential to the magnetic flux surfaces.

  • 110.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Carlsson, J.
    Eriksson, L.-G.
    Hedin, J.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Laxåback, Martin
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Mantsinen, M.
    Effects of finite drift orbit width and RF-induced spatial transport on plasma heated by ICRH2004Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 44, nr 8, s. 892-908Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of RF-induced transport and orbit topology of resonant ions are analysed for high power ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). These effects are found to play important roles in the details of the high-energy part of the distribution function, and affect the driven current and momentum transfer to the background plasma. The finite drift orbit width broadens the power deposition and leads to losses of high-energy ions intercepted by the wall. RF-induced transport of resonant ions across magnetic flux surfaces appears due to the toroidal acceleration of resonant ions interacting with waves having a finite toroidal mode number. Heating with waves propagating parallel to the current leads to a drift of the turning points of trapped resonant ions towards the midplane. As the turning points meet, the orbits will de-trap, preferentially into co-current passing orbits, which may ultimately be displaced to the low field side of the magnetic axis. Ions with such orbits are a typical feature in plasmas heated with directed toroidal mode spectra of waves propagating parallel to the plasma current. These ions will be subjected to a strong RF diffusion partly caused by the focusing of the wave field and partly by the Doppler shifted cyclotron resonance, as it approaches tangency with the drift orbit. The resonance condition puts a limitation on the achievable energy for these ions, which is more severe than for corresponding trapped ions. This results in a rather flat tail up to a critical energy, above which the tail rapidly decays. Heating with waves propagating anti-parallel with the plasma current curtails the energy of the trapped ions due to a vertical outward drift of the turning points of the trapped ions. Heating with symmetric spectra, in particular with waves with low magnitude of the toroidal mode numbers, gives rise to high-energy trapped ions with wide orbits, of which the maximum energy is either restricted by the fact that the RF diffusion vanishes due to cancellation of the perpendicular acceleration over a gyro orbit or by the drift orbits being intercepted by the wall. In the steady state the main source for momentum transfer to the bulk plasma comes from the finite momentum of the wave for heating with asymmetric spectra. For heating with symmetric spectra the enhanced losses of high-energy trapped ions can produce a net counter-current torque on the plasma.

  • 111.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Laxåback, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bergkvist, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Johnson, T
    Meo, F
    Nguyen, F
    Petty, C
    Mantsinen, M
    Matthews, G
    Noterdaeme, M
    Tala, T
    Van Eester, D
    Andrew, P
    Beaumont, P
    Bobkov, V
    Brix, M
    Brzozowski, J
    Eriksson, G
    Giroud, C
    Joffrin, E
    Kiptily, V
    Mailloux, J
    Mayoral, L
    Monakhov, I
    Sartori, R
    Staebler, A
    Rachlew, E
    Tennfors, E
    Tuccillo, A
    Walden, A
    Zastrow, D
    On the parasitic absorption in FWCD experiments in JET ITB plasmas2005Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 45, nr 7, s. 706-720Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 112. Hender, T. C.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Jonsson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    The role of MHD in causing impurity peaking in JET hybrid plasmas2016Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 56, nr 6, artikel-id 066002Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In hybrid plasma operation in JET with its ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) it is found that n > 1 tearing activity can significantly enhance the rate of on-axis peaking of high-Z impurities, which in turn significantly degrades discharge performance. Core n = 1 instabilities can be beneficial in removing impurities from the plasma core (e.g. sawteeth or fishbones), but can conversely also degrade core confinement (particularly in combination with simultaneous n = 3 activity). The nature of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in JET hybrid discharges, with both its previous carbon wall and subsequent JET-ILW, is surveyed statistically and the character of the instabilities is examined. Possible qualitative models for how the n > 1 islands can enhance the on-axis impurity transport accumulation processes are presented.

  • 113.
    Ho, A.
    et al.
    DIFFER Dutch Inst Fundamental Energy Res, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    Application of Gaussian process regression to plasma turbulent transport model validation via integrated modelling2019Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, nr 5, artikel-id 056007Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines an approach towards improved rigour in tokamak turbulence transport model validation within integrated modelling. Gaussian process regression (GPR) techniques were applied for profile fitting during the preparation of integrated modelling simulations allowing for rigourous sensitivity tests of prescribed initial and boundary conditions as both fit and derivative uncertainties are provided. This was demonstrated by a JETTO integrated modelling simulation of the JET ITER-like-wall H-mode baseline discharge #92436 with the QuaLiKiz quasilinear turbulent transport model, which is the subject of extrapolation towards a deuterium-tritium plasma. The simulation simultaneously evaluates the time evolution of heat, particle, and momentum fluxes over similar to 10 confinement times, with a simulation boundary condition at rho(tor) = 0.85. Routine inclusion of momentum transport prediction in multi-channel flux-driven transport modelling is not standard and is facilitated here by recent developments within the QuaLiKiz model. Excellent agreement was achieved between the fitted and simulated profiles for n(e), T-e, T-i, and Omega(tor) within 2 sigma, but the simulation underpredicts the mid-radius Ti and overpredicts the core n(e) and T-e profiles for this discharge. Despite this, it was shown that this approach is capable of deriving reasonable inputs, including derivative quantities, to tokamak models from experimental data. Furthermore, multiple figures-of-merit were defined to quantitatively assess the agreement of integrated modelling predictions to experimental data within the GPR profile fitting framework.

  • 114.
    Hobirk, J.
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    Analysis of plasma termination in the JET hybrid scenario2018Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 7, artikel-id 076027Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the final phase of hybrid scenario discharges at JET, the reduction of auxiliary heating towards finally the Ohmic phase. The here considered Ohmic phase is mostly still in the current flattop but may also be in the current ramp down. For this purpose a database is created of 54 parameters in 7 phases distributed in time of the discharge. It is found that the occurrence of a locked mode is in most cases preceded by a radiation peaking after the main heating phase either in a low power phase and/or in the Ohmic phase. To gain insight on the importance of different parameters in this process a correlation analysis to the radiation peaking in the Ohmic phase is done. The first finding is that the further away in time the analysed phases are the less the correlation is. This means in the end that a good termination scenario might also be able to terminate unhealthy plasmas safely. The second finding is that remaining impurities in the plasma after reducing the heating power in the termination phase are the most important reason for generating a locked mode which can lead to a disruption.

  • 115.
    Hu, D.
    et al.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon sur Verdon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    3D non-linear MHD simulation of the MHD response and density increase as a result of shattered pellet injection2018Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 12, artikel-id 126025Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The MHD response and the penetration of a deuterium shattered pellet into a JET plasma is investigated via the non-linear reduced MHD code JOREK with the neutral gas shielding (NGS) ablation model. The dominant MHD destabilizing mechanism by the injection is identified as the local helical cooling at each rational surface, as opposed to the global current profile contraction. Thus the injected fragments destabilize each rational surface as they pass through them. The injection penetration is found to be much better compared to MGI, with the convective transport caused by core MHD instabilities (e.g. 1/1 kink) contributing significantly to the core penetration. Moreover, the injection with realistic JET SPI system configurations is simulated in order to provide some insights into future operations, and the impact on the total assimilation and penetration depth of varying injection parameters such as the injection velocity or fineness of shattering is assessed. Further, the effect of changing the target equilibrium temperature or q profile on the assimilation and penetration is also investigated. Such analysis will form the basis of further investigation into a desirable configuration for the future SPI system in ITER.

