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  • 101.
    Aminlashgari, Nina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Pal, Jit
    Sanwaria, Sunita
    Nandan, Bhanu
    Srivastava, Rajiv K.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Degradation product profiles of melt spun in situ cross-linked poly(epsilon-caprolactone) fibers2015Ingår i: Materials Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 0254-0584, E-ISSN 1879-3312, Vol. 156, s. 82-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In situ cross-linking of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) fiber with bis-(epsilon-caprolactone-4-yl) (BCY) was shown to be a feasible approach to compensate for reduction in molar mass of PCL during melt-spinning. The effect of in situ cross-linking on the degradation profile of melt spun PCL fibers with different amounts of BCY was evaluated using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Degradation of the cross-linked fibers was carried out in aqueous medium at 37 degrees C and 60 degrees C for different periods of time. The degradation profiles were then compared with uncross-linked fiber and 3D porous cross-linked film of PCL Interesting differences in the degradation product profiles with linear, cyclic or BCY-related low molar mass compounds were observed, clearly demonstrating the effect of cross-linking and processing on the degradation process and formation of water-soluble products. In addition the degradation product profiles demonstrated that in situ cross-linking is a feasible technique for counteracting degradation reactions during melt-spinning.

  • 102.
    Aminlashgari, Nina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ilag, Leopold L.
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Nanocomposites as novel surfaces for laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry2011Ingår i: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 192-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to utilize nanocomposite films as easy-to-handle surfaces for surface assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) of small molecules, such as pharmaceutical compounds, was evaluated. The signal-to-noise values of acebutolol, propranolol and carbamazepine obtained on the nanocomposite surfaces were higher than the values obtained on plain PLA surface showing that the nanoparticles participate in the ionization/desorption process even when they are immobilized in the polymer matrix. The advantages of nanocomposite films compared to the free nanoparticles used in earlier studies are the ease of handling and reduction of instrument contamination since the particles are immobilized into the polymer matrix. Eight inorganic nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, montmorillonite nanoclay, halloysite nanoclay, silicon nitride and graphitized carbon black at different concentrations were solution casted to films with polylactide (PLA). There were large differences in signal intensities depending on the type of drug, type of nanoparticle and the concentration of nanoparticles. Polylactide with 10% titanium oxide or 10% silicon nitride functioned best as SALDI-MS surfaces. The limit of detection (LOD) for the study was ranging from 1.7 ppm up to 56.3 ppm and the signal to noise relative standard deviations for the surface containing 10% silicon nitride was approximately 20-30%. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated in most cases a good distribution of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix and contact angle measurements showed increasing hydrophobicity when the nanoparticle concentration was increased, which could influence the desorption and ionization. Overall, the results show that nanocomposite films have potential as surfaces for SALDI-MS analysis of small molecules.

  • 103.
    Aminzadeh, Selda
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lauberts, M.
    Dobele, G.
    Ponomarenko, J.
    Mattsson, T.
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Membrane filtration of kraft lignin: Structural charactristics and antioxidant activity of the low-molecular-weight fraction2018Ingår i: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 112, s. 200-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, which is the second most abundant biomass component and has carbon-rich phenolic content, is a promising renewable raw material for multiple applications, such as carbon fibers, adhesives, and emulsifiers. To use lignin efficiently, it is important to ensure its purity and homogeneity. As a result, the separation of lignin into fractions with high purity and narrow molecular-weight distributions is likely a prerequisite for several applications. Ultrafiltration using ceramic membranes has many advantages, including enabling direct lignin extraction from Kraft pulp cooking liquors without pH and temperature adjustment. One challenge with membrane filtration using such a system is the potential for reduced membrane performance over time, which is associated with fouling. In this study, LignoBoost Kraft lignin was fractionated using a ceramic membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa. The separation behavior during ultrafiltration fractionation was investigated and the antioxidant properties of the recovered low-molecular-weight (low-MW) lignin samples were evaluated. Using this model system, the permeate fluxes were unstable during the 100 h of membrane operation. However, a decrease in the average MW in the permeate over time was observed. The shift in MW was most pronounced for virgin membranes, while a more stable MW distribution was evident for membranes subjected to multiple cleaning cycles. According to 2D NMR analysis, low-MW lignin that was recovered after 100 h of operation, consisted of smaller lignin fragments, such as dimers and oligomers, with a high content of methoxy-groups. This was confirmed using the size exclusion chromatography method, which indicated an weigh average molecular weight in the range of 450–500 Da. 31P NMR spectroscopy showed that, despite the lower total content of phenolic OH groups, the low-MW sample had a higher proportion of non-condensed phenolic OH groups. The results of the antioxidant tests demonstrated the strong potential of lignin and its low-MW fraction as a natural antioxidant, particularly for lipid-containing systems. The low-MW lignin fraction showed better antioxidant activity than the non-fractionated LignoBoost lignin in the kinetic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test and demonstrated three-fold stronger inhibition of the substrate (fluorescein) than the reference antioxidant Trolox (a water-soluble derivative of vitamin E).

  • 104.
    Aminzadeh, Selda
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mattsson, Tuve
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    On the crossflow membrane fractionation of lignoboost kraft lignin: Characterization of low molecular weight fractions2016Ingår i: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 251Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 105.
    Aminzadeh, Selda
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Zhang, Liming
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    A possible explanation for the structural inhomogeneity of lignin in LCC networks2017Ingår i: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 1365-1376Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin has a very complex structure, and this is partly due to the monomers being connected by many different types of covalent bonds. Furthermore, there are multiple covalent bonds between lignin and polysaccharides in wood, and it is known that the structure of lignin covalently bound to the hemicellulose xylan is different to lignin bound to the hemicellulose glucomannan. Here, synthetic lignin (DHP) is synthesized at different pH and it is shown that lignin made at lower pH has a structure more similar to the lignin bound to xylan, i.e., having higher relative content of beta-O-4 ethers. It is hypothesized that xylan due to its carboxylic acids forms a locally lower pH and thus "direct" the lignin structure to have more beta-O-4 ethers. The biological significance of these results is discussed.

