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  • 10651.
    Zäll, Emma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Footbridge Dynamics: Human-Structure Interaction2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For aesthetic reasons and due to an increased demand for cost-effective and environmentally friendly civil engineering structures, there is a trend in designing light and slender structures. Consequently, many modern footbridges are susceptible to excessive vibrations caused by human-induced loads. To counteract this, today's design guidelines for footbridges generally require verification of the comfort criteria for footbridges with natural frequencies in the range of pedestrian step frequencies. To ensure that a certain acceleration limit is not exceeded, the guidelines provide simplified methodologies for vibration serviceability assessment.

    However, shortcomings of these methodologies have been identified. First, for certain footbridges, human-structure interaction (HSI) effects might have a significant impact on the dynamic response. One such effect is that the modal properties of the bridge change in the presence of a crowd; most importantly, the damping of the bridge is increased. If this effect is neglected, predicted acceleration levels might be overestimated. Second, as a running person induces a force of greater amplitude than a walking person, a single runner might cause a footbridge to vibrate excessively. Hence, the running load case is highly relevant. These two aspects have in common that they are disregarded in existing design guidelines.

    For the stated reasons, the demand for improvements of the guidelines is currently high and, prospectively, it might be necessary to require the consideration of both the HSI effect and running loads. Therefore, this licentiate thesis aims at deepening the understanding of these subjects, with the main focus being placed on the HSI effect and, more precisely, on how it can be accounted for in an efficient way.

    A numerical investigation of the HSI effect and its impact on the vertical acceleration response of a footbridge was performed. The results show that the HSI effect reduces the peak acceleration and that the greatest reduction is obtained for a crowd to bridge frequency ratio close to unity and a high crowd to bridge mass ratio. Furthermore, the performance of two simplified modelling approaches for consideration of the HSI effect was evaluated. Both simplified models can be easily implemented and proved the ability to predict the change in modal properties as well as the structural response of the bridge. Besides that, the computational cost was reduced, compared to more advanced models.

    Moreover, a case study comprising field tests and simulations was performed to investigate the effect of runners on footbridges. The acceleration limit given in the design guideline was exceeded for one single person running across the bridge while a group of seven people walking across the bridge did not cause exceedance of the limit. Hence, it was concluded that running loads require consideration in the design of a footbridge.

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  • 10652.
    Zäll, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Andersson, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges. Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Ülker-Kaustell, Mahir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges. Tyrens AB, Sweden.
    Karoumi, Raid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    An efficient approach for considering the effect of human-structure interaction on footbridges2017In: X International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2017, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 199, p. 2913-2918Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mainly because of the infamous incident with excessive vibrations of the London Millennium Bridge, the behavior of lively footbridges has been thoroughly studied lately. The liveliness of such bridges is strongly connected to various interaction effects between the pedestrians and the bridges. One such effect is the variation in the modal properties of the bridge, due to the presence of a crowd. In theoretical models of such systems, this is often accounted for by describing each pedestrian as a spring-mass-damper system, having its own dynamic properties, producing a time-variant system. A major drawback with models of this kind is that the computational time increases rapidly with the size of the system, i.e. for a larger crowd. Therefore, with the objective to reduce the computational time needed, this study focuses on describing vertical human-structure interaction by means of a simplified model. The paper describes a new methodology for taking this effect into consideration when predicting the dynamic response of a footbridge, subjected to human-induced, vertical loads. The method is used to predict the vertical bridge deck accelerations of a simply supported footbridge. The predictions produced by the proposed methodology are compared with existing models and it is shown that for certain bridges, it produces an accurate approximation at a significantly reduced computational cost.

  • 10653.
    Zäll, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Garmendia Purroy, Javier
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Andersson, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Ülker-Kaustell, Mahir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges. Tyréns AB.
    The effect of runners on footbridges - a case study2017In: Proceedings Footbridge Conference 2017, Berlin: Structurae , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increasing interest in recreational running, groups of jogging people becomes a more frequentload case on footbridges. The studies related to runners on footbridges are very limited and according tocurrent design guidelines, running loads need not being considered. This study aims at investigating if theeffect of running pedestrians on a footbridge is negligible. In order to do so, a case study comprising fieldtests and numerical simulations using three modelling approaches is performed. For a group of walkingpeople, the footbridge experiences accelerations well below the limit given by the design guidelines, while fora single person running, the acceleration limit is exceeded. Therefore, the main conclusion is that, in certaincases, it is highly motivated to include runners as a required load case in the design phase of a pedestrianbridge, even though walking might not cause any problems. Further, it is concluded that, for this particularbridge, two of the numerical models give desirable correspondence between simulations and measurements.

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  • 10654.
    Ásgrímsson, David Steinar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    González, Ignacio
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Salvi, Giampiero
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 7491, Norway.
    Karoumi, Raid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Bayesian Deep Learning for Vibration-Based Bridge Damage Detection2022In: Structural Integrity, Springer Nature , 2022, Vol. 21, p. 27-43Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A machine learning approach to damage detection is presented for a bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) system. The method is validated on the renowned Z24 bridge benchmark dataset where a sensor instrumented, three-span bridge was monitored for almost a year before being deliberately damaged in a realistic and controlled way. Several damage cases were successfully detected, making this a viable approach in a data-based bridge SHM system. The method addresses directly a critical issue in most data-based SHM systems, which is that the collected training data will not contain all natural weather events and load conditions. A SHM system that is trained on such limited data must be able to handle uncertainty in its predictions to prevent false damage detections. A Bayesian autoencoder neural network is trained to reconstruct raw sensor data sequences, with uncertainty bounds in prediction. The uncertainty-adjusted reconstruction error of an unseen sequence is compared to a healthy-state error distribution, and the sequence is accepted or rejected based on the fidelity of the reconstruction. If the proportion of rejected sequences goes over a predetermined threshold, the bridge is determined to be in a damaged state. This is a fully operational, machine learning-based bridge damage detection system that is learned directly from raw sensor data.

  • 10655.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Economics and Finance.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Resilience to Intentional Electromagnetic Interference Is Required for Connected Autonomous Vehicles2019In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 1552-1559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The connected autonomous vehicle (CAV) will never be completely autonomous; on the contrary, it will be heavily dependent on so-called vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) for its function. To deserve the trust of the general public, the vehicles as well as the intelligent transport system (ITS) infrastructure must be able to handle not only natural disturbances but also attacks of malicious nature. In this paper, we discuss the effects of antagonistic attacks using intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) and how the antagonistic nature of the threat renders probabilistic risk analysis inadequate for the defense of the vehicles and the infrastructure. Instead, we propose a shift toward resilience engineering and vulnerability analysis to manage antagonistic threats. Finally, we also give two examples of possible scenarios to illustrate the type of situations a CAV must be able to handle.

  • 10656.
    Åberg, Adam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Andreasson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Hyressättning vid nyproduktion: En jämförelse av presumtionshyra och bruksvärdeshyra2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In light of the current housing shortage, a presumptive rent was introduced in 2006, acost-based rental system for new production. The system has since been developed anddiscussed intensely in the following years, and on 31 May 2021, a new investigation will bepublished regarding market rent and the possible end of the presumption system.

    The purpose of this study is to examine through a literature review how approaches to thepresumption system have changed since its introduction in 2006, what opinions there areabout the transition phase from presumption rent to utility value rent and why one chooses arent regulation over another during new production.