  • 116.
    Huber, A.
    et al.
    EUROfus Consortium, JET, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, Partner Trilateral Euregio Cluster TEC, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    ---.
    et al.,
    Real-time protection of the JET ITER-like wall based on near infrared imaging diagnostic systems2018Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 10, artikel-id 106021Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In JET with ITER-like wall (JET-ILW), the first wall was changed to metallic materials (tungsten and beryllium) [1] which require a reliable protection system to avoid damage of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) due to beryllium melting or cracking of tungsten owing to thermal fatigue. To address this issue, a protection system with real time control, based on imaging diagnostics, has been implemented on JET-ILW in 2011. This paper describes the design, implementation, and operation of the near infrared imaging diagnostic system of the JET-ILW plasma experiment and its integration into the existing JET-ILW protection architecture. The imaging system comprises eleven analogue CCD cameras which demonstrate a high robustness against changes of system parameters like the emissivity. The system covers about two thirds of the main chamber wall and almost half of the divertor. A real-time imaging processing unit is used to convert the raw data into surface temperatures taking into account the different emissivity for the various materials and correcting for artefacts resulting e.g. from neutron impact. Regions of interest (ROI) on the selected PFCs are analysed in real time and the maximiun temperature measured for each ROI is sent to other real time systems to trigger an appropriate response of the plasma control system, depending on the location of a hot spot. A hot spot validation algorithm was successfully integrated into the real-time system and is now used to avoid false alarms caused by neutrons and dust. The design choices made for the video imaging system, the implications for the hardware components and the calibration procedure are discussed. It will be demonstrated that the video imaging protection system can work properly under harsh electromagnetic conditions as well as under neutron and gamma radiation. Examples will be shown of instances of hot spot detection that abort the plasma discharge. The limits of the protection system and the associated constraints on plasma operation are also presented. The real-time protection system has been operating routinely since 2011. During this period, less than 0.5% of the terminated discharges were aborted by a malfunction of the system. About 2%-3% of the discharges were terminated due to the detection of actual hot spots.

  • 117.
    Huber, A.
    et al.
    JET, EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    The effect of the isotope on the H-mode density limit2017Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, nr 8, artikel-id 086007Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to understand the mechanisms for the H-mode density limit in machines with fully metallic walls, systematic investigations of H-mode density limit plasmas in experiments with deuterium and hydrogen external gas fuelling have been performed on JET-ILW. The observed H-mode density limit on JET in D-as well as in H-plasmas demonstrates similar operation phases: the stable H-mode phase, degrading H-mode, breakdown of the H-mode with energy confinement deterioration accompanied by a dithering cycling phase, followed by the L-mode phase. The density limit is not related to an inward collapse of the hot core plasma due to an overcooling of the plasma periphery by radiation. Indeed, independently of the isotopic effect, the total radiated power stay almost constant during the H-mode phase until the H-L back transition. It was observed in D-and H-plasmas that neither detachment, nor the X-point MARFE itself do trigger the H-L transition and that they thus do not present a limit on the plasma density. It is the plasma confinement, most likely determined by edge parameters, which is ultimately responsible for the H-mode DL. By comparing similar discharges but fuelled with either deuterium or hydrogen, we have found that the H-mode density limit exhibits a dependence on the isotope mass: the density limit is up to 35% lower in hydrogen compared to similar deuterium plasma conditions (the obtained density limit is in agreement with the Greenwald limit for D-plasma). In addition, the density limit is nearly independent of the applied power both in deuterium or hydrogen fuelling conditions. The measured Greenwald fractions are consistent with the predictions from a theoretical model based on an MHD instability theory in the near-SOL. The JET operational domains are significantly broadened when increasing the plasma effective mass (e.g. tritium or deuterium-tritium operation), i.e. the L to H power threshold is reduced whereas the density limit for the L-mode back transition is increased.

  • 118.
    Huber, V
    et al.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Supercomp Ctr, Julich, Germany..
    Bergsåker, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Huber, V.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, S.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, P
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefániková, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Y
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al,
    The software and hardware architecture of the real-time protection of in-vessel components in JET-ILW2019Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, nr 7, artikel-id 076016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time, the JET operation in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma, which is scheduled to take place on JET in 2020, will be performed in the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. In view of the preparation of the DT campaign (DTE2), several aspects of the plasma operation require significant improvements, such as a real-time protection of the first wall. The risk of damaging the metallic PFCs caused by beryllium melting or cracking of tungsten owing to thermal fatigue required a new reliable D-T compatible active protection system. Therefore, the future development of the JET real time first wall protection is focused on the D-T campaign and the ITER relevant conditions which may cause failure of camera electronics within the Torus hall. In addition to the technological aspect, the intensive preparation of the diverse software tools and real time algorithms for hot spot detection as well as alarm handling strategy required for the wall protection is in progress. This contribution describes the improved design, implementation, and operation of the near infrared (NIR) imaging diagnostic system of the JET-ILW plasma experiment and its integration into the existing JET protection architecture. To provide the reliable wall protection during the DTE2, two more sensitive logarithmic NIR camera systems equipped with new optical relays to take images and cameras outside of the biological shield have been installed on JET-ILW and calibrated with an in-vessel calibration light source (ICLS). Additionally, post-pulse data visualization and advanced analysis of all types of imaging data is provided by the new software framework JUVIL (JET users video imaging library). The formation of hot spots is recognized as a significant threat due to rapid surface temperature rise. Because it could trigger the protection system to stop a pulse, it is important to identify the mechanisms and conditions responsible for the formation of such hot spots. To address this issue the new software tool ` Hotspot Editor' has been developed.

  • 119.
    Iglesias, D.
    et al.
    EUROfus Consortium, JET, CSC, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;UKAEA Culham Ctr Fus Energy, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, EES, Space & Plasma Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    An improved model for the accurate calculation of parallel heat fluxes at the JET bulk tungsten outer divertor2018Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 10, artikel-id 106034Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Parallel heat flux calculations at the JET divertor have been based on the assumption that all incoming heat is due to the projection of the heat flux parallel to the magnetic line, q, plus a constant background. This simplification led to inconsistencies during the analysis of a series of dedicated tungsten melting experiments performed in 2013, for which infrared (IR) thermography surface measurements could not be recreated through simulations unless the parallel heat flux was reduced by 80% for L-mode and 60% for H-mode. We give an explanation for these differences using a new IR inverse analysis code, a set of geometrical corrections, and most importantly an additional term for the divertor heat flux accounting for non-parallel effects such as cross-field transport, recycled neutrals or charge exchange. This component has been evaluated comparing four different geometries with impinging angles varying from 2 to 90 degrees. Its magnitude corresponds to 1.2%-1.9% of q(parallel to), but because it is not affected by the magnetic projection, it accounts for up to 20%-30% of the tile surface heat flux. The geometrical corrections imply a further reduction of 24% of the measured heat flux. In addition, the application of the new inverse code increases the accuracy of the tile heat flux calculation, eliminating any previous discrepancy. The parallel heat flux computed with this new model is actually much lower than previously deduced by inverse analysis of IR temperatures-40% for L-mode and 50% for H-mode-while being independent of the geometry on which it is measured. This main result confirms the validity of the optical projection as long as a non-constant and non-parallel component is considered. For a given total heating power, the model predicts over 10% reduction of the maximum tile surface heat flux compared to strict optical modelling, as well as a 30% reduced sensitivity to manufacturing and assembling tolerances. These conclusions, along with the improvement in the predictability of the divertor thermal behaviour, are critical for JET future DT operations, and are also directly applicable to the design of the ITER divertor monoblocks.

