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  • 151.
    Karlsson, J. Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Carlborg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Saharil, Farizah
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    HIGH-RESOLUTION MICROPATTERNING OF OFF-STOCHIOMETRIC THIOL-ENES (OSTE) VIA A NOVEL LITHOGRAPHY MECHANISM2012In: 16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (microTAS 2012), 2012, p. 225-227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an entirely novel, self-limiting photolithography mechanism in off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) polymers enabling high-resolution and high-aspect ratio features. The OSTE polymers have previously been shown to be promising materials for fabrication of microfluidic devices with tailored surface modifications and mechanical properties. We here introduce direct lithography for micropatterning of OSTE as an alternative to mechanical machining or casting, resulting in a simple and reliable fabrication method of self-bonding photopatterned multilayer microfluidic devices

  • 152.
    Karlsson, J. Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Carlborg, Carl Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Hansson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Nano Biotechnology (closed 20130101).
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Fabrication and transfer of fragile 3D PDMS microstructures2012In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for PDMS microfabrication of fragile membranes and 3D fluidic networks, using a surface modified water-dissolvable release material, poly(vinyl alcohol), as a tool for handling, transfer and release of fragile polymer microstructures. The method is well suited for the fabrication of complex multilayer microfluidic devices, here shown for a PDMS device with a thin gas permeable membrane and closely spaced holes for vertical interlayer connections fabricated in a single layer. To the authors knowledge, this constitutes the most advanced PDMS fabrication method for the combination of thin, fragile structures and 3D fluidics networks, and hence a considerable step in the direction of making PDMS fabrication of complex microfluidic devices a routine endeavour.

  • 153.
    Karlsson, J. Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Carlborg, Carl Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Transfer Bonding Of Microstructures And Fabrication Of Fragile PDMS Membranes Using Water Dissolvable Film2010In: Proceedings Micro Total Analysis Systems (muTAS), 2010, p. 1202-1204Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 154.
    Karlsson, J. Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Carlborg, Carl Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Low-stress transfer bonding using floatation2012In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 075005-075011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method for transferring thin, large-area polymer layers from a mould and its subsequent bonding to a destination substrate is presented here. Buoyancy is used for transfer via floatation to allow the release of internal stress in the polymer and to avoid induced strain. Additionally, floatation leads to wrinkle-free contact between the polymer layer and its destination substrate, an important feature for the transfer of large-area polymer sheets. Poly(vinyl alcohol) is used as a release film on the mould, from which the device polymer layer is released using ultrasonication. The polymer layer floats from the mould to a destination surface, to which it automatically aligns. Here, the method is demonstrated by the successful manufacturing of a 4 '' sized, triple microfluidic layer PDMS stack on a silicon wafer, containing a total of 48 large-area, fragile membranes, each with a thickness of 50 mu m.

  • 155.
    Karlsson, J. Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Carlborg, Carl Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Low-Stress Wafer-Level Transfer Bonding Of Polymer Layers Using Floatation2011In: 16th International  Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (TRANSDUCERS), 2011, IEEE , 2011, p. 418-421Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce and demonstrate a method for low-stress demolding and transfer of polymer microstructures from their mold to a destination wafer. This method has the advantage of not involving stress-inducing handling steps present in traditional demolding and transfer bonding procedures. The mold is coated with a sacrificial layer which is dissolved in an ultrasonication water bath, leading to that the polymer sheet floats to the water surface. This generic method facilitates transfer of large area, thin layers and is here demonstrated for demolding and transfer bonding of wafer-sized layers of microstructured PDMS.

  • 156.
    Karlsson, J. Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Carlborg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Double-Sided Micromoulding Process for Reproducible Manufacturing of Thin Layers and 3D Microchannels in PDMS2012In: 16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (microTAS 2012), 2012, p. 659-661Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To fabricate complex microfluidic devices in a rapid manner, we have developed a novel method for simultaneous patterning of two sides of a single layer of PDMS using double-sided micromoulding. A mould surface coating containing aminosilanised poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) provides low-stress release of fragile polymer structures from the mould as well as inhibition of PDMS polymerisation at through-hole locations, thus enabling fabrication of membranes and 3D microfluidic networks in a single step. Alignment of the top and bottom patterns is achieved already during the moulding step using guiding structures in the mould halves, leading to a procedure with a minimum number of alignment and bonding steps needed to fabricate fragile 3D microfluidic devices.