    The thesis was carried out as a qualitative literature study where previous thesis, legal textsand investigations were used to build a database with material from all sources. Results andanalyzes are based on statements from the government, the Tenant union and the real estatecompanies.

    This thesis finds that the government and the real estate companies' approach to presumptiverent has become worse and worse as market rent is seen as a better alternative. The Tenantunion still has a positive view of the presumption system. The participant on the marketagrees that the first presumptive rents that will be phased in to utility value rent will beimplemented without major problems, however, there is a risk for later agreements. Realestate companies choose rental systems primarily according to which system provides thehighest rent, but other factors such as the security of a negotiated rent also play a role.

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  • 10657.
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    A Gap in the Grid: Attempts to introduce natural gas in Sweden 1967-19912013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis follows the process of introducing natural gas in Sweden and the construction of a Northern European gas grid from 1967 to 1991. Natural gas is a relatively unnoticed fuel in Sweden today, but this relative anonymity stands in contrast to an extensive historical activity that has taken place behind the scenes of Swedish energy policy. The single pipeline constructed between Denmark and Sweden in the early 1980s was both preceded and followed by many other attempts to construct a larger natural gas pipeline in the region made in the last 50 years. Åberg traces these attempts while discussing the complex and messy process of constructing and managing a transnational energy infrastructure.Åberg follows actors in Sweden and other countries in their attempts to negotiate and construct a natural gas infrastructure, and puts this process into a national as well as transnational context. The perceived risks and opportunities surrounding natural gas are examined, together with factors that have influenced the development of natural gas in a broader sense. By seeing the changing and messy natural gas projects as arenas where different actors construct and negotiate risks and opportunities, as well as contexualize the projects, Åberg shows how the natural gas sector in Sweden has evolved and taken shape.The study shows that natural gas in Sweden has suffered from unstable actor coalitions on different levels, a difficult market situation, and a changeful political context, especially with regard to energy policy. The import status of the fuel and the consequential transnationality of the natural gas infrastructure have also made the process of constructing a pipeline more complex. However, natural gas was introduced in Sweden, showing that when a strong enough actor coalition agreed that there was enough reason to warrant a natural gas introduction and was ready to join this endeavor, a connection could be achieved. This puts into question to what degree general explanations in terms of finance and policy drive energy decisions, and makes a case for showing how these explanations are adapted into their social and historical contexts in sometimes surprising ways.

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    A Gap in the Grid Anna Åberg
  • 10658.
    Åberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Foconi, Jacob
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Circular Construction: A Study of Reuse Practices in the Construction Industry from a Consultant´s Perspective2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In light of the need to reduce resource usage and mitigate the climate impact of the Swedish construction industry, the adoption of reusing secondary materials has gained significant attention as an alternative construction process. This approach not only addresses environmental concerns, but also aims to transition from the prevailing "make-take-waste" system of resource management. Reuse, recognized as a circular method, holds promise for the construction industry's efforts to reduce the embodied environmental impact from construction. However, the identification of key actors responsible for spearheading the implementation of reuse to make it both economically and environmentally beneficial remains vague, creating an opportunity for consultancy firms to offer their expertise and knowledge in this domain. 

    This thesis explores the opportunities and challenges related to the implementation of reuse in the construction industry to formulate possibilities for consultants to introduce reuse in projects. This is done from the context of a Swedish consultancy company by using qualitative methods including a literature review and semi-structured interviews, to investigate different views and experiences of implementing reuse among a variety of actors in the construction process. Based on the results, analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that the project dependent nature of implementing reuse creates a division between the more optimistic views, who see benefits with initiating reuse in most projects, and the more restrained views, which raises the concern of how the benefits of reuse can be misinterpreted. There are two identified challenges that need to be met in order to make the benefits evident for all actors; to enhance the market for reuse in the industry through economic incentives and company driven initiatives, and to change the industry's mindset by prioritising repurposing of buildings and putting weight on coordination in the early stages of construction projects. Consultants can have a supporting role in the early stages of projects by coordinating the logistics and management of secondary materials, and consequently ease the pressure for other actors in the value chain. It is additionally shown that even if there is a wide range of expertise within the consultancy company, it can be hard to manage in order to maximise the benefits of reuse in projects.

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  • 10659.
    Åberg, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Ahmed, Nadim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Effektivisering av projekteringsarbete med hjälp av paramererstyrda familjer i Revit.2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 10660.
    Åhlander Pettersson, Victoria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Mattsson, Anton
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Kartläggning av problem vid projektering, installation och drift av värmepumpar2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to be able to perform energy efficiency measures in an existing building, and generate a good outcome, good knowledge of the project is required. This means that all disciplines must have a good cooperation and that each discipline must take responsibility for the task. It is not always that the outcome will be optimal. A summary in tabular form can clearly identify the frequent problems. This is done by highlighting the problems that arise in connection with the design, installation and operation of heat pumps in three different cases, generating a compiled table. The result shows that eight different problems occur and all results are explained and analyzed. By detecting weaknesses, and suggesting possible measures, problems with the design, installation and operation of heat pumps may decrease.

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  • 10661.
    Åhlund, A
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    En litteraturstudie kring luftkvalitet och SBS2007Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10662.
    Åhman, Hjalmar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Petersson, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Investment Effects from Swedish Real Estate Actors: Explained by Herding Behavior?2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effect that investments made by large real estate actors imply on property prices in certain classification codes and geographical areas. This was done by collecting data on transactions between 1996 and2020 for nine large real estate companies in Sweden and applying it to treatment effect regression models. Furthermore, it explains the effects by developing a reasoning for herding based on Lind and Lundström (2011), Hott (2012) and Ro, Gallimore, Clements, and Fan (2019). We found that when, historically, some of the companies invested, the prices increase in that area and classification code. The price increases are, according to the developed reasoning, explained by herding behavior. This means prices increases in certain areas are due to actors tending to mimic the investments made by large and influential real estate actors. The data sample consisted of a total of 133.704 transactions after exclusion, divided into all 21 counties in Sweden.

  • 10663.
    Åhs, Magnus
    et al.
    LTH.
    Bernstone, Christian
    Vattenfall AB.
    Gasch, Tobias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Application of a hygrothermal model to predict temperature and humidity development in the VeRCoRs benchmark case2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a multiphysics model developed to predict the internal temperature and moisture development in a concrete reactor containment at an early age. The work is a part of the benchmark study, VeRCoR, provided by EDF. The model was applied on an experimental reactor containment mock-up erected in the vicinity of Paris. The 3D geometry was provided from VeRCoRs. The model includes concrete hydration, heat release, chemical moisture binding, and a moisture transport model with relative humidity as a driving potential. Results from the simulation was compared with temperature sensors located in the mock-up. The model was found to be able to predict the temperature development at early age. There was no possibility to compare the relative humidity because of lack of humidity sensors.

