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  • 101.
    Enarsson, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Polyelectrolyte Adsorption on Thin Cellulose Films Studied with Reflectometry and Quartz Crystal Microgravimetry with Dissipation2009Ingår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 134-141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin cellulose films were prepared by dissolving carboxymethylated cellulose fibers in N-methyl morpholine oxide and forming thin films on silicon wafers by spin-coating. The adsorption of cationic polyacrylamides and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride onto these films was studied by stagnation point adsorption reflectometry (SPAR) and by quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation (QCM-D). The polyelectrolyte adsorption was studied by SPAR as a function of salt concentration, and it was found that the adsorption maximum was located at 1 mM NaCl for polyelectrolytes of low charge density and at 10 mM NaCl for polyelectrolytes of high charge density. Electrostatic screening led to complete elimination of the polyelectrolyte adsorption at salt concentrations of 300 mM NaCl. According to the QCM-D analysis, the cellulose films showed a pronounced swelling in water that took several hours to complete. Subsequent adsorption of polyelectrolytes onto the cellulose films led to a release of water from the cellulose, an effect that was substantial for polyelectrolytes of high charge density at low salt concentrations. The total mass change including water could therefore show either an increase or a decrease during adsorption onto the cellulose films, depending on the experimental conditions.

  • 102.
    Enarsson, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Carlén, Joakim
    Eka Chemicals AB.
    Ottosson, Niklas
    VTC Elastoteknik AB.
    Tailoring the chemistry of polyelectrolytes to control their adsorption on cellulosic surfaces2009Ingår i: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 340, nr 1-3, s. 135-142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of two types of cationic polyacrylamides in the presence of a background electrolyte was studied on substrates including silicon oxide, kraft pulp fibres and thin films of regenerated cellulose. One of the polyelectrolytes was a conventional cationic polyacrylamide (MeCPAM) and the other was a benzyl-containing derivative of cationic polyacrylamide (BzCPAM). It was found that the aromatic substituents of BzCPAM strongly enhanced the adsorption on substrates of hydrophobically modified silicon oxide when a background electrolyte was present. A similar effect was also seen in the case of BzCPAM adsorption on unbleached pulp fibres, but in this case MeCPAM also exhibited a strong adsorption at high background electrolyte concentrations. On bleached pulp fibres, BzCPAM maintained a high adsorption up to a concentration of 100 mM NaCl whereas MeCPAM adsorption showed a significant decrease at this salt concentration. On model cellulose films, the adsorption of BzCPAM was similar to that of MeCPAM and the non-ionic interactions with cellulose appeared weak, since there was no adsorption of either polyelectrolyte in 300 mM NaCl.

  • 103.
    Engström, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    D'Agosto, Franck
    UCBL, CPE Lyon, CPE, C2P2,CNRS, Bat 308F, Villeurbanne, France..
    Lansalot, Muriel
    UCBL, CPE Lyon, CPE, C2P2,CNRS, Bat 308F, Villeurbanne, France..
    Carlmark, Anna
    RISE, Nanocellulose, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Tailored cationic PISA-latexes for strong adhesion to anionic surfaces: Importance of purity and chain-extension as shown by adsorption2019Ingår i: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 257Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 104.
    Engström, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    D'Agosto, Franck
    Université de Lyon, Univ Lyon 1, CPE Lyon, CNRS UMR 5265, C2P2 (Chemistry, Catalysis, Polymers & Processes), LCPP, 69616 Villeurbanne, France .
    Lansalot, Muriel
    Université de Lyon, Univ Lyon 1, CPE Lyon, CNRS UMR 5265, C2P2 (Chemistry, Catalysis, Polymers & Processes), LCPP, 69616 Villeurbanne, France .
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik. RISE.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Tailoring adhesion of anionic surfaces using cationic PISA-latexes – towards tough nanocellulose materials in the wet state2019Ingår i: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 11, s. 4287-4302Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cationic latexes with Tgs ranging between −40 °C and 120 °C were synthesised using n-butyl acrylate (BA) and/or methyl methacrylate (MMA) as the core polymers. Reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) combined with polymerisation-induced self-assembly (PISA) allowed for in situ chain-extension of a cationic macromolecular RAFT agent (macroRAFT) of poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide) (PDMAPMA), used as stabiliser in so-called surfactant-free emulsion polymerisation. The resulting narrowly distributed nanosized latexes adsorbed readily onto silica surfaces and to model surfaces of cellulose nanofibrils, as demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measurements. Adsorption to anionic surfaces increased when increasing ionic strength to 10 mM, indicating the influence of the polyelectrolyte effect exerted by the corona. The polyelectrolyte corona affected the interactions in the wet state, the stability of the latex and re-dispersibility after drying. The QCM-D measurements showed that a lower Tg of the core results in a more strongly interacting adsorbed layer at the solid–liquid interface, despite a comparable adsorbed mass, indicating structural differences of the investigated latexes in the wet state. The two latexes with Tg below room temperature (i.e. PBATg-40 and P(BA-co-MMA)Tg3) exhibited film formation in the wet state, as shown by AFM colloidal probe measurements. It was observed that P(BA-co-MMA)Tg3 latex resulted in the largest pull-off force, above 200 m Nm−1 after 120 s in contact. The strongest wet adhesion was achieved with PDMAPMA-stabilized latexes soft enough to allow for interparticle diffusion of polymer chains, and stiff enough to create a strong adhesive joint. Fundamental understanding of interfacial properties of latexes and cellulose enables controlled and predictive strategies to produce strong and tough materials with high nanocellulose content, both in the wet and dry state.

