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  • 1051. Włodarczak, M.
    et al.
    Heldner, M.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Communicative needs and respiratory constraints2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, INTERSPEECH, International Speech Communication Association, 2015, s. 3051-3055Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates timing of communicative behaviour with respect to speaker's respiratory cycle. The data is drawn from a corpus of multiparty conversations in Swedish. We find that while longer utterances (> 1 s) are tied, predictably, primarily to exhalation onset, shorter vocalisations are spread more uniformly across the respiratory cycle. In addition, nods, which are free from any respiratory constraints, are most frequently found around exhalation offsets, where respiratory requirements for even a short utterance are not satisfied. We interpret the results to reflect the economy principle in speech production, whereby respiratory effort, associated primarily with starting a new respiratory cycle, is minimised within the scope of speaker's communicative goals. Copyright

  • 1052. Yang, Y.
    et al.
    Welch, G. F.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Himonides, E.
    Pedagogical strategies for ensuring the continued survival of China´s musical folksong heritage:: A case study2007Ingår i: Proceedings of APSMER 2007, 6th Asia-Pacific Society for Music Education Research, 2007, s. 37-38Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1053. Yang, Yang
    et al.
    Welch, Graham
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Himonides, Evangelos
    Tuning Features of Chinese Folk Song Singing: A Case Study of Hua'er Music2015Ingår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 426-432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The learning and teaching of different singing styles, such as operatic and Chinese folk singing, was often found to be very challenging in professional music education because of the complexity of varied musical properties and vocalizations. By studying the acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice, this study identified distinctive tuning characteristics of a particular folk music in China-Hua'er music-to inform the ineffective folk singing practices, which were hampered by the neglect of inherent tuning issues in music. Methods. Thirteen unaccompanied folk song examples from four folk singers were digitally audio recorded in a sound studio. Using an analyzing toolkit consisting of Praat, PeakFit, and MS Excel, the fundamental frequencies (F-0) of these song examples were extracted into sets of "anchor pitches" mostly used, which were further divided into 253 F-0 clusters. The interval structures of anchor pitches within each song were analyzed and then compared across 13 examples providing parameters that indicate the tuning preference of this particular singing style. Results. The data analyses demonstrated that all singers used a tuning pattern consisting of five major anchor pitches suggesting a nonequal-tempered bias in singing. This partly verified the pentatonic scale proposed in previous empirical research but also argued a potential misunderstanding of the studied folk music scale that failed to take intrinsic tuning issues into consideration. Conclusions. This study suggests that, in professional music training, any tuning strategy should be considered in terms of the reference pitch and likely tuning systems. Any accompanying instruments would need to be tuned to match the underlying tuning bias.

  • 1054. Yang, Yi-Fan
    et al.
    Hwang, Sheue-Ling
    Schenkman, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    An improved Web search engine for visually impaired users2012Ingår i: Universal Access in the Information Society, ISSN 1615-5289, E-ISSN 1615-5297, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 113-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Google search engine was studied as a Web prototype to be modified and improved for blind users. A Specialized Search Engine for the Blind (SSEB) was developed with an accessible interface and improved functions (searching assistance functions, user-centered functions, and specialized design for the blind). An experiment was conducted with twelve participants, both blind and sighted, to verify the effects of SSEB. The performance was better with the SSEB than with the Google search engine, and the participants also showed higher satisfactions with the SSEB. Interface considerations for designing an accessible Web site for blind users are important. The users of SSEB could in the future be expanded to include most, if not all, visually impaired people, since the World Wide Web and all Internet resources should ideally be accessible to everyone.

  • 1055. Zellers, M.
    et al.
    House, David
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Alexanderson, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Prosody and hand gesture at turn boundaries in Swedish2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Speech Prosody, International Speech Communications Association , 2016, s. 831-835Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to ensure smooth turn-taking between conversational participants, interlocutors must have ways of providing information to one another about whether they have finished speaking or intend to continue. The current work investigates Swedish speakers’ use of hand gestures in conjunction with turn change or turn hold in unrestricted, spontaneous speech. As has been reported by other researchers, we find that speakers’ gestures end before the end of speech in cases of turn change, while they may extend well beyond the end of a given speech chunk in the case of turn hold. We investigate the degree to which prosodic cues and gesture cues to turn transition in Swedish face-to-face conversation are complementary versus functioning additively. The co-occurrence of acoustic prosodic features and gesture at potential turn boundaries gives strong support for considering hand gestures as part of the prosodic system, particularly in the context of discourse-level information such as maintaining smooth turn transition.