  • 10664.
    Åhs, Magnus
    et al.
    Lund University, Building materials.
    Malm, Richard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Bernstone, Christian
    Vattenfall.
    Könönen, Mattias
    Vattenfall.
    Reaktorinneslutningars mekaniska långtidsbeteende2019Report (Refereed)
  • 10665.
    Åkerblom, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Jämförelse mellan ytterväggkonstruktioner: Komparera träregelväggar och väggar av Leca Isoblock2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many cities in Sweden suffer from a housing shortage, and simultaneously many of the homes that were built during miljonprogrammet are in dire need of both technical refurbishment and energy efficiency. The most common construction for load-bearing walls in smaller houses is the wooden stud wall. But many do not think about whether this is the best method to build load-bearing walls. Therefore, I have in this study chosen to compare wooden stud walls and walls built with Leca Isoblock to be able to find out if this construction would be better than the wooden stud wall.To find out which of these two methods is the best, four points were chosen to focus on. These points are: fire resistance, insulation ability, sound insulation and how good the constructions are from a construction perspective. To figure this out, construction examples from different suppliers have been used, as well as information from Boverket and Svensk Trä and from different product sheets.The result of this thesis is the following, both construction methods can achieve the same fire resistance. Both constructions will have no problems meeting the requirements for fire safety according to Boverket. Wooden stud walls in some cases offer a better U-value than a construction consisting of Leca Isoblock can offer. The wooden stud wall has a better noise reduction than Leca Isoblock. From a construktion perspective, no clear conclusion can be drawn. Because both constructions offer different benefits.Based on those four points, the wooden stud wall will be the best method to perform load-bearing exterior walls. This position will in the future be replaced by the development and normalization of the construction method with Leca Isoblock.

  • 10666.
    Åkerlund, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Opera i Stockholm, Värtahamnen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Opera längst ut på piren i Värtahamnen.

  • 10667.
    Åkerman, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Adaptiv pan-skärpning av DMC bilder2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004 Lantmäteriet (the national land survey of Sweden) acquired a digital full frame aerial camera, a Z/I Imaging DMC, that for each exposure gives a high resolution panchromatic black and white image (pan) and four-channel multispectral (MS) image with lower resolution. In the post processing software the pan and MS images are combined to a high resolution MS image, though pan-sharpening. Unfortunately the post processing did not work well enough for Lantmäteriet’s images, probably due to a higher altitude used. The pan-sharpening method used was an IHS method for three bands and where the fourth band was subtracted from the pan band. The relations between the bands were fixed. After the pan-sharpening it was no longer possible to compensate for the radiometric atmospheric and sensor effects (tonal adjustment).

    A new post processing software were created for the radiometric post processing of the DMC images, partly as part of this thesis. The goal with this report is to investigate the effect of doing the tonal adjustment prior to the pan-sharpening, to investigate if the method to find the relations between the MS bands and the pan band works and to investigate if the chosen pan-sharpening method gives a better, or worse, result than other, related pan-sharpening methods.

    The new post processing software was supposed to give four high resolution MS bands with-out disturbing effects from atmosphere and sensor. The RGB bands should also give natural colors. It is not obvious that the tonal adjustment can be done after the pan-sharpening and a tonal adjustment should give better conditions for a pan-sharpening with the same result all over the whole image. Of those reasons the tonal adjustment was done first. A least mean square adjustment was used to minimize the difference between the pan band and the mean pixel values of the stretched bands. The pan-sharpening was done with a four band version of Brovey. This has given a good result and has been used for all of Lantmäteriet’s DMC images.

    Two common pan-sharpening methods are IHS (Intensity, Hue, Saturation) and Brovey. The methods are explained and more methods are listed.

    A re-formulation of IHS, which originally only can use three bands, makes it possible to use it for more bands that three. There is also an explanation for why the IHS has a contrast enhanc-ing effect. It is also shown that if the method tweaked to reduce the tendency of color drift, the IHS can be reformulated into Brovey.

    Three tests are carried out where quantitative measures are calculated for different versions of pan-sharpening methods. The first test investigates the effect of tonal adjustment. The test cannot show that the pan-sharpening is improved by doing a tonal adjustment. At the same time the test shows that the tonal adjustment does not disturb the pan-sharpening, which also is valuable to know.The other test investigates the effect of pre-stretching the bands before the pan-sharpening, which is, just as expected, very important. With good stretching values several of the tested pan-sharpening methods shows similar results, and without stretching none of the results are good.The last test shows which of the tested pan-sharpening gives the best result. The two four band versions of IHS and Brovey give the best result, with a slight advantage for Brovey. Both of them are better than the three band versions tested.

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  • 10668.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    The role of high-speed rail in mitigating climate change: The Swedish case Europabanan from a life cycle perspective2011In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 208-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a life cycle perspective is used to analyse Europabanan, a proposed high-speed rail track in Sweden. The life cycle emissions reductions are found to be 550,000 tons of CO2-equivalents per annum by 2025/2030 with almost 60% of this coming from a shift from truck to rail freight and 40% from a shift from air and road travel to high-speed rail travel. In contexts similar to Sweden, it is thus an important issue whether a large increase is required in freight rail capacity anyway, since high-speed rail investments may not be justified for the passenger markets alone. The study also indicates that a substantial share of emissions due to construction of the new railway could be counterbalanced through the reduced need for building and maintaining roads and airports, and for manufacturing cars.

  • 10669.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Kamb, Anneli
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering..
    Nässén, Jonas
    Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Magnus
    Magnus Nilsson Produktion.
    Matti, Simon
    Political Science Unit, Luleå University of Technology & Centre for Collective Action Research, University of Gothenburg..
    Långväga resande i linje med klimatmålen2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 10670.
    Åkerman, Liam
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Den gröna milen: En GIS-analys av laddningsstationer i Hallands län2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines whether the existing network of public charging stations in Halland County is sufficient to meet the growing demand in line with the increasing number of electric cars, which in turn would help Sweden reach its long-term climate goals. In the context of this report, what is considered sufficient is defined using benchmarks from the European Union (EU) and the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA).

    To carry out the analysis, a map of public charging stations was created in ArcMap, to which geodata of county boundaries and road networks was added.

    According to the European Parliament's directive 2014/94, one charging point is required per ten electric cars - a ratio of 1:10. The ACEA provides a similar, but not identical, benchmark where they recommend a ratio of 1:7 in Sweden. Both of these benchmarks are exceeded by the current infrastructure according to results shown in this report, which achieves a ratio of 1:4.3. However, the ACEA also specify another benchmark - that 134 charging points are required per 100 km of road along the main corridors of the TEN-T network. In this context, the results of this report show that the existing network of public charging stations only number 118 per 100 km.

    Although it is reassuring that the existing infrastructure achieves two of the three outlined benchmarks, it should achieve all of them in order for it to be considered sufficient. The conclusion of this report is therefore that the current network of public charging stations is not sufficient. Additionally, it has in this report been observed that only 57% of the county’s population have one or more public charging stations within 2 km - further indicating that the current infrastructure does not provide sufficient coverage for the populace. Continued development and expansion of the charging infrastructure is necessary to support the increasing electrification of road traffic and contribute to achieving Sweden's long-term climate goals.

    Future studies in which other counties with different conditions than Halland County are examined could potentially offer valuable insights into how charging infrastructure varies between counties and where further investments may be needed to create a more homogeneous infrastructure in the country. Alternatively, a comprehensive national-level analysis could be conducted, providing a good overview of the infrastructure in the country overall. However, a challenge in such a study would be to determine where additional investments are needed, as the situation can vary significantly between counties. These differences may not be clearly visible if the study is conducted on a nation- wide scale, depending on the level of detail of the study.

