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  • 151.
    Laakso, Miku
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Asiatici, Mikhail
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland .
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Frank, Niklaus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wide temperature range through silicon vias made of Invar and spin-on glass for interposers and MEMS2016In: 2016 IEEE 29th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Mems), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 585-588, article id 7421693Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through silicon vias (TSVs) are used e.g. to create electrical connections through MEMS wafers or through silicon interposers used in 2.5D packaging. Currently available technologies do not address situations in which TSVs through unthinned wafers have to withstand large temperature variations. We propose using ferromagnetic Invar metal alloy for this purpose due to its low mismatch in heat induced strain in comparison to silicon. We demonstrate the suitability of a magnetic assembly process for Invar TSV fabrication and the use of spin-on glass as a TSV insulator. We demonstrate TSVs, with contact pads, that tolerate temperature cycling between -50 °C and 190 °C and can withstand elevated temperatures of at least up to 365 °C.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Postprint
  • 152.
    Laakso, Miku
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Liljeholm, Jessica
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. Silex Microsystems AB, Järfälla, SWEDEN.
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ebefors, Thorbjörn
    Silex Microsystems AB, Järfälla, SWEDEN.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Maskless Manufacturing of Through Glass Vias (TGVs) and Their Test Structures2017In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2017, p. 753-756, article id 7863517Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through glass vias (TGVs) are a key component in glass-based interposers and microelectromechanical-system lid wafers. Magnetic-field-assisted self-assembly has been demonstrated earlier in fabrication of through silicon vias. Here we present an entirely maskless TGV fabrication process utilizing magnetic assembly. Femtosecond laser is used for ablative direct patterning of surface metal layers and for exposing the TGV conductors after wafer thinning. The proposed TGV structure is shown to be electrically functional by measuring the TGV resistance values.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 153.
    Ladhani, Laila
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Pardon, Gaspard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Meeuws, Hanne
    Janssen Diagnostics.
    van Wesenbeeck, Liesbeth
    Janssen Diagnostics.
    Schmidt, Kristiane
    Janssen Diagnostics.
    Stuyver, Lieven
    Janssen Diagnostics .
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sampling and detection of airborne influenza virus towards point-of-care applications2017In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, PlosONEArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne transmission of the influenza virus contributes significantly to the spread of this infectious pathogen, particularly over large distances when carried by aerosol droplets with long survival times. Efficient sampling of virus-loaded aerosol in combination with a low limit of detection of the collected virus could enable rapid and early detection of airborne influenza virus at the point-of-care setting. Here, we demonstrate a successful sampling and detection of airborne influenza virus using a system specifically developed for such applications. Our system consists of a custom-made electrostatic precipitation (ESP)-based bioaerosol sampler that is coupled with downstream quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Aerosolized viruses are sampled directly into a miniaturized collector with liquid volume of 150 μL, which constitutes a simple and direct interface with subsequent biological assays. This approach reduces sample dilution by at least one order of magnitude when compared to other liquid-based aerosol bio-samplers. Performance of our ESP-based sampler was evaluated using influenza virus-loaded sub-micron aerosols generated from both cultured and clinical samples. Despite the miniaturized collection volume, we demonstrate a collection efficiency of at least 10% and sensitive detection of a minimum of 3721 RNA copies. Furthermore, we show that an improved extraction protocol can allow viral recovery of down to 303 RNA copies and a maximum sampler collection efficiency of 47%. A device with such a performance would reduce sampling times dramatically, from a few hours with current sampling methods down to a couple of minutes with our ESP-based bioaerosol sampler.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 154.
    Ladhani, Laila
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Pardon, Gaspard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A 3D microfluidic cage collector for airborne particles2015In: The 19th International Conference on Miniaturised Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015, p. 79-81Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We designed, manufactured, and integrated the first 3D microfluidic collector for capturing airborne particles directly into liquid; using an integrated electrostatic precipitator (ESP) sampler, designed for breath diagnostic purposes. The novel collector increases the sampler’s air-to-liquid capture efficiency by 35 times, when compared with previous 2D collectors. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 155.
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wafer-level 3-D CMOS Integration of Very-large-scale Silicon Micromirror Arrays and Room-temperature Wafer-level Packaging2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the development of wafer-level fabrication and packaging methods for micro-electromechanical (MEMS) devices, based on wafer-bonding.

    The first part of the thesis is addressing the development of a wafer-level technology that allows the use of high performance materials, such as monocrystalline silicon, for MEMS devices that are closely integrated on top of sensitive integrated circuits substrates. Monocrystalline silicon has excellent mechanical properties that are hard to achieve otherwise, and therefore it fits well in devices for adaptive optics and maskwriting applications where nanometer precision deflection requirements call for mechanically stable materials. However, the temperature sensitivity of the integrated circuits prohibits the use of monocrystalline silicon with conventional deposition and surface micromachining techniques. Here, heterogeneous 3-D integration by adhesive wafer-bonding is used to fabricate three different types of spatial light modulators, based on micromirror arrays made of monocrystalline silicon; micromirror arrays with vertically moving “piston-type” mirrors and with tilting mirrors made of one functional monocrystalline silicon layer, and vertically moving hidden-hinge micromirror arrays made of two functional monocrystalline silicon layers.

    The second part of the thesis addresses the need for room-temperature packaging methods that allow the packaging of liquids or in general heat sensitive devices on wafer-level. A packaging method was developed that is based on a hybrid wafer-bonding approach, combining the compression bonding of gold gaskets with adhesive bonding. The packaging method is first demonstrated for the wafer-level encapsulation of liquids in reservoirs and then applied to packaging a dye-based photonic gas sensor.

     

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    fulltext
  • 156.
    Lapisa, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Antelius, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Tocchio, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wafer-Level capping and sealing of heat sensitive substances and liquids with gold gaskets2013In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 201, p. 154-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a novel wafer-level packaging method employing gold gaskets and an epoxy underfill. The packaging is done at room-temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mild packaging conditions allow the encapsulation of sensitive devices. The method is demonstrated for two applications; the wafer-level encapsulation of a liquid and the wafer-level packaging of a photonic gas sensor containing heat sensitive dye-films.