  • 105.
    Engström, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Hatton, Fiona
    Loughborough Univ, Dept Mat, Loughborough, Leics, England..
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Freire, Carmen
    Univ Aveiro, Aveiro Inst Mat, Aveiro, Portugal..
    Vilela, Carla
    Univ Aveiro, Aveiro Inst Mat, Aveiro, Portugal..
    Boujemaoui, Assya
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Sanchez, Carmen
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Lo Re, Giada
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    D'Agosto, Franck
    UCBL, CPE Lyon, C2P2, CNRS,CPE, Bat 308F, Villeurbanne, France..
    Lansalot, Muriel
    UCBL, CPE Lyon, C2P2, CNRS,CPE, Bat 308F, Villeurbanne, France..
    Carlmark, Anna
    RISE, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Tailored PISA-latexes for modification of nanocellulosics: Investigating compatibilizing and plasticizing effects2019Ingår i: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 257Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 106.
    Engström, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hatton, Fiona
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Chem, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Boujemaoui, Assya
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Sanchez, Carmen Cobo
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    D'Agosto, Franck
    C2P2 CNRS CPE UCBL, CPE Lyon, Bat 308F, Villeurbanne, France..
    Lansalot, Muriel
    C2P2 CNRS CPE UCBL, CPE Lyon, Bat 308F, Villeurbanne, France..
    Fogelstrom, Linda
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. RISE Res Inst Sweden Div Bioecon, Nanocellulose, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tailored nano-latexes for modification of nanocelluloses: Compatibilizing and plasticizing effects2018Ingår i: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 255Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 107.
    Engström, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hatton, Fiona
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    D'Agosto, F.
    Université de Lyon, Univ Lyon 1, CPE Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5265, C2P2 (Chemistry, Catalysis, Polymers & Processes), Team LCPP Bat 308F, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69616 Villeurbanne, France .
    Lansalot, M.
    Université de Lyon, Univ Lyon 1, CPE Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5265, C2P2 (Chemistry, Catalysis, Polymers & Processes), Team LCPP Bat 308F, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69616 Villeurbanne, France .
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Soft and rigid core latex nanoparticles prepared by RAFT-mediated surfactant-free emulsion polymerization for cellulose modification-a comparative study2017Ingår i: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 1061-1073Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Latex nanoparticles comprising cationically charged coronas and hydrophobic cores with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) have been prepared by surfactant-free, RAFT-mediated emulsion polymerization, where the particles form through a polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) type mechanism. Poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(DMAEMA-co-MAA)) was utilized as a hydrophilic macroRAFT agent for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) or n-butyl methacrylate (nBMA), respectively, resulting in two different latexes, with either a core of high (PMMA) or low (PnBMA) Tg polymer. By varying the molar mass of the hydrophobic block, latexes of different sizes were obtained (DHca. 40-120 nm). The adsorption of the latexes to cellulose model surfaces and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) was studied using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The surfaces with adsorbed PnBMA latexes yielded hydrophobic surfaces both before and after annealing, whereas surfaces with adsorbed PMMA latex became hydrophobic only after annealing, clearly showing the influence of the Tg of the core. The latexes were also used to modify macroscopic cellulose in the form of filter papers. Similar to the CNF surfaces, no annealing was required to achieve hydrophobic surfaces with PnBMA latexes. Finally, nanocomposites of CNF and the polymer nanoparticles were prepared through a one-pot mixing procedure. It was found that the largest synthesized PMMA latex (120 nm) facilitated a more strainable CNF network at 50% relative humidity, with a nearly 200% increase in strain at break compared to the neat CNF reference film as well as to the composite films with PnBMA latexes or to the smaller sized PMMA latexes. This difference was attributed to the spherical shape and rigidity of the large PMMA latex nanoparticles during composite formation. This highly interesting result should indeed be considered in the future design of novel biocomposites.

  • 108. Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Notley, Shannon M.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Cellulose thin films: Degree of cellulose ordering and its influence on adhesion2007Ingår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 912-919Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion measurements have been performed with thin cellulose films using continuum contact mechanics with application of the JKR theory. Three different cellulose surfaces were prepared, one crystalline and two surfaces with a lower degree of crystalline order. Adhesion between two cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) caps, as well as the adhesion between PDMS and the various cellulose surfaces, was measured. The work of adhesion (from loading) was found to be similar for all three surfaces, and from contact angle measurement with methylene iodide it was concluded that dispersive interactions dominate. However, the adhesion hysteresis differed significantly, being larger for a less ordered cellulose surface and decreasing with increasing degree of crystalline order. This is suggested to be due to the surface groups' ability to orient themselves and participate in specific or nonspecific interactions, where a surface with a lower degree of crystalline order has a higher possibility for reorientation of the surface groups. The mobility of cellulose chains increases with water uptake, resulting in stronger adhesive joints. These films will hence allow for determination of the contributions of hydrogen bonding and inter-diffusion on the adhesion, determined from the unloading data, as the thermodynamic work of adhesion was found to be independent of the cellulose surface used.

  • 109.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Notley, Shannon M.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Effects of crystallinity on adhesionManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 110. Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Notley, Shannon
    Pelton, Robert
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    The role of polymer compatibility in adhesion between surfaces saturated with modified dextrans2007Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 310, nr 1, s. 312-320Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wet and dry adhesion between dextran-coated surfaces were measured aiming to understand the influence of polymer compatibility. The wet adhesion measurements were performed using the atomic force microscope (AFM) colloidal probe technique whereas the dry adhesion measurements were performed using the micro adhesion measurement apparatus (MAMA). Two types of dextrans were used, one cationically modified dextran (DEX) and one that was both cationically and hydrophobically modified (HDEX), leading to three different combinations of polymer-coated surfaces; (1) DEX:DEX, (2) HDEX:DEX, and (3) HDEX:HDEX. DEX increased dry adhesion more than HDEX did, which likely is due to differences in the ability to form specific interactions, especially hydrogen bonding. HDEX gave strong wet adhesion, probably due to its poorer solvency, while DEX contributed to reducing the wet adhesion due to its hydrophilicity. All combinations showed a steric repulsion on approach in aqueous media. Furthermore, when HDEX was adsorbed on either or both surfaces a long range attractive force between the surfaces was detected outside this steric regime.

  • 111.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Notley, Shannon
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    The influence on paper strength properties when building multilayers of weak polyelectrolytes onto wood fibres2005Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 292, nr 1, s. 38-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) have been used to build up polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) on wood fibres and on silicon oxide surfaces, under various pH conditions. Consecutive adsorption onto silicon oxide surfaces of PAH and PAA were studied using stagnation point adsorption reflectometry, and the results showed a steady build-up of multilayers. Furthermore, by altering pH, the build-up of the multilayer could be made either linear or exponential in terms of adsorbed amount. Nitrogen analysis of sheets prepared from modified fibres showed that the adsorbed amount of PAH increased throughout PEM build-up, the amount of increase depending on pH during adsorption. Strength measurements of the sheets, i.e., stress at break and strain at break, showed significant improvements ranging from 60 to 200%, depending on both pH during adsorption and type of polyelectrolyte in the outer layer. A good correlation between the adsorbed amount of PAH and the improved strength properties of the paper was also found.