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  • 10671.
    Ålander, Astrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Lundman, Astrid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The Future (of the) Office: A Scenario Study of what the Future Office could look like due to the Progress of Digitalisation2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examined the future office by interviewing 16 participants according to the Delphi method. Participants were given the opportunity to share their individual opinions related to ten introductory questions. All participants then continued the interview by participating in a feedback session that would form the basis of a future scenario for the office. According to the participants, the spread of Covid-19 has been a catalyst for the office's development. Environmental focus is high in the future when employees can take meetings from any place they prefer, instead of traveling the world to meet customers. Efficiency enables work regardless of workplace and thanks to digital tools and platforms, the employee can work anywhere at any time.

    What was somewhat more difficult to discern was the development of demand for offices. Although there were some aspects that all participants agreed on, it was possible to distinguish a lot of aspects that they thought about in different ways. There were different opinions from each stakeholder group regarding demand, rental levels, vacancies and other market factors that drive the market forward, as well as who will win and lose if the market moves on to a market characterised by flexible work.

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  • 10672.
    Åldstedt, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Malmeby, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Utveckling av köpcentrum: En studie av faktorer som ligger till grund för utveckling av köpcentrum i Stockholmsregionen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detaljhandeln har under de senaste tio åren ökat och konsumenten idag konsumerar allt mer. Detta har bidragit till att köpcentrumen har blivit en allt viktigare del i detaljhandelsmarknaden och konsumentens vardag. Köpsamhället har förändrats och konsumenten kräver idag mycket mer av sin shopping upplevelse. Hårda och mjuka faktorer har blivit viktigare att beakta vid utvecklingen av köpcentrum. De utländska aktörernas allt mera växande intresse har påverkat förvaltningen och utvecklingen av köpcentrum på den svenska marknaden och i kombination med den krävande konsumenten så måste köpcentrumen idag förändras allt oftare. I detta arbete har en studie gjorts  över sex stycken köpcentrum i Stockholmsregionen. Studien syftar på att undersöka vilka faktorer som ligger till grund för utveckling av ett köpcentrum samt om det i Stockholm pågår en "renoveringshets". En analys över varför vissa köpcentrum är framgångsrikare än andra har även gjorts. Betydelsen av utveckling och aktiv förvaltning har växt. När ett köpcentrum inte längre klarar av att möta behovet från konsumenter eller hyresgäster, om byggnadens tekniska standard inte är hållbar eller när konkurrensen blir för stor kan det behövas en utveckling av något slag. Utveckling kan även ses som en värdehöjande åtgärd för att säkra ägarnas investering och öka dess avkastning. Olika faktorer som påverkar utvecklingen kan vara marknad, koncept, design samt timingsfaktorer. Timingsfaktorn har tillsammans med aktiv förvaltning stor betydelse för hur framgångsrikt köpcentrumet kommer att vara. Den allt ökande takten på renoveringar i Stockholmsregionen har inget att göra med en hets på marknaden. En ökande detaljhandeln i kombination med allt mer krävande konsumenter har påverkat köpcentrumen och skapat behovet av utveckling. För att lyckas måste köpcentrumen kunna erbjuda mer än en vanlig shoppingupplevelse och en renovering är en del av den utvecklingen. Mervärden, ett slående koncept och en bra butiksmix är några av faktorer som har blivit allt viktigare på dagens marknad.

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  • 10673.
    Åslund, Johannes
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Vridning av stabiliserande torn av lådtvärsnitt med asymmetriska håltagningar i höga   byggnader2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10674.
    Óskarsson, Einar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Redistribution of bending moments in concrete slabs in the SLS2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The finite element method (FEM) is commonly used to design the reinforcement in concrete slabs. In order to simplify the analysis and to be able to utilize the superposition principle for evaluating the effect of load combinations, a linear analysis is generally adopted although concrete slabs normally have a pronounced non-linear response. This type of simplification in the modeling procedure will generally lead to unrealistic concentrations of cross-sectional moments and shear forces. Concrete cracks already at service loads, which leads to redistribution of moments and forces. The moment- and force-peaks, obtained through linear finite element analysis, can be redistributed to achieve a distribution more similar to what is seen in reality. The topic of redistribution is however poorly documented and design codes, such as the Eurocode for concrete structures, do not give descriptions of how to perform this in practice.

    In 2012, guidelines for finite element analysis for the design of reinforced concrete slabs were published in a joint effort between KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Chalmers University of Technology and ELU consulting engineers, which was financially supported by the Swedish Transport Administration. These guidelines aim to include the non-linear response of reinforced concrete into a linear analysis.

    In this thesis, the guidelines mentioned above are followed to obtain reinforcement plans based on crack control, for a fictitious case study bridge by means of a 3D finite element model. New models were then constructed for non-linear analyses, where the reinforcement plans were implemented into the models by means of both shell elements as well as a mixture of shell and solid elements. The results from the non-linear analyses have been compared to the assumptions given in the guidelines.

    The results from the non-linear analyses indicate that the recommendations given in the aforementioned guidelines are indeed reasonable when considering crack width control. The shell models yield crack widths equal to approximately half the design value. The solid models, however, yielded cracks widths that were 15 - 20$\%$ lower than the design value. The results show that many factors attribute to the structural behavior during cracking, most noticeably the fracture energy, a parameter not featured in the Eurocode for concrete structures.

    Some limitations of the models used in this thesis are mentioned as well as areas for further improvement.

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    Óskarsson_Examensarbete_2014
  • 10675.
    Öberg, Gustav
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Erfarenhetsåterföring: En väg till bättre anbud2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been done in collaboration with JM Entreprenad, a wholly owned subsidiary of JM AB. JM AB is one of Sweden's largest construction companies. The task has been to assist JM Entreprenad Region Hus with an investigation concerning how the experience feedback between Calculus Department and Production is working and to make suggestions for improvements.

    Experience feedback comprises collecting and reusing the experience and knowledge which comes from different parts of the organization and to use this knowledge as a basis for improvement of future work.

    There is currently no established procedures for how this experience feedback shall be carried out which is a shortcoming in the organization. To change this, the company should strive to become a learning organization and establish clear procedures for how this work shall be organized.

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  • 10676.
    Öberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Wiege, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Moisture risks with CLT-panels subjected to outdoor climate during construction: focus on mould and wetting processes2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When going through relevant research, moisture safety guidelines and talking to builders, moisture experts and architects it is clear - and not surprising - that water and wood make no easy combination. The experiences from building with cross laminated timber (CLT) differ from building sites and there are good and bad examples building without weather protection.

    In this study the moisture influence on CLT is analyzed. CLT is a type of massive wood with glued lamellas, increasing usage worldwide as structural elements in buildings. The bulk of the work is performed in the hygrothermal calculation tool WUFI(™). Focus is on the wetting process and the evaluation of mould risk from rain loads during production in Nordic climates. Subsequent drying after built into walls and floors is also evaluated.

    A vast literature survey is performed in order to compare and select material data for modelling CLT. Following the simulation work, moisture content, mould growth and volumetric distortion are judged both with and without weather protection. Results are also compared to measurement data from field tests.