  • 106. Andersson, J.
    et al.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Ageing of Flexographic Printed Model Cellulose Surfaces and Determination of the Mechanisms Behind Ageing2009Ingår i: Pulp & paper Canada, ISSN 0316-4004, Vol. 110, nr 6, s. 34-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of storage conditions on the ink detachment efficiency of water-based flexographic ink printed onto model cellulose surfaces and handsheets was investigated. It was shown that UV light, elevated temperatures, longer storage time, increasing surface roughness, and increasing surface hydrophobicity all had a negative effect on ink detachment. It was also shown that the ink's chemical and structural characteristics changed when stored at elevated temperatures. No chemical or structural changes could be observed for the ink when stored under UV light.

  • 107. Andersson, L.
    et al.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bergström, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Evaluating pore space in macroporous ceramics with water-based porosimetry2013Ingår i: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 96, nr 6, s. 1916-1922Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that water-based porosimetry (WBP), a facile, simple, and nondestructive porosimetry technique, accurately evaluates both the pore size distribution and throat size distribution of sacrificially templated macroporous alumina. The pore size distribution and throat size distribution derived from the WBP evaluation in uptake (imbibition) and release (drainage) mode, respectively, were corroborated by mercury porosimetry and X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT). In contrast with mercury porosimetry, the WBP also provided information on the presence of "dead-end pores" in the macroporous alumina.

  • 108.
    Andersson, Rasmus
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Benchmarking of a Novel Hydrocyclone Design for Pulp FractionationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 109.
    Andersson, Rasmus
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Evaluation of two hydrocyclone designs for pulp fractionation2010Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The process conditions and fractionation efficiency of two hydrocyclone designs, a novel and a conventional conical design, were evaluated. The novel design comprised a modified inlet section, where the pulp suspension had to pass a narrow ring-shaped opening, and a very compact fractionation zone. The influence of feed concentration and fine fraction mass ratio was studied. The trials were performed with never-dried, unrefined bleached chemical softwood pulp. Fractionation efficiency was evaluated in terms of change of surface roughness of handsheets made out of the fractions and the feed pulp respectively.

    The fractionation efficiency increased considerably with decreasing fine fraction mass ratio, especially at higher feed concentrations. This finding prompted a hypothesis on the existence of a radial gradient in the composition of the suspension inside the novel hydrocyclone. Using the novel hydrocyclone in a feed-forward fractionation system would therefore prove to be more favourable as a larger total fine fraction of better properties can be obtained. A three-stage feed-forward fractionation system was evaluated in laboratory scale. Here, it was indeed possible to extract fine fractions with improved surface properties in each of the three consecutive stages. All three fine fractions had about the same surface roughness.

    The fractionation performance of the novel design was benchmarked against that of a conventional, best available technology (BAT) design. In terms of fractionation efficiency, the BAT design performed better. However, the fractions produced with the novel hydrocyclone had a much smaller difference in concentration, implying a much less pronounced enrichment of fines in the fine fraction. It is unclear, to what extent the lower share of latewood fibres and the increased fines content, respectively, contributed to the improved surface roughness of the fine fractions. However, it is clear that the lower enrichment of fines in the novel hydrocyclone makes it easier to install it in industrial applications without a need for auxiliary equipment to redistribute large water flows.

     

  • 110.
    Andersson, Rasmus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Evaluation of a Multiple Feed-Forward Fractionation Approach Using a Novel Hydrocyclone DesignManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 111.
    Andersson, Rasmus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Evaluation of a novel hydrocyclone for pulp fractionationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 112.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Mallon, Peter E.
    Salajkova, Michaela
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Micromechanics of toughness improved electrospun PMMA fibers with embedded cellulose as tested under in-situ microscopyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 113.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Salajkova, Michaela
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mallon, P. E.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Micromechanical Tensile Testing of Cellulose-Reinforced Electrospun Fibers Using a Template Transfer Method (TTM)2012Ingår i: Journal of polymers and the environment, ISSN 1064-7546, E-ISSN 1572-8900, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 967-975Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A template transfer method (TTM) and a fiber fixation technique were established for fiber handling and micro tensile stage mounting of aligned and non-aligned electrospun fiber mats. The custom-made template had been precut to be mounted on a variety of collectors, including a rapidly rotating collector used to align the fibers. The method eliminated need for direct physical interaction with the fiber mats before or during the tensile testing since the fiber mats were never directly clamped or removed from the original substrate. By using the TTM it was possible to measure the tensile properties of aligned poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fiber mats, which showed a 250 % increase in strength and 450 % increase in modulus as compared to a non-aligned system. The method was further evaluated for aligned PMMA fibers reinforced with cellulose (4 wt%) prepared as enzymatically derived nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). These fibers showed an additional increase of 30 % in both tensile strength and modulus, resulting in a toughness increase of 25 %. The fracture interfaces of the PMMA-NFC fibers showed a low amount of NFC pull-outs, indicating favorable phase compatibility. The presented fiber handling technique is universal and may be applied where conservative estimates of mechanical properties need to be assessed for very thin fibers.

  • 114.
    Andersson, Richard
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Cabedo, L.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Ström, Valter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Teknisk materialfysik.
    Superparamagnetic [sic] nanofibers by electrospinning2016Ingår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, nr 26, s. 21413-21422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The preparation of superparamagnetic thin fibers by electrospinning dispersions of nanosized magnetite (Fe3O4, SPIO/USPIO) in a PMMA/PEO polymer solution is reported. The saturation magnetization and coercivity were not affected by the concentration (0, 1, 10, 20 wt%) or fiber orientation, showing hysteresis loops with high magnetization (64 A m(2) kg(-1) @ 500 kA m(-1)) and record low coercivity (20 A m(-1)). AC susceptibility measurements vs. temperature at frequencies from 60 to 2 kHz confirmed superparamagnetism. The mechanical properties were only slightly dependent on the particle concentration because the nanoparticles were separately encapsulated by the polymer. A uniform fibre fracture cross section was found at all the investigated particle contents, which suggests a strong interaction at the polymer/particle interface. A theoretical value of the magnetic low field susceptibility was calculated from the Langevin function and compared with measured values. The results show a distinct but concentration-independent anisotropy, favoring magnetization along the fiber orientation with no sign of exchange interaction, explained by complete nanoparticle separation. Superparamagnetism cannot be inferred from particle size alone, so a relevant interpretation and criterion for superparamagnetism is presented, in accordance with Neel's original definition. From the measurements, it can be concluded that magnetic characterization can be used to elucidate the material morphology beyond the resolution of available microscopy techniques (TEM and SEM).

