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  • 123551. Wikman, Maria
    et al.
    Friedman, Mikaela
    Pinitkiatisakul, Sunan
    Andersson, Christin
    Lovgren-Bengtsson, Karin
    Lunden, Anna
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Achieving directed immunostimulating complex incorporation2006In: Expert Review of Vaccines, ISSN 1476-0584, E-ISSN 1744-8395, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 395-403Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, several studies have been reported with the common aim of generating general expression systems for straightforward production and subsequent coupling of expressed antigens to an adjuvant system. Here, we describe a series of such efforts with a common theme of using gene fusion technology for association of recombinant antigens to immunostimulating complexes (iscoms). In the early stages of vaccine development, uniform antigen preparations are crucial to allow the comparison of immune responses to different antigens, or even subdomains thereof, and we believe that the described systems constitute an important development in this context.

  • 123552. Wikman, Maria
    et al.
    Rowcliffe, Eric
    Friedman, Mikaela
    Henning, Petra
    Lindholm, Leif
    Olofsson, Sigvard
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Selection and characterization of an HIV-1 gp120-binding affibody ligand2006In: Biotechnology and applied biochemistry, ISSN 0885-4513, E-ISSN 1470-8744, Vol. 45, p. 93-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the possibility of generating novel proteins binding to highly glycosylated viral proteins, affibody ligands were selected by bactericiphage display technology to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 (glycoprotein 120), from a combinatorial protein library based on the 58-amino-acid-residue staphylococcal Protein A domain. The predominant variant from the bacteriophage selection was produced in Escherichia coli and characterized by biosenscir analyses. Both univalent and bivalent affibody molecules were shown to bind selectively to the gp120 target molecule in a biosensor analysis. The dissociation equilibrium constants (K.) were determined to be approx. 100 nM for the univalent affibody and 10 nM for the bivalent affibody, confirming the stronger gp120 binding of the bivalent affibody ligand. The affibody constructs were further introduced into the AdS (adenovirus type 5) fibre gene, and the recombinant fibres were shown to bind selectively to gp 120 in a biosensor analysis and to gp160 transiently expressed in African-green-monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney cells. Neither the affibody ligand nor the AdS fibres showed any virus neutralization activity, suggesting that the affibody bound to a non-neutralizing site on gp 120. To investigate the binding site for the affibody ligand on gp120, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) and a panel of mAbs (monoclonal antibodies) known to bind to gp 120 were allowed to compete with the affibody ligand in a biosensor study. Two mAbs, 670-30D and 697-30D, were found to compete with gp120 for overlapping binding sites. Although neutralization effects were not achieved in this initial investigation, the successful selection of a gp120-binding affibody ligand indicates that future affibody-based strategies might evolve to complement antibody-based efforts for HIV-I therapy. Strategies for directed selection of affibody ligands binding to neutralizing epitopes and the potential of using adenovirus for gene-therapy-mediated efforts are discussed.

  • 123553.
    Wikman, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Steffen, Ann Charlott
    Gunneriusson, Elin
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Adams, Gregg
    Carlsson, Jörgen
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Selection and characterization of HER2/neu-binding affibody ligands2004In: Protein Engineering Design & Selection, ISSN 1741-0126, E-ISSN 1741-0134, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 455-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affibody® (affibody) ligands that are specific for the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) have been selected by phage display technology from a combinatorial protein library based on the 58 amino acid residue staphylococcal protein A-derived Z domain. The predominant variants from the phage selection were produced in Escherichia coli, purified by affinity chromatography, and characterized by biosensor analyses. Two affibody variants were shown to selectively bind to the extracellular domain of HER2/neu (HER2-ECD), but not to control proteins. One of the variants, denoted His6-ZHER2/neu:4, was demonstrated to bind with nanomolar affinity (∼50 nM) to the HER2-ECD molecule at a different site than the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab. Furthermore, radiolabeled His 6-ZHER2/neu:4 affibody showed specific binding to native HER2/neu, overexpressed on the SKBR-3 tumor cell line. Such affibody ligands might be considered in tumor targeting applications for radionuclide diagnostics and therapy of adenocarcinomas such as breast and ovarian cancers.

  • 123554.
    Wikman, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    On effects of low doses: Reply2004In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 428-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 123555.
    Wikman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Trivial risks and the new radiation protection system2004In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection proposes that doses below a certain level should be excluded from the system of protection, without regard to the number of people exposed. As the Commission assumes that there is a risk of harm even from very low doses, the proposal also disregards these very low risks. The arguments for this proposal are examined here. It is argued that the fact that risks are small compared to natural sources cannot be used as justification for accepting them. The principle 'if the risk of harm to the health of the most exposed individual is trivial, then the total risk is trivial-irrespective of how many people are exposed' is analysed. It is found to equivocate on the meaning of the word trivial and to ignore the total risk. It is also argued that the new proposal is not justified by a change from a utilitarian ethic to an ethic based on individual rights. Finally, it is suggested that small doses should only be disregarded if the expected value of harm is small, and the exclusion level should thus depend on the number of people exposed.

  • 123556.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Analyses of violence at work as a social problem2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 123557.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Diskriminering i samband med psykisk ohälsa: en kunskapsöversikt2017Book (Refereed)
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  • 123558.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Proposed measures to combat violence in Swedish occupational injury reports 1987, 1997 and 20072014In: Violence in the Health Sector. Fourth International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector. Towards safety, security and wellbeing for all / [ed] Ian Needham, Mireille Kingma, Kevin McKenna, Odile Frank, Carol Tuttas, Stuart Kingma and Nico Oud, Amsterdam: Kavanah , 2014, p. 240-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the advantages associated with studying occupational injury reports is that they provide an opportunity to examine the views regarding preventive measures held by the victims themselves. In addition, they have also been collected for a long period, which allows us to examine whether there have been changes over time. The current study focuses on 1.400 reports from three specific years: 1987, 1997 and 2007.

