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  • 101.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Infrastruktur.
    Editorial: Popular philosophy2004Ingår i: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5817, E-ISSN 1558-5816, Vol. 70, nr 2-3, s. 117-118Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 102.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Editorial: Rationality and Emotions2007Ingår i: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 103.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Editorial: The Modal Status of Philosophy2006Ingår i: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 72, nr 3, s. 173-176Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 104.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Editorial: Theoria Goes Quarterly2005Ingår i: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 71, nr 1, s. 1-2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 105.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Editorial: Why philosophize in English?2007Ingår i: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 106.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Einsteins motståndare: En studie i pseudovetenskap2011Ingår i: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 107.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Eldprov2005Ingår i: Vetenskap eller villfarelse / [ed] Sven Ove Hansson, Jesper Jerkert, Stockholm: Leopard förlag , 2005Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 108.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    En myt om Einstein2007Ingår i: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, Vol. 2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 109.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Eradication2012Ingår i: Journal of Applied Logic, ISSN 1570-8683, E-ISSN 1570-8691, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 75-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eradication is a radical form of contraction that removes not only a sentence but also all of its non-tautological consequences from a belief set. Eradication of a single sentence that was included in the original belief set coincides with full meet contraction, but if the sentence is external to the belief set then the two operations differ. Multiple eradication, i.e. simultaneous eradication of several sentences, differs from full meet contraction even if the sentences to be contracted are all included in the original belief set. Eradication is axiomatically characterized and its properties investigated. It is shown to have close connections with the recovery postulate for multiple contraction. Based on these connections it is proposed that eradication rather than full meet contraction is the appropriate lower limiting case for multiple contraction operators.

  • 110.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Ethical criteria of risk acceptance2003Ingår i: Erkenntnis, ISSN 0165-0106, E-ISSN 1572-8420, Vol. 59, nr 3, s. 291-309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mainstream moral theories deal with situations in which the outcome of each possible action is well-determined and knowable. In order to make ethics relevant for problems of risk and uncertainty, moral theories have to be extended so that they cover actions whose outcomes are not determinable beforehand. One approach to this extension problem is to develop methods for appraising probabilistic combinations of outcomes. This approach is investigated and shown not to solve the problem. An alternative approach is then developed. Its starting-point is that everyone has a prime facie moral right not to be exposed to risk. However, this right can be overridden fi the risk-exposure is part of an equitable system for risk-taking that works to the advantage of the individual risk-exposed person.

  • 111.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Ethical implications of sensory prostheses2015Ingår i: Handbook of Neuroethics, Springer, 2015, s. 785-798Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This survey begins with an overview of currently available and foreseeable sensory prostheses. Cochlear implants are now a routine technology for patients with a dysfunctional inner ear but a functional auditory nerve. Auditory brainstem implants are available for patients whose auditory nerve cannot be used. Visual prosthesis for the blind is a highly active research area but still far from results that can be used in routine clinical practice. Experiments are also made with artificial proprioception and touch for sensory feedback in limb prostheses. Artificial biosensors are used in pacemakers, and research is being done on implantable drug delivery systems with biosensors that determine dosage. A wide range of ethical issues arise in connection with experiments and clinical usage of sensory prostheses: animal experimentation; informed consent, for instance, in patients with a locked-in syndrome that may be alleviated with a sensory prosthesis; unrealistic expectations of research subjects testing new devices; privacy issues for electronic implants with memory; security issues; effects of sensory improvements on a patient’s personality and self-image; cultural effects of the new technologies in disabled communities; and the psychological and social effects of sensory enhancement.

  • 112.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Ethical principles for hormesis policies2008Ingår i: Human and Experimental Toxicology, ISSN 0960-3271, E-ISSN 1477-0903, Vol. 28, s. 609-612Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At least two major choices have to be made in the ethical analysis of hormesis policies. The first is where to put the burden of proof when it is uncertain whether a particular hormesis effect exists or not. It is argued that the burden of proof will have to fall primarily on those who claim the existence of such an effect. The second issue arises when (positive) hormesis effects of a substance are weighed against negative effects of the same substance. A decision must then be made whether negative effects affecting one person can be outweighed by positive effects on another person or only by positive effects on that person herself. It is argued that risk-weighing for hormesis effects should be individualistic. This would mean that benefits for one person do not automatically outweigh negative effects on another person.