  • 112.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Pettersson, Gunilla
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Application of polymeric multilayers of starch onto wood fibres to enhance strength properties of paper2005Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 270-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers of cationic and anionic starch have been used to enhance the strength properties of paper. All starches used in this investigation had a degree of substitution around 0.065. Optical reflectometry showed that a combination of cationic and anionic starch could form polyelectrolyte multilayers onto silicon oxide surfaces. The same combination of starches was then applied to unbeaten, bleached softwood kraft fibres to form three layers, i.e. a cationic/anionic/cationic starch combination. The results showed a significant increase in the paper strength properties in terms of tensile index, strain at break, and Scott Bond. The adsorbed amount of starch in the sheets, determined using an enzymatic method, was found to increase with each successive starch treatment. The increased paper strength was not only due to the increase in adsorbed amount of starch; rather, the chemical composition of the starch was also important. Cationic starch with high amylose content had a more positive effect on the paper strength properties. Furthermore, it was observed that anionic starch, despite being adsorbed in large amounts, did not contribute to the increase in tensile strength or strain at break to the same extent as did cationic starch. However, the out-of-plane properties, measured as Scott Bond properties, increased with the adsorbed amount, regardless of the chemical composition of the starch used in the outermost layer.

  • 113.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Torgnysdotter, Annsofie
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Surface modification of wood fibers using the polyelectrocyte multilayer technique: Effects on fiber joint and paper strength properties2006Ingår i: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 45, s. 5279-5286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were used to modify wood fibers by means of the polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) technique. Hand sheets and fiber crosses were prepared from the PEM-treated fibers. The sheet strength and fiber-fiber joint strength were evaluated, and the contact zone of the fiber-fiber joint was characterized using a recently developed staining technique. The nonjoined surface area of the paper sheets was estimated by determining nitrogen adsorption via BET analysis, and the results were compared with those of the light scattering measurements frequently used to determine the degree of "bonding" in paper. Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy was used to analyze chemical effects. It was shown that the PEM treatment of fibers increased the strength properties of the sheets through an increase in the number of fiber-fiber joints, increasing the degree of contact in a fiber-fiber joint and creating covalent bonding in the fiber-fiber joint.

  • 114.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Notley, Shannon M.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Pelton, R.
    Paper strength as an adhesion problem2005Ingår i: Appita Annu. Conf., 2005, s. 51-58Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The wet and dry adhesion between polymer coated silica surfaces was measured with a view to understanding the influence of polymer additives on the wet and dry strength in paper. The wet adhesion measurements were performed with the AFM colloidal probe technique whereas the dry measurements were made using the new micro adhesion measurement apparatus (MAMA). As expected, cationic dextran (DEX) increased dry adhesion more than the hydrophobically modified cationic dextran (HDEX). Surprisingly HDEX gave strong wet adhesion most probably due to hydrophobic association.

  • 115.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Pettersson, Gunilla
    KTH.
    Application of polyelectrolyte multilayers of starch onto wood fibres to enhance strength properties of paper2006Ingår i: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 231Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 116.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Francon, Hugo
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Marais, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Bioecon, Papermaking & Packaging, Box 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cross-Linked and Shapeable Porous 3D Substrates from Freeze-Linked Cellulose Nanofibrils2019Ingår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 728-737Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemically cross-linked highly porous nano cellulose aerogels with complex shapes have been prepared using a freeze-linking procedure that avoids common post activation of cross-linking reactions and freeze-drying. The aerogel shapes ranged from simple geometrical three-dimensional bodies to swirls and solenoids. This was achieved by molding or extruding a periodate oxidized cellulose nanofibril (CNF) dispersion prior to chemical cross-linking in a regular freezer or by reshaping an already prepared aerogel by plasticizing the structure in water followed by reshaping and locking the aerogel into its new shape. The new shapes were most likely retained by new cross-links formed between CNFs brought into contact by the deformation during reshaping. This self-healing ability to form new bonds after plasticization and redrying also contributed to the mechanical resilience of the aerogels, allowing them to be cyclically deformed in the dry state, reswollen with water, and redried with good retention of mechanical integrity. Furthermore, by exploiting the shapeability and available inner structure of the aerogels, a solenoid-shaped aerogel with all surfaces coated with a thin film of conducting polypyrrole was able to produce a magnetic field inside the solenoid, demonstrating electromagnetic properties. Furthermore, by biomimicking the porous interior and stiff exterior of the beak of a toucan bird, a functionalized aerogel was created by applying a 300 mu m thick stiff wax coating on its molded external surfaces. This composite material displayed a 10-times higher elastic modulus compared to that of the plain aerogel without drastically increasing the density. These examples show that it is possible to combine advanced shaping with functionalization of both the inner structure and the surface of the aerogels, radically extending the possible use of CNF aerogels.

  • 117.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sandberg, Mats
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrkoping, Sweden..
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Nanocellulose aerogel beads: Structurable and printable energy storage2017Ingår i: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 253Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 118.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Macro- and mesoporous spherical nanocellulose beads for use in energy storage devices2016Ingår i: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 251Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 119.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    López Durán, Veronica
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Larsson, Per A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Macro- and mesoporous nanocellulose beads for use in energy storage devices2016Ingår i: APPLIED MATERIALS TODAY, ISSN 2352-9407, Vol. 5, s. 246-254Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemically cross-linked, wet-stable cellulose nanofibril (CNF) aerogel beads were fabricated using a novel procedure. The procedure facilitated controlled production of millimetre-sized CNF aerogel beads without freeze-drying or critical point drying, while still retaining a highly porous structure with low density. The aerogel beads were mechanically robust in the dry state, supporting loads of 1.3 N at 70% compression, even after being soaked in water and re-dried. Furthermore, they displayed both a good stability in water and a remarkably good shape recovery after wet compression. Owing to the stability in water, the entire surface of the highly porous aerogel beads could be successfully functionalized with polyelectrolytes and carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (CF-SWCNTs) using the Layer-by-Layer technique, introducing a significant electrical conductivity (1.6 mS/cm) to the aerogel beads. The functionalized, electrically conducting aerogel beads could carry as much as 2 kA/cm(2) and act as electrodes in a supercapacitor displaying a stabilized charge storage capacity of 9.8 F/g after 50 charging-discharging cycles.