  • 123559.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Secondary victimization of professionals accused of white-collar crime2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The social-constructionist line of criminology has accelerated since 1963 when Howard Becker argued that those who draw the lines between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour perhaps are more interesting than those who cross them. “Deviance is created by society, not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an ‘‘offender’’. From this position, culpability arises out of our ways of seeing and describing acts. For all acts, including those seen as unwanted, there are dozens of possible alternatives. The criminal prosecution of professional mistake is seen as growing problem in a number of safety-critical domains such as healthcare and finance, as it may seriously threaten safety initiatives in these fields. But at the same time, secondary victimization of professionals accused of crime also meet obstacles related to victimology, as well as the epistemological propensities in criminology.

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    abstract
  • 123560.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Juridification of Workplace Violence (WPV)2015In: Workplace Violence and Aggression: Special panel on Workplace Violence, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since perceptions and definitions of violence are context-dependant; the amount of attention society directs at a given social problem affects both how it is perceived and the extent to which it becomes visible in official statistics. But the way in which a problem is defined is also of significance in relation to the measures that are proposed as a means of coming to terms with it.

    Aims: The objective is to analyse how the development of WPV as a social problem might be understood.

    Methods: On the basis of a contextual constructivist approach, the extent of and trends in complex social problems are viewed as being linked to both actual changes in underlying conditions (the objective explanation) and shifts in perceptions of what the problem consists in and how it should be dealt with (the constructionist explanation). The study of these two explanations requires different types of data. The data employed in this project are drawn from nationally representative victim surveys, articles published in trade journals and occupational injury reports in Sweden.

    Results: Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes. Knowledge appears to exist at workplaces themselves, but these are not given the resources they need to resolve the problem. What we are failing to address are the underlying factors that serve to structure the framework in which these interactions take place.

    Conclusion: Although more attention is now being focused on WPV, it appears to be a “top-down” perspective that is determining which measures should be introduced. Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes of the problem.

    Goals: Although the objective of crime prevention today has considerable legitimacy and is furnished with relatively substantial resources, we are at risk of completely failing to prevent violence as a result of having an overly simplistic understanding of the problem. To the extent that we lack both an analysis of the negative effects of social change on the prevalence of WPV and any interest in using measures other than legal strategies focused on individuals, we risk finding ourselves in a situation where measures to combat WPV are restricted to a focus on personal interactions between staff and clients. 

     

  • 123561.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Threats and Violence in the Care Sector Proposed Safety Measures in Swedish Occupational Injury Reports 1987, 1997, and 20072014In: International Criminal Justice Review, ISSN 1057-5677, E-ISSN 1556-3855, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 172-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace violence is a complex occupational hazard that health care staffs are facing in today’s work environment. This study examines the safety measures recommended by staff in occupational injury reports filed in the wake of violence- and threat-related injuries. The results suggest that measures relating to psychosocial factors and structural factors such as adequate staffing are much more important than surveillance, staff training, and penal sanctions.

  • 123562.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Varför ökar det arbetsrelaterade våldet?2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, no 2, p. 51-68Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 123563.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Violence in healthcare - safety measures in occupational injury reports 1987, 1997 and 20072014Conference paper (Refereed)
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    Programme
  • 123564.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Violence risk assessments and ethics in three Swedish government agencies2014In: Eurocrim 2014, 14th Annual Conference of the ESC, Prague, 10–13 September, 2014: Criminology of Europe: Inspiration by Diversity. Book of Abstracts, Prague: European Society of Criminology , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish Work Environment Act, the responsibility for ensuring a safe work environment is placed with the employer. This project aims at studying three state agencies in the light of this responsibility. The three authorities - the Social Insurance Agency, the Migration Board and the National Board of Institutional Care has in common that their clients’ personal welfare is affected by the decisions made by these authorities. The common occurrence of negative decisions in these authorities is a known risk factor for producing violence aimed at the public officials. The project is aimed at providing a deeper understanding of how the knowledge that forms the base for the risk-assessment of violence in these authorities is gathered.

    Three studies will be performed, each analyzing different source: 1) Guidelines 2) Interviews with employees responsible for safety issues in the authorities 3) Incident reports or occurrence investigations. Questions are directed towards understanding the production of knowledge about violence. What assumptions about violence are visible? What occurrence of violence do the authorities have to handle? What factors are causing the problems of violence? Can the roots of violence be trace to the inside or the outside of the authority? What activities will be risk-assessed (or not)? When do the rights of the clients and employees collide? How can harms be avoided?

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  • 123565.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Våld i arbetslivet: Förrättsligande, utveckling, uppmärksamhet och åtgärder2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att mot bakgrunden av att våld i arbetslivet enligt flera indikatorer framstått som ett allt större samhällsproblem utifrån ett kontextuellt konstruktivistiskt perspektiv svara på hur det enligt riksrepresentativa surveyundersökningar ökande våldet i arbetslivet kan förklaras. I fyra delstudier beskrivs och analyseras omfattningen och utvecklingen av utsatthet för våld i arbetslivet, enlig ULF (I), hur våld i arbetslivet som samhällsproblem uppmärksammats i facklig press (II) och vilka åtgärder som förespråkas i facklig press (III) samt i arbetsskadeanmälningar av de utsatta själva (IV).