  • 113.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    Ethics and radiation protection2007Ingår i: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 147-156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

  • 114.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Ethics Beyond Application2009Ingår i: Cutting Through the Surface: Philosophical Approaches to Bioethics / [ed] T. Takala, P. Herissone-Kelly and S. Holm, Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2009, s. 19-28Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 115.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Etiska och filosofiska perspektiv på kärnavfallsfrågan2009Ingår i: Samhällsforskning 2009: Betydelsen för människor, hembygden och regionen av ett slutförvar för använt kärnbränsle / [ed] Britt-Marie Drottz Sjöberg, Boel Berner och Einar Holm, EnaInfo/Edita , 2009, s. 21-33Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 116.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Etiska och filosofiska perspektiv på kärnavfallsfrågan: åtta essäer / av Sven-Ove Hansson2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 117.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Etiska och filosofiska perspektivpå kärnavfallsfrågan2008Ingår i: Samhällsforskning 2008: Betydelsen för människorna, hembygden ochregionen av ett slutförvar för använt kärnbränsle / [ed] Boel Berner, Einar Holm, Kristina Vikström, Britt-Marie Drottz Sjöberg, EnaInfo/Edita , 2008, s. 21-39Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 118.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Ett kommersiellt medium2007Ingår i: Folkvett : organ för Vetenskap och folkbildning, ISSN 0283-0795, nr 2Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 119.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Examen om trädgårdstomtar2008Ingår i: Folkvett : organ för Vetenskap och folkbildning, ISSN 0283-0795, nr 3Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 120.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Experiments: Why and How?2016Ingår i: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 613-632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment, in the standard scientific sense of the term, is a procedure in which some object of study is subjected to interventions (manipulations) that aim at obtaining a predictable outcome or at least predictable aspects of the outcome. The distinction between an experiment and a non-experimental observation is important since they are tailored to different epistemic needs. Experimentation has its origin in pre-scientific technological experiments that were undertaken in order to find the best technological means to achieve chosen ends. Important parts of the methodological arsenal of modern experimental science can be traced back to this pre-scientific, technological tradition. It is claimed that experimentation involves a unique combination of acting and observing, a combination whose unique epistemological properties have not yet been fully clarified.

  • 121.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Extended antipaternalism2005Ingår i: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 97-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extended antipaternalism means the use of antipaternalist arguments to defend activities that harm ( consenting) others. As an example, a smoker's right to smoke is often invoked in defence of the activities of tobacco companies. It can, however, be shown that antipaternalism in the proper sense does not imply such extended antipaternalism. We may therefore approve of Mill's antipaternalist principle ( namely, that the only reason to interfere with someone's behaviour is to protect others from harm) without accepting activities that harm ( consenting) others. This has immediate consequences for the ethics of public health. An antipaternalist need not refrain from interfering with activities such as the marketing of tobacco or heroin, boxing promotion, driving with unbelted passengers, or buying sex from voluntary'' prostitutes.

  • 122.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Fallacies of risk2004Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 353-360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to traditional fallacies such as ad hominem, discussions of risk contain logical and argumentative fallacies that are specific to the subject-matter. Ten such fallacies are identified, that can commonly be found in public debates on risk. They are named as follows: the sheer size fallacy, the converse sheer size fallacy, the fallacy of naturalness, the ostrich's fallacy, the proof-seeking fallacy, the delay fallacy, the technocratic fallacy, the consensus fallacy, the fallacy of pricing, and the infallibility fallacy.

  • 123.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Falsificationism Falsified2006Ingår i: Foundations of Science, ISSN 1233-1821, E-ISSN 1572-8471, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 275-286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 124.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Crop Prod Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Farmers' experiments and scientific methodology2019Ingår i: European Journal for Philosophy of Science, ISSN 1879-4912, E-ISSN 1879-4920, Vol. 9, nr 3, artikel-id UNSP 32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers all over the world perform experiments, and have done so since long before modern experimental science and its recognized forerunners. There is a rich anthropological literature on these experiments, but the philosophical issues that they give rise to have not received much attention. Based on the anthropological literature, this study investigates methodological and philosophical issues pertaining to farmers' experiments, including the choice of interventions (work methods etc.) to be tested, the planning of experiments, and the use of control fields and other means to deal with confounding factors. Farmers' experiments have some advantages over the field trials of agricultural scientists (more replications, studies performed under the relevant local conditions), but also some comparative disadvantages (less stringent controls, less precise evaluations). The two experimental traditions are complementary, and neither of them can replace the other. Several aspects of farmers' experiments are shown to have a direct bearing on central topics in the philosophy of science.