  • 120.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Granberg, H.
    Larsson, Per A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    On the mechanism behind freezing-induced chemical crosslinking in ice-templated cellulose nanofibril aerogels2018Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, nr 40, s. 19371-19380Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The underlying mechanism related to freezing-induced crosslinking of aldehyde-containing cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) has been investigated, and the critical parameters behind this process have been identified. The aldehydes introduced by periodate oxidation allows for formation of hemiacetal bonds between the CNFs provided the fibrils are in sufficiently close contact before the water is removed. This is achieved during the freezing process where the cellulose components are initially separated, and the growth of ice crystals forces the CNFs to come into contact in the thin lamellae between the ice crystals. The crosslinked 3-D structure of the CNFs can subsequently be dried under ambient conditions after solvent exchange and still maintain a remarkably low density of 35 kg m-3, i.e. a porosity greater than 98%. A lower critical amount of aldehydes, 0.6 mmol g-1, was found necessary in order to generate a crosslinked 3-D CNF structure of sufficient strength not to collapse during the ambient drying. The chemical stability of the 3-D structure can be further enhanced by converting the hemiacetals to acetals by treatment with an alcohol under acidic conditions.

  • 121.
    Fall, Andreas B.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Burman, Ann
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cellulosic nanofibrils from eucalyptus, acacia and pine fibers2014Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 176-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The strong, environment-friendly and abundantly available cellulose nanofibril (CNF) is a very interesting building block for various types of material. To facilitate the industrial use of the fibrils, their liberation from the wood fiber wall needs to be improved particularly since the process requires a substantial amount of mechanical energy. In this work, the influence of wood species on fiber wall disintegration has been studied. Fibers from eucalyptus, acacia and pine were enzymatically treated and then mechanically fibrillated by an earlier reported process. The nanofibril yield, evaluated by centrifugation, was then compared to the charge density, wood polymer composition and cellulose DP of the original fibers. The results indicate that the CNF yield of the process increases with the increase of charge density of the fibers. It was also found that the charge density of the CNFs was higher than that of the original fibers. In the case of films produced from uncentrifuged dispersions, the results indicated improved mechanical properties with increasing CNF yield. Eucalyptus, with the highest yield, showed the highest Young's modulus and the highest stress at break of the investigated pulps, whereas the acacia showed the greatest strain at break. However, in the case of the films produced from fibrils after centrifugation, the same trend could not be observed. In this case, the pine showed the highest Young's modulus. The transparency of the films was however, as expected, greater as a result of the centrifugation procedure for all the investigated pulps.

  • 122.
    Fall, Andreas B.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindström, Stefan B.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Sprakel, Joris
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    A physical cross-linking process of cellulose nanofibril gels with shear-controlled fibril orientation2013Ingår i: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 1852-1863Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils constitute the smallest fibrous components of wood, with a width of approximately 4 nm and a length in the micrometer range. They consist of aligned linear cellulose chains with crystallinity exceeding 60%, rendering stiff, high-aspect-ratio rods. These properties are advantageous in the reinforcement components of composites. Cross-linked networks of fibrils can be used as templates into which a polymer enters. In the semi-concentrated regime (i.e. slightly above the overlap concentration), carboxy methylated fibrils dispersed in water have been physically cross-linked to form a volume-spanning network (a gel) by reducing the pH or adding salt, which diminishes the electrostatic repulsion between fibrils. By applying shear during or after this gelation process, we can orient the fibrils in a preferred direction within the gel, for the purpose of fully utilizing the high stiffness and strength of the fibrils as reinforcement components. Using these gels as templates enables precise control of the spatial distribution and orientation of the dispersed phase of the composites, optimizing the potentially very large reinforcement capacity of the nanofibrils.

  • 123.
    Fall, Andreas B.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Burman, Ann
    Liberation of nanofibrils from different types of wood2013Ingår i: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 245Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 124.
    Fall, Andreas B.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Karabulut, Erdem
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Preparation of ultrathin cellulose nanofibril-based hollow capsules using layer-by-layer deposition2013Ingår i: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 245Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 125.
    Fall, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Burman, Ann
    Solanja.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cellulosic Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus, Acacia and Pine FibersManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 126.
    Fall, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindström, Stefan B.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Sprakel, Joris
    Lofroth, Jan-Erik
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Shear-stiffening cellulose nanofibre gels with tuneable mechanical characteristics2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Gels have been synthesized from the renewable, strong and low cost cellulose nanofibres; nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). The gels are shown to exhibit pronounced shear-stiffening properties and large extensibility (above 100%). The stiffening is due to strain induced orientation of the nanofibers, which is enabled by the free rotation at the particle-particle joints. The gels are synthesized from low concn. aq. NFC solns. By decreasing the electrostatic double-layer repulsion between the NFC fibrils, aggregation is initiated and a fluid-gel transition occurs. This transition can be detected within a range of vol. fractions. We characterize the gel microstructures using dynamic light scattering and the mech. properties using a rheometer. The mech. properties of these gels are tuneable; significantly different properties are seen if gels are formed by reducing pH or by increasing ionic strength. It is also obsd. that the properties of the gels depend on the type of counter-ion. [on SciFinder(R)]

  • 127.
    Fall, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Lindström, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Sprakel, Joris
    School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Microstructure control of physically cross-linked nanocellulose gels for biocomposite templatesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 128.
    Fall, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Centrum för Biofibermaterial, BiMaC.
    Lindström, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Sundman, Ola
    Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto, Finland.
    Ödberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Colloidal Stability of Aqueous Nanofibrillated Cellulose Dispersions2011Ingår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 27, nr 18, s. 11332-11338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils constitute an attractive raw material for carbon-neutral, biodegradable, nanostructured materials. Aqueous suspensions of these nanofibrils are stabilized by electrostatic repulsion arising from deprotonated carboxyl groups at the fibril surface. In the present work, a new model is developed for predicting colloidal stability by considering deprotonation and electrostatic screening. This model predicts the fibril-fibril interaction potential at a given pH in a given ionic strength environment. Experiments support the model predictions that aggregation is induced by decreasing the pH, thus reducing the surface charge, or by increasing the salt concentration. It is shown that the primary mechanism for aggregation upon the addition of salt is the surface charge reduction through specific interactions of counterions with the deprotonated carboxyl groups, and the screening effect of the salt is of secondary importance.