  • 115.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Micromechanical, Antimicrobial and Filtration Properties of Electrospun Fiber Mats2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 116.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Structural properties and micromechanics of PMMA-based electrospun hybrid fibers2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 117.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Martinez-Abad, Antonio
    Lagaron, Jose M.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Mallon, Peter E.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Antibacterial Properties of Tough and Strong Electrospun PMMA/PEO Fiber Mats Filled with Lanasol-A Naturally Occurring Brominated Substance2014Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 15, nr 9, s. 15912-15923Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new type of antimicrobial, biocompatible and toughness enhanced ultra-thin fiber mats for biomedical applications is presented. The tough and porous fiber mats were obtained by electrospinning solution-blended poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO), filled with up to 25 wt % of Lanasol-a naturally occurring brominated cyclic compound that can be extracted from red sea algae. Antibacterial effectiveness was tested following the industrial Standard JIS L 1902 and under agitated medium (ASTM E2149). Even at the lowest concentrations of Lanasol, 4 wt %, a significant bactericidal effect was seen with a 4-log (99.99%) reduction in bacterial viability against S. aureus, which is one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections in the world. The mechanical fiber toughness was insignificantly altered up to the maximum Lanasol concentration tested, and was for all fiber mats orders of magnitudes higher than electrospun fibers based on solely PMMA. This antimicrobial fiber system, relying on a dissolved antimicrobial agent (demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and Infrared (IR)-spectroscopy) rather than a dispersed and "mixed-in" solid antibacterial particle phase, presents a new concept which opens the door to tougher, stronger and more ductile antimicrobial fibers.

  • 118.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Ström, Valter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Teknisk materialfysik.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Mallon, Peter E.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Micromechanics of ultra-toughened electrospun PMMA/PEO fibres as revealed by in-situ tensile testing in an electron microscope2014Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 4, s. 6335-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A missing cornerstone in the development of tough micro/nano fibre systems is an understanding of the fibre failure mechanisms, which stems from the limitation in observing the fracture of objects with dimensions one hundredth of the width of a hair strand. Tensile testing in the electron microscope is herein adopted to reveal the fracture behaviour of a novel type of toughened electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(ethylene oxide) fibre mats for biomedical applications. These fibres showed a toughness more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of pristine PMMA fibres. The in-situ microscopy revealed that the toughness were not only dependent on the initial molecular alignment after spinning, but also on the polymer formulation that could promote further molecular orientation during the formation of micro/nano-necking. The true fibre strength was greater than 150 MPa, which was considerably higher than that of the unmodified PMMA (17 MPa). This necking phenomenon was prohibited by high aspect ratio cellulose nanocrystal fillers in the ultra-tough fibres, leading to a decrease in toughness by more than one order of magnitude. The reported necking mechanism may have broad implications also within more traditional melt-spinning research.

  • 119. Andreasson, B.
    et al.
    Forsstrom, J.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Determination of fibre pore structure: influence of salt, pH and conventional wet strength resins2005Ingår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 253-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown, in the present investigation, that the two methods used to investigate the pore size distribution of unbleached chemical pulps, i.e. inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), give different average pore radius for the pores inside the fibre wall. This is due to the way in which these experiments are performed and the sensitivity of the methods to different types of pores in the cell wall. It was also shown that the two methods gave different results when changing the pH and the ionic strength of the pulp suspension. The pore radius, as detected with ISEC, decreased with both increasing ionic strength and decreasing pH, indicating a loose structure of the exterior of the fibrillar network. However, the pore radius as detected with NMR, was virtually unaffected when increasing the ionic strength, indicating a very rigid structure of the interior of the fibre wall. Decreasing pH though, lead to a decrease in pore radius indicating that upon protonation of the carboxylic groups in the fibre wall, the electrostatic repulsion is diminished and the average pore radius decreases. The NMR technique was also used to study wet strength aid penetration into the fibre wall. It was shown that wet strength aids with a small molecular weight, penetrated the fibre wall, as detected by a decrease in pore radius. It was also shown that addition of different wet strength aids increased the tensile index of the sheet and decreased the fibre strength, measured as zero span-strength of the sheets.

  • 120. Andreasson, B.
    et al.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    On the mechanisms behind the action of wet strength and wet strength agents2009Ingår i: Paper Products Physics and Technology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, s. 185-208Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 121.
    Andronova, Natalia
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Bioresorbable copolymers with tailored properies: innovative materials för soft tissuel engineering2006Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging need for new synthetic materials for soft tissue engineering applications encourages the search for innovative polymers having interesting properties. Ring-opening polymerization of lactones and lactides initiated by tin alkoxides has received particular attention due to the versatility of the method for building up well-defined biodegradable structures. The controlled reactions together with a careful choice of comonomers and copolymer composition make it possible to create materials with desired molecular architecture and properties.The aim of the work described in this thesis was to design aliphatic bioresorbable copolymers with new structures and controlled properties for potential application in soft tissue engineering. The first part of the work was focused on the surface properties of the materials synthesized for biomedical application. Solution-cast film triblock copolymers of L-lactide (LLA) and 1,5-dioxepan-2-one (DXO), subjected to thermal treatment have been studied. The effects of molecular weight, polymer composition, cooling rate, and casting solution concentration on the nanostructure surface morphology and topography have been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface characterization of the annealed triblock copolymers revealed well-defined fiber features formed as a result of a melt-induced micro-phase separation during crystallization. The dimensions and shape of the formations could be related to the copolymer composition and annealing conditions, and this makes it possible to create controlled and well-defined surface structure. The results of cell adhesion studies on annealed triblock copolymers indicate that these materials favor fibroblast growth and spreading, which makes them promising candidates for applications as bioresorbable membranes.In the next stage of the work, linear and network copolymers of ε-caprolactone (CL) and DXO with a controlled composition and controlled hydrophilicity have been synthesized. The molar fraction of DXO in the copolymers affected their mechanical, thermal and surface properties. The hydrophilicity was tailored by changing the monomer composition in the copolymers. The AFM measurements on the linear copolymers showed that short fibrillar structures were formed upon crystallization from the melt. The supple CL-DXO networks were easy to cast and could easily be removed from the mould surface, so that it is possible to use this material for embossing procedures without the risk of damaging the surface pattern during removal from the mould.