  • 125.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Filosofiska perspektiv på risk och säkerhet2009Ingår i: Tvärsnitt, ISSN 0348-7997, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 126.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Finite Contractions on Infinite Belief Sets2012Ingår i: Studia Logica: An International Journal for Symbolic Logic, ISSN 0039-3215, E-ISSN 1572-8730, Vol. 100, nr 5, s. 907-920Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contractions on belief sets that have no finite representation cannot be finite in the sense that only a finite number of sentences is removed. However, such contractions can be delimited so that the actual change takes place in a logically isolated, finite-based part of the belief set. A construction that answers to this principle is introduced, and is axiomatically characterized. It turns out to coincide with specified meet contraction.

  • 127.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Five caveats for risk–risk analysis2016Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, s. 1-4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk analysis should be symmetrical in the sense that when evaluating an option for decision-making, we assess the risks that it may increase in the same way as those that it may decrease. However, implementing such symmetry is not always easy. In this contribution, five complications that have to be dealt with are introduced and briefly discussed: (1) We need to take all types of advantages and disadvantages into account, not only the risks. (2) There is more than one way to weigh risks against each other. (3) Decision-makers may legitimately put more weight on the direct effects of their decisions than on more indirect and uncertain effects, in particular, if the latter fall outside of their area of responsibility. (4) When a trade-off between risks is unsatisfactory, we should search for innovative solutions that make the trade-off unnecessary. (5) An exclusive focus on risks does not solve the incommensurability problem.

  • 128.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Formalization in philosophy2011Ingår i: Philosophical Analysis, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 3-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 129.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Formalization in philosophy2000Ingår i: Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, ISSN 1079-8986, E-ISSN 1943-5894, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 162-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantages and disadvantages of formalization in philosophy are summarized. It is concluded that formalized philosophy is an endangered speciality that needs to be revitalized and to increase its interactions with non-formalized philosophy. The enigmatic style that is common in philosophical logic must give way to explicit discussions of the problematic relationship between formal models and the philosophical concepts and issues that motivated their development.

  • 130.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Fran esoterisk etik till moralisk pluralism: Om målsättningsparadoxer i moralfilosofin2010Ingår i: Etiska undersökningar: Om samhällsmoral, etisk teori och teologi / [ed] Elena Namli, Per Sundman, Susanne Wigorts Yngvesson, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2010Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 131.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    From Latin to Linguistic Confusion to English: Language Shifts in Philosophy2011Ingår i: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 132.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    From the casino to the jungle: Dealing with uncertainty in technological risk management2009Ingår i: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 168, nr 3, s. 423-432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clear-cut cases of decision-making under risk (known probabilities) are unusual in real life. The gambler's decisions at the roulette table are as close as we can get to this type of decision-making. In contrast, decision-making under uncertainty (unknown probabilities) can be exemplified by a decision whether to enter a jungle that may contain unknown dangers. Life is usually more like an expedition into an unknown jungle than a visit to the casino. Nevertheless, it is common in decision-supporting disciplines to proceed as if reasonably reliable probability estimates were available for all possible outcomes, i.e. as if the prevailing epistemic conditions were analogous to those of gambling at the roulette table. This mistake can be called the tuxedo fallacy. It is argued that traditional engineering practices such as safety factors and multiple safety barriers avoid this fallacy and that they therefore manage uncertainty better than probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). PRA is a useful tool, but it must be supplemented with other methods in order not to limit the analysis to dangers that can be assigned meaningful probability estimates.

  • 133.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Gender Issues in Climate Adaptation2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 134.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Genetic risk assessment from an ethical point of view2018Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 206-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution provides analyses of four ethically problematic issues in genetic risk assessment and management. First, should we require a positive risk-benefit balance for each concerned individual, or is it sufficient that the total sum of benefits outweighs the total sum of risks? Secondly, should sensitive groups have special protection, and in that case with what types of measures? Thirdly, what types of measures should be taken to protect against the risks associated with teratogenic, embryotoxic and foetotoxic agents? Fourthly, how should we deal with the new issues relating to equity and to group-based risk assessment that genomic medicine gives rise to?

  • 135.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Global and Iterated Contraction and Revision: An Exploration of Uniform and Semi-Uniform Approaches2012Ingår i: Journal of Philosophical Logic, ISSN 0022-3611, E-ISSN 1573-0433, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 143-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to clarify the problems of iterated (global) belief change it is useful to study simple cases, in particular consecutive contractions by sentences that are both logically and epistemically independent. Models in which the selection mechanism is kept constant are much more plausible in this case than what they are in general. One such model, namely uniform specified meet contraction, has the advantage of being closely connected with the AGM model. Its properties seem fairly adequate for the intended type of contraction. However, the revision operator based on it via the Levi identity collapses into an implausible operation that loses all old information when revising by new information. A weaker version, semi-uniform specified meet contraction, avoids the collapse but has the disadvantage of a remarkably weak logic. It is left as an open issue whether there is an intermediate class of contraction operators that yields a more satisfactory logic.