  • 157.
    Lapisa, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Zimmer, Fabian
    Fraunhofer IPMS.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gehner, Andreas
    Fraunhofer IPMS.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Heterogeneous 3D integration of hidden hinge micromirror arrays consisting of two layers of monocrystalline silicon2013In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 075003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) compatible heterogeneous 3D integration process that allows the integration of two monocrystalline silicon layers on top of CMOS control electronics. With this process we demonstrate the fabrication of hidden hinge micromirror arrays from monocrystalline silicon for adaptive optics applications. The piston-type micromirror arrays have the flexures underneath the mirror plates on separate silicon layers. Arrays of 48 × 48 mirror elements with an air-gap between mirror and address electrode of 10 µm were fabricated. The mirrors were found to be drift free and showed no imprinting. A maximum electrostatic mirror displacement of 3 µm is demonstrated.

  • 158.
    Leirs, Karen
    et al.
    KU Leuven.
    Sandström, Niklas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ladhani, Laila
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Spasic, Dragana
    KU Leuven.
    Ostanin, Victor
    University of Cambridge.
    Klenerman, David
    University of Cambridge.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Ghosh, Sourav
    Loughborough University.
    Lammertyn, Jeroen
    KU Leuven.
    Screening of antibodies for the development of a fast and sensitivie influenza: A nucleoprotein detection on a nonlinear acoustic sensor2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Leirs, Karen
    et al.
    MeBioS - Biosensor group, KU Leuven.
    Sandström, Niklas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ladhani, Laila
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Spasic, Dragana
    MeBioS - Biosensor group, KU Leuven.
    Ostanin, Victor
    University of Cambridge.
    Klenerman, David
    University of Cambridge.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Lammertyn, Jeroen
    KU Leuven.
    Ghosh, Sourav
    Loughborough University.
    Rapid ultra-sensitive detection of influenza A nucleoproteins using a microfluidic nonlinear acoustic sensor2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 160.
    Lenk, Gabriel Arne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Delay valving in capillary driven devices based on dissolvable thin films2014In: 18th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2014, Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society , 2014, p. 216-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents passive time delay valves for micro channels in two different working modes for microfluidic on chip timing. The delay valve designs are compatible with conventional lamination techniques for microfluidics and allow to pre-program advanced sequential operations independent from the geometries of the microfluidic system. The time delay of the dissolvable valves ranges from 1.2 s up to 36 s per valve resulting in a time range from 1.2 seconds up to 11 minutes for 19 serial valves.

  • 161.
    Lenk, Gabriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Hansson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Beck, Olof
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    The effect of drying on the homogeneity of DBS2015In: Bioanalysis, ISSN 1757-6180, E-ISSN 1757-6199, Vol. 7, no 16, p. 1977-1985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inhomogeneous sample distribution in DBS is a problem for accurate quantitative analysis of DBS, and has often been explained by chromatographic effects. Results: We present a model describing formation of inhomogeneous DBS during drying of the spot caused by higher evaporation rates of water at the edge as compared with the center. Color intensity analysis shows that the relative humidity and DBS card position affect the homogeneity of DBS. Conclusion: The so-called coffee-stain effect' explains the typical distribution pattern of analytes with higher concentrations measured along the edge of DBS as compared with the center. The driving mechanism and potential influencing factors should be considered when addressing the inhomogeneity of DBS in the future.

  • 162.
    Lenk, Gabriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Hansson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wouter van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Capillary driven and volume-metred blood-plasma separation2015In: Proceedings 18 th IEEE Transducers, IEEE , 2015, no 16, p. 335-338Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood plasma samples are widely used in clinical analysis but easy-to-use sampling methods for defined volumes are lacking. We introduce the first capillary driven microfluidic device that separates a specific volume of plasma from a blood sample of unknown volume. The input to the device is a small amount of whole blood in the range of 30-60 μl which results in a 4 μl isolated plasma sample within 3 minutes, available for subsequent processing and/or analysis, as demonstrated by collecting the sample in a paper substrate.

  • 163.
    Lenk, Gabriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Pohanka, Anton
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Beck, Olof
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A Disposable Chip Enabling Metering In Dried Blood Spot Sampling2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a disposable chip for metering and transferring an exactly defined liquid volume into a paper matrix by capillary filling and emptying of a microchannel together with self-actuated dissolvable valves. Once a liquid droplet of 20-50 μl is applied to the chip, a volume of 1 μl is automatically metered, separated from the applied volume and subsequently transferred into conventional Whatman 903 paper used in Dried Blood Spot (DBS) sampling. The presented concept allows accurate volume metering for lateral flow devices and is here designed to the specific purpose of metering blood spots for DBS analysis. The material costs for each chip are below 0.04 €.

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    proceeding_microTAS 2013
  • 164.
    Lenk, Gabriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Pohanka, Anton
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Beck, Olof
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A Disposable Chip for the Collection of Quantitative Dried Blood Spot Samples2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a disposable chip for metering and transferring an exactly defined liquid volume into a paper matrix using self-actuated dissolvable valves. Once a liquid droplet of 20-50 μl is applied to the chip, a volume of 1 μl is automatically metered, separated from the applied volume and subsequently transferred into conventional Whatman 903 paper used in Dried Blood Spot (DBS) sampling.

    Download full text (pdf)
    abstract_MSW 2014
  • 165.
    Lenk, Gabriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Pohanka, Anton
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Beck, Olof
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Disposable Chip to Enable Metering in Dried Blood Spot Sampling2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a disposable chip for metering and transferring an exactly defined liquid volume into a paper matrix by capillary filling and emptying of a microchannel together with self-actuated dissolvable valves. Once a liquid droplet of 20-50 μl is applied to the chip, a volume of 1 μl is automatically metered, separated from the applied volume and subsequently transferred into conventional Whatman 903 paper used in Dried Blood Spot (DBS) sampling. The presented concept allows accurate volume metering for lateral flow devices and is here designed to the specific purpose of metering blood spots for DBS analysis. The material costs for each chip are below 0.04 €.