  • 1056.
    Zellers, Margaret
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Perception of pitch tails at potential turn boundaries in Swedish2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, 2014, s. 1944-1948Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a number of languages, intonational patterns at prosodic boundaries are considered to be relevant for turn transition or turn hold. A perception experiment tested the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) peak height and rising final contours on Swedish listeners’ judgment about whether a speaker wanted to hold the turn. While F0 peak height, as has been previously shown, did influence listeners’ judgments, the end height of rising pitch tails apparently did not influence listeners’ judgments about whether a speaker planned to continue talking, even though they showed sensitivity to the differences in a discrimination task. The differences in responses in the tasks, as well as the difference from results found for other languages, may indicate that listeners used comparative prominence to guide their judgments, rather than intonation playing a direct role in the turn-transition system.

  • 1057.
    Zellers, Margaret
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Pitch and lengthening as cues to turn transition in Swedish2013Ingår i: Proceedings of Interspeech 2013, 2013, s. 248-252Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many cases of turn transition in conversation, a new speaker may respond to phonetic cues from the end of the prior turn, including variation in prosodic features such as pitch and final lengthening. Although consistent pitch and lengthening features are well-established for some languages at potential points of turn transition, this is not necessarily the case for Swedish. The current study uses a two-alternative forced choice task to investigate how variation in pitch contour and lengthening at the ends of syntactically complete turns can influence listeners’ expectations of turn hold or turn transition. Both lengthening and pitch contour features were found to influence listeners’ judgments about whether turn transition would occur, with shorter length and higher final pitch peaks associated with turn hold. Furthermore, listeners were more certain about their judgments when asked about turn-hold rather than turn-change, suggesting an imbalance in the strength of turn-hold versus turn-transition cues.

  • 1058.
    Zellers, Margaret
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation. University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Prosodic Variation and Segmental Reduction and Their Roles in Cuing Turn Transition in Swedish2017Ingår i: Language and Speech, ISSN 0023-8309, E-ISSN 1756-6053, Vol. 60, nr 3, s. 454-478Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prosody has often been identified alongside syntax as a cue to turn hold or turn transition in conversational interaction. However, evidence for which prosodic cues are most relevant, and how strong those cues are, has been somewhat scattered. The current study addresses prosodic cues to turn transition in Swedish. A perception study looking closely at turn changes and holds in cases where the syntax does not lead inevitably to a particular outcome shows that Swedish listeners are sensitive to duration variations, even in the very short space of the final unstressed syllable of a turn, and that they may use pitch cues to a lesser extent. An investigation of production data indicates that duration, and to some extent segmental reduction, demonstrate consistent variation in relation to the types of turn boundaries they accompany, while fundamental frequency and glottalization do not. Taken together, these data suggest that duration may be the primary cue to turn transition in Swedish conversation, rather than fundamental frequency, as some other studies have suggested.

  • 1059.
    Zellers, Margaret
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    House, David
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Parallels between hand gestures and acoustic prosodic features in turn-taking2015Ingår i: 14th International Pragmatics Conference, Antwerp, Belgium, 2015, s. 454-455Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1060.
    Zellers, Margaret
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Ogden, Richard
    Exploring Interactional Features with Prosodic Patterns2014Ingår i: Language and Speech, ISSN 0023-8309, E-ISSN 1756-6053, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 285-309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study adopts a multiple-methods approach to the investigation of prosody, drawing on insights from a quantitative methodology (experimental prosody research) as well as a qualitative one (conversation analysis). We use a k-means cluster analysis to investigate prosodic patterns in conversational sequences involving lexico-semantic contrastive structures. This combined methodology demonstrates that quantitative/statistical methods are a valuable tool for making relatively objective characterizations of acoustic features of speech, while qualitative methods are essential for interpreting the quantitative results. We find that in sequences that maintain global prosodic characteristics across contrastive structures, participants orient to interactional problems, such as determining who has the right to the floor, or avoiding disruption of an ongoing interaction. On the other hand, in sequences in which the global prosody is different across contrastive structures, participants do not generally appear to be orienting to such problems of alignment. Our findings expand the interpretation of "contrastive prosody" that is commonly used in experimental prosody approaches, while providing a way for conversation-analytic research to improve quantification and generalizability of findings.