  • 136.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Great Uncertainty about Small  Things2006Ingår i: Nanotechnology Challenges: Implications for Philosophy, Ethics and Society / [ed] Joachim Schummer and Davis Baird, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing , 2006, s. 315-325Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 137.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Infrastruktur.
    Great Uncertainty about Small  Things2004Ingår i: Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology, ISSN 1091-8264, E-ISSN 1091-8264, Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 26-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 138.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Homoeopathy and consumers' right to know2013Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 274, nr 5, s. 493-493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 139.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    HOW CONNECTED ARE THE MAJOR FORMS OF IRRATIONALITY?: AN ANALYSIS OF PSEUDOSCIENCE, SCIENCE DENIAL, FACT RESISTANCE AND ALTERNATIVE FACTS2018Ingår i: METODE SCIENCE STUDIES JOURNAL, ISSN 2174-3487, nr 8, s. 125-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Science is a factfinding practice, but there are many other factfinding practices that apply largely the same patterns of reasoning in order to achieve as reliable information as possible in empirical issues. The factfinding practices form in their turn a subcategory of rational discourse, a wider category that also encompasses argumentation on nonempirical issues. Based on these categories, it is easy to see the relationship between on the one hand pseudoscience, and on the other hand fact resistance, disinformation, and fallacies of reasoning. The flaws in argumentation are similar, and the main difference is whether or not the subject matter falls within or without the realm of science.

  • 140.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    How to be Cautious but Open to Learning: Time to Update Biotechnology and GMO Legislation2016Ingår i: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 36, nr 8, s. 1513-1517Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Precautionary measures to protect human health and the environment should be science based. This implies that they should be directed at a potential danger for which there is credible scientific evidence (although that evidence need not be conclusive). Furthermore, protective measures should be updated as relevant science advances. This means that decisionmakers should be prepared to strengthen the precautionary measures if the danger turns out to be greater than initially suspected, and to reduce or lift them, should the danger prove to be smaller. Most current legislation on agricultural biotechnology has not been scientifically updated. Therefore, it reflects outdated criteria for identifying products that can cause problems. Modern knowledge in genetics, plant biology, and ecology has provided us with much better criteria that risk analysts can use to identify the potentially problematic breeding projects at which precautionary measures should be directed. Legislation on agricultural biotechnology should be scientifically updated. Furthermore, legislators should learn from this example that regulations based on the current state of science need to have inbuilt mechanisms for revisions and adjustments in response to future developments in science.

  • 141.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    How to Define: A Tutorial2006Ingår i: Princípios, Revista de Filosofia, ISSN 0104-8694, Vol. 13, nr 19-20, s. 5-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 142.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    How to Perform an Ethical Risk Analysis (eRA)2018Ingår i: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 38, nr 9, s. 1820-1829Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethical analysis is often needed in the preparation of policy decisions on risk. A three-step method is proposed for performing an ethical risk analysis (eRA). In the first step, the people concerned are identified and categorized in terms of the distinct but compatible roles of being risk-exposed, a beneficiary, or a decisionmaker. In the second step, a more detailed classification of roles and role combinations is performed, and ethically problematic role combinations are identified. In the third step, further ethical deliberation takes place, with an emphasis on individual risk-benefit weighing, distributional analysis, rights analysis, and power analysis. Ethical issues pertaining to subsidiary risk roles, such as those of experts and journalists, are also treated in this phase. An eRA should supplement, not replace, a traditional risk analysis that puts emphasis on the probabilities and severities of undesirable events but does not cover ethical issues such as agency, interpersonal relationships, and justice.

  • 143.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Hur väger man miljönytta mot kostnad?2006Ingår i: Vägar till ett effektivt miljöarbete / [ed] Karin Edvardsson & Sven Ove Hansson, Boréa Bokförlag, 2006, 1Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 144.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Hypothetical retrospection2007Ingår i: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447, Vol. 10, s. 145-157Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Moral theory has mostly focused on idealized situations in which the morally relevant properties of human actions can be known beforehand. Here, a framework is proposed that is intended to sharpen moral intuitions and improve moral argumentation in problems involving risk and uncertainty. Guidelines are proposed for a systematic search of suitable future viewpoints for hypothetical retrospection. In hypothetical retrospection, a decision is evaluated under the assumption that one of the branches of possible future developments has materialized. This evaluation is based on the deliberator's present values, and each decision is judged in relation to the information available when it was taken. The basic decision rule is to choose an alternative that comes out as morally acceptable (permissible) from all hypothetical retrospections.