    Download full text (pdf)
    abstract_MTD
  • 166.
    Lenk, Gabriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sandkvist, Soren
    Pohanka, Anton
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Beck, Olof
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A disposable sampling device to collect volume-measured DBS directly from a fingerprick onto DBS paper2015In: Bioanalysis, ISSN 1757-6180, E-ISSN 1757-6199, Vol. 7, no 16, p. 2085-2094Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: DBS samples collected from a fingerprick typically vary in volume and homogeneity and hence make an accurate quantitative analysis of DBS samples difficult. Results: We report a prototype which first defines a precise liquid volume and subsequently stores it to a conventional DBS matrix. Liquid volumes of 2.2 mu l +/- 7.1% (n = 21) for deionized water and 6.1 mu l +/- 8.8% (n = 15) for whole blood have been successfully metered and stored in DBS paper. Conclusion: The new method of collecting a defined volume of blood by DBS sampling has the potential to reduce assay bias for the quantitative evaluation of DBS samples while maintaining the simplicity of conventional DBS sampling.

  • 167.
    Lenk, Gabriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Dry reagent storage in dissolvable films and liquid triggered release for programmed multi-step lab-on-chip diagnostics2015In: 2015 28th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), IEEE , 2015, no February, p. 451-454Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-step lab-on-chip assays typically require multiple manual pipetting steps of different reagents and a sophisticated design to run the assay, which is generally unfavorable for point-of-care applications. This work presents the use of dissolvable polyvinylalcohol films for (1) reagent storage and release together with (2) timed valving in capillary driven microfluidics. This allows four different volumes to be split up from a single liquid which is applied to the inlet of the chip. PVA captured reagents are released to each volume forming four different solutions which are separately released in a timed sequence to a common target zone. The presented chip thereby enables a single liquid-triggered multi-reagent sequence with the potential to be used for advanced point of care diagnostics.

  • 168. Lietaer, Nicolas
    et al.
    Bakke, Thor
    Summanwar, Anand
    Dalsjø, Per
    Gakkestad, Jakob
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wafer-level packaged MEMS switch with TSV2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A miniaturized wafer-level packaged MEMS acceleration switch with through silicon vias (TSVs) was fabricated, based on technologies suitable for harsh environment applications. The high aspect ratio TSVs were fabricated through the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate prior to the fabrication of the MEMS structures. Doped polysilicon was used as the conductor for the TSVs, which has the advantage of a thermal coefficient of expansion that matches that of the silicon substrate material. The fragile MEMS structures were protected from the environment by wafer-level bonding of a glass cap using benzocyclobutene (BCB). The BCB layer which was spray-coated onto the patterned glass wafer provides a good bond strength and temperature stability. As opposed to having lateral interconnects at the interface between the cap wafer and the device wafer, the use of TSVs significantly reduces the footprint and allows flip-chip bonding of the devices onto a substrate. The bare MEMS chips were mounted directly onto a printed circuit board (PCB) thereby avoiding an entire packaging level and reducing the system complexity and cost. This was done using an isotropic conductive adhesive (ICA) based on metalized polymer spheres, which is believed to be an interconnect technology more suitable for harsh environments than metal-based BGA and CSP technology. The initial characterization of completed chips mounted on a PCB shows promising results.

  • 169.
    Liljeholm, Jessica
    et al.
    Silex Microsystems, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ebefors, Thorbjörn
    Silex Microsystems, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rohrmann, Hartmut
    Evatec Advanced Technologies AG, Balzers, Liechtenstein.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Multilayer ferromagnetic composites enabling on-chip magnetic-core inductors beyond 1 GHZ2015In: Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS), 2015 Transducers - 2015 18th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 811-814Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports of fabricated unpatterned ferromagnetic NiFe/AlN multilayer composites and an established process flow for magnetic core material suitable for integration with Silex 3D RF TSV technology. The fabricated single-loop test inductors achieved an inductance enhancement of 4.8 and a quality factor enhancement of 4.5 at 400 MHz. Simulations show that magnetic material in connection with 3D TSV inductors result in an inductance enhancement up to a factor of 5 at GHz frequencies for the same inductor area or the same inductance can be achieved at 9 times smaller area and cost.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 170. Liljeholm, Jessica
    et al.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Campion, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ebefors, Thorbjörn
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Through-Glass-Via Enabling Low Loss High-Linearity RF Components2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on successful fabrication of metal through glass via (TGV) for low-loss high-linearity wafer-level 3D packages (WLP). The DC resistance was characterized to 28mOhm/TGV and the non-linearity of two sets of TGVs with a 1.1 mm long transmission line was better than 78 dBm (IP3).

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 171.
    Lim, Jang-Kwon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Peftitsis, Dimosthenis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Sadik, Diane-Perle
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Bakowski, M.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Evaluation of buried grid JBS diodes2014In: 15th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, ICSCRM 2013, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2014, p. 804-807Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes for high temperature operation over 200 °C have been developed using buried grids formed by implantation. Compared to a conventional JBS-type SBD with surface grid (SG), JBS-type SBD with buried grid (BG) has significantly reduced leakage current at reverse bias due to a better field shielding of the Schottky contact. By introducing the BG technology, the 1.7 kV diodes with an anode area 0.0024 cm2 (1 A) and 0.024 cm2 (10 A) were successfully fabricated, encapsulated in TO220 packages, and electrically evaluated. Two types of buried grid arrangement with different grid spacing dimensions were investigated. The measured IV characteristics were compared with simulation. The best fit was obtained with an active area of approximately 60% and 70% of the anode area in large and small devices, respectively. The measured values of the device capacitances were 1000 pF in large devices and 100 pF in small devices at zero bias. The capacitance values are proportional to the device area. The recovery behavior of big devices was measured in a double pulse tester and simulated. The recovery charge, Qc, was 18 nC and 24 nC in simulation and measurement, respectively. The fabricated BG JBS-type SBDs have a smaller maximum reverse recovery current compared to the commercial devices. No influence of the different grid spacing on the recovery charge was observed.