    It is found that short building times are crucial, some weather protection is required all year around and early planning and constructing for moisture safety are crucial. The benefits of prefabrication and short building times using CLT should be exploited. If there is a risk of rainfall exceeding 10-20 mm, arrangements to divert rain loads should be undertaken. If the expected rain loads are above 40 mm or if the building time exceeds 2 weeks, a roof cover will be required. At air humidities averaging 80% and yearly rain exceeding 1200 mm, a complete building cover is recommended. A controlled environment may be expensive, but it speeds up production and shortens drying time.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Öberg & Wiege. 2018. Moisture risks with CLT-panels subjected to outdoor climate during construction-focus on mould and wetting processes.
  • 10677.
    Öberg, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Ståhlfors, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Materialegenskaper och dimensioneringsmetodik för vattenledningar: En sammanställning av de material som förekommer i Norrvattens ledningsnät samt dimensioneringsverktyg för plastledningar2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been conducted in response to a request by Norrvatten for an objective report concerning the materials used in their water supply infrastructure, with a focus on the typical damages linked to specific materials or manufacturing processes. Through interviews with well-informed experts we have received indications that the knowledge regarding the materials used in Norrvatten’s water pipes and said materials’ properties have declined over time, as the older generation of construction planners have left behind a knowledge gap.

    The purpose of the report is to give a good insight into the materials used in Norrvatten’s water supply infrastructure (specifically the pipes used). We claim that a knowledge of the materials used is necessary to analyze the correlation between leakage statistics and the properties of the materials used in the infrastructure.

    The level of information available varies between the different materials. This is mainly caused by the structure of the material and the difficulty in depicting a clear and objective picture of it. The materials and their information are divided into separate chapters to make it easier for the reader to understand the picture we are trying to create.

    Another important chapter in this report is the description of the methods of installation we have chosen to work with; these methods are buried pipelines but also two trenchless methods which are lining and pipe bursting. In reality many more methods that the ones described here exist, but many methods are similar and the ones presented here are those that are most commonly used. This chapter is directly linked to our dimensioning model for pipe replacements concerning strength in regard to earth pressure and traffic load, but also the tensile that occur primarily in the trenchless methods. The dimensionality model is constructed as an Excel document where the user – through utilizing some basic parameters – fills out the document and automatically receives results regarding whether or not the new pipes will withstand the stress it is exposed to.

    Based on the correlation between damage statistics and the use of different materials in the pipe infrastructure we attempt to provide an accurate picture of which materials we deem to be, generally speaking, the most appropriate to make use of.

     

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  • 10678.
    Öberg, Lukas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Systemanalys av plattbroar: En jämförelse inom FE-modellering och balk-/platteori2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    When Eurocodes was introduced, there was a requirement where the calculations had to take into consideration whether it's a slab or beam bridge. This means that calculations had to be made with softwares including plate theory.

    The object of this study is a slab bridge with endshields. The bridge is 66.95 meters long with a 14.38-meter-wide deck made of concrete. The deck is mounted on abutments with bearings and intermediate supports where the columns are fixed to the deck.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate if bridges defined as plates can be calculated using beam theory, as well as examining different modeling techniques in an attempt to evaluate how this will affect the results.

    A model using shell elements is established in BRIGADE/Plus and compared to a model in Strip Step 3 made out of beam elements. A base-model is also created in BRIGADE/Plus and is compared to the following modeling changes:

    • Couplings between supports and the plate, “point to surface” or “point to point”.
    • The bridge is modeled without wings to study the impact of the wings.
    • The bridge is modeled without columns to study the impact of the columns.

    When comparing the values obtained from the two different software’s regarding deadweight, the results were almost identical. This indicates that Strip Step 3 is a suitable tool for verifying models made in BRIGADE/Plus. When studying the results from load-combination 6.10.b (the combination used for dimensioning) small differences can be seen between the softwares. This concludes that it may be reasonable to use Strip Step 3 for this type of bridges. However, there are major differences between the software at the traffic load which should be considered.

    In order to simplify the modeling process ties between points (nodes) should be used. However, the results obtained over the supports must be ignored due to unrealistic values. When studying the impact of wings/columns it was confirmed that a difference of 10 % appeared. Modeling without wings/columns is not more time efficient either, with that in mind wings and columns should be used when modeling.

     

    Keywords: Plate theory, Beam theory, Strip Step 3, BRIGADE/Plus, FE-modeling

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  • 10679.
    Öberg Löfstrand, Leonard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Lagerstam, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Optimering av stämprivningstider: - En kvantitativ undersökning om stämprivningstider avbostadsbjälklag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When casting a residential floor, formwork and shore removal is an important element. There aresome doubts in the industry about when and how to remove the shores. There are instructionsavailable but they are often outdated and difficult to interpret. As a result, they are often notfollowed. Appliances such as measuring equipment and simulation software are available but areused sparingly. To avoid accidents and to ensure that the strength of the concrete is sufficientwithout appliances, excessive time margins are used. This will most likely result in unnecessarily longshoring times.During the course of the work, the subject will be studied in detail to create a clear picture of howthe many different factors of the casted floor influence each other. The purpose is to propose asuitable time to remove the shores. This is done in order to determine if there is improvementpotential, partly to improve the working environment, but also to review the instructions of theapproach.The methods used to reach the result are:• Study of the documents describing the procedure of shoring and reshoring• Calculate the compressive strength of the concrete with the device “BI Distant”• Simulate the compressive strength of the concrete in the program Hett 11.• Interviews by experts in the industry.The results show that the shores could theoretically be removed earlier compared to when they areusually removed in practice. One reason for this is that drying times are governing during theproduction. This means that increased concrete qualities and faster curing times than those thatwere planned, were used in construction, particularly at low temperatures. The conclusion is thatthere is an improvement potential in this area. Reshoring can be done only a few days after castingunder good conditions. The advantages of this are that the number of shores can be reduced. Thisleads to reduced rents, and the accessibility for the subsequent professionals and operations can beimproved.

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    Arbete med borttagna bilagor
  • 10680.
    Ödmark, Victoria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Samhällsfastigheter som investeringstrend: Hur kan priset motiveras utifrån det man vet om framtida kassaflöden?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a trend in the willingness to invest in public property, i.e. properties where different types of community services are provided. The advantage of this type of investment is that owners can sign long leases with tenants such as municipalities, counties and the state, providing secure cash flows and low vacancy risk. The investment market for public properties is relatively new to private operators as these properties have previously been owned almost exclusively by the municipality and county. Today, for various reasons, the municipalities and counties have decided to sell their properties and rent them back from specialized property owners.

    The study aims to identify the uncertainties/risks that are associated with investment and management of public properties, with a special focus on care properties in Sweden. An investment calculation and a sensitivity analysis were made through studies of three care property transactions in 2011 and interviews with the participating actors. The calculation and analysis have been the basis for the conclusions drawn.

    Investing in public real estate has proven to be a relatively stable and safe investment. The net operating income of the long leases that contribute to the investment could be considered as being paid back during the first contract period, assuming that no unexpected costs arise. The main risks that exist in these properties is salvage value risk due to severe alternative use for these tenant adjusted buildings, technical risk as the properties need to maintain standard and essential functions and at last political/legal risk where changes in demography, environmental laws, regulations and requirements affect public property development.

    Companies that invest in public real estate are usually focused on this type of investment, which through enhanced capabilities in the area contributes to a good and long-term relationship with tenants. Furthermore, the players involved have a rather homogeneous view of delegation of responsibility, contract structure and so on. Moreover, the demographic development in the country shows a high demand for public buildings in the future and especially in nursing and care homes.