  • 145.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Ideal Worlds: Wishful Thinking in Deontic Logic2006Ingår i: Studia Logica: An International Journal for Symbolic Logic, ISSN 0039-3215, E-ISSN 1572-8730, Vol. 82, s. 329-336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ideal world semantics of standard deontic logic identifies our obligations with how we would act in an ideal world. However, to act as if one lived in an ideal world is bad moral advice, associated with wishful thinking rather than well-considered moral deliberation. Ideal world semantics gives rise to implausible logical principles, and the metaphysical arguments that have been put forward in its favour turn out to be based on a too limited view of truth-functional representation. It is argued that ideal world semantics should be given up in favour of other, more plausible uses of possible worlds for modelling normative subject-matter.

  • 146.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    Implant ethics2005Ingår i: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 31, nr 9, s. 519-525Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Implant ethics is defined here as the study of ethical aspects of the lasting introduction of technological devices into the human body. Whereas technological implants relieve us of some of the ethical problems connected with transplantation, other difficulties arise that are in need of careful analysis. A systematic approach to implant ethics is proposed. The major specific problems are identified as those concerning end of life issues (turning off devices), enhancement of human capabilities beyond normal levels, mental changes and personal identity, and cultural effects.

  • 147.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Improvement principles2019Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 69, s. 33-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The improvement principles are a group of safety principles whose central message is that no risk level above zero is fully satisfactory, and that we should therefore always strive to improve safety. The major safety principles in this group are: as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), best available technology (BAT), the substitution principle, vision zero, and continuous improvement. Method: This article investigates their similarities and differences, the ways in which they can incorporate compromises with objectives other than safety, and the difficulties that may arise in their application. A particular emphasis is put on comparisons with two major competing groups of principles, namely acceptance principles, which draw a sharp line between acceptable and unacceptable states of affairs, and weighing principles such as CBA that search for an optimized compromise between safety and other objectives. Results: In comparison to their main competitors, the improvement principles have the important advantage of consistently encouraging safety enhancements. However, some of the problems in their application can probably best be tackled by including them in a combined approach that also makes use of acceptance and/or weighing principles. Two such combined approaches are proposed. The choice between them should be based on the underlying value structure of the decision problem. Practical applications: Guidance is given for the choice of safety principles and for the combined use of more than one such principle.

  • 148.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    In defence of deontic diversity2019Ingår i: Journal of logic and computation (Print), ISSN 0955-792X, E-ISSN 1465-363X, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 349-367Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The normative terms of natural language have a variety of usages, and their logical properties differ between these usages. Some of the differences are difficult to discern in natural language, but may be easier to keep apart with the more precise tools of a formal language. We can therefore use the resources of deontic logic to discover and distinguish among different meanings of the deontic terms in natural language. Some of the ingrained disagreements among deontic logicians may also be resolvable if we recognize that the different viewpoints correspond to different meanings of the normative terms of ordinary language. This is illustrated with the diversity in the meanings of both prescriptive and permissive predicates.

  • 149.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    In praise of full meet contraction2006Ingår i: Análisis Filosófico, ISSN 1851-9636, Vol. 26, s. 134-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Full meet contraction, that was devised by Carlos Alchourrón and David Makinson in the early 1980' s, has often been overlooked since it is not in itself a plausible contraction operator. However, it is a highly useful building-block in the construction of composite contraction operators. In particular, all plausible contraction operators can be reconstructed so that the outcome of contracting a belief set K by a sentence p is defined as K ∼ f (p), where ∼ is full meet contraction and f a sentential selector, i.e. a function to and from sentences. This paper investigates the logic of full meet contraction. Seven properties of this operation are presented that contribute to making it useful as a building-block: (1) Full meet contraction is a purely logical operation. (2) It retains finitebasedness of the belief set. (3) It is the inclusion-maximal contraction that removes all sentences that can contribute to implying the input sentence. (4) It is the inclusion-maximal contraction that removes all non-tautologous consequences of the input sentence. (5) Almost all contractions can be reconstructed as full meet contraction. (6) Full meet contraction allows for recovery of the input sentence. (7) Full meet contraction provides a unified account of multiple and singleton contraction.

  • 150.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Index of Swedish Theses in Philosophy 1997-20062007Ingår i: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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