  • 172. Lioubtchenko, Dmitri V.
    et al.
    Anoshkin, Ilya
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Nefedova, I. I.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Raisanen, A. V.
    W-band phase shifter based on optimized optically controlled carbon nanotube layer2017In: 2017 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1188-1191, article id 8058815Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase shifting in a dielectric rod waveguide (DRW), loaded with carbon nanotube (CNT) layers of different thickness, was studied experimentally under light illumination in the frequency range of 75-110 GHz. The dependence of efficiency of the phase shifting, in terms of phase shift per light intensity and millimeter wave attenuation, on the optical transparency of the CNT-layer is investigated in this paper. The best result, a phase shifter of 0-15° with less than 0.1 dB additional signal loss in the W-band was achieved for a 95% transparent CNT layer at 23 mW/mm2 light intensity of a tungsten halogen lamp (main radiation spectrum is 550-680 nm). The overall insertion loss of the phase shifter including two DRW tapering sections serving as transitions to rectangular waveguides are 3 to 5 dB in the W-band, about 2 dB is attributed to the CNT DRW section. This comprises, for the first time, an optically-controlled CNT-based DRW phase shifter with phase shift and insertion loss levels suitable for practical applications.

  • 173. Liu, Zhengjun
    et al.
    Iltanen, Kari
    Chekurov, Nikolai
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Grigoras, Kestutis
    Tittonen, Ilkka
    Aluminum oxide mask fabrication by focused ion beam implantation combined with wet etching2013In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 24, no 17, p. 175304-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel aluminum oxide (Al2O3) hard mask fabrication process with nanoscale resolution is introduced. The Al2O3 mask can be used for various purposes, but in this work it was utilized for silicon patterning using cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The patterning of Al2O3 is a two-step process utilizing focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation combined with wet chemical etching. Gallium (Ga+) FIB maskless patterning confers wet etch selectivity between the irradiated region and the non-irradiated one on the Al2O3 layer, and mask patterns can easily be revealed by wet etching. This method is a modification of Ga+ FIB mask patterning for the silicon etch stop, which eliminates the detrimental lattice damage and doping of the silicon substrate in critical devices. The shallow surface gallium FIB irradiated Al2O3 mask protects the underlying silicon from Ga+ ions. The performance of the masking capacity was tested by drawing pairs consisting of a line and an empty space with varying width. The best result was seven such pairs for 1 mu m. The smallest half pitch was 59 nm. This method is capable of arbitrary pattern generation. The fabrication of a freestanding single-ended tuning fork resonator utilizing the introduced masking method is demonstrated.

  • 174.
    Lobov, Gleb
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Shafagh, R. Zandi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Zhao, Y
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    van der Wijngaart, W.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wosinski, L.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Thylen, L
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Toprak, M. S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Haraldsson, T.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Östling, M.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Popov, S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Electro-optical effects of high aspect ratio P3HT nanofibers colloid in polymer micro-fluid cells2017In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 2157-2160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Letter reports the electro-optical (EO) effect of Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) nanofibers colloid in a polymer micro-fluidic EO cell. P3HT nanofibers are high aspect ratio semiconducting nanostructures, and can be collectively aligned by an external alternating electric field. Optical transmission modulated by the electric field is a manifestation of the electro-optical effect due to high inner crystallinity of P3HT nanofibers. According to our results, the degree of alignment reaches a maximum at 0.6 V/μm of electric field strength, implying a big polarizability value due to geometry and electrical properties of P3HT nanofibers. We believe that one-dimensional crystalline organic nanostructures have a large potential in EO devices due to their significant anisotropy, wide variety of properties, low actuation voltages, and opportunity to be tailored via adjustment of the fabrication process.

  • 175. Löhr, M.
    et al.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Fagerberg, B.
    Nanotekniken kan revolutionera behandlingen av cancer - Ger nya möjligheter att målstyra läkemedel, men flera stora utmaningar återstår att tackla2017In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114, p. 27-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoparticles for cancer therapy Nanoparticles carry a big promise in oncology, for diagnosis/imaging, therapy, or both (theragnostics). As common in medical history, there is a huge gap between the exciting experimental possibilities and data and clinical studies making use of it. Of the cell-containing nanoparticles, only one formulation using gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) with CYP2B1 and ifosfamide was used in early clinical studies. Of the cell-free nanoparticles, some drug-releasing (doxorubicin) ones are in clinical use for trans-arterial chemo-embolization (TACE) in liver tumors and metastasis. Using liposomes, both paclitaxel and irinotecan have been used in pancreatic cancer as the model indication. Nanoparticle-albumin-bound paclitaxel (NAB-paclitaxel) has also been developed and is now registered as a drug for first-line therapy of pancreatic cancer, as is the liposomal irinotecan. The novel nanoparticle formulations carry a big promise for even better performance, both in diagnosis and therapy; however, few of these has entered the clinic as of today.

  • 176.
    Malm, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Quantum Mechanical TCAD Study of Epitaxial SiGe Thermistor Layers2012In: Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices (SISPAD), 2012 International Conference on, 2012, p. 173-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR) for epitaxial silicon-germanium (SiGe) layers has been analyzed by experiment and simulation. Predictive simulation using drift-diffusion formalism and self-consistent quantum-mechanical solutions yielded similar results, TCR around 2%/K at 300 K. This modeling approach can be used for different, graded and constant, SiGe profiles,. It is also capable of predicting the influence of background auto-doping on the TCR of the detectors.