     

    I den första studien visas att utsatthet för arbetsrelaterat hot och våld i de så kallade ULF-undersökningarna sedan 1980-talets början har ökat. När denna ökning sker ligger övrigt våld, enligt offerundersökningar, kvar på en stabil nivå. Ökningarna är störst för de kvinnodominerade jobben inom välfärdssektorerna vård, skola och omsorg. Studie II visar att uppmärksamheten för våld har ökat och att våld i arbetslivet sedan 1970-talet omfattar mycket mer än ”bara” bank- och butiksrån.

     

    Sammantaget kan det ökade våldet inte bara förstås utifrån vidgade definitioner av vilka händelser som kan anses vara våld utan det är även nya grupper som uppmärksammas som offer och förövare. Arbetsförhållandena inom i synnerhet omsorgsyrkena har mycket oftare börjat beskrivas som våldsrelaterade. Det är rimligt att denna förändrade inställning till våld i arbetslivet fått återverkningar på problemets synlighet i olika typer av statistik, inklusive vad människor svarar i offerundersökningar.

     

    Våld i arbetslivet har gått från att ses som ett problem som skall lösas internt på arbetsplatsen som en arbetsmiljöfråga till att allt oftare ses som ett problem som ska lösas externt med polis och rättsväsende. Resurser i form av tid och personal för att utföra arbetet efterfrågas gång på gång men den kunskap som finns hos personalen på de lokala arbetsplatserna uppmärksammas inte.

     

    Genom att ”fel” åtgärder uppmärksammas kan detta bidra till en ytterligare ökad känsla av snävt handlingsutrymme för personal vilket kan göra att problem förvärras. Säkerhetsforskningen kan bidra med kunskapen om att ett problems åtgärder kan komma uppifrån, från politiskt håll eller nedifrån från gräsrötterna men också från ett inifrånperspektiv som förutsätter normalitet eller från ett utifrånperspektiv som konstruerar avvikelse. 

  • 123566.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Workplace violence in victim surveys.: Same questions but different answers2014In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium 2014: Program & Abstracts, The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) , 2014, p. 166-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis based on a comparison of three Swedish victim surveys examines violence at work on the basis of the questions on exposure to threats and violence. The questions that are included are very similar in all three of surveys: Statistics Sweden’s surveys of The Swedish population’s living conditions (ULF), Swedish Work Environment Authority’s survey The Work environment and Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention’s survey The Swedish Crime Survey (NTU). However the prevalence’s are very different. How can this be explained?

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    fulltext
  • 123567.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Workplace Violence (WPV)– the Emergence and Juridification of a Social Problem2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since perceptions and definitions of violence are context-dependant; the amount of attention society directs at a given social problem affects both how it is perceived and the extent to which it becomes visible in official statistics. But the way in which a problem is defined is also of significance in relation to the measures that are proposed as a means of coming to terms with it.

    Aims: The objective is to analyse how the development of WPV as a social problem might be understood.

    Methods: On the basis of a contextual constructivist approach, the extent of and trends in complex social problems are viewed as being linked to both actual changes in underlying conditions (the objective explanation) and shifts in perceptions of what the problem consists in and how it should be dealt with (the constructionist explanation). The study of these two explanations requires different types of data. The data employed in this project are drawn from nationally representative victim surveys, articles published in trade journals and occupational injury reports in Sweden.

    Results: Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes. Knowledge appears to exist at workplaces themselves, but these are not given the resources they need to resolve the problem. What we are failing to address are the underlying factors that serve to structure the framework in which these interactions take place.

    Conclusion: Although more attention is now being focused on WPV, it appears to be a “top-down” perspective that is determining which measures should be introduced. Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes of the problem.

    Goals: Although the objective of crime prevention today has considerable legitimacy and is furnished with relatively substantial resources, we are at risk of completely failing to prevent violence as a result of having an overly simplistic understanding of the problem. To the extent that we lack both an analysis of the negative effects of social change on the prevalence of WPV and any interest in using measures other than legal strategies focused on individuals, we risk finding ourselves in a situation where measures to combat WPV are restricted to a focus on personal interactions between staff and clients. 

     

  • 123568.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Gallo, Carina
    Berkeley SF, USA).
    Lundgren, Moa
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    From Kungälv to Sandy Hook: Strategies to prevent violence in schools in Sweden and the USA2015In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium 2015: Program & Abstracts, The National Council for Crime Prevention, Sweden , 2015, p. 72-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies to prevent school violence in Sweden and in the United States are different, yet alike. In the US, school violence seems to be a growing problem but in Sweden it is decreasing. Not only have the US had substantially more school shootings; they have also implemented more preventive measures to combat school violence. This paper examines how school violence is handled in Sweden and the United States. The study is based on qualitative content analysis of educational steering documents and interviews with middle and high school principals. Both in Sweden and the US, a crime perspective (that students increasingly are subjected to zero tolerance policies that are used primarily to punish, repress and exclude them), dominates how violence are treated and handled in schools. In the US students are increasingly subjected to a “crime complex” where harsh disciplinary practices by security staff increasingly replace normative functions teachers once provided both in and outside of the classroom. One obvious difference between the two countries is the emergence of a great number of federal and state laws in the US, such as the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994. Schools in the US are also increasingly turning towards alternative methods like restorative justice as a mean for creating safer schools and social equity. One main point of the paper is also that the key to violence prevention might be found in a comparison of how normalized masculinity is operating in everyday dynamics, rather than differences in policies.