  • 129. Falt, S.
    et al.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Pappers- och massateknik.
    Influence of electrolytes on the swelling and strength of kraft-liner pulps2003Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 69-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, the effect of common process electrolytes NaCl, Na2SO4 and CaCl2 on fibre swelling and paper strength has been investigated. Results show that there is an initial increase in the water retention value (WRV) of the fibres when the salt concentration is increased at a pH of 5 in the solution surrounding the fibres. At higher salt concentrations, the WRV decreases. This behaviour is most pronounced for Na2SO4 and smaller for NaCl and CaCl2. The increase in swelling is explained as being due to an increase in pH in the fibre wall and a subsequent increased dissociation of the carboxyl groups during the initial increase in ionic strength. When the electrolyte concentration is further increased, the difference in osmotic pressure between the interior of the fibre wall and the surrounding solution decreases and eventually the pressure difference drops to zero. It is also found that there is no unique relationship between the WRV and the strength of paper formed from the fibres treated with different electrolyte concentrations.

  • 130. Falt, S.
    et al.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Vesterlind, E. L.
    Swelling of model films of cellulose having different charge densities and comparison to the swelling behavior of corresponding fibers2003Ingår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 19, nr 19, s. 7895-7903Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose model films with different charge densities were prepared by spin-coating dissolved cellulose in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide onto SiO2 surfaces. The swelling of the model cellulose films due to exposure to solutions of different electrolytes and at different ionic strengths and pH values were studied using QCM-D (quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring). Results show that at pH 5, there is a swelling of the film at a low electrolyte concentration (10(-4)-10(-2) M), whereas the deswelling of the film was observed at a high electrolyte concentration (10(-1)-1 M). A considerable swelling of the films is seen when they are treated with deionized water with an increasing pH. The swelling of the films is accompanied by an increase in dissipation, that is, a softening of the material, and the deswelling by a decrease in dissipation, that is, a stiffening of the material. Furthermore, exposure of the films to solutions of different electrolytes affected the swelling of the layer. In this respect, the swelling response of Na2SO4 differs from that of NaCl and CaC1(2) by showing simultaneously high swelling and low dissipation values. The results also show that the rate of swelling reaches its lowest value as the electrolyte concentration reaches the detected limit for the deswelling. The QCM-D results are compared to the swelling of the corresponding carboxymethylated fibers, where a similar behavior was found. However, for the fibers a marked deswelling occurred at a high electrolyte concentration, but only a minor deswelling of the cellulose film was observed. This difference between the materials can be ascribed to noncovalent bonds within the film that will not reform when the swelling forces are decreased at high electrolyte concentrations. A direct measurement of the thickness changes was performed using atomic force microscopy, which shows that the change in frequency measured with QCM-D for the films treated with different NaCl electrolyte concentrations corresponds to changes of 1-2%.

  • 131. Falt, S.
    et al.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Vesterlind, E. L.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    Model films of cellulose II - improved preparation method and characterization of the cellulose film2004Ingår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 151-162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimization study of the preparation of spin-coated cellulose model films from the NMMO/DMSO system on silicon wafers has been made. The study shows that the cellulose concentration in the solution determines the cellulose film thickness and that the temperature of the solution affects the surface roughness. A lower solution temperature results in a lower surface roughness at cellulose concentrations below 0.8%. Using the described method, it is possible to prepare films with thicknesses of 30-90 nm with a constant surface roughness by changing the cellulose concentration, i.e. by dilution with DMSO. On these films, water has a contact angle less than 20degrees and about 50% of the material can, according to CP/MAS C-13-NMR spectroscopy on corresponding fibrous material, be considered to consist of crystalline cellulose II type material. It has further been shown that AFM can be used to determine the thickness of cellulose films, in both dry and wet states. In this method, the difference in height between the top surface and the underlying wafer has been measured at an incision made into the cellulose film. The cellulose films have also been spin-coated with the same technique as on the silicon oxide wafer onto the crystal in a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). These model films were found to be suitable for swelling measurements with the QCM. The films were very stable during this type of measurement and films with different amounts of charges gave different swelling responses depending on their charges. As expected, films with a higher charge showed a higher swelling.

  • 132.
    Farahani, Saina Kishani
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Escalante, Alfredo
    Toriz, Guillermo
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Glykovetenskap. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Hansson, Per
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Experimental and Theoretical Evaluation of the Solubility/Insolubility Spruce Xylan (Arabino Glucuronoxylan)2019Ingår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 1263-1270Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular solubility of softwood arabinoglucuronoxylan (AGX) has been thoroughly investigated, and it has been shown that the chemical and physical structures of the extracted hemicellulose are not significantly influenced by different purification steps, but a transient molecular solubility of AGX was observed in aqueous media at low concentrations (1 g/L) when the dissolved macromolecules had a hydrodynamic diameter of up to 10 nm. A phase separation was detected when the concentration was increased to 15 g/L leading to an association of the smaller molecules into fractal structures with a considerably larger diameter, even though the dispersions were still transparent to ocular inspection. Dynamic Light Scattering and Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy showed dimensions in the range of 1000 nm. The phase separation of the sample was further characterized by estimating the χ-interaction parameter of AGX in water using the Flory-Huggins theory, and the results supported that water is a poor solvent for AGX. This behavior is crucial when films and hydrogels based on these biopolymers are made, since the association will dramatically affect barrier and mechanical properties of films made from these materials.