  • 177.
    Malmqvist, Robert
    et al.
    FOI.
    Gustafsson, Andreas
    FOI.
    Svedin, Jan
    FOI.
    Beuerle, Bernhard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A 220-325 GHz Low-Loss Micromachined Waveguide Power Divider2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC), IEEE, 2017, p. 291-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A J-band (220-325 GHz) silicon micromachined waveguide power divider based on a tee-shape topology is presented. To characterise the power divider a test circuit was designed with one output path connected using a low return loss 90° multi-stepped bend while the other output path uses an onchip matched waveguide load filled with an absorbing material. The power divider is fabricated using a micromachined waveguide technology employing a double H-plane split which results in low losses. Measured transmission and reflection coefficients are equal to -3.5 dB ± 0.4 dB at 231-330 GHz and between -10 dB and -20 dB at 220-320 GHz, respectively. A good agreement between the simulated and measured data was obtained by taking the microfabrication sidewall profile (undercut) into account in the simulations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a low-loss micromachined power divider of this type is characterised within this frequency range.

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  • 178. Mehmood, Abu Bakr
    et al.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shabbir, Ghulam
    A generalized approach for computing the trajectories associated with the Newtonian N body problem2006Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Classical Newtonian problem of describing the free motions of N gravitating bodieswhich form an isolated system in free space has been considered. It is well known from thePoincare’s Dictum that the problem is not exactly solvable. Sets of N body systems composed ofmasses having spherical symmetry, appropriate angular velocities (< 1 rad/s) and boundedposition vectors are examined. A procedure has been developed which yields expressionsapproximately defining the trajectories executed by the masses.

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  • 179. Mehmood, Abu Bakr
    et al.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shabbir, Ghulam
    Closed Form Approximation Solutions for the Restricted Circular Three Body Problem.2005In: APPS. Applied Sciences, ISSN 1454-5101, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 112-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach is developed to find approximate solutions to the restricted circular three body problem. The solution is useful in approximately describing the position vectors of three spherically symmetric masses, one of which has a much smaller mass than the other two. These masses perform free motion under each others’ gravitational influence. The set of solutions is found using the Lambert’s wave function.

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  • 180. Minzioni, Paolo
    et al.
    Osellame, Roberto
    Sada, Cinzia
    Zhao, S
    Omenetto, F G
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Zhang, Yibo
    Ozcan, Aydogan
    Wax, Adam
    Mugele, Frieder
    Schmidt, Holger
    Testa, Genni
    Bernini, Romeo
    Guck, Jochen
    Liberale, Carlo
    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine
    Chen, Jian
    Pollnau, Markus
    Xiong, Sha
    Liu, Ai-Qun
    Shiue, Chia-Chann
    Fan, Shih-Kang
    Erickson, David
    Sinton, David
    Roadmap for optofluidics2017In: Journal of Optics, ISSN 2040-8978, E-ISSN 2040-8986, Vol. 19, article id 093003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optofluidics, nominally the research area where optics and fluidics merge, is a relatively new research field and it is only in the last decade that there has been a large increase in the number of optofluidic applications, as well as in the number of research groups, devoted to the topic. Nowadays optofluidics applications include, without being limited to, lab-on-a-chip devices, fluid-based and controlled lenses, optical sensors for fluids and for suspended particles, biosensors, imaging tools, etc. The long list of potential optofluidics applications, which have been recently demonstrated, suggests that optofluidic technologies will become more and more common in everyday life in the future, causing a significant impact on many aspects of our society. A characteristic of this research field, deriving from both its interdisciplinary origin and applications, is that in order to develop suitable solutions a combination of a deep knowledge in different fields, ranging from materials science to photonics, from microfluidics to molecular biology and biophysics, is often required. As a direct consequence, also being able to understand the long-term evolution of optofluidics research is not easy. In this article, we report several expert contributions on different topics so as to provide guidance for young scientists. At the same time, we hope that this document will also prove useful for funding institutions and stakeholders to better understand the perspectives and opportunities offered by this research field.

  • 181. Mohottige, Nandun
    et al.
    Glubokov, Oleksandr
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Jankovic, Uros
    Budimir, Djuradj
    Ultra Compact Inline E-Plane Waveguide Bandpass Filters Using Cross Coupling2016In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 2561-2571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents novel ultracompact waveguide bandpass filters that exhibit pseudoelliptic responses with the ability to place transmission zeros on both sides of the passband to form sharp rolloffs. The filters contain E-plane extracted pole sections (EPSs) cascaded with cross-coupled filtering blocks. Compactness is achieved by the use of evanescent mode sections and closer arranged resonators modified to shrink in size. The filters containing nonresonating nodes are designed by means of the generalized coupling coefficients' extraction procedure for the cross-coupled filtering blocks and EPSs. We illustrate the performance of the proposed structures through the design examples of third-and fourth-order filters with center frequencies of 9.2 and 10 GHz, respectively. The sizes of the proposed structures suitable for fabricating using the low-cost E-plane waveguide technology are 38% smaller than ones of the E-plane extracted pole filter of the same order.

  • 182.
    Moulodi, Shaho
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Development of New Metallization Processes for High Aspect Ratio Through-Silicon-Via (TSV) for Gas Sensor Applications2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is related to Through-Silicon-Via (TSV) technology, and in particular to providing TSVs with high aspect ratio in substrates together with self-aligned routing structures on the surfaces of the substrate, in order to make so called interposers and 3D MEMS. The goal of this project is to investigate and develop new metallization technique, create connections from front to back of silicon wafer using High Aspect Ratio (HAR) Through-Silicon-Vias suitable for easier gas sensor packaging.

    The metallization scheme this project focused on is primarily electroless plating of nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu). Three different types of wafers are used in this project with different objectives; i) plan wafers (no vias present) used to optimize the overall process and especially solving adhesion issues that Silex previously faced when making first experiments in 2011, ii) TSV wafers to create a conformal and smooth seed-layer on HAR via structures and finally iii) patterned wafers to selectively deposit the self-aligned routing structures.