  • 120.
    Jaun, André
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Fasoli, A.
    Vaclavik, J.
    Villard, L.
    Stability of Alfven eigenmodes in optimized tokamaks2000Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 40, nr 7, s. 1343-1348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) with intermediate toroidal mode numbers are modelled using the global gyrokinetic PENN code to determine the stability of high performance tokamak discharges in the presence of energetic particles. A large plasma pressure and a weak magnetic shear in the core give rise to radially extended kinetic AEs, which are stabilized by the high shear at the edge of a divertor (X point) configuration. Large values for the safety factor and the ion Larmor radius in reversed shear operation may however trigger drift kinetic Alfven eigenmode instabilities that could affect the alpha particle confinement in a reactor.

  • 121.
    Jepu, I
    et al.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Natl Inst Laser Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele 077125, Romania.;Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Matthews, G. F.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Widdowson, A.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik. EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.
    Fortuna-Zalesna, E.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Warsaw Univ Technol, PL-02507 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zdunek, J.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Natl Inst Laser Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele 077125, Romania..
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik. EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.
    Thompson, V
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Dinca, P.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Natl Inst Laser Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele 077125, Romania..
    Porosnicu, C.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Natl Inst Laser Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele 077125, Romania..
    Coad, P.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Heinola, K.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Univ Helsinki, POB 64, Helsinki 00560, Finland..
    Catarino, N.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Tecn, IPFN, Av Rovisco Pais, P-1049001 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Pompilian, O. G.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Natl Inst Laser Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele 077125, Romania..
    Lungu, C. P.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, JET, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Natl Inst Laser Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele 077125, Romania..
    Beryllium melting and erosion on the upper dump plates in JET during three ITER-like wall campaigns2019Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, nr 8, artikel-id 086009Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on erosion and melting of beryllium upper limiter tiles, so-called dump plates (DP), are presented for all three campaigns in the JET tokamak with the ITER-like wall. High-resolution images of the upper wall of JET show clear signs of flash melting on the ridge of the roofshaped tiles. The melt layers move in the poloidal direction from the inboard to the outboard tile, ending on the last DP tile with an upward going waterfall-like melt structure. Melting was caused mainly by unmitigated plasma disruptions. During three ILW campaigns, around 15% of all 12376 plasma pulses were catalogued as disruptions. Thermocouple data from the upper dump plates tiles showed a reduction in energy delivered by disruptions with fewer extreme events in the third campaign, ILW-3, in comparison to ILW-1 and ILW-2. The total Be erosion assessed via precision weighing of tiles retrieved from JET during shutdowns indicated the increasing mass loss across campaigns of up to 0.6 g from a single tile. The mass of splashed melted Be on the upper walls was also estimated using the high-resolution images of wall components taken after each campaign. The results agree with the total material loss estimated by tile weighing (similar to 130 g). Morphological and structural analysis performed on Be melt layers revealed a multilayer structure of re-solidified material composed mainly of Be and BeO with some heavy metal impurities Ni, Fe, W. IBA analysis performed across the affected tile ridge in both poloidal and toroidal direction revealed a low D concentration, in the range 1-4 x 10(17) D atoms cm(-2).

  • 122. Joffrin, E.
    et al.
    Baruzzo, M.
    Beurskens, M.
    Bourdelle, C.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Bucalossi, J.
    Buratti, P.
    Calabro, G.
    Challis, C. D.
    Clever, M.
    Coenen, J.
    Delabie, E.
    Dux, R.
    Lomas, P.
    de la Luna, E.
    de Vries, P.
    Flanagan, J.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frigione, D.
    Giroud, C.
    Groth, M.
    Hawkes, N.
    Hobirk, J.
    Lehnen, M.
    Maddison, G.
    Mailloux, J.
    Maggi, C. F.
    Matthews, G.
    Mayoral, M.
    Meigs, A.
    Neu, R.
    Nunes, I.
    Puetterich, T.
    Rimini, F.
    Sertoli, M.
    Sieglin, B.
    Sips, A. C. C.
    van Rooij, G.
    Voitsekhovitch, I.
    First scenario development with the JET new ITER-like wall2014Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 013011-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent JET experimental campaigns with the new ITER-like wall (JET-ILW), major progress has been achieved in the characterization and operation of the H-mode regime in metallic environments: (i) plasma breakdown has been achieved at the first attempt and X-point L-mode operation recovered in a few days of operation; (ii) stationary and stable type-I ELMy H-modes with beta(N) similar to 1.4 have been achieved in low and high triangularity ITER-like shape plasmas and are showing that their operational domain at H = 1 is significantly reduced with the JET-ILW mainly because of the need to inject a large amount of gas (above 10(22) Ds(-1)) to control core radiation; (iii) in contrast, the hybrid H-mode scenario has reached an H factor of 1.2-1.3 at beta(N) of 3 for 2-3 s; and, (iv) in comparison to carbon equivalent discharges, total radiation is similar but the edge radiation is lower and Z(eff) of the order of 1.3-1.4. Strong core radiation peaking is observed in H-mode discharges at a low gas fuelling rate (i. e. below 0.5 x 10(22) Ds(-1)) and low ELM frequency (typically less than 10 Hz), even when the tungsten influx from the diverter is constant. High-Z impurity transport from the plasma edge to the core appears to be the dominant factor to explain these observations. This paper reviews the major physics and operational achievements and challenges that an ITER-like wall configuration has to face to produce stable plasma scenarios with maximized performance.

  • 123. Joffrin, E.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Fridström, Richard
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Jonsson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Moon, Sunwoo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefániková, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Vallejos, Pablo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I
    et al.,
    Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall2019Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, nr 11, artikel-id 112021Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.

  • 124. Joffrin, E.
    et al.
    Tamain, P.
    Belonohy, E.
    Bufferand, H.
    Buratti, P.
    Challis, C. D.
    Delabie, E.
    Drewelow, P.
    Dodt, D.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia, J.
    Giroud, C.
    Groth, M.
    Hobirk, J.
    Jarvinen, A. E.
    Kim, H. -T
    Koechl, F.
    Kruezi, U.
    Lipschutz, B.
    Lomas, P. J.
    de la Luna, E.
    Loarer, T.
    Maget, P.
    Maggi, C.
    Matthews, G.
    Maviglia, F.
    Meigs, A.
    Nunes, I.
    Pucella, G.
    Rimini, F.
    Saarelma, S.
    Solano, E.
    Sips, A. C. C.
    Tsalas, M.
    Voitsekhovitch, I.
    Weisen, H.
    Impact of divertor geometry on H-mode confinement in the JET metallic wall2017Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, nr 8, artikel-id 086025Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent experiments with the ITER-like wall have demonstrated that changes in divertor strike point position are correlated with strong modification of the global energy confinement. The impact on energy confinement is observable both on the pedestal confinement and core normalised gradients. The corner configuration shows an increased core density gradient length and ion pressure indicating a better ion confinement. The study of neutral re-circulation indicates the neutral pressure in the main chamber varies inversely with the energy confinement and a correlation between the pedestal total pressure and the neutral pressure in the main chamber can be established. It does not appear that charge exchange losses nor momentum losses could explain this effect, but it may be that changes in edge electric potential are playing a role at the plasma edge. This study emphasizes the importance of the scrape-off layer (SOL) conditions on the pedestal and core confinement.