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    fulltext
  • 123569.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Gallo, Carina
    Lund University.
    Lundgren, Moa
    Gothenburg University.
    Preventing school violence: Comparing policies in Sweden (Gothenburg) and US (Oakland)2015In: Association for Women in Psychology 2015 National Conference: Feminism and Restorative Justice, Association for Women in Psychology , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on content analysis of steering documents and interviews with principals in primary schools, this paper examines measures to prevent violence in Sweden and US. In comparison, US has implemented more preventive measures, from federal and state laws to restorative justice but is still struggling with much higher levels of violence.

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  • 123570.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy. Stockholm University.
    Gallo, Carina
    University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Lundgren, Moa
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Preventing school violence in Sweden and the US. What can we learn from Kungälv and Sandy Hook?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies to prevent school violence in Sweden and in the United States are different, yet alike. In the US, school violence seems to be a growing problem but in Sweden it is decreasing. Not only has the US had substantially more school shootings; they have also implemented more preventive measures to combat school violence. This paper examines how school violence is handled in Sweden and the United States. The study is based on qualitative content analysis of educational steering documents and interviews with middle school and high school principals. Both in Sweden and the US, a crime perspective (where students are increasingly subjected to zero tolerance policies that are used primarily to punish, repress and exclude them), dominates how violence is treated and handled in schools. In the US students are increasingly subjected to a “crime complex” where harsh disciplinary practices by security staff increasingly replace normative functions teachers once provided both in and outside of the classroom. One obvious difference between the two countries is the emergence of a great number of federal and state laws in the US, such as the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994. Schools in the US are also increasingly turning towards alternative methods like restorative justice as a mean for creating safer schools and social equity. One main point of the paper is also that the key to violence prevention might be found in a comparison of how normalized masculinity is operating in everyday dynamics, rather than differences in policies.

  • 123571.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rickfors, Ulrika
    Preventing violence against public servants2016In: A focus on four types of crime / [ed] Swedish National Council of Crime Prevention, Stockholm: Brottsförebyggande rådet , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventing violence against public servants

    From safety science, we have learned that in light of increasing demands and system complexity, we must adapt our approach to safety. We have to include new practices to look for what goes right, focus on frequent events, remain sensitive to the possibility of failure, to be thorough as well as efficient, and to view an investment in safety as an investment in productivity. But most people still think of safety as the absence of accidents and incidents (or as an acceptable level of risk). In this perspective, which is termed Safety-I, safety is defined as a state where as few things as possible go wrong. According to Safety-I, things go wrong due to technical, human and organizational causes – failures and malfunctions. Humans are viewed predominantly as a liability or hazard. The safety management principle is to respond when something happens or is categorized as an unacceptable risk. Accordingly, the purpose of accident investigation is to identify the causes and contributory factors of adverse outcomes, while risk assessment aims to determine their likelihood. Both approaches then try to eliminate causes or improve barriers, or both. However, the Safety-I view does not explain why human performance practically always goes right. The reason that things go right is not people behave as they are told to, but that people can adjust their work so that it matches the conditions. As systems continue to develop, these adjustments become increasingly important for successful performance. The challenge for safety improvement is to understand these adjustments, beginning by understanding how performance usually goes right. Despite the obvious importance of things going right, safety management has so far paid relatively little attention to this view – Safety-II.

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  • 123572.
    Wikman, Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Alloy element redistribution during sintering of steels2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 123573.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Ethical aspects of radiation protection2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This aim of this thesis is to examine ethical aspects of radiation protection from ionizing radiation. Radiation protection is the professional field that deals with the protection of humans and the environment from the harmful effects of radiation. The field is based on scientific knowledge of the health effects of radiation, but also on ethical value judgements.

    This thesis consists of a summary and three essays. Essay 1 gives an overview of ethical issues in radiation protection. Based on this overview four ethical problem areas are identified as central for radiation protection. The first are ethical problems related to uncertainty and the influence of value judgements, especially in scientific risk assessment. The second problem area is ethical issues regarding distributions of risks and benefits between different individuals, both in space and time. The third general problem area is related to limit-setting. A major problem here is how to set limits in an ethically justifiable way when there is no known level of exposure that is associated with a zero risk. The fourth area concerns procedural justice and social decision-making in radiation protection. Essay 2 discusses ethical problems related to the proposal that individual risks below a certain level should be excluded from the system of radiation protection, without any regard to the number of people exposed. It is concluded that there are at least three problems associated with disregarding very small risks: (1) that many small risks to an individual may add up to a large risk for that individual, (2) that many small risks to many individuals may add up to a large expected value of harm, and (3) that a small risk each to many individuals may add up to a large probability that several people are harmed. It is also argued that the proposal is hard to justify in a rights-based ethical setting. Essay 3 examines what makes one distribution of individual doses better than another. This is done by creating a mathematical framework, based on preference logic, in which such assessments of can be made precisely in terms of comparisons between alternative distributions of individual doses. Principles from radiation protection and from parallel discussions in moral philosophy and welfare economics are defined using this framework and then analysed on basis of their formal properties. The analysis shows that there can be efficiency-related problems with a strict application of individual dose constraints. It is concluded that a principle that assigns extra weight to individual doses exceeding a certain limit, in proportion to the size of the excess dose, may be preferable to the standard combination of principles in radiation protection, since it satisfies efficiency related properties better without sacrificing other desirable properties.