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  • 10681.
    Ögren, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Ökvist, Jesper
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Förvaltning av en BREEAM In-Use certifierad byggnad: Fastighetsförvaltning som verktyg för främjande av miljö och hållbar utveckling2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been conducted with emphasis on managing buildings according to 

    BREEAM In-Use, which is used as an environmental certification on existing 

    buildings. The report is oriented on the aspects of certifying the management and 

    organization carried out within the building. The connection between user and 

    manager is important to ensure that the goals within BREEAM are achieved. A tool to 

    encourage communication between these two sides is the green leases from 

    Fastighetsägarna, which has shown to be a necessary link.  It has been shown that 

    current management methods need to be extended in its routines and that 

    knowledge regarding BREEAM is necessary within the management. BREEAM In- 

    Use demands commitment and a continuous work and will result in a change of 

    behavior from the user, to achieve a high rating. Management has shown to have 

    great potential to work for less resource use and to ensure a sustainable long term 

    service life.  

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  • 10682.
    Öhlin, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Förklaringsmodell för cykelresor i Trondheim: Fysiska och demografiska faktorers betydelse för det geografiska resmönstret2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work examines geographical variations of bicycle use in Trondheim municipality with the aim to create an understanding of what influences the use of bicycles and explain the geographical travel pattern for cycling. The work focuses on the how physical structures generates different transports effects. Where bicycle travels in Trondheim municipality are undertaken is described by using network analysis in ArcGIS, based on aggregated data from the travel habit survey (RVU) in 2009/2010. Trondheim municipality is divided into smaller geographical units (zoner) whose characteristics are described by 19 variables, categorized into 6 groups; Distance, Land use, Topography, Bicycle Facilities, Road characteristics and Demographic factors.

    By linear regression analysis in SPSS and ArcGIS Spatial Analyst, an explanatory model is elaborated. The variables

    distance to the regional center, workplace density, percentage separate bike paths and hilly terrain explains 78 percent of where cycle journeys are undertaken. Single variable with the highest explanatory power is degree of separate bicycle paths, which highlights the importance of infrastructure investment for bicyclists.

    Based on the result, recommendations are given on improvements of the bicycle routes in Trondheim, followed by a discussion of strategies for planning cycle routes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    cykelarbete
  • 10683.
    Öhman, Astrid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Opera i Stockholm, Danvikstull2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Astrid Öhman
  • 10684.
    Öhman, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Richnau, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Värmeåtervinning från spillvatten i flerbostadshus2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10685.
    Öhman, Elena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Fredriksson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Effektiv internlogistik på ett byggprojekt: En beskrivning och analys av den interna logistiken på Nya Karolinska, Solna2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is criticized for being undeveloped and inefficient. The Swedish construction costs have increased by 21% compared to the rest of Europe where the rate increased by 12% between 2005 and 2010. Although the players in the Swedish construction industry agree on the fact that the construction costs can be reduced, however there is some disagreement on what those cost items really are. What we do know is that logistics is an important and widespread but often underestimated topic. Logistics includes activities that ensure that you get the right amount, the right product of the right quality, at the right place and at the right time. Unfortunately the expertise in this area is inadequate. Studies show that 30-35 % of the overall production cost on a construction site is a waste. Activities that add no value are classified as waste. It involves activities related to the internal handling of material at the construction site, for example waiting, overproduction, inventory, rework, transport, unused creativity, overwork, movements, damage and theft. The purpose of this study is to investigate, describe, interpret and analyze the logistics of Nya Karolinska Solna and highlight the importance of well-planned logistics and provide suggestions on how it could be streamlined. NKS is Skanska's largest construction project of all time. The construction site is located in Solna, and surrounded by the heavily trafficked roads E4 and E20. Transport routes, transport facilities, storage areas for materials, machinery, construction workers, supplies, workshops and staff areas share a very large but narrow surface. To get an idea of what the internal logistics of NKS looks like, interviews have been made with people involved with the project. The interviews have been supplemented with personal observations on the construction site and digital information provided by Skanska Healthcare AB. Case studies in the form of value-flow analysis have been performed on the material delivered to the construction site, as well as a study of the crane utilization in a working day and delivery reliability of suppliers. The outcome of the case studies were later compared and analyzed, and at the end conclusions were made. To ensure that the project will be completed on time it is important that the production is running smoothly and that flows of resources, materials and construction workers are not prevented. Logistics is well developed but not perfect, you can always improve and innovate. Waste is something that needs to be minimized. By spreading knowledge of the importance of logistics among the involved and ensure that everyone works together, it will lead to a final product of the highest quality. 

  • 10686.
    Öhman, Jesper
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Benson, Knut
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    How Short-term Leasing Can Mitigate Vacancies in Retail Stores: Implementing Short-term Leasing in the Retail Industry2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Retail is changing. E-commerce is increasing its percentage of total sales while physical storesare closing. This affects how real estate companies work with retail spaces to minimizevacancies, and short-term leasing, also called pop-up stores, is one way to do so. Pop-ups haveexisted in different forms for a very long time. Seasonal stores and farmers markets are twoexamples. The modern-day pop-up, assessed and discussed in this study, is the one not alwaysused for sales purposes but also marketing purposes. This study aims to see how modern-daypop-ups can fill the void left by rapidly closing retail stores.The study was carried out by reviewing existing literature about pop-ups and how they work,followed by semi-structured interviews with real estate companies and consultants throughoutthe property industry. Emphasis was put on bottlenecks and problems with implementing shortterm leasing and how market platforms can aid real estate companies with this.The study shows that real estate companies and the industry as a whole are aware of the statusof traditional retail and that they have started to use short-term leasing to a greater extent thanbefore. The real estate companies were positive towards using short-term leases as a tool tominimize vacancies. However, it also shows some problems with implementing short-termleases from a real estate company's perspective. The main obstacles found during the studywere transparency issues regarding vacant spaces, how short-term leases can negatively affectproperty values, and the time-consuming aspect of signing short-term contracts. Concludingthat market platforms can solve certain problems regarding short-term leases, but others haveto be solved by the real estate industry itself.

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    fulltext
  • 10687.
    Öhman, Maj-Britt
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Designing Dam Safeties: Perspectives on large scale dams within the intra-actions of technology, nature and human decision making2013In: International Commission of Large Dams, ICOLD, Seattle, 2013: International Symposium, Seattle: ICOLD , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing the intra-actions between the actors involved, this paper presents results from interviews and participatory observations with local authorities, local inhabitants, power companies representatives as well as dam operators. We argue that the Swedish model for dam safety currently is suffering from a major deficiency as the expertise and understanding of the technical constructions remain among the dam owners and that the societal authority in charge of supervising the dam owners work have no capability of achieving the same level of understanding and thus to take informed and relevant decisions. Furthermore we argue that the lack of technical understanding of dams and hydropower outside of the dam sector has become a huge threat to dam safety as state representatives and political decision makers currently allow and even encourage mining exploitation both next to high risk classified hydropower dams and even within existing hydropower reservoirs.

    We argue that the actual challenge to safeguard an increased dam safety is by bridging the gap between the multitude of different actors– engineers/operators, users, political decision makers -   in order to generate new understandings and new methodologies to deal with risk, safety and security. It is necessary to bridge the gaps between the sectors and actors involved, and that this should be done through investment in close collaboration between the dam sector and engineering research on the one hand and social sciences and humanities on the other – to ensure understandings of political decision making as well as of technical artifacts and water flows.

    The geographical focus is on two rivers – the Ume River and the Lule River in the north of Sweden. Both rivers are of major importance for national production of electricity, and the rivers are water suppliers for a large amount of inhabitants.