  • 125.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Eriksson, L. G.
    Analysis of a quasilinear model for ion cyclotron interactions in tokamaks2006Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 46, nr 7, s. S433-S441Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An orbit averaged quasilinear operator for resonant ion cyclotron interactions is analysed. The regions in phase space where the interactions are strong and the boundaries between regions with resonant and non-resonant ion orbits are identified. At these boundaries the quasilinear diffusion coefficient becomes discontinuous, causing the standard Monte Carlo scheme to induce an unphysical flow of test particles into the region with lower diffusion coefficient. A new Monte Carlo scheme that balances the flows across discontinuities is proposed. Moreover, the quasilinear diffusion coefficient is shown to deviate significantly from the lowest order Larmor radius scaling vertical bar delta H vertical bar(2) proportional to v(perpendicular to)(2n), where delta H is the perturbed Hamiltonian. This is not only caused by the finite Larmor radius effects, but also by the inhomogeneous electric field polarization and by the changes to the guiding centre orbits during the wave-particle interactions.

  • 126. Kaveeva, E.
    et al.
    Rozhansky, V.
    Tendler, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Interpretation of the observed radial electric field inversion in the TUMAN-3M tokamak during MHD activity2008Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 48, nr 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical model for the toroidal rotation spin-up and generation of a positive radial electric field during the stochastization of plasma edge is put forward. Equations for the toroidal velocity and for modification of the core radial electric field have been derived. A detailed comparison of the model results with the radial electric field and plasma potential measurements during MHD activity in the TUMAN-3M tokamak is presented.

  • 127.
    Kim, Hyun-Tae
    et al.
    Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    High fusion performance at high T-i/T-e in JET-ILW baseline plasmas with high NBI heating power and low gas puffing2018Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 3, artikel-id 036020Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the transport analysis of high density baseline discharges in the 2016 experimental campaign of the Joint European Torus with the ITER-Like Wall (JET-ILW), where a significant increase in the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion neutron rate (similar to 2.8 x 10(16) s(-1)) was achieved with stable high neutral beam injection (NBI) powers of up to 28 MW and low gas puffing. Increase in T-i exceeding T-e were produced for the first time in baseline discharges despite the high electron density; this enabled a significant increase in the thermal fusion reaction rate. As a result, the new achieved record in fusion performance was much higher than the previous record in the same heating power baseline discharges, where T-i = T-e. In addition to the decreases in collisionality and the increases in ion heating fraction in the discharges with high NBI power, T-i > T-e can also be attributed to positive feedback between the high T-i/T-e ratio and stabilisation of the turbulent heat flux resulting from the ion temperature gradient driven mode. The high T-i/T-e ratio was correlated with high rotation frequency. Among the discharges with identical beam heating power, higher rotation frequencies were observed when particle fuelling was provided by low gas puffing and pellet injection. This reveals that particle fuelling played a key role for achieving high T-i/T-e, and the improved fusion performance.

  • 128. Kim, Hyun-Tae
    et al.
    Romanelli, M.
    Yuan, X.
    Kaye, S.
    Sips, A. C. C.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Buchanan, J.
    Statistical validation of predictive TRANSP simulations of baseline discharges in preparation for extrapolation to JET D-T2017Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, nr 6, artikel-id 066032Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents for the first time a statistical validation of predictive TRANSP simulations of plasma temperature using two transport models, GLF23 and TGLF, over a database of 80 baseline H-mode discharges in JET-ILW. While the accuracy of the predicted Te with TRANSP-GLF23 is affected by plasma collisionality, the dependency of predictions on collisionality is less significant when using TRANSP-TGLF, indicating that the latter model has a broader applicability across plasma regimes. TRANSP-TGLF also shows a good matching of predicted Ti with experimental measurements allowing for a more accurate prediction of the neutron yields. The impact of input data and assumptions prescribed in the simulations are also investigated in this paper. The statistical validation and the assessment of uncertainty level in predictive TRANSP simulations for JET-ILW-DD will constitute the basis for the extrapolation to JET-ILW-DT experiments.

  • 129.
    Kiptily, V. G.
    et al.
    Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    Escaping alpha-particle monitor for burning plasmas2018Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 8, artikel-id 082009Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a diagnostic system, gamma-ray alpha-particle monitor (GRAM), for continuous monitoring of deuterium-tritium fusion alpha-particles in the MeV energy range escaped from the plasma to the first wall. The diagnostic is based on the detection of gamma-rays produced in nuclear reactions. The reactions Be-9(alpha,eta,gamma)C-12 and B-10(alpha,p,gamma)C-13 have been selected. For that purpose, Be- or B-10-target is placed on the first wall, where the alphas are expected to be mostly lost. Striking the target, the lost alphas generate specific gamma-rays, if their energy E-alpha > 1.5 MeV. To measure this gamma-ray emission, the target should be in the field of view of a collimated detector, which is protected from neutrons and background gammas. The calibrated detector could deliver absolute values of the lost alpha-particle flux with a temporal resolution depending on intensity of losses. A high-performance gamma-ray spectrometer with a novel architecture, GRITER, is proposed to be used in GRAM. It consists of a stack of the optically isolated high-Z fast scintillators with independent signal readout. GRITER is supposed to be operated at count-rates substantially exceeding the capability of a single crystal detector of the same size. The GRAM diagnostic system consists of two identical spectrometers, which measure both gamma-rays due to alpha-particle loss and gamma-ray background ensuring reliable data in a harsh reactor environment. GRAM could be tested during the non-DT plasma operation monitoring lost DD fusion products, neutral beam heating D-ions (E-D > 0.5 MeV) and ICRF accelerated H- and He-3-ions through the detection of gamma-rays resulting from nuclear reactions. The use of GRAM on JET and ITER, including events with extremely high loss rates, is discussed.

  • 130.
    Kiptily, V. G.
    et al.
    UKAEA, Culham Sci Ctr, Culham Ctr Fus Energy, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    On a fusion born triton effect in JET deuterium discharges with H-minority ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating2019Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, nr 6, artikel-id 064001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An effect due to fusion born triton production has been observed in JET high-performance deuterium plasma discharges with neutral beam injection (NBI) and H-minority ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating, using DD and deuterium tritium (DT) neutron spectrometry as well as fusion product loss measurements. The observations show that a decrease of the second harmonic omega = 2 omega(cD) enhancement of the DD neutron rate correlates with an increase of the triton burnup rate. An acceleration of tritons due to absorbing ICRH power at the third harmonic omega = 3 omega(cT) has been observed. This effect could indicate a redistribution of ICRH power absorption at omega approximate to omega(cH) = 2 omega(cD) = 3 omega(cT) with increasing triton concentration at the ion cyclotron resonance layer. Also, the reduction of the second harmonic enhancement of the DD neutron rate can be caused by burning of the accelerated deuterium as the tritium concentration grows. This is an extremely non-linear process as both mechanisms intensify with triton concentration. It determines the necessity to consider the ICRH power absorption omega = 3 omega(cT) in modelling of high-performance deuterium discharges with simultaneous NBI and H-minority ICRF heating as well as the assessment of enhanced burnup of ICRF accelerated deuterium for the development of high-performance plasma scenarios and DT fusion rate predictions.

  • 131. Kiptily, V. G.
    et al.
    Cecil, F. E.
    Jarvis, O. N.
    Mantsinen, M. J.
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Bertalot, L.
    Conroy, S.
    Ingesson, L. C.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Lawson, K. D.
    Popovichev, S.
    gamma-ray diagnostics of energetic ions in JET2002Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 42, nr 8, s. 999-1007Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports recent progress in the field of gamma-ray diagnosis of fast ions in the JET tokamak. The gamma-rays, born in nuclear reactions between fast ions and main plasma impurities and/or plasma fuel ions, are analysed with a new modelling tool (the GAMMOD code) that has been developed for a quantitative analysis of the measured gamma-ray energy spectra. The analysis of the gamma-ray energy spectra identifies the different fast ions giving rise to the gamma-ray emission and assesses the effective tail temperatures and relative concentrations of these fast ions. This assessment is possible, since the excitation functions for the different nuclear reactions are well established and exhibit a threshold or/and a resonant nature. The capabilities of the gamma-ray spectral analysis are illustrated with the examples from the recent gamma-ray diagnostic measurements of He-4, He-3, deuterium and hydrogen ions accelerated by ion-cyclotron resonance frequency heating in JET. Simultaneous measurements of several fast ion species, including highly energetic gamma-particles, are demonstrated. In addition to the gamma-spectroscopy, tomographic reconstructions of the radial profile of the gamma-ray emission are performed using the JET neutron profile monitor, thus providing direct measurements of the radial profiles of fast ions in JET.