    Different plating experiments according to DOE have been performed to fulfill the objectives of this project: i) adhesion: best results obtained using a silicidation process (Ni)Si by Rapid Thermal Annealing (heat treatment), ii) conformal HAR TSV seed-layer films obtained by electroless deposition of copper on electroless nickel verified by cross-section SEM, iii) a self aligned selectively deposited Ni/Cu Re-Distribution Layer (RDL) was obtained by using an oxide acting as the mask and patterned by lithography providing the exposed structures to be selectively deposited by electroless nickel and copper, iv) experiments done according to the objectives, verified that the conformal Ni/Cu electroless deposited films are useful as seed-layer for thick electroplated conventional TSV processing at Silex.

    The electroless copper process used so far has film thickness limitations and could not yet been applied to completely fill the vias when thicker than 10 8m of Cu is needed. It is recommended to further study this issue.

    Even though the project achieved the specific goals, there is still room for further improvement and several potential future improvements are suggested to enable the integration of the developed technologies into fully tested HAR TSV interposers.

  • 183. Nadeau, P.
    et al.
    El-Damak, D.
    Glettig, D.
    Kong, Y. L.
    Mo, S.
    Cleveland, C.
    Booth, L.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States.
    Langer, R.
    Chandrakasan, A. P.
    Traverso, G.
    Prolonged energy harvesting for ingestible devices2017In: Nature Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 2157-846X, Vol. 1, no 3, article id 0022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ingestible electronics have revolutionized the standard of care for a variety of health conditions. Extending the capacity and safety of these devices, and reducing the costs of powering them, could enable broad deployment of prolonged-monitoring systems for patients. Although previous biocompatible power-harvesting systems for in vivo use have demonstrated short (minute-long) bursts of power from the stomach, little is known about the potential for powering electronics in the longer term and throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the design and operation of an energy-harvesting galvanic cell for continuous in vivo temperature sensing and wireless communication. The device delivered an average power of 0.23 μW mm -2 of electrode area for an average of 6.1 days of temperature measurements in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. This power-harvesting cell could provide power to the next generation of ingestible electronic devices for prolonged periods of time inside the gastrointestinal tract.

  • 184.
    Nikkam, Nader
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ghanbarpour, Morteza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmaatollah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Experimental investigation on thermophysical properties of ethylene glycol based copper micro- and nanofluids for heat transfer applications2015In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Cambridge University Press, 2015, p. 69-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work reports on the fabrication, experimental and theoretical investigatbn of thermal conductivity (TC) and viscosity of ethylene glycol (EG) based nanofluids/microfluids (NFs/MFs) containing copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) and copper microparticles (Cu MPs). Cu NPs (20-40 nm) and Cu MPs (0.5-1.5 μm) were dispersed in EG with particle concentration from 1 wt% to 3 wt% using powerful ultrasonic agitation, and to study the real impact of dispersed particles the use of surface modifier was avoided. The objectives were to study the effect of concentration and impact of size of Cu particles on thermo-physical properties, including thermal TC and viscosity, of EG based Cu NFs/MFs. The physicochemical properties of NPs/MPs and NFs/MFs were characterized by using various techniques. The experimental results exhibited higher TC of NFs and MFs than the EG base liquid. Moreover, Cu NFs displayed higher TC than MFs showing their potential for use in some heat transfer applications. Maxwell effective medium theory as well as Einstein law of viscosity was used to compare the experimental data with the predicted values for estimating the TC and viscosity of Cu NFs/MFs, respectively.

  • 185.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Heterogeneous 3D integration of MOEMS and ICs2016In: International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics, IEEE Computer Society, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterogeneous integration of micro-opto-electromechanical systems (MOEMS) and integrated circuits (ICs) allows the combination of high-quality optical and photonic MOEMS materials such as monocrystalline silicon (Si) with standard CMOS-based electronic circuits in order to realize complex optical systems. In this paper, we will present examples of such heterogeneous optical systems, including CMOS-integrated SiGe bolometer arrays and CMOS-integrated Si micro-mirror arrays.

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  • 186.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Bleiker, Simon J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Dubois, Valentin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Grogg, Daniel
    Despont, Michel
    Wafer-level heterogeneous 3D integration for MEMS and NEMS2012In: Proceedings of 2012 3rd IEEE International Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration, LTB-3D 2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 247-252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the state-of-the-art in wafer-level heterogeneous 3D integration technologies for micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) is reviewed. Various examples of commercial and experimental heterogeneous 3D integration processes for MEMS and NEMS devices are presented and discussed.

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  • 187.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    THz MEMS - Micromachining enabling new solutions at millimeter and submillimeter frequencies2016In: 2016 Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves, GSMM 2016 and ESA Workshop on Millimetre-Wave Technology and Applications, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since RF MEMS switches appeared more than 20 years ago, micromechanics has been attracting huge attention for enabling near-ideal microwave devices. MEMS switches and MEMS-switch based circuits have been through different development stages and are currently proving themselves commercially, among others for mobile-phone antenna tuners. However, micromachining can do much more than just two-dimensional MEMS switches for planar transmission-line technology: Three-dimensional micromachining allows for new microwave devices with unprecedented performance, and has the potential to become an enabling technology for volume-manufacturable, reconfigurable submillimeter-wave and THz systems. This paper provides an overview of 3D silicon micromachining capability and examples of innovative microwave devices enabled by this technique, including W-band phase shifters, tuneable capacitors and couplers, and near-ideal V-band waveguide switches based on MEMS-tuneable surfaces. Then, the state of the art of micromachined waveguide systems up to 2.9 THz is given, including single components such as micromachined-waveguide filters up to 1 THz, but also very complex systems such as a 340 GHz 8-pixel imaging radar. Finally, the potential of MEMS-tuneable micromachined-waveguide systems is outlined, given the examples of recent work at KTH on THz MEMS devices operating at 500-750 GHz, including a 3.3 bit MEMS phase shifter and a waveguide switch.