  • 10688.
    Öhman, May-Britt
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Centrum för Genusvetenskap.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Human Bodies and the Forces of Nature: Regulated Rivers, Safety and Embodied Knowledge2012In: International Commission for Large Dams International Symposium, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the human bodies involved in the regulated rivers, via the technology of design and operation of remote controland surveillance systems. It draws on case studies of hydropower in Sweden, both historical and current events, from studies madewithin an ongoing research project. Within current civil engineering education, training as well as within societal and company leveldecision making on large scale technical systems, the human body, with its knowledges, emotions and affections, as well as itsvulnerabilities are to a large extent disregarded. The body of the engineer/ operator is considered uninteresting and replaceable whileat the same time as it is viewed as a never failing machine. New technologies for camera surveillance and monitoring have providedopportunities to assemble data on a dam and the water flowing through it. We argue that these new technologies may contribute to adecreased dam safety, as it reinforces this paradigm of a detached human body - working like a never failing machine, always in controlof nature’sforces. We suggest that more attention is paid to the human bodies – emotions, affections and societal contexts – workingwith the design and operation of remote control and surveillance systems

  • 10689.
    Öhman, May-Britt
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Centrum för Genusvetenskap.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Udén, M
    Luleå Tekniska universitet.
    Supradisciplinary conversations on Security, Risk and Resilience around Dams in Sub Arctica2010In: International Commission for Large Dams International Symposium, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower is often promoted as an environmentally friendly and renewable energy resource. Yet, it is since long established that this energy source indeed has numerous negative environmental impacts, and the negative social impacts have been established by researchers in several cases. At the same time it is an ageing technology, within which aging dams are confronting climate change with the result that it is a carrier of number of threats against both human security and sustainable development.

    The paper forms the basis for a recently launched research project involving four scientific disciplines - history of science and technology; political science; gender, technology and organization and land and water resource management.  In the paper, the possibilities for a supradisciplinary approach to analyze the sociotechnical aspects of security, safety and risk in regard to large dams within Sub Arctica are discussed. Supradisciplinarity refers in this case to the involvement of both social and natural/technical sciences as well as the involvement of practitioners/constructors/dam owners etc and local inhabitants around the dams.

    In focus is the question on how the current narrow and technically oriented dam safety concept could or maybe should be broadened to include differing attitudes and values, from different perspectives depending on gender, ethnicity and situated knowledge.

    Empirical examples are drawn from on an ongoing study of the Lule River, the most hydroexploited river in Sweden, located within the Swedish part of Sapmi, within which local reindeer herders are being interviewed along with interviews with actors within the Swedish setting of dam safety. Departing from these empirical examples, attempts to identify the current understandings of the socio-technical constructions of dams, scientific perceptions of water flows and a changing climate within the framing of dam safety and discuss how can these understandings could be influenced by supradisciplinary conversations and exchange.

  • 10690.
    Öman, Cecilia B.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Klutsé, A.
    Rabbani, G.
    Edward, Rumila
    KTH.
    Strategy for strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries on water and sanitation related issues2009In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 248, no 1-3, p. 658-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally accepted that scientific research offers a tool for meeting the development demands in the area of water and sanitation. It is stressed by the authors that research should be performed by researchers in the countries most affected, on topics identified by these researchers and in their own environment. For researchers in developing countries the resources and scientific infrastructure constitutes a hindrance to scientific research. To address the situation this paper presents a strategy for scientific capacity strengthening. The strategy builds on a number of activities including; training courses on scientific methodology, literature review, fundraising, sampling, laboratory practices, statistical methods, experimental designs, participatory approaches, oral presentation, posters and manuscript development, as well as thematic workshops, workshop for revision of proposals, contacts with end-users, research grants, networks, purchasing and maintaining scientific equipment and scientific conferences. The strategy builds heavily on collaboration with local organisations. It has been concluded through assessments of activities arranged in Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Togo that the strategy has been successful.

  • 10691.
    Öqvist, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Sunnercrantz, Zeke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Kvarteret Garvaren: Markanvisningstävling i Norrköpings kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipality of Norrköping currently grows by 1,500 people a year. In order to cope with the increased housing demand, the municipality has chosen to focus, among other things, on transforming a large industrial area just a stone's throw from the city center of Norrköping. The area called Industrilandskapet consists largely of old factories used in the 20th century. The area is also characterized by unused and poorly utilized land.Today, it is being built extensively in the area and in order to bring in exciting and attractive buildings into the landscape Norrköping municipality has announced three land allocation competitions for apartment buildings. This degree project is about the last of these three, the neighborhood Garvaren.The competition concerns two house bodies, a larger L-shaped house and a smaller, rectangular house. The work resulted in a complete competition proposal, but in the report the focus is mainly on the process up to the finished design as well as a more detailed description of the proposal and its parts.

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  • 10692.
    Örn, Hampus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Zetterqvist, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Fastighetsderivat: Vilka förutsättningar måste uppfyllas för att möjliggöra handel med fastighetsderivat på den svenska marknaden?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Handel med derivat har ökat explosionsartat på den svenska marknaden de senaste åren med möjligheter att handla i derivat med ett stort antal olika underliggande tillgångar. Denna utveckling har dock inte skapat möjligheten att handla derivat med utvecklingen på den svenska fastighetsmarknaden som underliggande tillgång.

    Möjligheterna att idag få fastighetsexponering utan att direkt äga fastigheter är begränsade och har låg korrelation med utvecklingen på den svenska fastighetsmarknaden. Ett ämne som har diskuterats flitigt innan fastighetskrisen 2007 är möjligheten att handla derivat med den svenska fastighetsmarknaden som underliggande tillgång. Problemet har varit att det inte funnits ett tillförlitligt index som man kan använda för att prissätta derivatet. Nya typer av index har utvecklats de senaste åren och därmed skapat en möjlighet att introducera fastighetsderivat som produkt på den svenska marknaden.

    För att kunna handla med fastighetsderivat krävs att en del förutsättningar uppnås däribland likviditet, ett fungerande underliggande index, en osymmetrisk marknad och en aktör som agerar som någon typ av återförsäljare av produkten det vill säga någon som erbjuder handel i fastighetsderivat. Än så länge finns idag ingen aktör som gör det även fast det finns underliggande index som skulle kunna användas som mätvariabel. Detta gör att det idag inte finns någon form av handel med produkten och därför ingen likviditet heller. Att marknaden är osymmetrisk och att olika aktörer söker olika typer av risk och diversifiering är tydligt. Därför måste någon aktör vara först med att erbjuda fastighetsderivat för att en handel ska kunna möjliggöras. Utöver det behövs också en aktör som vågar ta första traden och på så sätt öppnar möjligheter för likviditet.

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  • 10693.
    Örn, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Accuracy and precision of bedrock sur-face prediction using geophysics and geostatistics.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In underground construction and foundation engineering uncertainties associated with subsurface properties are inevitable to deal with. Site investigations are expensive to perform, but a limited understanding of the subsurface may result in major problems; which often lead to an unexpected increase in the overall cost of the construction project. This study aims to optimize the pre-investigation program to get as much correct information out from a limited input of resources, thus making it as cost effective as possible. To optimize site investigation using soil-rock sounding three different sampling techniques, a varying number of sample points and two different interpolation methods (Inverse distance weighting and point Kriging) were tested on four modeled reference surfaces. The accuracy of rock surface predictions was evaluated using a 3D gridding and modeling computer software (Surfer 8.02®). Samples with continuously distributed data, resembling profile lines from geophysical surveys were used to evaluate how this could improve the accuracy of the prediction compared to adding additional sampling points. The study explains the correlation between the number of sampling points and the accuracy of the prediction obtained using different interpolators. Most importantly it shows how continuous data significantly improves the accuracy of the rock surface predictions and therefore concludes that geophysical measurement should be used combined with traditional soil rock sounding to optimize the pre-investigation program.