  • 132. Kiptily, V. G.
    et al.
    Gorini, G.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zoita, V. L.
    et al.,
    Doppler broadening of gamma ray lines and fast ion distribution in JET plasmas2010Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 50, nr 8, s. 084001-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Doppler broadening of individual gamma-ray lines was measured with a high purity germanium detector in JET plasma experiments. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of nuclear reactions between energetic D, He-3 and He-4 ions accelerated by ion cyclotron resonance heating and main plasma impurities such as carbon and beryllium has been used. The nuclear reactions giving rise to gamma-rays have been identified and an effective temperature of the heated ions has been obtained in JET discharges. This technique could be used for fast ion and fusion alpha-particle studies in ITER.

  • 133. Kiptily, V. G.
    et al.
    von Thun, C. P. P.
    Pinches, S. D.
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Borba, D.
    Cecil, F. E.
    Darrow, D.
    Goloborod'ko, V.
    Craciunescu, T.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Nabais, F.
    Reich, M.
    Salmi, A.
    Yavorskij, V.
    Cecconello, M.
    Gorini, G.
    Lomas, P.
    Murari, A.
    Parail, V.
    Popovichev, S.
    Saibene, G.
    Sartori, R.
    Syme, D. B.
    Tardocchi, M.
    de Vries, P.
    Zoita, V. L.
    von Thun, C. P. Perez
    Recent progress in fast ion studies on JET2009Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 49, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents recent results on fast ion studies on JET. A set of diagnostics for both confined and lost fast ions was employed for investigating the response of fast ions to MHD modes and for studying their behaviour in plasmas with toroidal field ripple and in shear-reversed plasmas. A dependence of the losses on MHD mode amplitude was deduced from the experimental data. A study of various plasma scenarios has shown that a significant redistribution of the fast ions happens during changes in the profile of the safety factor from shear-reversed to monotonic. Significant changes in the losses of ICRH accelerated protons were found to be associated with L-H confinement transitions in plasmas. After an L-H transition, an abrupt decrease in the ICRH proton losses was observed. In plasmas with an internal transport barrier, the loss of ICRH accelerated ions was found to increase as the barrier forms. Further results concerning fast ion losses were obtained during JET experiments in which the magnitude of the TF ripple was varied. The ripple losses of fusion products appear similar to classical losses, and are in agreement with modelling.

  • 134.
    Kirov, K. K.
    et al.
    ---.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Fast ion synergistic effects in JET high performance pulses2019Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, nr 5, artikel-id 056005Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast ion synergistic effects were studied by predictive modelling of JET best performing pulses for various levels of neutral beam injection (NBI) and radio frequency (RF) power. Calculated DD neutron yields were analysed with the intention of separating the impact of RF synergistic effects due to changes in fast ion (FT) distribution function (DF) from secondary effects accompanying the application of RF power, namely changes in T-e and T-i . A novel approach in analysing the efficiency of fast ions in fusion reactions based on evaluation of the cumulative reaction rates is outlined and used in the study. Conclusions on the impact of fast ion synergistic effects on fusion performance are based on comparisons of beam-target (BT) and thermal (Th) DD reaction rates. It was found that changes in auxiliary heating power, NBI and RF, by 4 MW will affect DD fusion performance and neutron rates significantly. Simulations of the best performing JET pulses show that for H minority RF heating scheme with available RF power the impact of RF synergistic effects is somewhat lesser than the secondary effects related to changes in T-e and T-i . In conditions of much higher RF power the modification in fast ion distribution function (FI DF) and the impact of the fast ions on BT DD fusion becomes significant. The impact of the RF and NBI power on the BT reactivities was found to be of similar order; however, the NAT power has greater impact on reaction rates due to its larger effect on fast ion density.

  • 135. Koechl, F.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Modelling of transitions between L- and H-mode in JET high plasma current plasmas and application to ITER scenarios including tungsten behaviour2017Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, nr 8, artikel-id 086023Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics for the transition from L-mode to a stationary high QDT H-mode regime in ITER is expected to be qualitatively different to present experiments. Differences may be caused by a low fuelling efficiency of recycling neutrals, that influence the post transition plasma density evolution on the one hand. On the other hand, the effect of the plasma density evolution itself both on the alpha heating power and the edge power flow required to sustain the H-mode confinement itself needs to be considered. This paper presents results of modelling studies of the transition to stationary high QDT H-mode regime in ITER with the JINTRAC suite of codes, which include optimisation of the plasma density evolution to ensure a robust achievement of high QDT regimes in ITER on the one hand and the avoidance of tungsten accumulation in this transient phase on the other hand. As a first step, the JINTRAC integrated models have been validated in fully predictive simulations (excluding core momentum transport which is prescribed) against core, pedestal and divertor plasma measurements in JET C-wall experiments for the transition from L-mode to stationary H-mode in partially ITER relevant conditions (highest achievable current and power, H-98,H-y similar to 1.0, low collisionality, comparable evolution in P-net/PL-H, but different rho(*), T-i/T-e, Mach number and plasma composition compared to ITER expectations). The selection of transport models (core: NCLASS + Bohm/gyroBohm in L-mode/GLF23 in H-mode) was determined by a trade-off between model complexity and efficiency. Good agreement between code predictions and measured plasma parameters is obtained if anomalous heat and particle transport in the edge transport barrier are assumed to be reduced at different rates with increasing edge power flow normalised to the H-mode threshold; in particular the increase in edge plasma density is dominated by this edge transport reduction as the calculated neutral influx across the separatrix remains unchanged (or even slightly decreases) following the H-mode transition. JINTRAC modelling of H-mode transitions for the ITER 15 MA/5.3 T high Q(DT) scenarios with the same modelling assumptions as those being derived from JET experiments has been carried out. The modelling finds that it is possible to access high Q(DT) conditions robustly for additional heating power levels of P-AUX >= 53 MW by optimising core and edge plasma fuelling in the transition from L-mode to high Q(DT) H-mode. An initial period of low plasma density, in which the plasma accesses the H-mode regime and the alpha heating power increases, needs to be considered after the start of the additional heating, which is then followed by a slow density ramp. Both the duration of the low density phase and the density ramp-rate depend on boundary and operational conditions and can be optimised to minimise the resistive flux consumption in this transition phase. The modelling also shows that fuelling schemes optimised for a robust access to high Q(DT) H-mode in ITER are also optimum for the prevention of the contamination of the core plasma by tungsten during this phase.