  • 133.
    Farahani, Saina Kishani
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Chem Biol Engn Biopolymer, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Solubility and adsorption of wood biopolymers at model surfaces2016Ingår i: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 251Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 134.
    Farahani, Saina Kishani
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hansson, Per
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Influence of solubility on the adsorption of different Xyloglucan fractions to cellulose model surfaces2019Ingår i: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 257Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 135.
    Farahani, Saina Kishani
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Ruda, Marcus
    Hansson, Per
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    The influence of solubility on the adsorption of different Xyloglucan fractions at Cellulose Water InterfacesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Xylogucan (XG) fractions with different molar masses were prepared while preserving the natural structure of the XG. The solubility of the fractions was investigated using light- scattering, chromatography and microscopy techniques. The conformational changes of the XG molecules and their association and phase separation were investigated together with concentration and molar mass changes. The knowledge gained was then applied to investigate the interaction of different XG fractions at cellulose model surfaces using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. The results indicate that there is a cluster formation and phase separation of the XG molecules at the cellulose/water interface induced by the increase in XG concentration close to the surface. Concomitantly, the adsorption regimes are altered for the XG fractions depending on the solubility properties, indicating that the insolubility, association and phase separation of XGs in aqueous media affect their interaction with cellulose. The study is of vital importance for improving the functionality of sustainable materials made from xyloglucan/cellulose natural composites.

  • 136. Forsstrom, J.
    et al.
    Andreasson, B.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Influence of pore structure and water retaining ability of fibres on the strength of papers from unbleached kraft fibres2005Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 176-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of pore structure and the water retaining ability of fibres on different strength properties of papers from unbleached kraft fibres was investigated and the effects of pulp yield, counter-ion types, pH and homification were determined. NMR relaxation measurements of water were used to determine the pore structure of the fibres and WRV and FSP measurements were used to determine their water retaining ability. The average pore radius, as determined by NMR, was almost unaffected by changes in pulp yield whereas changes in counter-ion and pH had a significant effect on the average pore radius. The detected changes in NMR were suggested to be due to changes in the swelling forces both within the fibre wall and at the fibre surface. The WRV value decreased with decreasing yield and it was significantly affected by pH and counter-ion. Changes in WRV were explained to be largely associated with changes in the amount of water associated with the fibre surface. The FSP values decreased with decreasing yield just as the WRV's. Homification upon drying and reslushing significantly lowered the average pore radius, whereas the FSP only showed a minor decrease, suggesting that the surface area available to water was changed without drastically changing the overall fibre wall volume. The differences between FSP NMR and WRV can hence be traced back to what the methods are actually measuring. It was concluded that the different measuring methods contain unique information and that a combination of the methods is necessary to give as complete a picture as possible over the changes that occur in the fibre wall upon varying the condition for the fibres. The influence of pore size on sheet tensile properties was also investigated. It was found that fibres with larger pores produced an increased tensile index and tensile stiffness of the paper made from these fibres. It was suggested that fibres with larger pores allow for a larger molecular contact area between fibres, stronger fibre/fibre joints and consequently a higher strength of the formed sheets.

  • 137. Forsstrom, J.
    et al.
    Eriksson, M.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    A new technique for evaluating ink-cellulose interactions: initial studies of the influence of surface energy and surface roughness2005Ingår i: Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, ISSN 0169-4243, E-ISSN 1568-5616, Vol. 19, nr 9, s. 783-798Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ink-cellulose interactions were evaluated using a new technique in which the adhesion properties between ink and cellulose were directly measured using a Micro-Adhesion Measurement Apparatus (MAMA). The adhesion properties determined with MAMA were used to estimate the total energy release upon separating ink from cellulose in water. The total energy release was calculated from interfacial energies determined via contact angle measurements and the Lifshitz-van der Waals/acid-base approach. Both methods indicated spontaneous ink release from model cellulose surfaces, although the absolute values differed because of differences in measuring techniques and different ways of evaluation. MAMA measured the dry adhesion between ink and cellulose, whereas the interfacial energies were determined for wet surfaces. The total energy release was linked to ink detachment from model cellulose surfaces, determined using the impinging jet cell. The influences of surface energy and surface roughness were also investigated. Increasing the surface roughness or decreasing the surface energy decreased the ink detachment due to differences in the molecular contact area and differences in the adhesiom properties.

  • 138. Forsstrom, J.
    et al.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Influence of different storage conditions on deinking efficiency of waterbased flexographic ink from model cellulose surfaces and sheets2004Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 250-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of UV-Iight, temperature, atmospheric environment and storage time on the ink detachment of water-based flexographic ink printed on model cellulose surfaces was investigated using an impinging jet cell equipment. The printed surfaces were deinked using a NaOH solution (pH = 10) and the deinking process was monitored using a microscope equipped with a CCD camera. Images were collected at different time intervals during the detachment process and image analysis was used to quantify the ink detachment from the surface. Hand sheets, (the same pulp as used for model surface preparation) were also printed and stored under the same conditions, after which they were reslushed and deinked. The deinking efficiency of the recycled sheets was evaluated using brightness and ERIC (Effective Residual Ink Concentration) values. It was shown that UV-Iight had a negative effect on ink detachment both from the model cellulose surfaces and from the hand sheets. At storage temperatures of 55degreesC, (dark conditions were used) a large negative effect was observed for the cellulose surfaces while only a small effect on the ink detachment could be seen for the hand sheets. Ink detachment from the hand sheets became more difficult when increasing the storage temperature above 55degreesC, as detected as a decrease in brightness of the recycled and deinked sheets. A farther increase in the storage temperature to 105degreesC gave poorer ink detachment efficiency than storage under UV-Iight for the hand sheets. Air had a more negative effect on ink detachment than nitrogen.