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  • 10694.
    Örn, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    I rummets kraftfält: om arkitektur och offentlig inredning i Sverige 1935-19752007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis dealswith an essential direction inmodern Swedish architecture and interior design. Sven Ivar Lind (1902–80), the brothers Erik and Tore Ahlsén (1901–88, 1906–91) and Peter Celsing (1920–74) were architects that devoted intense concentration to artistic problems and sought close collaborationwith artists.They gave asmuch attention to furnishing, art and interior details as to plans, spatiality and lighting—in that respect they stood out among their colleagues. The purpose of the thesis is to describe and analyse the holistic approach of these architects to spatial design. One important hypothesis is that this approach is linked to the reappraisal of functionalism that took place in the late 1930s and the 1940s.

    The first chapter of the thesis is devoted entirely to the reappraisal of functionalism. In the following chapters three milieus are studied and interpreted: Stockholm’s City Archives (1939–59) by Sven Ivar Lind, the CivicHall in Örebro (1957–65) by Erik and Tore Ahlsén and the Bank of Sweden and the temporary Riksdag building at Sergels Torg (1965–1976) by Peter Celsing.

    What distinguishes Lind, the Ahlsén brothers and Celsing fromthemajority of their fellow architects is that they combined the ambition to design special furnishings—a heritage fromGunnar Asplund—with the use ofwhat could be described as commonplace stylistic features. Designing their own furniture was paradoxically the best way of attaining the unremarkable atmosphere they strove for.However, the conventional details and furnishings based on traditional patterns were sometimes highly expressive. The expressiveness is that which arises when commonplace objects are associated in new and unexpected combinations.

    Finally a common denominator was the belief that sense impressions alone do not create the beholder’s perception of spatiality, asmemories and previous spatial experienceswill also play their part.Widespread attentionwas paid to associations in the 1940s but theywere later considered to be illegitimate sources of architectonic effect. The main subjects of this study were to sustain awareness of the significance of associations for spatial experience well into the 1970s.

  • 10695.
    Östblom, Evelina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Possibilities to make measurements of ground subsidence more effective, using dInSAR, GNSS and levelling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ground subsidence is today very common. It can occur due to man-made or natural causes. Today, it is most common that subsidence occurs in urban areas, and there the causes are almost exclusively man-made, including groundwater extraction, construction under or above ground. This can lead to damage of buildings or other constructions and lead to large costs for reparation. To avoid this, subsidence must be detected in an early stage.

    Therefore, this thesis work will study the most effective way to detect and measure subsidence using dInSAR, GNSS and levelling. The thesis work will contain a literature study, a compilation of cases comparing the methods and a quantitative comparison of data, called case Stockholm. The main focus of case Stockholm is to compare the RMS error for the datasets and to determine how well the linear regression of the datasets cohere.

    The literature study and the case compilation presents the strengths and weaknesses of the different methods, where dInSAR’s strength is the ability to measure large areas at once while the weakness is the inability to detect small movements within a large movement. The possibility to measure individual points of interest is the strength of both GNSS and levelling, where the most time-consuming method, levelling, also has the highest accuracy. In case Stockholm, the linear regression for dInSAR mostly follows the linear regression for GNSS and levelling. However, irregular levelling measurements that do not follow the general ground subsidence is missed by dInSAR and the amplitude of the dInSAR measurements differ from both GNSS and levelling measurements. This confirms the strengths and weaknesses mentioned in the literature study.

    The conclusion that can be drawn from this is that the most effective way of using dInSAR, GNSS and levelling is to first screen large areas for any movement using dInSAR. Later only the areas that display movement of any sort is measured with either GNSS or levelling depending on demands on accuracy.

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    Kandidate thesis Evelina Östblom
  • 10696.
    Öster, Frida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Wikström, Carolina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Barncenter i Tanzania2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet undersöker hur gestaltning av byggnader och jordbruksmark tillsammans kan bidra till att skapa ett ekonomiskt och ekologiskt självförsörjande center för föräldralösa barn i Tanzania.

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    Barncenter i Tanzania
  • 10697.
    Österberg, Elena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Revealing of age-related deterioration of prestressed reinforced concrete containments in nuclear power plants: Requirements and NDT methods2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 10698.
    Österberg, Sanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Ahlbom, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Utformning av seniorbostäder: Med utgångspunkt i tillgänglighet och gemenskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Year 2030 there will be up to 500 000 more individuals over the age of 75 comparing to today. Approximately every fourth individual in the age of 75-84 have a reduced mobility. Many of them lives in houses with low availability and adaption to the specific needs of the individual. The low availability contributes to a decreased living situation and it can lead to impaired quality of life.

    Loneliness is common among elderly and can contribute to increased concern, insecurity and depression. Loneliness is often based on a feeling of missing a social context of participation and community. A form of housing were elderly meet can recreate this feeling of community and belonging which can contribute to increased activity and quality of life for the individual.

    A accommodation with a higher grade of availability and factors for increased quality gives a possibility for the individual to live longer in their own home. The remained living contributes to increased security for the individual who is allowed to age in a well-known environment. The social costs are expected to decrease if more individuals age in their own homes since the costs of home care are lower than the costs for retirement home for the same individual.

    The purpose of the report is to present the problems around elderly's housing situation and present improvements.

    The goal is to present the design of a senior housing with a cohousing alignment which creates communion and security for the residents.

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  • 10699.
    Österblom, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Thunell, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    BIM: KOMMUNIKATION MELLAN PROJEKTERING OCH PRODUKTION: - Hur BIM effektiviserar informationsflödet2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to enable project management and construction personnel to use BIM tools and methods more efficiently. Although NCC is currently using some functionality of such digital tools, NCC is not using the full tool suite to better manage their projects, specifically to leverage the cross discipline collaboration capabilities.

     

    In order to gather a comprehensive view of construction personnel requirements, interviews were conducted across a varied and wide range of age, seniority, and job position. These interviews formed the basis for the evaluation criteria of the BIM tools. Additional interviews were held with other staff, including project leads, model coordinators and construction engineers to ensure their knowledge was incorporated into the evaluation.

     

    To compliment the interviews, and further evaluate the digital tools for cross collaboration capabilities a house was modeled in Tekla Structures and Revit. Also the architectural and construction models of NCC project Trollhättan 33, T33, was available for testing.

     

    Two programs emerged as ‘best in class’ post the assessment, differentiated primarily by which phase of the construction lifecycle they were used for. Solibri Model Checker, SMC was considered most suitable tool in the project management phase and Trimble Connect considered best during the construction phase. SMC is suited for validation and quality control and Trimble Connect is a tool, in which models and documents can be stored for easy collaboration in project teams as well as visualizing models, which are easily shared via computer, tablet or mobile phone.

    The following BIM tools were tested:

    • Solibri Model Checker v9.6

    • Navisworks Manage 2016

    • Autodesk BIM 360 Glue

    • Trimble Tekla BIMsight

    • Trimble Connect

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  • 10700.
    Österlind, Susanne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Opera i stockholm, galärvarvet2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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