  • 136.
    Kolesnichenko, Ya, I
    et al.
    Inst Nucl Res, Prospekt Nauky 47, UA-03680 Kiev, Ukraine..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    Analysis of possible improvement of the plasma performance in JET due to the inward spatial channelling of fast-ion energy2018Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 7, artikel-id 076012Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of the spatial chancl ling (SC) of the energy of fusion-produced alpha particles- the spatial transfer of the energy of fast ions by destabilized eigenmodes and delivering this energy to bulk plasma particles (Kolesnichenko et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 075001)-on the plasma performance is studied. Analysis is carried out in the assumption that alpha particles located in the peripheral region of the plasma destabilize multiple fast magnetoacoustic modes (FMM) having global radial structure. The FMM with the frequencies close to cyclotron harmonics of alpha particles are considered. It is found that these FMM can be in resonance with the bulk plasma ions and electrons located in the central region of the plasma, delivering the alpha energy to this region. This improves the overall plasma confinement. In addition, it leads to anomalous ion heating when the ion damping of FMM exceeds the electron one. The damping rates of the considered waves are calculated. It is shown dial reasonably small amplitude waves can receive and transfer across the flux surfaces as large power density as that required for spatial channelling of a considerable part of fusion energy. The developed theory of the inward spatial channelling is applied to JET experiments carried out during the deuterium-tritium-experiment campaign (DTE1), where presumably anomalous ion heating and improvement of die plasma confinement took place.

  • 137. Komm, M.
    et al.
    Bilkova, P.
    Aftanas, M.
    Berta, M.
    Boehm, P.
    Bogar, O.
    Frassinetti, L.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Grover, O.
    Hacek, P.
    Havlicek, J.
    Hron, M.
    Imrisek, M.
    Krbec, J.
    Mitosinkova, K.
    Naydenkova, D.
    Panek, R.
    Peterka, M.
    Snyder, P. B.
    Stefanikova, E.
    Stoeckel, J.
    Sos, M.
    Urban, J.
    Varju, J.
    Vondracek, P.
    Weinzettl, V.
    Contribution to the multi-machine pedestal scaling from the COMPASS tokamak2017Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, nr 5, artikel-id 056041Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    First systematic measurements of pedestal structure during Ohmic and NBI-assisted Type I ELMy H-modes were performed on the COMPASS tokamak in two dedicated experimental campaigns during 2015 and 2016. By adjusting the NBI heating and a toroidal magnetic field, the electron pedestal temperature was increased from 200 eV up to 300 eV, which allowed reaching pedestal collisionality nu(ped)* < 1 at q(95) similar to 3. COMPASS has approached conditions for the Identity experiment done at JET & DIII-D, complementing the range of scanned rho(ped)*. The pedestal pressure was successfully reproduced by the EPED model. The dependence of pedestal pressure width on nu(ped)* and beta(pol)(ped) is discussed.

  • 138.
    Kotschenreuther, M.
    et al.
    Univ Texas Austin, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Bergsåker, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, S.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, P
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefániková, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Y
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al,
    Gyrokinetic analysis and simulation of pedestals to identify the culprits for energy losses using 'fingerprints'2019Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, nr 9, artikel-id 096001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fusion performance in tokamaks hinges critically on the efficacy of the edge transport barrier (ETB) in suppressing energy losses. The new concept of 'fingerprints' is introduced to identify the instabilities that cause transport losses in the ETBs of many of today's experiments, from among widely posited candidates. Analysis of the gyrokinetic-Maxwell equations and gyrokinetic simulations of experiments reveals that each mode type produces characteristic ratios of transport in the various channels: density, heat, and impurities. This, together with experimental observations of transport in some channel or of the relative size of the driving sources of channels, can identify or determine the dominant modes causing energy transport. In multiple H-mode cases with edge-localized modes that are examined, these fingerprints indicate that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-like modes are apparently not the dominant agent of energy transport; rather, this role is played by micro-tearing modes (MTMs) and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, and in addition, possibly by ion temperature gradient/ trapped electron modes (ITG/TEM) on JET (Joint European 'Torus). MHD-like modes may dominate the electron particle losses. Fluctuation frequency can also be an important means of identification, and is often closely related to the transport fingerprint. The analytical arguments unify and explain previously disparate experimental observations on multiple devices, including DIII-D, JET, and ASDEX-U. Detailed simulations of two DIII-D ETBs also demonstrate and corroborate this.

  • 139.
    Krasilnikov, A. V.
    et al.
    ---.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Evidence of Be-9 + p nuclear reactions during 2 omega(CH) and hydrogen minority ICRH in JET-ILW hydrogen and deuterium plasmas2018Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 2, artikel-id 026033Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The intensity of Be-9 + p nuclear fusion reactions was experimentally studied during second harmonic (2 omega CH) ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) and further analyzed during fundamental hydrogen minority ICRH of JET-ILW hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. In relatively low-density plasmas with a high ICRH power, a population of fast H+ ions was created and measured by neutral particle analyzers. Primary and secondary nuclear reaction products, due to Be-9 + p interaction, were observed with fast ion loss detectors, gamma-ray spectrometers and neutron flux monitors and spectrometers. The possibility of using Be-9(p, d)2 alpha and Be-9(p, alpha)Li-6 nuclear reactions to create a population of fast alpha particles and study their behaviour in non-active stage of ITER operation is discussed in the paper.

  • 140. Kurki-Suonio, T.
    et al.
    Asunta, O.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hynonen, V.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Koskela, T.
    Lonnroth, J.
    Parail, V.
    Roccella, M.
    Saibene, G.
    Salmi, A.
    Sipila, S.
    ASCOT simulations of fast ion power loads to the plasma-facing components in ITER2009Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 49, nr 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The wall loads due to fusion alphas as well as neutral beam injection-and ICRF-generated fast ions were simulated for ITER reference scenario-2 and scenario-4 including the effects of ferritic inserts (FIs), test blanket modules (TBMs), and 3D wall with two limiter structures. The simulations were carried out using the Monte Carlo guiding-centre orbit-following code ASCOT. The FIs were found very effective in ameliorating the detrimental effects of the toroidal ripple: the fast ion wall loads are reduced practically to their negligible axisymmetric level. The thermonuclear alpha particles overwhelmingly dominate the wall power flux. In scenario-4 practically all the power goes to the limiters, while in scenario-2 the load is fairly evenly divided between the divertor and the limiter, with hardly any power flux to other components in the first wall. This is opposite to earlier results, where hot spots were observed with 2D wall (Tobita et al 2003 Fusion Eng. Des. 65 561-8). In contrast, uncompensated ripple leads to unacceptable peak power fluxes of 0.5 MW m(-2) in scenario-2 and 1 MW m(-2) in scenario-4, with practically all power hitting the limiters and substantial flux arriving even at the unprotected first wall components. The local TBM structures were found to perturb the magnetic field structure globally and lead to increased wall loads. However, the TBM simulation results overestimate the TBM contribution due to an over-simplification in the vacuum field. Therefore the TBM results should be considered as an upper limit.

  • 141. Kwak, Sehyun
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Jonsson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Bayesian electron density inference from JET lithium beam emission spectra using Gaussian processes2017Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, nr 3, artikel-id 036017Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A Bayesian model to infer edge electron density profiles is developed for the JET lithium beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) system, measuring Li I (2p-2s) line radiation using 26 channels with similar to 1 cm spatial resolution and 10 similar to 20 ms temporal resolution. The density profile is modelled using a Gaussian process prior, and the uncertainty of the density profile is calculated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme. From the spectra measured by the transmission grating spectrometer, the Li I line intensities are extracted, and modelled as a function of the plasma density by a multi-state model which describes the relevant processes between neutral lithium beam atoms and plasma particles. The spectral model fully takes into account interference filter and instrument effects, that are separately estimated, again using Gaussian processes. The line intensities are inferred based on a spectral model consistent with the measured spectra within their uncertainties, which includes photon statistics and electronic noise. Our newly developed method to infer JET edge electron density profiles has the following advantages in comparison to the conventional method: (i) providing full posterior distributions of edge density profiles, including their associated uncertainties, (ii) the available radial range for density profiles is increased to the full observation range (similar to 26 cm), (iii) an assumption of monotonic electron density profile is not necessary, (iv) the absolute calibration factor of the diagnostic system is automatically estimated overcoming the limitation of the conventional technique and allowing us to infer the electron density profiles for all pulses without preprocessing the data or an additional boundary condition, and (v) since the full spectrum is modelled, the procedure of modulating the beam to measure the background signal is only necessary for the case of overlapping of the Li I line with impurity lines.