  • 122.
    Andronova, Natalia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Resilient bioresorbable copolymers based on trimethylene carbonate, L-lactide, and 1,5-dioxepan-2-one2006Ingår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 1489-1495Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The new combinations of monomers presented in this work were evaluated in order to create an elastic material for potential application in soft tissue engineering. Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) with L-lactide (LLA) and 1,5-dioxepan-2-one (DXO) have been synthesized using a cyclic five-membered tin alkoxide initiator. The block copolymers were designed in such a way that poly(trimethylene carbonate-co1,5-dioxepan-2-one) formed an amorphous middle block and the poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) formed semicrystalline terminal blocks. The amorphous middle block consisted of relatively randomly distributed TMC and DXO monomer units, and the defined block structure of the PLLA terminal segments was confirmed by C-13 NMR. The properties of the TMC-DXO-LLA copolymers were compared with those of triblock copolymers based either on LLA-TMC or on LLA-DXO. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis data confirmed the micro-phase separation in the copolymers. The mechanical properties of the copolymers were evaluated using tensile testing and cycling loading. All of the copolymers synthesized showed a highly elastic behavior. The properties of copolymers could be tailored by altering the proportions of the different monomers.

  • 123.
    Andronova, Natalia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Srivastava, Rajiv
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Potential tissue implants from the networks based on 1,5-dioxepan-2-one and epsilon-caprolactone2005Ingår i: Polymer journal, ISSN 0032-3896, E-ISSN 1349-0540, Vol. 46, nr 18, s. 6746-6755Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis and characterization of degradable polymeric networks for biomedical applications was performed. Cross-linked films of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(1,5-dioxepan-2-one) (PDXO) having various mole fractions of monomers and different cross-link densities were successfully prepared using 2,2'-bis-(epsilon-caprolactone-4-yl) propane (BCP) as cross-linking agent. Reaction parameters were carefully examined to optimise, the film-formin.,, conditions. Networks obtained were elastomeric materials. easy to cast and remove from the mould. Effect of CL content and cross-link density on the final properties of the polymer network was evaluated. High CL content or degree of cross-linking led to increase in Young's modulus and decrease in elongation at break. An increase in crystalline domains in films having a higher CL content was observed by optical microscopy. A greater thermal stability was observed in films having a high CL content. The hydrophilicity of the materials could be tailored by changing the CL content. The surface of the films became rougher with higher CL content.

  • 124.
    Andrén, Oliver
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Exploring bis-MPA Based Dendritic Structures in Biomedicine2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har stora framsteg skett inom polymerkemin. Ny kopplingskemi och polymerisationstekniker har givit forskare möjligheten att ta fram mer kontrollerade polymera strukturer. Ett resultat ur polymerkemins framfart är linjär dendritiska (LD) hybrider som tar fördel av både materialegenskaper från linjära polymerer såväl som dendritiska. Deras struktur och egenskaper är lovande för framtida användningar inom medicinska och biomedicinska applikationer. Den här avhandlingen granskar användningen av LD-hybrider i ett flertal biomedicinska applikationer. Linjär poly(etylenglykol) används som linjär del och den dendritiska strukturen baseras på 2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic (bis-MPA).

    Inledningsvis så utvärderas osymmetriska LD-hybrider, modifierade för att vara amfifila, som bärare inom drogleverans av cancer droger. Genom ”self–assembly” orsakad av deras amfifila karaktär så bildades nanobärare (NB) med hydrofob insida och hydrofilt yttre skal. NB fanns öka effekten av konventionell kemoterapeutiska droger genom att omlokalisera drogerna från bara cellkärnan till andra organeller, bland annat mitokondrien. NB kunde bära en kombination av cellgifter och kringgå resistansmekanismen av resistenta cancerceller.

    Dendrimerer som innehåller en intern disulfidbrygga togs farm. Deras natur möjliggjorde selektiv fragmentering under reduktiva förhållanden. Fragmenten består av lågmolekylare tiol funktionella molekyler med potentiell användning inom ytbehandling. Fragmenten kunde störa cellers balans mellan tiol och disulfide vilket resulterar i reaktiva syreföreningar (RSF). Dendrimererna kunde brytas ner under biologiska förhållanden och skapade ROF i cancerceller.

    Tiolfunktionella polymerer framtogs däribland linjära polymerer, dendrimerer och LD-hybrider. LD-hybriderna användes för konstruktion av hydrogeler genom två olika typer av tvärbindnings kemi. Deras modul kunde varieras genom att variera dendristisk generation och tvärbindningskemi.

    Aminfunktionella LD-hybrider framtogs genom användning av aminosyran alanin. Strukturerna användes för att utveckla en ny metod av profylax, en antibakteriell spraybar gel, som ska hindra infektioner associerade med kirurgiska ingrepp. Strukturerna hade bredspektrums effekt , även mot resistenta bakterier. Genom N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester baserade tvärbindare kunde geler med modul motsvarande från fett upp till broskvävnad skapas under biologiska förhållanden. Gelerna visade god effekt både in vitro och in vivo.

    Slutligen, skapades hyperförgrenade LD-hybrider mellan PEG och bis-MPA som ett mer industriellt applicerbart alternativ. Genom enkel kemi med sekventiella additioner av bis-MPA monomer kunde ett span av LD-Hybrider skapas med egenskaper liknande de perfekt dendritiska motparterna.

  • 125.
    Andrén, Oliver C. J.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Fernandes, Aristi P.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Heterogeneous Rupturing Dendrimers2017Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilizing macromolecular scaffolds as templates for the production of small molecules that are distinctively different from the original monomer feedstock has many potential applications. Herein, as a proof-of-concept, a family of dendrimers displaying internally queued disulfide bridges were synthesized and exploited as flawless macromolecular templates that selectively rupture into a set of monomeric mercaptans. Disassembly was accomplished in a reducing environment, using DTT as an external stimulus, and the thiol constituents were successfully isolated. Their composition was dictated by three dendritic regions, i.e., (i) the symmetrical trithiol of the core (C3), (ii) the interior-asymmetric trithiols (CD2), and (iii) the periphery-asymmetric monothiols (DB2), in which B functionality is of an orthogonal nature. Taking into account the steady state between disulfides and thiols in all living cells, the collapse of the dendrimers to a multitude of smaller thiols was intracellularly assessed as a means to disrupt the balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) often elevated in cancer cells. Indeed, the fragmentation induced a significant increase of ROS in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. These findings can potentially alter the perception of dendrimers being limited to carriers to being prodrugs for intracellular delivery of ROS with the potential to fight cancer.