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  • 123574.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on the assumption that the intersection of moral philosophy and practical risk management is a rewarding area to study. In particular, the thesis assumes that concepts, ideas, and methods that are used in moral philosophy can be of great benefit for risk analysis, but also that practices in risk regulation provide a useful testing ground for moral philosophical theories. The thesis consists of an introduction and five articles.

    Article I is a review article on social and ethical aspects of radiation protection related to nuclear power generation. The paper concludes that four areas of social and ethical issues stand out as central: The first is uncertainty and the influence of value judgments in scientific risk assessments. The second is the distributions of risks and benefits between different individuals, in both space and time. The third is the problem of setting limits when there is no known level of exposure associated with a zero risk. The fourth is related to stakeholder influence and risk communication.

    Article II discusses ethical issues related to the proposal that doses (or risks) below a certain level should be excluded from the system of radiation protection, without any regard for the number of people exposed. Different arguments for excluding small radiation doses from regulation are examined and a possible solution to the problem of regulating small risks is proposed in the article: Any exclusion of small doses (or risks) from radiation protection ought to be based on a case-by-case basis, with the condition that the expected value of harm remains small.

    Article III examines what makes one distribution of individual doses better than another distribution. The article introduces a mathematical framework based on preference logic, in which such assessments can be made precisely in terms of comparisons between alternative distributions of individual doses. Principles of radiation protection and from parallel discussions in moral philosophy and welfare economics are defined using this framework and their formal properties analyzed.

    Article IV argues that the ethical theory of “responsibility-catering prioritarianism” is well positioned to deal with the reasonable requirements in an ethical theory of risk. The article shows how responsibility-catering prioritarianism can be operationalized using a prioritarian social welfare function based on hypothetical utilities. For this purpose, a hypothetical utility measure called ‘responsibility-adjusted utility’ is proposed, which is based on the utility that would normally be expected given circumstances outside of the control of the individual.

    Article V was written as a response to the Fukushima disaster. Several authors have called the Fukushima disaster a ‘black swan.’ However, the article argues that the hazards of large earthquakes and tsunamis were known before the accident, and introduces and defines the concept of a ‘black elephant,’ as (i) a high-impact event that (ii) lies beyond the realm of regular expectations, but (iii) is ignored despite existing evidence.

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  • 123575.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Radiation protection issues related to the use of nuclear power2012In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, ISSN 2041-8396, E-ISSN 2041-840X, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 256-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear power generation require protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Radiation protection is based on the linear, no‐threshold model of health risks at low doses and three fundamental principles: justification, optimization, and limitation. The practical application of radiation protection is divided into three areas: planned, emergency, and existing exposure situations. Planned exposure situations include difficult social issues related to the exposure of large populations, exposure of future generations, protection against accidents, and protection of the environment. Emergency and existing exposure situations are both characterized by heterogeneous distributions of exposures and complex social and economic aspects, which make assessment and evaluation of protective strategies complicated and value laden. Four problem areas of social and ethical issues stand out as central for radiation protection: The first is uncertainty and the influence of value judgments in scientific risk assessments. The second is distributions of risks and benefits between different individuals, both in space and time. The third is the problem of setting limits when there is no known level of exposure that is associated with a zero risk. The fourth central problem area is related to stakeholder influence and risk communication.

  • 123576.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    The ethics of radiation protection: an overviewManuscript (Other academic)
  • 123577.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Department of Historical, Religious and Philosophical Studies, Umeå University .
    Toward a responsibility-catering prioritarian ethical theory of riskManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that responsibility-catering prioritarianism is well positioned to deal with the basic requirements of an ethical theory of risk. We show how responsibility-catering prioritarianism can be operationalized using a prioritarian social welfare function based on hypothetical utilities. For this purpose, we propose a hypothetical utility measure based on the utility that would normally be expected given circumstances outside of the control of the individual. Finally, we argue that degrees of control and knowledge of risks and consequences should influence when and how people are considered responsible in social decisions on risk.

  • 123578.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Umea Univ, Dept Hist Religious & Philosoph Studies, Humanisthuset, S-10044 Umea, Sweden..
    Toward a Responsibility-Catering Prioritarian Ethical Theory of Risk2019In: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 655-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard tools used in societal risk management such as probabilistic risk analysis or cost-benefit analysis typically define risks in terms of only probabilities and consequences and assume a utilitarian approach to ethics that aims to maximize expected utility. The philosopher Carl F. Cranor has argued against this view by devising a list of plausible aspects of the acceptability of risks that points towards a non-consequentialist ethical theory of societal risk management. This paper revisits Cranor's list to argue that the alternative ethical theory responsibility-catering prioritarianism can accommodate the aspects identified by Cranor and that the elements in the list can be used to inform the details of how to view risks within this theory. An approach towards operationalizing the theory is proposed based on a prioritarian social welfare function that operates on responsibility-adjusted utilities. A responsibility-catering prioritarian ethical approach towards managing risks is a promising alternative to standard tools such as cost-benefit analysis.

  • 123579.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Peterson, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Principles of protection: a formal approach for evaluating dose distribution2006In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 69-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     One of the central issues in radiation protection consists in determining what weight should be given to individual doses in relation to collective or aggregated doses. A mathematical framework is introduced in which such assessments can be made precisely in terms of comparisons between alternative distributions of individual doses. In addition to evaluation principles that are well known from radiation protection, a series of principles that are derived from parallel discussions in moral philosophy and welfare economics is investigated. A battery of formal properties is then used to investigate the evaluative principles. The results indicate that one of the new principles, bilinear prioritarianism, may be preferable to current practices, since it satisfies efficiency-related properties better without sacrificing other desirable properties.