  • 142.
    Labit, B.
    et al.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, SPC, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Jonsson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Thorén, Emil
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Vallejos Olivares, Pablo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zuin, M.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Dependence on plasma shape and plasma fueling for small edge-localized mode regimes in TCV and ASDEX Upgrade2019Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, nr 8, artikel-id 086020Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the EUROfusion MST1 work package, a series of experiments has been conducted on AUG and TCV devices to disentangle the role of plasma fueling and plasma shape for the onset of small ELM regimes. On both devices, small ELM regimes with high confinement are achieved if and only if two conditions are fulfilled at the same time. Firstly, the plasma density at the separatrix must be large enough (n(e,sep)/n(G) similar to 0.3), leading to a pressure profile flattening at the separatrix, which stabilizes type-I ELMs. Secondly, the magnetic configuration has to be close to a double null (DN), leading to a reduction of the magnetic shear in the extreme vicinity of the separatrix. As a consequence, its stabilizing effect on ballooning modes is weakened.

  • 143. Lagoyannis, A.
    et al.
    Tsavalas, P.
    Mergia, K.
    Provatas, G.
    Triantou, K.
    Tsompopoulou, E.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. EUROfusion Consortium, United Kingdom.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. EUROfusion Consortium, United Kingdom.
    Widdowson, A.
    Harissopulos, S.
    Mertzimekis, T. J.
    Surface composition and structure of divertor tiles following the JET tokamak operation with the ITER-like wall2017Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, nr 7, artikel-id 076027Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples extracted from several divertor tiles following the 2011-2012 operation of JET with the ITER-Like wall were analyzed using ion beam analysis methods, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis and x-ray diffraction. The emphasis was on the determination of light species and on material mixing including compound formation on the bottom and the outer divertor tiles. Deposition of deuterium, beryllium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, chromium, nickel and molybdenum has been detected on all studied tiles. The thickest deposition, of around 4 μm, was measured on the bottom of the outer divertor, whereas the other surfaces (inner bottom and vertical outer) the co-deposits were around 1 μm. x-ray diffraction measurements have revealed the formation of the compound W2C on all specimens.

  • 144. Lamalle, P. U.
    et al.
    Mantsinen, M. J.
    Noterdaeme, J. M.
    Alper, B.
    Beaumont, P.
    Bertalot, L.
    Blackman, T.
    Bobkov, V. V.
    Bonheure, G.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Castaldo, C.
    Conroy, S.
    de Baar, M.
    de la Luna, E.
    de Vries, P.
    Durodie, F.
    Ericsson, G.
    Eriksson, L. G.
    Gowers, C.
    Felton, R.
    Heikkinen, J.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Kiptily, V.
    Lawson, K.
    Laxåback, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Lerche, E.
    Lomas, P.
    Lyssoivan, A.
    Mayoral, M. L.
    Meo, F.
    Mironov, M.
    Monakhov, I.
    Nunes, I.
    Piazza, G.
    Popovichev, S.
    Salmi, A.
    Santala, M. I. K.
    Sharapov, S.
    Tala, T.
    Tardocchi, M.
    Van Eester, D.
    Weyssow, B.
    Expanding the operating space of ICRF on JET with a view to ITER2006Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 391-400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on ITER-relevant ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) physics investigated on JET in 2003 and early 2004. Minority heating of helium three in hydrogen plasmas-(He-3)H-was systematically explored by varying the 3 He concentration and the toroidal phasing of the antenna arrays. The best heating performance (a maximum electron temperature of 6.2 keV with 5 MW of ICRF power) was obtained with a preferential wave launch in the direction of the plasma current. A clear experimental demonstration was made of the sharp and reproducible transition to the mode conversion heating regime when the 3 He concentration increased above similar to 2%. In the latter regime the best heating performance (a maximum electron temperature of 8 keV with 5 MW of ICRF power) was achieved with dipole array phasing, i.e. a symmetric antenna power spectrum. Minority heating of deuterium in hydrogen plasmas-(D)H-was also investigated but was found inaccessible because this scenario is too sensitive to impurity ions with Z/A = 1/2 such as C6+, small amounts of which directly lead into the mode conversion regime. Minority heating of up to 3% of tritium in deuterium plasmas was systematically investigated during the JET trace tritium experimental campaign (TTE). This required operating JET at its highest possible magnetic field (3.9 to 4 T) and the ICRF system at its lowest frequency (23 MHz). The interest of this scenario for ICRF heating at these low concentrations and its efficiency at boosting the suprathermal neutron yield were confirmed, and the measured neutron and gammay ray spectra permit interesting comparisons with advanced ICRF code simulations. Investigations of finite Larmor radius effects on the RF-induced high-energy tails during second harmonic (omega = 2 omega(c)) heating of a hydrogen minority in D plasmas clearly demonstrated a strong decrease in the RF diffusion coefficient at proton energies similar to 1 MeV in agreement with theoretical expectations. Fast wave heating and current drive experiments in deuterium plasmas showed effective direct electron heating with dipole phasing of the antennas, but only small changes of the central plasma current density were observed with the directive phasings, in particular at low single pass damping. New investigations of the heating efficiency of ICRF antennas confirmed its strong dependence on the parallel wavenumber spectrum. Advances in topics of a more technological nature are also summarized: ELM studies using fast RF measurements, the successful experimental demonstration of a new ELM-tolerant antenna matching scheme and technical enhancements planned on the JET ICRF system for 2006, they being equally strongly driven by the preparation for ITER.

  • 145.
    Lasa, A.
    et al.
    Annan organisation.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Annan organisation.
    et al.,
    ERO modeling and sensitivity analysis of locally enhanced beryllium erosion by magnetically connected antennas2018Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 1, artikel-id 016046Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments at JET showed locally enhanced, asymmetric beryllium (Be) erosion at outer wall limiters when magnetically connected ICRH antennas were in operation. A first modeling effort using the 3D erosion and scrape-off layer impurity transport modeling code ERO reproduced qualitatively the experimental outcome. However, local plasma parameters-in particular when 3D distributions are of interest-can be difficult to determine from available diagnostics and so erosion / impurity transport modeling input relies on output from other codes and simplified models, increasing uncertainties in the outcome. In the present contribution, we introduce and evaluate the impact of improved models and parameters with largest uncertainties of processes that impact impurity production and transport across the scrape-off layer, when simulated in ERO: (i) the magnetic geometry has been revised, for affecting the separatrix position (located 50-60 mm away from limiter surface) and thus the background plasma profiles; (ii) connection lengths between components, which lead to shadowing of ion fluxes, are also affected by the magnetic configuration; (iii) anomalous transport of ionized impurities, defined by the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, has been revisited; (iv) erosion yields that account for energy and angular distributions of background plasma ions under the present enhanced sheath potential and oblique magnetic field, have been introduced; (v) the effect of additional erosion sources, such as charge-exchange neutral fluxes, which are dominant in recessed areas like antennas, has been evaluated; (vi) chemically assisted release of Be in molecular form has been included. Sensitivity analysis highlights a qualitative effect (i.e. change in emission patterns) of magnetic shadowing, anomalous diffusion, and inclusion of neutral fluxes and molecular release of Be. The separatrix location, and energy and angular distribution of background plasma fluxes impact erosion quantitatively. ERO simulations that include all features described above match experimentally measured Be I (457.3 nm) and Be II (467.4 nm) signals, and erosion increases with varying ICRH antenna's RF power. However, this increase in erosion is only partially captured by ERO's emission measurements, as most contributions from plasma wetted surfaces fall outside the volume observed by sightlines.