  • 126.
    Andrén, Oliver C. J.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Walter, Marie V.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Yang, Ting
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Multifunctional Poly(ethylene glycol): Synthesis, Characterization, and Potential Applications of Dendritic-Linear-Dendritic Block Copolymer Hybrids2013Ingår i: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 46, nr 10, s. 3726-3736Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging dendritic-linear-dendritic (DLD) hybrids that possess synergetic properties of linear and highly functional branched dendritic polymers are becoming important macromolecular scaffolds in fields ranging from biomedicine to nanotechnology. By exploiting pseudo-one-step polycondensation reactions, a facile and scalable synthetic methodology for the construction of highly functional DLDs has been developed. A library of three sets of DLDs exhibiting a hydrophilic linear PEG core with covalently attached hyperbranched bis-MPA blocks was synthesized up to the seventh generation with 256 reactive peripheral hydroxyl groups. The degree of branching for the hybrids was found between 0.40 and 0.59 with dispersities ranging from 1.03 to 1.88. The introduction of hyperbranched components resulted in control over or even full disruption of the crystallinity of the PEG. Postfunctionalizations of the peripheral hydroxyl groups with azides, allyls, and ATRP initiators yielded reactive intermediates. These intermediates were successfully assessed through UV-initiated thiol-ene coupling reactions for the synthesis of charged hybrids. ATRP of styrene from the pheriphery afforded amphiphilic macromolecules. Finally, their scaffolding capacity was evaluated for the fabrication of 3D networks, i.e, novel dendritic hydrogels and highly ordered breath figures.

  • 127.
    Andrén, Oliver C. J.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Lundberg, Pontus
    Hawker, Craig J.
    Nyström, Andreas M.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Therapeutic Nanocarriers via Cholesterol Directed Self-Assembly of Well-Defined Linear-Dendritic Polymeric Amphiphiles2017Ingår i: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 29, nr 9, s. 3891-3898Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel platform of fluorescently labeled nanocarriers (NCs) is herein proposed based on amphiphilic linear-dendritic polymeric hybrids. These sophisticated polymers were synthesized with a high degree of structural control at a macro-molecular level, displayed hydrophobic cholesterol compartments as chain-terminus groups of the dendritic block and hydrophilic bifunctional linear poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) block. Spherical supramolecular assemblies with therapeutically relevant properties were successfully achieved including (i) sizes in the region of 100 to 200 nm; (ii) narrow dispersity profile with values close to 0.12; and (iii) self-assembly down to nanomolar concentrations. The modular nature of the NCs permitted the encapsulation of single or dual anticancer drugs and in parallel provide intracellular fluorescent traceability. As polymer therapeutics, the NCs were proven to penetrate the cancerous cell membranes and deliver the cargo of drugs into the nuclei as well as the cytoplasm and mitochondria. The dual drug delivery of both doxorubicin (DOX) and triptolide substantially enhanced the therapeutic efficacy with a 63% significant increase against resistant breast cancer cells when compared to free DOX.

  • 128.
    Andrén, Oliver
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Hult, Daniel
    Håkansson, Joakim
    Caous, Josefin
    Zhang, Yuning
    Anderson, Therese
    Pedersen, Emma
    Björn, Camilla
    Löwenhielm, Peter
    Malkoch, Michael
    Linear-Dendritic Polyesters as Antimicrobial HydrogelsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 129.
    Andrén, Oliver
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Facile thiolation of hydroxyl functional polymers2017Ingår i: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 8, nr 34, s. 4996-5001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfur is an important component in many biological systems. In the hands of an organic chemist it can provide an ample handle for a myriad of robust reactions including thiol-ene click chemistry. However, in polymer chemistry the thiol functionality is rarely attributed to the macromolecule due to unatainable synthetic protocols. Herein, we provide a simple and robust strategy to produce thiol-functional polymers. The chemistry capitalizes on an unsymmetrical disulfide that straightforwardly converts hydroxyl functional polymers to their thiolated counterpart. Finally, PEG hydrogels, using both thiol-ene and Michael addition, is used to showcase the possibilities presented by thiol functional polymers.

  • 130.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Polyelectrolyte complexes: Preparation, characterization, and use for control of wet and dry adhesion between surfaces2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling behandlar tillverkning av polyelektrolytkomplex (PEC), deras adsorption och potentiella användning för att öka adhesionen mellan ytor i vått och torrt.

    PEC bildades med hjälp av jetmixningsmetoden, en metod som inte tidigare använts för PEC‑tillverkning. Resultaten av tillverkningen jämfördes med resultat för PEC bildade genom den tidigare ofta använda polyelektrolyt­titrerings­metoden. Jämförelsen visade att med jetmixningsmetoden kunde storleken på de bildade PECen styras med hjälp av blandningstiden, något som inte var möjligt med polyelektrolyttitreringsmetoden. Utifrån resultaten föreslås en två-stegsmekanism för PEC-bildandet.

    Adsorptionsexperiment med två typer av PEC, båda tillverkade av PAA och PAH fast med olika molekylvikter, visade att för högmolekylära PEC skedde en ytinducerad aggregation, medan adsorptionen stannade på en låg nivå för de lågmolekylära PECen. De senare PECen antogs bestå av två olika fraktioner, av vilka en fraktion med lägre polymerdensitet föreslogs ha en ytblockerande effekt, och därigenom hindrades vidare adsorption.

    Det visades också att partikel-PEC (PPEC), där ena polymerkomponenten bytts ut mot anjoniska nanopartiklar av kiseloxid, kunde tillverkas. Syftet var att skapa strukturer som kan åstadkomma ett brottmönster med uttrassling mellan ytor. Med hjälp av kolloidalprobs-AFM (atomkraftsmikroskopi) kunde det önskade uttrasslingsbeteendet påvisas, men fogstyrkan var låg. Adhesionsexperiment med polymer-polymer-PEC visade på högre styrkor än PPECen, men också stor spridning i data, troligen på grund av inhomogenitet i ytornas struktur.

    Experiment där lågmolekylära PEC använts som styrkekemikalie för papper visade att tillsats av PEC kan öka pappersstyrkan. Jämförelse med resultat för poly­elektrolytmultilager (PEM) av samma komponenter visade att eftersom högre adsorptionsnivåer kan uppnås med PEM så kan större styrkeökningar erhållas med PEM. Däremot visades att den högsta styrkeökningen per adsorberad mängd polymer erhölls med PEC-behandlingen.