  • 139. Forsström, Jennie
    et al.
    Torgnysdotter, Annsofie
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Influence of fibre/fibre joint strength and fibre flexibility on the strength of papers from unbleached kraft fibres2005Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 186-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The joint strength between single fibres and its influence on strength properties of papers was evaluated, taking into account the effect of pulp yield, ionic form of the carboxyl groups and drying. Fibre/fibre joint strength stayed almost constant for pulps with yield between 45 % and 50 %. Further increasing the pulp yield increased the joint strength until a maximum value was reached at a pulp yield of around 57 %, after which the joint strength decreased. Joint strength correlated well to paper tensile strength for never dried fibres, i.e. a lower joint strength resulted in lower sheet tensile index. The decrease in sheet tensile index was not as pronounced as the decrease in joint strength. Changing counter-ion from Na+ to Ca2(+) or H+ did not affect fibre flexibility, although it reduced the joint strength as the molecular contact area decreased due to a reduced swelling upon changing the counter-ions. Drying the high yield pulp lowered both the joint strength and the sheet tensile index to the same extent. The sheet tensile index, for the low yield pulp, decreased much more than the fibre/fibre joint strength after drying the fibres. In conclusion, a combination of a lower fibre flexibility, resulting in fewer contact points between fibres in the sheet, and a lower joint strength after drying was responsible for the reduction in sheet tensile index.

  • 140.
    Forsström, Jennie
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Ageing of flexographic printed model cellulose surfaces and determination of the mechanisms behind ageing2004Ingår i: Research Forum on Recycling, Proceedings, 2004, s. 21-25Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of storage conditions on the ink detachment efficiency of water-based flexographic ink printed onto model cellulose surfaces and hand sheets were investigated. It was shown that UV-light, elevated temperatures, longer storage time, increasing surface roughness and increasing surface hydrophobicity all had a negative effect on ink detachment. It was also shown that the ink's chemical and structural characteristics changed when stored at elevated temperatures. No chemical or structural changes could be observed for the ink when stored under UV-light.

  • 141.
    Francon, Hugo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Bioecon, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Per A.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Fibre & Polymer Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    3D printable nanocellulose aerogels via a green crosslinking approach and a facile evaporation procedure2019Ingår i: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 257Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 142. Gellerstedt, F.
    et al.
    Wågberg, Lars
    Gatenholm, P.
    Swelling behaviour of succinylated fibers2000Ingår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 67-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The swelling behaviour of cellulosic fibers bearing various amounts of carboxylic groups introduced by succinylation was studied as a function of pH. Upon an increase of pH, the perimeter of the succinylated fibers expanded as measured with the Wilhelmy plate technique. The fibers pass two pH regimes of increased expansion, pH = 5 and pH = 9. These pH levels correlate with the conductometric titration, which reveals two inflection points in both the pH and conductivity values for the succinylated fibers. Determinations of fiber saturation points (FSP) confirm that the cell wall is largely affected by increased pH. Analysis of the fibers with ESEM (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope) showed that bundles of fibrils were released from the surface of the succinylated fibers at higher pH. Wilhelmy measurements also showed that the surface roughness was more than doubled in fibers succinylated for 12 h as pH rose from 3.2 to 10. These results indicate that, as the charge of the fibers is increased, the swelling forces reach such levels of magnitude that they overcome the structural network forces holding the fiber wall together. The methodology applied can hence be used to quantify the fundamental gel properties of the fiber wall.

  • 143. Gernandt, Renate
    et al.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Pappers- och massateknik.
    Gärdlund, L.inda
    Dautzenberg, Herbert
    Polyelectrolyte complexes for surface modification of wood fibres - I. Preparation and characterisation of complexes for dry and wet strength improvement of paper2003Ingår i: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 213, nr 1, s. 15-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) were formed between a cationic polyamideamine epichlorohydrine condensate (PAE) and an anionic carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) at different ratios between the polymers, orders of mixing, salt concentrations and polymer concentrations. Initially the polymers were characterised by polyelectrolyte titration (charge), static light scattering (molecular weight, radius of gyration) and measurements with a scanning interferometric refractometer (refractive index). The complexes were characterised by ocular inspection and static light scattering in combination with a special evaluation algorithm allowing an estimation of the geometric form of the complexes. The results show that the initial complexes have a spherical form and that the size is fairly constant over a large range of charge ratios between the polymers, provided the complexes are formed in deionised water. When the charge mixing ratio exceeded neutrality a secondary agglomeration of the initially formed complexes occurred. The presence of salt during PEC formation caused a dependence of the level of aggregation on the mixing ratio, whereby small amounts of NaCl drastically lowered the particle mass at lower mixing ratios. Subsequent addition of salt to PECs formed in water led to a strong swelling of the complex particles and at a critical salt concentration to dissolution.

  • 144.
    Ghanadpour, Maryam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Carosio, F.
    Ruda, M. C.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Tuning the Nanoscale Properties of Phosphorylated Cellulose Nanofibril-Based Thin Films to Achieve Highly Fire-Protecting Coatings for Flammable Solid Materials2018Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, nr 38, s. 32543-32555Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrathin nanocomposite films were prepared by combining cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) prepared from phosphorylated pulp fibers (P-CNF) with montmorillonite (MMT), sepiolite (Sep) clay, or sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP). The flame-retardant and heat-protective capability of the prepared films as casings for a polyethylene (PE) film was investigated. Heating the coated PE in air revealed that the polymer film was thoroughly preserved up to at least 300 °C. The P-CNF/MMT coatings were also able to completely prevent the ignition of the PE film during cone calorimetry, but neither the P-CNF/Sep nor the P-CNF/SHMP coating could entirely prevent PE ignition. This was explained by the results from combined thermogravimetry Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which showed that the P-CNF/MMT film was able to delay the release of PE decomposition volatiles and shift its thermal degradation to a higher temperature. The superior flame-retardant performance of the P-CNF/MMT films is mainly attributed to the unique compositional and structural features of the film, where P-CNF is responsible for increasing the char formation, whereas the MMT platelets create excellent barrier and thermal shielding properties by forming inorganic lamellae within the P-CNF matrix. These films showed a tensile strength of 304 MPa and a Young's modulus of 15 GPa with 10 wt % clay so that this composite film was mechanically stronger than the previously prepared CNF/clay nanopapers containing the same amount of clay. 