  • 146.
    Laxåback, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Modelling of minority ion cyclotron current drive during the activated phase of ITER2005Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 45, nr 12, s. 1510-1523Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neoclassical tearing modes, triggered by the long-period sawteeth expected in tokamaks with large non-thermal α-particle populations, may impose a severe β limit on experiments with large fusion yields and on reactors. Sawtooth destabilization by localized current drive could relax the β limit and improve plasma performance. 3He minority ion cyclotron current drive around the sawtooth inversion radius has been planned for ITER. Several ion species, including beam injected D ions and fusion born α particles, are however also resonant in the plasma and may represent a parasitic absorption of RF power. Modelling of minority ion cyclotron current drive in an ITER-FEAT-like plasma is presented, including the effects of ion trapping, finite ion drift orbit widths, wave-induced radial transport and the coupled evolution of wave fields and resonant ion distributions. The parasitic absorption of RF power by the other resonant species is concluded to be relatively small, but the 3He minority current drive is nevertheless negligible due to the strong collisionality of the 3He ions and the drag current by toroidally counter-rotating background ions and co-rotating electrons. H minority current drive is found to be a significantly more effective alternative.

  • 147.
    Lehnen, M.
    et al.
    EUROfus Consortium, JET, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Forsch Zentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;ITER Org, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    et al.,
    Radiation asymmetries during the thermal quench of massive gas injection disruptions in JET2015Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 55, nr 12, artikel-id 123027Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation asymmetries during disruption mitigation by massive gas injection (MGI) can result in substantial first wall heat loads in ITER and have, therefore, to be minimised. This paper gives a first analysis of the relation between the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities governing the thermal quench (TQ) and the toroidal distribution of the radiated power during MGI experiments at JET. It is found that the radiation asymmetry is closely linked to the toroidal phase of the n = 1 mode. The mode phase, on the other hand, is influenced by the injection itself, with the O-point of the mode being displaced towards the injection location. The development of a m = 1 component during the TQ has been identified from temperature and soft x-ray measurements. The observations suggest that the TQ mechanism during MGI is the same as for density limit disruptions. High energy plasmas show a much smaller peaking compared to Ohmically heated plasmas. Neon injection has the tendency towards lower radiation peaking compared to argon injection.

  • 148. Lennholm, M.
    et al.
    Frigione, D.
    Graves, J. P.
    Beaumont, P. S.
    Blackman, T.
    Carvalho, I. S.
    Chapman, I.
    Dumont, R.
    Felton, R.
    Garzotti, L.
    Goniche, M.
    Goodyear, A.
    Grist, D.
    Jachmich, S.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Lang, P.
    Lerche, E.
    De La Luna, E.
    Monakhov, I.
    Mooney, R.
    Morris, J.
    Nave, M. F. F.
    Reich, M.
    Rimini, F.
    Sips, G.
    Sheikh, H.
    Sozzi, C.
    Tsalas, M.
    Real-time control of ELM and sawtooth frequencies: Similarities and differences2015Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 56, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ELMs and Sawteeth, located in different parts of the plasma, are similar from a control engineering point of view. Both manifest themselves through quiescent periods interrupted by periodic collapses. For both, large collapses, following long quiescent periods, have detrimental effects while short periods are associated with decreased confinement. Following the installation of the all metal ’ITER like wall’ on JET, sawteeth and ELMs also play an important role by expelling tungsten from the core and edge of the plasma respectively. Control of tungsten has therefore been added to divertor heat load reduction, NTM avoidance and helium ash removal as reasons for requiring ELM and sawtooth control. It is therefore of interest to implement control systems to maintain the sawtooth and ELM frequencies in the desired ranges. On JET, ELM frequency control uses radial field ’kicks’ and pellet and gas injection as actuators, while sawtooth control uses ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). JET experiments have, for the first time, established feedback control of the ELM frequency, via real time variation of the injected gas flow [1]. Using this controller in conjunction with pellet injection allows the ELM frequency to be kept as required despite variations in pellet ELM triggering efficiency. JET Sawtooth control experiments have, for the first time, demonstrated that low field side ICRH, as foreseen for ITER, can shorten sawteeth lengthened by central fast ions [2]. The development of ELM and sawtooth control could be key to achieve stable high performance JET discharges with minimal tungsten content. Integrating such schemes into an overall control strategy will be required in future tokamaks and gaining experience on current tokamaks is essential.

  • 149. Lerche, E.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Jonsson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Sawtooth pacing with on-axis ICRH modulation in JET-ILW2017Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, nr 3, artikel-id 036027Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel technique for sawteeth control in tokamak plasmas using ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) has been developed in the JET-ILW tokamak. Unlike previous ICRH methods, that explored the destabilization of the internal kink mode when the radio-frequency (RF) wave absorption was placed near the q = 1 surface, the technique presented here consists of stabilizing the sawteeth as fast as possible by applying the ICRH power centrally and subsequently induce a sawtooth crash by switching it off at the appropriate instant. The validation of this method in JET-ILW L-mode discharges, including preliminary tests in H-mode plasmas, is presented.

  • 150. Lerche, E.
    et al.
    Goniche, M.
    Jacquet, P.
    Van Eester, D.
    Bobkov, V.
    Colas, L.
    Giroud, C.
    Monakhov, I.
    Casson, F. J.
    Rimini, F.
    Angioni, C.
    Baruzzo, M.
    Blackman, T.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Brix, M.
    Czarnecka, A.
    Crombe, K.
    Challis, C.
    Dumont, R.
    Eriksson, J.
    Fedorczak, N.
    Graham, M.
    Graves, J. P.
    Gorini, G.
    Hobirk, J.
    Joffrin, E.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Kazakov, Y.
    Kiptily, V.
    Krivska, A.
    Lennholm, M.
    Lomas, P.
    Maggi, C.
    Mantica, P.
    Mathews, G.
    Mayoral, M. -L
    Meneses, L.
    Mlynar, J.
    Monier-Garbet, P.
    Nave, M. F.
    Noble, C.
    Nocente, M.
    Nunes, I.
    Ongena, J.
    Petravich, G.
    Petrzilka, V.
    Puetterich, T.
    Reich, M.
    Santala, M.
    Solano, E. R.
    Shaw, A.
    Sips, G.
    Stamp, M.
    Tardocchi, M.
    Tsalas, M.
    Valisa, M.
    Optimization of ICRH for core impurity control in JET-ILW2016Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 56, nr 3, artikel-id 036022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating has been an essential component in the development of high power H-mode scenarios in the Jet European Torus ITER-like wall (JET-ILW). The ICRF performance was improved by enhancing the antenna-plasma coupling with dedicated main chamber gas injection, including the preliminary minimization of RF-induced plasma-wall interactions, while the RF heating scenarios where optimized for core impurity screening in terms of the ion cyclotron resonance position and the minority hydrogen concentration. The impact of ICRF heating on core impurity content in a variety of 2.5 MA JET-ILW H-mode plasmas will be presented, and the steps that were taken for optimizing ICRF heating in these experiments will be reviewed.

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