  • 123580. Wikmark, Ylva
    et al.
    Humble, Maria Svedendahl
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology. Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Backvall, Jan-E.
    Combinatorial Library Based Engineering of Candida antarctica Lipase A for Enantioselective Transacylation of sec-Alcohols in Organic Solvent2015In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 54, no 14, p. 4284-4288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for determining lipase enantioselectivity in the transacylation of sec-alcohols in organic solvent was developed. The method was applied to a model library of Candida antarctica lipase A (CalA) variants for improved enantioselectivity (E values) in the kinetic resolution of 1-phenylethanol in isooctane. A focused combinatorial gene library simultaneously targeting seven positions in the enzyme active site was designed. Enzyme variants were immobilized on nickel-coated 96-well microtiter plates through a histidine tag (His(6)-tag), screened for transacylation of 1-phenylethanol in isooctane, and analyzed by GC. The highest enantioselectivity was shown by the double mutant Y93L/L367I. This enzyme variant gave an E value of 100 (R), which is a dramatic improvement on the wild-type CalA (E=3). This variant also showed high to excellent enantioselectivity for other secondary alcohols tested.

  • 123581.
    Wikner, Frida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Kravspecifikation och kravhantering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the production of new, and also the customization of already existing products, many decisions needs to be made surrounding product development.

    There are many easily accessible tools today, in the form of models and guidelines, which offer comprehensive assistance throughout the product development process

    The purpose behind this thesis is to explore what tools that is being implemented and used in todays’ industry regarding the handling, sorting, and also the prioritization of product requirements across several businesses. Furthermore, also explore the importance of requirement specification, and management, during the product development process.

    The result will be analyzed and set against each other where the similarities, differences, and also deviations from common models are of interest.

    The basis of this examination consists of a literature review and also interviews with respondents from eight different companies. All respondents have a good insight or knowledge of the product development process in their respective companies.

     

    The interviews were conducted at the respondents workplace and were executed in such a way that the respondent were given a great degree of freedom while answering very specific questions.

     

    The result from the interview showed that all participating companies value both specification and management of requirement highly, but with a different perspective depending on the nature of the company. For the companies that are highly market oriented, these two tools serves as a determining factor of the attractiveness of the launched product. For consulting companies, these tools are rather crucial if the client is to be satisfied with the final product. Overall, the marketed oriented companies implement models such as Kano and QFD in a much greater extent in relation to the consulting firms.

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  • 123582.
    Wiksten, Louise
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Optimal Yahtzee: A comparison bewteen different algorithms for playing Yahtzee2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The game of Yahtzee is a semi-strategic luck based game, which means it should be possible to maximize the score with an optimal strategy. The main purpose of the study is to compare the results of the optimal algorithm with other useable strategies when playing Yahtzee. To receive interesting results, the strategies and decisions made by the algorithms will be compared and analyzed in performance as well as by creating an environment where they have to choose from the same set of dices. To further see how well the different algorithms performed, Human Trials were conducted where 6 humans contributed by playing the game of Yahtzee 300 times. These test subjects were familiar with the game of Yahtzee and in this study it is concluded that these subjects had through reinforcement learning created an almost optimal play style. Our conclusion is that the Optimal Algorithm performs better than other algorithms that because it does not take any risks while playing while it tries to maximize the score but doing this uses a great amount of computation power, approximately 13.8GB of RAM and around 22 hours to complete. 

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  • 123583. Wikstroem, Per-Olof H.
    et al.
    Ceccato, Vania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Hardie, Beth
    Treiber, Kyle
    Activity Fields and the Dynamics of Crime2010In: Journal of quantitative criminology, ISSN 0748-4518, E-ISSN 1573-7799, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 55-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our current understanding of the role of the social environment in crime causation is at best rudimentary. Guided by the theoretical framework of Situational Action Theory, and using data from the ESRC financed Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), this paper aims to propose how we can better theorise and study the role of the social environment, particularly the person and place interaction, in crime causation. We will introduce, and illustrate the usefulness of, a space-time budget methodology as a means of capturing people's exposure to settings and describing their activity fields. We will suggest and demonstrate that, combined with a small area community survey and psychometric measures of individual characteristics, a space-time budget is a powerful tool for advancing our knowledge about the role of the social environment, and its interaction with people's crime propensity, in crime causation. Our unique data allows us to study the convergence in time and space of crime propensity, criminogenic exposure and crime events. As far as we are aware, such an analysis has never before been carried out. The findings show that there are (a) clear associations between young people's activity fields and their exposure to criminogenic settings, (b) clear associations between their exposure to criminogenic settings and their crime involvement, and, crucially,

  • 123584. Wikstrom, P. M.
    et al.
    Wallin, Stefan
    Johansson, Arne V.
    Derivation and investigation of a new explicit algebraic model for the passive scalar flux2000In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 688-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An algebraic relation for the scalar flux, in terms of mean flow quantities, is formed by applying an equilibrium condition in the transport equations for the normalized scalar flux. This modeling approach is analogous to explicit algebraic Reynolds stress modeling (EARSM) for the Reynolds stress anisotropies. The assumption of negligible advection and diffusion of the normalized passive scalar flux gives, in general, an implicit, nonlinear set of algebraic equations. A method to solve this implicit relation in a fully explicit form is proposed, where the nonlinearity in the scalar-production-to-dissipation ratio is considered and solved. The nonlinearity, in the algebraic equations for the normalized scalar fluxes, may be eliminated directly by using a nonlinear term in the model of the pressure scalar-gradient correlation and the destruction and thus results in a much simpler model for both two-and three-dimensional mean flows. The performance of the present model is investigated in three different flow situations. These are homogeneous shear flow with an imposed mean scalar gradient, turbulent channel flow, and the flow field downstream a heated cylinder. The direct numerical simulation (DNS) data are used to analyze the passive scalar flux in the homogeneous shear and channel flow cases and experimental data are used in the case of the heated cylinder wake. Sets of parameter values giving very good predictions in all three cases are found.