  • 145.
    Ghanadpour, Maryam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Carosio, F
    Ruda, M.C.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Flame-retardant nanocomposite thin films based on phosphorylated cellulose nanofibrils: A study of flame-retardant mechanisms2018Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 146.
    Ghanadpour, Maryam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Carosio, Federico
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Phosphorylated Cellulose Nanofibrils: A Renewable Nanomaterial for the Preparation of Intrinsically Flame-Retardant Materials2015Ingår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 16, nr 10, s. 3399-3410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose from wood fibers can be modified for use in flame-retardant composites as an alternative to halogen-based compounds. For this purpose, sulfite dissolving pulp fibers have been chemically modified by phosphorylation, and the resulting material has been used to prepare cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) that have a width of approximately 3 nm. The phosphorylation was achieved using (NH4)(2)HPO4 in the presence of urea, and the degree of substitution by phosphorus was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, conductometric titration, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The presence of phosphate groups in the structure of CNF has been found to noticeably improve the flame retardancy of this material. The nanopaper sheets prepared from phosphorylated CNF showed self-extinguishing properties after consecutive applications of a methane flame for 3 s and did not ignite under a heat flux of 35 kW/m(2), as shown by flammability and cone calorimetry measurements, respectively.

  • 147.
    Ghanadpour, Maryam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Carosio, Federico
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ultrastrong and flame-resistant freestanding films from nanocelluloses, self-assembled using a layer-by-layer approach2017Ingår i: Applied Materials Today, ISSN 2352-9407, Vol. 9, s. 229-239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanosized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) prepared from phosphorylated pulp fibers (P-CNF) are combined with CNF prepared from aminated fibers (cationic CNF) through a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly to prepare a freestanding, transparent all-cellulose film. It is shown that the thermal stability and flame-retardant properties of the all CNF film are significantly improved when phosphorylated CNF is combined with cationic fibrils in an LbL assembled structure. The freestanding films also show a tensile strength of 160 MPa and a Young's modulus of 9 GPa, placing it among strongest freestanding LbL films fabricated so far, showing large promise for the use of these types of ultrathin films in advanced applications. The LbL build-up of the cationic CNF/P-CNF multilayer film is carefully studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hydrophobized silicon substrates are used for the LbL deposition and it is shown that the (cationic CNFIP-CNF)(300) film, 2.3 pin thick, can be easily detached from the substrate using tweezers. The thermal stability, combustion behavior and mechanical properties of the films are further studied by thermogravimetric analysis, combustion and tensile tests respectively.

  • 148.
    Ghanadpour, Maryam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Wicklein, Bernd
    Carosio, Federico
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    All-natural and highly flame-resistant freeze-cast foams based on phosphorylated cellulose nanofibrils2018Ingår i: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 10, nr 8, s. 4085-4095Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pure cellulosic foams suffer from low thermal stability and high flammability, limiting their fields of application. Here, light-weight and flame-resistant nanostructured foams are produced by combining cellulose nanofibrils prepared from phosphorylated pulp fibers (P-CNF) with microfibrous sepiolite clay using the freeze-casting technique. The resultant nanocomposite foams show excellent flame-retardant properties such as self-extinguishing behavior and extremely low heat release rates in addition to high flame penetration resistance attributed mainly to the intrinsic charring ability of the phosphorylated fibrils and the capability of sepiolite to form heat-protective intumescent-like barrier on the surface of the material. Investigation of the chemical structure of the charred residue by FTIR and solid state NMR spectroscopy reveals the extensive graphitization of the carbohydrate as a result of dephosphorylation of the modified cellulose and further dehydration due to acidic catalytic effects. Originating from the nanoscale dimensions of sepiolite particles, their high specific surface area and stiffness as well as its close interaction with the phosphorylated fibrils, the incorporation of clay nanorods also significantly improves the mechanical strength and stiffness of the nanocomposite foams. The novel foams prepared in this study are expected to have great potential for application in sustainable building construction.

  • 149.
    Gimåker, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Horvath, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Influence of polymeric additives on short-time creep of paper2007Ingår i: Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 217-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cationic polyallylamine (PAH) and cationic starch were adsorbed to unbleached softwood kraft pulp fibres in order to study the effect of these additives on the creep properties of the resulting paper sheets. For the fibres treated with PAH, the effect of molecular mass, adsorbed quantity and heat treatment of the prepared sheets at 160 degrees C was also studied. PAH was found to not influence the sheet density, whereas starch addition induced moderate densification. Both additives produced major improvements in dry strength measurements as stress and strain-at-break. PAH-treated sheets also showed a relatively small but statistically significant improvement in tensile stiffness, unlike starch-treated sheets in which the improvement was too small to be statistically significant. As expected. there was an inverse relationship between the adsorbed amount and the molecular mass of the PAH. However, for comparable adsorbed amounts, the molecular mass made no detectable difference to the mechanical properties. PAH was also labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and adsorbed to the pulp fibres. Examination of the fibres with a confocal scanning laser microscope revealed that the different molecular mass fractions adsorbed only to the exterior parts of the fibres (i.e. the molecules did not penetrate throughout the fibre wall). The creep behaviour of the paper sheets was evaluated under tensile loading using a specially designed testing apparatus, in both 50% RH and 90% RH at 23 degrees C. Strain was monitored as function of time and applied load. PAH was found to lower both instantaneous and time-dependent deformation during the relatively short measuring time of 100 seconds used in this work. Cationic starch had little or no effect on creep. Thus it is clearly demonstrated that PAH treatment of fibres results in sheets with a lower creeping tendency over short periods compared to sheets made with non-treated and starch-treated fibres.

  • 150.
    Gimåker, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.), Hållfasthetslära (Avd.). KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.), Hållfasthetslära (Avd.). KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Shear strength development between couched papers during dryingManuskript (preprint) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The out-of-plane properties (e.g., out-of-plane shear strength) of paper materials are very important for their performance during converting and end use. There is, however, a lack of published data on how shear strength develops throughout the stages of paper manufacturing. The present study investigates how the shear strength developed between couched sheets during drying in a Rapid-Köthen laboratory sheet drier. The shear strength of sheets was measured, starting from sheets with a solids content of approximately 35% all the way to fully dry sheets. Shear strength development was examined between both never-dried and rewetted sheets made of unbeaten and beaten pulp. The results indicate that the shear strength increased with increasing solids content at all solids contents investigated. The shear strength was low (<120 kPa) up to a solids content of approximately 60–70%, after which it increased rapidly with increasing solids content, suggesting that interactions important for the shear strength of dry paper start to develop at this particular dry content.

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