  • 131.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Polyelectrolyte complexes: their preparation, adsorption behaviour and effect on paper properties2008Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) has been studied using a jet mixing method not previously used for mixing polyelectrolytes. The PECs were formed from two weak polyelectrolytes, i.e., polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH), with different mixing times, and the results were compared with those for PECs formed using the conventional polyelectrolyte titration method.

     

    The adsorption behaviour of the formed PECs on silicon oxide substrates and pulp fibres was analysed, and the results were compared with those for polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) prepared from the same two polyelectrolytes.

     

    The results indicated that by using the jet mixer, the size of the formed PECs could be controlled, which was not the case with the polyelectrolyte titration method. The PECs produced by jet mixing were also found to be smaller than those produced by polyelectrolyte titration. From these results, a two-step mechanism for the formation of PECs was suggested: initial precomplex formation, which is a fast and diffusion-controlled process, followed by a reconformation process, during which the vigorous mixing in the jet mixer can partially limit secondary aggregation.

     

    When the complexes were adsorbed to silicon oxide or pulp fibre surfaces, adsorption studies indicated that it was impossible to reach the same adsorption levels for PECs as for PEMs. This was explained in terms of free energy, entropical, reasons rather than to any geometric limitation of the surface. Despite the smaller amount of polyelectrolyte adsorbed from the PEC treatment than from the PEM treatment of pulp fibres, the PEC treatment had the greatest effect on paper strength per adsorbed amount of polymer. This was thought to be because the three-dimensional structure of the PECs, versus the smoother structure of PEMs, allows for the formation of multiple contact points between the macroscopically rough fibres and increased molecular contact area.

     

    In the adsorption experiments, it was also found that net cationic complexes can adsorb to both anionic and cationic substrates. This phenomenon was explained by the occurrence of anionic patches on the surface of the net cationic PECs and the ability of the PECs, formed from weak polyelectrolytes, to partially change charge upon exposure to a surface of the same charge as the complex itself, due to a change of the degree of dissociation of the polyelectrolytes constituting the complex.

  • 132.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Johansson, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Lars, Wågberg
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Use of PECs and PEMs from polymers and nanoparticles to create sacrificial bonds between surfacesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 133.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Johansson, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Use of polyelectrolyte complexes and multilayers from polymers and nanoparticles to create sacrificial bonds between surfaces2013Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 391, s. 28-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, particle polyelectrolyte complexes (PPECs) were formed by mixing cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and silica nanoparticles using the jet mixing technique. Within certain limits, the size of the formed PPECs could be controlled. The aim was to prepare PPECs with embedded sacrificial bonds, similar to those found in bones. Examination of PPEC adsorption to silica model surfaces indicated that,smaller PPECs adsorbed to a higher level than larger ones, due to the higher diffusion speed of smaller complexes. Adsorption studies of the same components as in the PPECs, but arranged in multilayers, that is, particle polyelectrolyte multilayers (PPEMs), indicated a stable, gradual build-up of material on the surface with smaller nanoparticles, whereas PPEMs comprising elongated nanoparticles appeared to be more loosely adsorbed onto the surface when the nanoparticles were in the outer layer, due to repulsive forces within the adsorbed layer. The AFM colloidal probe technique was used to study the interaction between surfaces treated with PPECs, multilayers, or polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs). The results showed that the expected long-range disentanglement could be achieved with PPECs but that the pull-off forces were generally low. Treatment with PPEMs comprising the same polymer and nanoparticle components produced higher pull-off values, together with disentanglement behaviour, possibly due to better contact between the surfaces. Adhesion experiments with polymer PECs showed significantly higher pull-off values than with the PPECs, probably due to polymer interdiffusion across the surface boundary.

  • 134.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Lingström, Rikard
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Ödberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    A comparison of polyelectrolyte complexes and multilayers: Their adsorption behaviour and use for enhancing tensile strength of paper2009Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 77-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the adsorption behaviour and paper-strength-enhancing properties of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) and polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) of polyallylamine hydrochloride and polyacrylic acid. Model adsorption experiments using SPAR (stagnation point adsorption reflectometry) and QCM-D (quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation) showed that the amount of complexes adsorbed was lower than the amount adsorbed when forming a multilayer using the same polymer system. From these experiments, in combination with AFM and ESEM imaging, it was concluded that the PEC adsorption stopped before full surface coverage was reached. Tensile testing of handsheets treated with PECs and PEM showed a significant increase in both tensile index and strain-at-break using both systems. The largest strength improvement was achieved with the fibres treated with the largest number of PEMs, but the largest effect per adsorbed amount of polymer was achieved by PEC treatment.

  • 135.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Ondaral, Sedat
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Ödberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Applying jet mixing to the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes: complex properties and their interaction with silicon oxide surfacesManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 136.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Ondaral, Sedat
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Ödberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Using jet mixing to prepare polyelectrolyte complexes: Complex properties and their interaction with silicon oxide surfaces2010Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 351, nr 1, s. 88-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of mixing procedure on the properties of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) was investigated using two complexation techniques, polyelectrolyte titration and jet mixing, the latter being a new method for PEC preparation. For the low-molecular-weight polyelectrolytes polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyallyl amine hydrochloride (PAH), shorter mixing times produced smaller PECs, whereas for higher molecular weights of the same polyelectrolytes, PEC size first decreased with decreasing mixing time to a certain level, after which it started increasing again. This pattern was likely due to the diffusion-controlled formation of "pre-complexes", which, in the case of low-molecular-weight polymers, occurs sufficiently quickly to form stable complexes; when polyelectrolytes are larger, however, non-equilibrium pre-complexes, more prone to aggregation, are formed. Comparing the techniques revealed that jet mixing produced smaller complexes, allowing PEC size to be controlled by mixing time, which was not the case with polyelectrolyte titration. Higher polyelectrolyte concentration during jet mixing led to the formation of larger PECs. It was also demonstrated that PEC size could be changed after preparation: increasing the pH of the PEC dispersion led to an irreversible increase in PEC size, whereas lowering the pH did not influence PEC size. The adsorption behavior of PECs formed from weak polyelectrolytes on model substrates was studied using QCM-D, SPAR, and AFM imaging; the results indicated that increasing the pH increased the amount of PECs adsorbed to model surfaces. However, the amount of PECs adsorbed to the model surfaces was low compared with other systems in all studied cases.