  • 123585.
    Wikström, Adam
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Modeling of stresses and deformation in thin film and interconnect line structures2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
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  • 123586.
    Wikström, Adam
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Thermal stresses in metal interconnects deposited on silicon substrates1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 123587.
    Wikström, Adam
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Gudmundson, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Stresses in passivated lines from curvature measurements2000In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 2429-2434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An exact expression is presented which enables the determination of volume-averaged thermoelastic stresses in passivated lines based on information from curvature measurements. This method, which is Valid for lines of arbitrary in-plane shape, requires knowledge of the material properties of the line and passivation. The sensitivity of the line stress estimates to uncertainties in curvature data for a typical line/passivation geometry is investigated in detail. It is concluded that the present approach is well suited for Al or Cu lines embedded in SiO2 passivation. In the particular case of coinciding shear moduli or Poisson ratios for the line and passivation, it is shown that the method breaks down and only certain linear combinations of the line stress components may be determined.

  • 123588.
    Wikström, Adam
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Gudmundson, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Stresses in Thin Coatings from Curvature Measurements on Non-Planar Substrates2001In: Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings, 2001, Vol. 653, p. Z10.4.1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical elastic and inelastic properties of thin coatings are often studied by means of the curvature measurement technique in combination with the Stoney formula. It is then implicitly assumed that the elastic substrate is initially flat which implies that the curvatures theoretically remain constant over the substrate. If the substrate has a slight initial curvature, a different situation arises. In this case, the curvatures will vary over the substrate. It has recently been shown that in spite of this, the stresses that appear in the thin coating will remain constant over the surface of the substrate. Therefore, measured curvatures can generally not be used to extract layer stresses without a proper compensation for the initial curvature. A general method for the extraction of mechanical properties from curvature measurements on non-planar substrates is outlined. The method is valid for linear as well as non-linear shell theories. The compensation needed to evaluate a coating on a circular substrate with spherical initial curvature is studied for all relevant parameters. The results are particularly discussed in relation to curvature measurements on silicon wafers.

  • 123589.
    Wikström, Adam
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Gudmundson, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Thermal deformation of initially curved substrates coated by thin inhomogeneous layers2001In: Journal of applied mechanics, ISSN 0021-8936, E-ISSN 1528-9036, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 298-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal curvature changes and membrane strains are analyzed for elastic shallow shell substrates which are coated by thin, generally inelastic, inhomogeneous and anisotropic layers. The analysis is restricted to linear kinematics. It is shown that the deformation is governed by the corresponding solution for a flat substrate and a correction due to the initial curvature. The correction is determined from a shallow shell problem for the bare substrate with a loading expressed by the coefficients of thermal curvature for the substrate/layer system. For constant initial curvature, certain analytic solutions are presented. For situations when the initial deflection of the substrate is much larger than the substrate thickness, a boundary layer solution is derived. In the particular case of a circular isotropic substrate with a spherical initial curvature and a coating of arbitrary anisotropy, the solution is presented in closed form. For nonflat substrates, measured curvatures can generally not be used to extract layer stresses without a proper compensation for the initial curvature. In this paper, it is explicitly presented how to accurately compensate for a spherical initial curvature. The results are particularly discussed in relation to curvature measurements on Silicon substrates.

  • 123590.
    Wikström, Adam
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Gudmundson, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Suresh, B.
    Passivated interconnect lines: Thermomechanical analysis and curvature measurements2000In: Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings, Materials Research Society, 2000, Vol. 594, p. 439-444Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that curvature measurements may be used to obtain volume averaged stresses in thin continuous films and unpassivated lines without knowledge of the material properties of the film or lines. However, recently a method was presented which makes it possible to use curvature measurements also for the determination of volume averaged stresses in passivated lines. Since the problem is statically indeterminate the method requires knowledge of the material properties of the lines and passivation. The sensitivity of the method to uncertainties in material properties and curvature data is here investigated by utilizing the finite element method for anisotropic Cu or Al lines embedded in SiO2 passivation. Furthermore, the method is extended to cover the case of different stress-free temperatures for the lines and passivation respectively.

  • 123591.
    Wikström, Adam
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Gudmundson, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Suresh, Subra
    Dept. of Mat. Sci. and Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology.
    Analysis of average thermal stresses in passivated metal interconnects1999In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 86, no 11, p. 6088-6095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volume-averaged thermal stresses in passivated metal interconnects on Si substrates are derived for situations where the thickness to width ratio of the interconnect lines is "small" or "large." The analysis provides different components of volume-averaged stresses for the most general case of thermal and elastic anisotropy in the passivation layer, the interconnect line, and the substrate. It is shown that the theoretical predictions, particularly those for the hydrostatic stresses, are in agreement with detailed finite element calculations for a wide range of line and passivation geometries of practical interest. The theoretical predictions of average hydrostatic stresses are also found to be in reasonable agreement with available experimental results for thermal stresses derived from x-ray diffraction measurements on passivated Cu lines. The present theoretical results are shown to be far more accurate than prior stress analyses for periodic passivated lines based on Eshelby's theory of inclusions.