  • 188.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    THz MEMS - micromachining enabling new solutions at millimeter and submillimeter-wave frequencies (Invited Paper)2017In: 2017 IEEE Asia Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC) / [ed] Pasya, I Seman, FC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 81-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since RF MEMS switches appeared more than 20 years ago, micromachining and micromechanics have been receiving large attention for enabling near-ideal microwave devices. MEMS switches and MEMS-switch based circuits have been through different development stages and are currently proving themselves commercially, among others for mobile-phone antenna-tuner switched-capacitor banks. However, micromachining can do much more than just two-dimensional MEMS switches for planar transmission-line technology: Three-dimensional, deep-silicon micromachining allows for new microwave devices with unprecedented performance, and has the potential to become an enabling technology for volume-manufacturable, reconfigurable submillimeter-wave and THz systems. This paper provides an overview of 3D silicon micromachining capability, and recent achievements of innovative microwave devices and systems enabled by micromachining high up into the THz spectrum are given, including the first MEMS-reconfigurable submillimeter-wave devices. Highlights of devices presented are a 3.3 bit MEMS phase shifter and a low-insertion loss / high-isolation MEMS waveguide switch operating at 500-750 GHz, and a micromachined technology for multi-pole, multi-transmission zero filers which enables multi-mode resonators with Q factors of 800 at 270 GHz. Furthermore, a technology is shown for very low loss micromachined waveguides with only 0.02 dB/mm loss at 200-300 GHz, which has enabled ultra-low loss waveguide components such as couplers and power combiners/splitters.

  • 189.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Baghchehsaraei, Zargham
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Töpfer, Fritzi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sterner, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Somjit, Nutapong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Chekurov, Nikolai
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Monocrystalline‐Silicon Microwave MEMS2013In: Proceedings of PIERS 2013 in Stockholm, August 12-15, 2013, Cambridge, MA: The Electromagnetics Academy , 2013, p. 1933-1941Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of recent achievements in microwave micro‐electromechanical systems (microwave MEMS) at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The first topic is a micromachined W‐band phase shifter based on a micromachined dielectric block which is vertically moved by integrated MEMS actuators to achieve a tuning of the propagation constant of a micromachined transmission line. The second topic is W‐band MEMStuneable microwave high‐impedance metamaterial surfaces conceptualized for local tuning of the electromagnetic resonance properties of surface waves on a high‐impedance surface. The third topic covers 3‐dimensional micromachined coplanar transmission lines with integrated MEMS actuators which move the sidewalls of these transmission lines. Multi‐stable switches, tuneable capacitors, tuneable couplers, and tuneable filters have been implemented and characterized for 1‐40 GHz frequencies. As a forth topic, micromachined waveguide switches are presented. Finally, silicon‐micromachined near‐field and far‐field sensor and antenna interfaces are shown, including a micromachined planar lens antenna and a tapered dielectric rod measurement probe for medical applications.

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  • 190.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Campion, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Glubokov, Oleksandr
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Zhao, Xinghai
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    3D silicon micromachining – an enabling technology for high-performance millimeter and submillimeter-wave frequencies reconfigurable satellite front-ends2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview on recent achievements in micromachined technology for millimeter and submillimeter-wave applications, from 130 to 750 GHz. The micromachined components presented include the first ever submillimeter-wave MEMS devices, namely a 500-600 GHz 3.3 bit phase shifter and a 500-750 GHz waveguide MEMS switch, a 0.02 dB/mm loss waveguide technology for the 220-330 GHz band with a number of implemented components including low-loss broadband 3Dcouplers, power splitters and integrated absorbers. Furthermore, the paper presents a high-performance filter technology with a 4-pole/2-transmission-zeros 1.85 fractional bandwith bandpass prototype implemented at 270 GHz with only 1.5 dB insertion loss. The paper concludes with an outlook of current devices under development at KTH.

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  • 191.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Somjit, Nutapong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Baghchehsaraei, Zargham
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    RF MEMS for automotive radar2013In: Handbook of Mems for Wireless and Mobile Applications, Elsevier, 2013, p. 518-549Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio-frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) devices and circuits have attracted interest in applications such as car radar systems, particularly in the 76-81. GHz frequency band, due to their near ideal signal performance and compatibility with semiconductor fabrication technology. This chapter gives an introduction to state-of-the-art car radar sensors and architectures, describes the most commonly engaged RF MEMS components and circuits, and gives examples of RF MEMS-based automotive radar prototypes.

  • 192.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Somjit, Nutapong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Baghchehsaraei, Zargham
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    RF MEMS for automotive radar sensors2013In: Mems for Automotive and Aerospace Applications, Elsevier, 2013, p. 106-136Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio-frequency micro-electromechanical systems (RF MEMS) devices and circuits have attracted interest in applications such as car radar systems, particularly in the 76 to 81. GHz frequency band, due to their near-ideal signal performance and compatibility with semiconductor fabrication technology. This chapter gives an introduction to state-of-the-art car radar sensors and architectures, describes the most commonly engaged RF MEMS components and circuits, and gives examples of RF MEMS-based automotive radar prototypes.

  • 193.
    Orre, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Hardware Synthesis of Automated Electrical Fault Testing in Trucks2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern trucks there is a number of control units, which tasks are varying;

    control of the engine, brakes, gearbox, etc. In order to ensure that these devices

    work properly, they must be thoroughly tested under normal conditions but also

    when they are exposed to stresses such as electrical faults (short circuit, breaks,

    etc.). A breakout box, BOB, is a type of test equipment used to stress test a

    controller by inducing electrical fault on its cables. It is done manually and is

    time consuming.

    The aim of this thesis is to develop an ABOB (Automated BreakOut Box). It

    should be placed in the driver's cab. It was designed in three different versions.

    Electrical faults are simulated. They along with a test program verify that no

    serious events occur for the vehicle. Literature studies of earlier works with

    automated electrical faults were made initially as a background for the selection

    of the automation method.