  • 137.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    AFM adhesion imaging for comparison of polyelectrolyte complexes and polyelectrolyte multilayers2012Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 138.
    Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    AFM adhesion imaging for the comparison of polyelectrolyte complexes and polyelectrolyte multilayers2012Ingår i: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 8, nr 32, s. 8298-8301Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The adhesion and topography of dry surfaces treated with polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) and multilayers (PEMs) of PAH/PAA or CPAM/silica nanoparticles were studied using AFM adhesion mapping. PEMs gave higher adhesion than did PECs for the PAH/PAA system, but adhesion did not differ significantly between PEMs and PECs for the CPAM/silica system. The latter system displayed multiple release patterns, interpreted as disentanglements and tentatively ascribed to nanoparticle presence. AFM adhesion mapping is valuable for analysing PEC and PEM. The measurements should, however, be combined with separate force measurements for a more complete picture of the adhesion.

  • 139. Ankerfors, Caroline
    et al.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Polyelectrolyte Complexes for Tailoring of Wood Fibre Surfaces2014Ingår i: Polyelectrolyte Complexes In The Dispersed And Solid State II: Application Aspects, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, s. 1-24Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) provides new opportunities for surface engineering of solid particles in aqueous environments to functionalize the solids either for use in interactive products or to tailor their adhesive interactions in the dry and/or wet state. This chapter describes the use of PECs in paper-making applications where the PECs are used for tailoring the surfaces of wood-based fibres. Initially a detailed description of the adsorption process is given, in more general terms, and in this respect both in situ formed and pre-formed complexes are considered. When using in situ formed complexes, which were intentionally formed by the addition of oppositely charged polymers, it was established that the order of addition of the two polyelectrolytes was important, and by adding the polycation first a more extensive fibre flocculation was found. PECs can also form in situ by the interaction between polyelectrolytes added and polyelectrolytes already present in the fibre suspension originating from the wood material, e. g. lignosulphonates or hemicelluloses. In this respect the complexation can be detrimental for process efficiency and/or product quality depending on the charge balance between the components, and when using the PECs for fibre engineering it is not recommended to rely on in situ PEC formation. Instead the PECs should be pre-formed before addition to the fibres. The use of pre-formed PECs in the paper-making process is described as three sub-processes: PEC formation, adsorption onto surfaces, and the effect on the adhesion between surfaces. The addition of PECs, and adsorption to the fibres, prior to formation of the paper network structure has shown to result in a significant increase in joint strength between the fibres and to an increased strength of the paper made from the fibres. The increased joint strength between the fibres is due to both an increased molecular contact area between the fibres and an increased molecular adhesion. The increased paper strength is also a result of an increased number of fibre/fibre contacts/unit volume of the paper network.

  • 140.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Microfibrillated cellulose: Energy-efficient preparation techniques and applications in paper2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes three alternative processes for producing microfibrillated cellulose (MFC; also referred to as cellulose nanofibrils, CNF) in which bleached pulp fibres are first pretreated and then homogenized using a high-pressure homogenizer. In one process, fibre cell wall delamination was facilitated by a combined enzymatic and mechanical pretreatment. In the two other processes, cell wall delamination was facilitated by pretreatments that introduced anionically charged groups into the fibre wall, by means of either a carboxymethylation reaction or irreversibly attaching carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to the fibres. All three processes are industrially feasible and enable energy-efficient production of MFC. Using these processes, MFC can be produced with an energy consumption of 500–2300 kWh/tonne. These materials have been characterized in various ways and it has been demonstrated that the produced MFCs are approximately 5–30 nm wide and up to several microns long.

    The MFCs were also evaluated in a number of applications in paper. The carboxymethylated MFC was used to prepare strong free-standing barrier films and to coat wood-containing papers to improve the surface strength and reduce the linting propensity of the papers. MFC, produced with an enzymatic pretreatment, was also produced at pilot scale and was studied in a pilot-scale paper making trial as a strength agent added at the wet-end for highly filled papers.

  • 141.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Microfibrillated cellulose: Energy-efficient preparation techniques and key properties2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes three alternative processes for producing microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in which pulp fibres are first pre-treated and then homogenized using a high-pressure homogenizer. In one process, fibre cell wall delamination was facilitated with a combined enzymatic and mechanical pre-treatment. In the two other processes, cell wall delamination was facilitated by pre-treatments that introduced anionically charged groups into the fibre wall, by means of either a carboxymethylation reaction or irreversibly attaching carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) onto the fibres. All three processes are industrially feasible and enable production with low energy consumption. Using these methods, MFC can be produced with an energy consumption of 500–2300 kWh/tonne, which corresponds to a 91–98% reduction in energy consumption from that presented in earlier studies. These materials have been characterized in various ways and it has been demonstrated that the produced MFCs are approximately 5–30 nm wide and up to several microns long.

  • 142.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Lindström, Tom
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Method for providing a nanocellulose involving modifying cellulose fibers2009Patent (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention provides a method for the manufacturing of nanocellulose. The method includes a first modification of the cellulose material, where the cellulose fibres are treated with an aqueous electrolyte-containing solution of an amphoteric cellulose derivative. The modification is followed by a mechanical treatment. By using this method for manufacturing nanocellulose, clogging of the mechanical apparatus is avoided. Also disclosed is nanocellulose manufactured in accordance with said method and uses of said cellulose.

  • 143.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Tensile Properties of Wood Cellulose Nanopaper and Nanocomposite Films2016Ingår i: Multifunctional Polymeric Nanocomposites Based on Cellulosic Reinforcements, Elsevier Inc. , 2016, s. 115-130Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The nanocellulose fibril is the major load-bearing component in the wood cell wall. It is readily disintegrated from wood pulp, and of great interest as a component in new materials. It can be used to form 100% cellulose nanofiber (CNF) nanopaper films or polymer matrix nanocomposite films of high cellulose content, where the CNF network controls most physical properties. Here, the uniaxial tensile properties of CNF nanopaper and composite films are discussed, together with the deformation mechanisms. The CNF network and most types of nanocomposite films are prepared by a scalable filtration process akin to paper-making. The effects of intrinsic CNF properties, degree of CNF dispersion, CNF-CNF adhesion, CNF-polymer matrix interaction, CNF orientation, and humidity are also discussed.