  • 1061. Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Kjellström, Hedvig
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Look but Don’t Stare: Mutual Gaze Interaction in Social Robots2017Ingår i: 9th International Conference on Social Robotics, ICSR 2017, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10652, s. 556-566Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual gaze is a powerful cue for communicating social attention and intention. A plethora of studies have demonstrated the fundamental roles of mutual gaze in establishing communicative links between humans, and enabling non-verbal communication of social attention and intention. The amount of mutual gaze between two partners regulates human-human interaction and is a sign of social engagement. This paper investigates whether implementing mutual gaze in robotic systems can achieve social effects, thus to improve human robot interaction. Based on insights from existing human face-to-face interaction studies, we implemented an interactive mutual gaze model in an embodied agent, the social robot head Furhat. We evaluated the mutual gaze prototype with 24 participants in three applications. Our results show that our mutual gaze model improves social connectedness between robots and users.

  • 1062.
    Zimmerer, Frank
    et al.
    Saarland University.
    Andreeva, Bistra
    Saarland University.
    Möbius, Bernd
    Saarland University.
    Malisz, Zofia
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Ferragne, Emmanuel
    CNRS Université Lyon 2.
    Pellegrino, François
    CNRS Université Lyon 2.
    Brandt, Erika
    Saarland University.
    Perzeption von Sprechgeschwindigkeit und der (nicht nachgewiesene) Einfluss von Surprisal2017Ingår i: ESSV - 28. Konferenz Elektronische Sprachsignalverarbeitung 2017, Saarbrücken, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [de]

    In zwei Perzeptionsexperimenten wurde die Perzeption von Sprech- geschwindigkeit untersucht. Ein Faktor, der dabei besonders im Zentrum des In- teresses steht, ist Surprisal, ein informationstheoretisches Maß für die Vorhersag- barkeit einer linguistischen Einheit im Kontext. Zusammengenommen legen die Ergebnisse der Experimente den Schluss nahe, dass Surprisal keinen signifikanten Einfluss auf die Wahrnehmung von Sprechgeschwindigkeit ausübt. 

  • 1063.
    Öberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Askenfelt, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Acoustical and perceptual influence of duplex stringing in grand pianos2012Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 131, nr 1, s. 856-871Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the acoustical and perceptual influence of the string parts outside the speaking length in grand pianos (front and rear duplex strings). Acoustical measurements on a grand piano in concert condition were conducted, measuring the fundamental frequencies of all main and duplex strings in the four octaves D4-C8. Considerable deviations from the nominal harmonic relations between the rear duplex and main string frequencies, as described by the manufacturer in a patent, were observed. Generally the rear duplex strings were tuned higher than the nominal harmonic relations with average and median deviations approaching _50 cent. Single keys reached +190 and -100 cent. The spread in deviation from harmonic relations within trichords was also substantial with average and median values around 25 cent, occasionally reaching 60 cent. Contributions from both front and rear duplex strings were observed in the bridge motion and sound. The audibility of the duplex strings was studied in an ABX listening test. Complete dampening of the front duplex was clearly perceptible both for an experiment group consisting of musicians and a control group with naive subjects. The contribution from the rear duplex could also be perceived, but less pronounced.

  • 1064.
    Öster, Anne-Marie
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Computer-based speech therapy using visual feedback with focus on children with profound hearing impairments2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents work in the area of computer-based speech therapy using different types of visual feedback to replace the auditory feedback channel. The study includes diagnostic assessment methods prior to therapy, type of therapy design, and type of visual feedback for different users during different stages of therapy for increasing the efficiency. The thesis focuses on individual computer-based speech therapy (CBST) for profoundly hearing-impaired children as well as for computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) for teaching and training the prosody of a second language. Children who are born with a profound hearing loss have no acoustic speech target to imi¬tate and compare their own production with. Therefore, they develop no spontaneous speech but have to learn speech through vision, tactile sensation and, if possible, residual hear¬ing. They have to rely on the limited visibility of phonetic features in learning oral speech and on orosensory-motor control in maintaining speech movements. These children constitute a heterogeneous group needing an individualized speech therapy. This is because their possibilities to communicate with speech depend not only on the amount of hearing, as measured by pure-tone audiometry, but also on the quality of the hearing sensa¬tion and the use the children through training are able to make of their functional hearing for speech. Adult second language learners, on the other hand, have difficulties in perceiving the phonetics and prosody of a second language through audition, not because of a hearing loss but because they are not able to hear new sound contrasts because of interference with their native language. The thesis presents an overview of reports made concerning speech communication and profound hearing impairment such as studies about residual hearing for speech processing, effects of speech input limitations on speech production, interaction between individual deviations and speech intelligibility, and speech assessment methods of phonetic realizations of phonological systems. Finally, through several clinical evaluation studies of three Swedish computer-based therapy systems, concerning functionality, efficiency, types of visual feedback, therapy design, and practical usability for different users, important recommendations are specified for future developments.

19202122 1051 - 1064 av 1064
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