    The faults that have been implemented for the prototype of the ABOB is

    short circuit with di_erent supply voltages (including earth) and breakage. This

    report describes the development from a simple functional model to prototype

    with a focus on the hardware. The ABOB can run automatically without human

    interaction except at boot time. The ignition needs only to be switched on and

    the device can work in the evening and at night. The results were that the

    implemented ABOB could simulate the given electrical faults with verification.

    The automation method proved feasible.

    The work has been done in cooperation with Anna Bladh. This report

    takes up the hardware of the prototype for the three versions. Anna's report

    describes the software in the System design of automated test equipment for

    electrical control units into trucks.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 194.
    Ottonello Briano, Floria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Colangelo, Marco
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A fast uncooled infrared nanobolometer featuring a hybrid-plasmonic cavity for enhanced optical responsivity2017In: 30th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Las Vegas, January 22-26, 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the first uncooled single-nanowire-based infrared bolometer to detect sub-mW optical signals up to MHz frequencies. The bolometer consists of a Pt nanowire on a suspended silicon hybrid-plasmonic cavity, and exhibits enhanced optical responsivity compared to nanowires on unstructured and non-suspended substrates. Low-cost monolithically integrated infrared detectors are needed for the rapidly growing field of silicon photonic sensors. The high speed of our nanobolometer enables advanced modulation schemes for noise reduction and avoidance of low-frequency thermal cross-talk, as well as power saving by pulsed operation. Furthermore, its simple integration and small footprint make it a cost effective detector for sensing applications.

    Download full text (pdf)
    OttonelloBriano_2017_A fast uncooled infrared nanobolometer featuring a hybrid-plasmonic cavity for enhanced optical responsivity
  • 195.
    Ottonello Briano, Floria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Renoux, Pauline
    University of Iceland, Science Institute.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ingvarsson, Snorri
    University of Iceland, Science Institute.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    High-frequency sub-wavelength IR thermal source2014In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 9133, p. 91331D-1-91331D-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method to characterize the temperature dynamics of miniaturized thermal IR sources. The method circumvents the limitations of current IR photodetectors, by relying only on an electrical measurement rather than on optical detection. Thus, it enables the characterization of the light emission of IR sources over their full operation frequency range. Moreover, we develop a model of thermal IR sources allowing simulations of their thermal and electrical behavior. By combining measurements and modeling, we achieve a comprehensive characterization of a Pt nanowire IR source: the reference resistance R-0 = 17.7 Omega, the TCR alpha = 2.0 x 10(-3) K-1, the thermal mass C = 2.7 x 10(-14) J/K, and the thermal conductance G = 1.3 x 10(-6) W/K. The thermal time constant could not be measured, because of the frequency limitation of our setup. However, the operation of the source has been tested and proved to function up to 1 MHz, indicating that the thermal time constant of the source is smaller than 1 mu s.

  • 196.
    Ottonello Briano, Floria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Renoux, Pauline
    University of Iceland, Science Institute.
    Ingvarsson, Snorri
    University of Iceland, Science Institute.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A sub-μs thermal time constant electrically driven Pt nanoheater: thermo-dynamic design and frequency characterization2016In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 108, no 19, article id 193106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal nanowires can emit coherent polarized thermal radiation, work as uncooled bolometers, and provide localized heating. In this paper, we engineer the temperature dynamics of electrically driven Pt nanoheaters on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. We present three designs and we electrically characterize and model their thermal impedance in the frequency range from 3 Hz to 3 MHz. Finally, we show a temperature modulation of 300 K while consuming less than 5 mW of power, up to a frequency of 1.3 MHz. This result can lead to significant advancements in thermography and absorption spectroscopy.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Ottonello Briano et al._2016_A sub-μs thermal time constant electrically driven Pt nanoheater
  • 197.
    Ottonello-Briano, Floria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    On-chip dispersion spectroscopy of mid-infrared molecular fingerprints using a microring resonatorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Ottonello-Briano, Floria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. Senseair AB.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. Quantum Photonics Laboratory, MIT.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    On-chip dispersion spectroscopy of CO2 using a mid-infrared microring resonator2020In: Proceedings of 2020 CLEO Technical Conference, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate on-chip molecular fingerprinting by measuring the refractive index dispersion of gas in the mid-IR using a thermally tuned suspended silicon microring resonator. We show CO2 sensing down to 1000 ppm at 4.23 µm wavelength.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Ottonello-Briano_CLEO2020_STh1N.3
  • 199.
    Ottonello-Briano, Floria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Rödjegård, Henrik
    Martin, Hans
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Electrical Systems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Carbon dioxide absorption spectroscopy with a mid-infrared silicon photonic waveguideManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide is a vital gas for life on Earth, a waste product of human activities, and widely used in agriculture and industry. Its accurate sensing is therefore of great interest. Optical sensors exploiting the mid-infrared light absorption of CO2 provide high selectivity, but their large size and high cost limit their use. Here, we demonstrate CO2 gas sensing at 4.2 μm wavelength using an integrated silicon waveguide, featuring a sensitivity to CO2 of 44% that of free-space sensing. The suspended waveguide is fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate by a single-lithography-step process, and we route it into a mid-infrared photonic circuit for on-chip-referenced gas measurements. Its demonstrated performance and its simple and scalable fabrication make our waveguide ideal for integration in miniaturized CO2 sensors for distributed environmental monitoring, personal safety, medical, and high-volume consumer applications.

  • 200.
    Ottonello-Briano, Floria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Rödjegård, Henrik
    Senseair AB.
    Martin, Hans
    Senseair AB.
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Carbon Dioxide Sensing with Low-confinementHigh-sensitivity Mid-IR SiliconWaveguides2019In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2019: CLEO: Science and Innovations, 2019, article id STh1F.3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a low-confinement Si waveguide for 4.26 μm wavelength and applyit to sense CO2 concentrations down to 0.1 %. We demonstrate the highest reportedwaveguide sensitivity to CO2: 44% of the free-space sensitivity.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
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