  • 144.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Toward Semistructural Cellulose Nanocomposites: The Need for Scalable Processing and Interface Tailoring2018Ingår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 19, nr 7, s. 2341-2350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanocomposites can be considered for semistructural load-bearing applications where modulus and strength requirements exceed 10 GPa and 100 MPa, respectively. Such properties are higher than for most neat polymers but typical for molded short glass fiber composites. The research challenge for polymer matrix biocomposites is to develop processing concepts that allow high cellulose nanofibril (CNF) content, nanostructural control in the form of well-dispersed CNF, the use of suitable polymer matrices, as well as molecular scale interface tailoring to address moisture effects. From a practical point of view, the processing concept needs to be scalable so that large-scale industrial processing is feasible. The vast majority of cellulose nanocomposite studies elaborate on materials with low nanocellulose content. An important reason is the challenge to prevent CNF agglomeration at high CNF content. Research activities are therefore needed on concepts with the potential for rapid processing with controlled nanostructure, including well-dispersed fibrils at high CNF content so that favorable properties are obtained. This perspective discusses processing strategies, agglomeration problems, opportunities, and effects from interface tailoring. Specifically, preformed CNF mats can be used to design nanostructured biocomposites with high CNF content. Because very few composite materials combine functional and structural properties, CNF materials are an exception in this sense. The suggested processing concept could include functional components (inorganic clays, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, among others). In functional three-phase systems, CNF networks are combined with functional components (nanoparticles or fibril coatings) together with a ductile polymer matrix. Such materials can have functional properties (optical, magnetic, electric, etc.) in combination with mechanical performance, and the comparably low cost of nanocellulose may facilitate the use of large nanocomposite structures in industrial applications.

  • 145.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Erik, Lindh
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Mats, Johansson
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Lars, Berglund
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Interface tailoring through covalent hydroxyl-epoxy bonds improves  hygromechanical stability in nanocellulose materialsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide-spread use of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) biocomposites and nanomaterials is limited by CNF moisture sensitivity due to surface hydration. We report on a versatile and scalable interface tailoring route for CNF to address this, based on technically important epoxide chemistry. Bulk impregnation of epoxide-amine containing liquids is used to show that CNF hydroxyls can react with epoxides at high rates and high degree of conversion to form covalent bonds. Reactions take place inside nanostructured CNF networks under benign conditions, and are verified by solid state NMR. Epoxide modified CNF nanopaper shows significantly improved mechanical properties under moist and wet conditions. High resolution microscopy is used in fractography studies to relate the property differences to structural change. The cellulose-epoxide interface tailoring concept is versatile in that the functionality of molecules with epoxide end-groups can be varied over a wide range. Furthermore, epoxide reactions with nanocellulose can be readily implemented for processing of moisture-stable, tailored interface biocomposites in the form of coatings, adhesives and molded composites.

  • 146.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer.
    Galland, Sylvain
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer.
    Cellulose nanofiber network of high specific surface area provides altered curing reacion and moisture stability in ductile epoxy biocompositesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 147.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Galland, Sylvain
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Plummer, Christopher J. G.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cellulose nanofiber network for moisture stable, strong and ductile biocomposites and increased epoxy curing rate2014Ingår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 63, s. 35-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposites with high volume fractions (15-50 vol%) of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) were prepared by impregnation of a wet porous NFC network with acetone/epoxy/amine solution. Infrared spectroscopy studies revealed a significant increase in curing rate of epoxy (EP) in the presence of NFC. The NFC provided extremely efficient reinforcement (at 15 vol%: 3-fold increase in stiffness and strength to 5.9 GPa and 109 MPa, respectively), and ductility was preserved. Besides, the glass transition temperature increased with increasing NFC content (from 68 degrees C in neat epoxy to 86 degrees C in 50 vol% composite). Most interestingly, the moisture sorption values were low and even comparable to neat epoxy for the 15 vol% NFC/EP. This material did not change mechanical properties at increased relative humidity (90% RH). Thus, NFC/EP provides a unique combination of high strength, modulus, ductility, and moisture stability for a cellulose-based biocomposite. Effects from nanostructural and interfacial tailoring are discussed.

  • 148.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Galland, Sylvain
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Skrivfars, Mikael
    Plummer, Christopher
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Biocomposites of nanofibrillated cellulose with thermoset resins2014Ingår i: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 247, s. 41-CELL-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 149.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Biokompositer.
    Granda, L. A.
    Joffe, R.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Vilaseca, Fabiola
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Experimental evaluation of anisotropy in injection molded polypropylene/wood fiber biocomposites2017Ingår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 96, s. 147-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the anisotropy of wood fibers is reasonably well established, the anisotropy of injection molded wood fiber composites is not well understood. This work focuses on chemo-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. A kinetic mixer (Gelimat) is used for compounding CTMP/PP composites, followed by injection molding. Effects from processing induced orientation on mechanical properties are investigated. For this purpose, a film gate mold was designed to inject composites in the shape of plates so that specimens in different directions to the flow could be evaluated. Observations from tensile tests were complemented by performing flexural tests (in different directions) on discs cut from the injected plates. SEM was used to qualitatively observe the fiber orientation in the composites. At high fiber content, both modulus and tensile strength could differ by as much as 40% along the flow and transverse to the flow. The fiber orientation was strongly increased at the highest fiber content, as concluded from theoretical analysis.

  • 150.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Biokompositer.
    Lindh, Erik L.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Johansson, Mats K.G.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Interface tailoring through covalent hydroxyl-epoxy bonds improves hygromechanical stability in nanocellulose materials2016Ingår i: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 134, s. 175-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide-spread use of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) biocomposites and nanomaterials is limited by CNF moisture sensitivity due to surface hydration. We report on a versatile and scalable interface tailoring route for CNF to address this, based on technically important epoxide chemistry. Bulk impregnation of epoxide-amine containing liquids is used to show that CNF hydroxyls can react with epoxides at high rates and high degree of conversion to form covalent bonds. Reactions take place inside nanostructured CNF networks under benign conditions, and are verified by solid state NMR. Epoxide modified CNF nanopaper shows significantly improved mechanical properties under moist and wet conditions. High resolution microscopy is used in fractography studies to relate the property differences to structural change. The cellulose-epoxide interface tailoring concept is versatile in that the functionality of molecules with epoxide end-groups can be varied over a wide range. Furthermore, epoxide reactions with nanocellulose can be readily implemented for processing of moisture-stable, tailored interface biocomposites in the form of coatings, adhesives and molded composites.

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