  • 123592.
    Wikström, Adam
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Gudmundson, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Suresh, Subra
    Dept. of Mat. and Sci. and Eng., Massachusetts Inst. of Technology.
    Thermoelastic analysis of periodic thin lines deposited on a substrate1999In: Journal of the mechanics and physics of solids, ISSN 0022-5096, E-ISSN 1873-4782, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1113-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelastic stresses and curvatures arising from patterned thin lines on initially flat isotropic substrates are analyzed. A connection is made between substrates with patterned lines and laminated anisotropic composites containing transverse matrix cracks. Using this analogy along with anisotropic plate theories, approximate analytical expressions are derived for volume-averaged stresses as well as curvatures along and normal to the lines, for any thickness, width and spacing of the lines. The predictions of the analysis are shown to compare favorably with finite element simulations of stresses and curvatures for Si substrates with Al, Cu or SiO2 lines. The predictions also match prior experimental measurements of curvatures along and normal to patterned SiO2 lines on Si wafers, and further capture the general experimental trends reported previously for curvature evolutions in Si wafers with Al lines. The model presented here thus provides a very convenient and simple analytical tool for extracting stresses in thin lines on substrates from a knowledge of experimentally determined film stress, thereby circumventing the need for detailed computations for a wide range of unpassivated line geo metries of interest in microelectronic applications.

  • 123593.
    Wikström, Adam
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Anisotropy and texture in thin copper films—an elasto-plastic analysis2002In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 857-870Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 123594.
    Wikström, Alice
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Lundgren, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Risk för spridning av markföroreningar från MIFO-klassade områden i Stockholms län vid ökad avrinning till följd av klimatförändringar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 123595.
    Wikström, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Reduction of voltage dips by redesign of an industrial distribution system using fast switches and current limiting devices2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 123596.
    Wikström, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electric Power Systems.
    Tillgänglig transmissionskapacitet i elkraftsystem1998Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 123597.
    Wikström, Anja
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Nuclear receptors from a molecular perspective2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 123598.
    Wikström, Camilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Sandberg Borell, Ludwig
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Avfall inom byggsektorn: En jämförelse mellan gemensam och traditionell avfallshantering2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability and the environment are current issues in today’s world, especially in the construction industry. The industry stands for a big part of the energy consumption and the waste that is generated. There are considerable scopes for development and improvement to pursuit a sustainable community. The report describes, from many perspectives how common and traditional waste management are different from each other and a comparison has been done of total waste, fraction distribution, average voiding and treatment cost.

    Production data has shown that common waste management is producing less waste, both totally and per gross floor area. The fractions mixed waste and waste dump have the biggest percentage reduction. Both are related to large cost and environmental impact. Treatment costs per gross floor area have been reduced by 39 % in the common waste management.

    The fraction combustible has the largest amount of waste and the biggest treatment cost regardless of the waste management method. Here is room for improvement and further sorting.                                                                                                                             

    The common waste management uses mostly small containers which are perceived to be one reason for better sorting and less waste produced. Another reason is the amount of fractions used in the projects. A distinct reduction of mixed waste has been detected with higher amount of fractions.

    Costumer benefits and other values are hard to justify other than from discussions with people in the business and from our own observations. An example of benefits is the flexibility to adjust the waste management by needs arising on site. Further should an investigation be done early in the building process to see if a common waste management is possible or not. If it is a possibility, it should be used to lower the amount of waste and cost. Common waste management could for example be used when many companies have projects in the same area. 

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  • 123599.
    Wikström, Diana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Cykeltouren2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of locals in Stockholm who chooses the bike in front of public transport has increased significantly in recent years. The product purchaser of this project, Joakim Victorin at Sigma AB, has a keen interest in cycling, which resulted in a fairly obvious topic of this project; through a web application Sigma AB wanted to make it possible to handle results from professional as well as amateur competitions in cycling.

    The purpose of this web application is to simplify reporting and handling of competition for both small and bigger bicycle races. By providing the users of the system a platform independent client, any available device may be used.

    This thesis has followed the development principles which prevail on the ASP .NET MVC 3 concept. When developing the system the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 development environment was used. The framework and the pattern of ASP .NET MVC 3 is a prominent part of today’s web development. When this framework has largely become an industry standard, it was an interesting way for me to go compared to the former and less complex variant ASP .NET Web Forms.

    The result of the development is a functional but not complete system. Separation of code and proper documentation of program components facilitates further development towards a finish product.

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  • 123600.
    Wikström, Douglas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    A Commitment-Consistent Proof of a Shuffle2009In: INFORMATION SECURITY AND PRIVACY, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Boyd C, Nieto JG, Berlin: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2009, Vol. 5594, p. 407-421Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a pre-computation technique that drastically reduces the online computational complexity of mix-nets based on homomorphic cryptosystems. More precisely, we show that there is a permutation commitment scheme that allows a mix-server to: (1) commit to a permutation and efficiently prove knowledge of doing so correctly in the offline phase, and (2) shuffle its input and give an extremely efficient commitment-consistent proof of a shuffle in the online phase. We prove our result for a general class of shuffle maps that generalize a known types of shuffles, and even allows shuffling ciphertexts of different cryptosystems in parallel.

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