  • 157.
    Karlsson, J. Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Laakso, Sanna
    Virtanen, Akseli
    Mäki, Minna
    Ronan, Gerry
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    PCR On A PDMS-Based Microchip With Integrated Bubble Removal2011In: 16th International  Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (TRANSDUCERS), 2011, IEEE , 2011, p. 2215-2218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the successful manufacturing and operation of the first PDMS-based PCR microreactor with continuous on-chip debubbling. A semipermeable membrane between the PCR chamber and a low-pressure chamber allows air bubbles to escape from the PCR chamber, while preventing significant water loss, thus solving one of the major problems in on-chip PCR. Moreover, a novel PDMS microfabrication process for the PCR chip is described. Finally we demonstrate successful on-chip PCR amplification.

  • 158.
    Karlsson, J. Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Sandström, Niklas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Wijngaart, Wouter van der
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    On-Chip Liquid Degassing With Low Water Loss2010In: Proceedings Micro Total Analysis Systems (μTAS) 2010, Groningen: CBMS , 2010, p. 1790-1792Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel approach for actively degassing liquid and removing trapped air bubbles in microfluidic devices.

    In our approach, an integrated gas permeable membrane, consisting of a structurally supporting PDMS layer that is covered with a thin Teflon® AF 1600 film, separates the on-chip liquid from an on-chip low-vacuum chamber. Since the Teflon AF permeability is near zero for liquid water and low for vapour, air bubbles and dissolved air are removed through the membrane whilst the loss of water, ions and biomolecules in the system remains low. The system has been demonstrated at elevated temperatures and could be suitable for e.g. degassing during on-chip PCR.

  • 159. Kazmierczak, Andrzej
    et al.
    Dortu, Fabian
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Carlborg, Carl Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Vivien, Laurent
    Giannone, Domenico
    Analyse de la tolérance de l’alignement d’un circuit de distribution optique intégré pour une application de capteur multiparamétrique jetable2009In: Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (JNOG), Lille, France, 2009, p. 289-291Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 160. Kazmierczak, Andrzej
    et al.
    Dortu, Fabian
    Schrevens, Olivier
    Giannone, Domenico
    Vivien, Laurent
    Marris-Morini, Delphine
    Bouville, David
    Cassan, Eric
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Sanchez, Benito
    Griol, Amadeu
    Hill, Daniel
    Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system2009In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 48, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an efficient and highly alignment-tolerant light coupling and distribution system for a multichannel Si3N4/SiO2 single-mode photonics sensing chip. The design of the input and output couplers and the distribution splitters is discussed. Examples of multichannel data obtained with the system are given.

  • 161. Kazmierczak, Andrzej
    et al.
    Vivien, Laurent
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Sanchez, Benito
    Griol, Amadeu
    Marris-Morini, Delphine
    Cassan, Eric
    Dortu, Fabian
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Giannone, Domenico
    Hill, Daniel
    High quality optical microring resonators in Si3N 4/SiO22008In: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Integrated Optics - ECIO'08 Eindhoven, 2008, Vol. Contributed and Invited Papers, p. 313-316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have experimentally demonstrated high Q-factors strip waveguide resonators using the Si3N4/SiO2 material platform at the wavelength of 1.31μm. The analyzed filters demonstrate high quality factors reaching 133,000. The dependence on resonator radii and coupling gap is also discussed.

  • 162. Ke, F.
    et al.
    Miao, J.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Ruthenium/Gold hard-surface/low-resistivity contact metallization for polymer-encapsulated microswitch with stress-reduced corrugated SIN/SIO2 diaphragm2009In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 2009, no MEMS, p. 860-863Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a RF MEMS switch with a new ruthenium/gold multi-layer contact metallization scheme, which combines the advantages of a hard ruthenium contact surface for high contact reliability and of a low, total contact resistance as typical for gold alloys. The performance of the new concept has been analyzed theoretically and was experimentally verified by contact resistance and life-time characterization of fabricated MEMS switches with conventional Au-Au and with the novel Au/Ru-Ru/Au contact metallization scheme. The switches are based on a low-stress SiN/SiO2 diaphragm which is polymer transfer-bonded and equipped with corrugations for reducing the stiffness and for lowering the stress. The reduced stiffness allows for early encapsulation by clamping the membrane all around its circumference, by maintaining medium actuation voltages.

  • 163. Ke, Feixiang
    et al.
    Miao, Jianmin
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    A Ruthenium-Based Multimetal-Contact RF MEMS Switch With a Corrugated Diaphragm2008In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 1447-1459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a ruthenium metal-contact RF microelectromechanical system switch based on a corrugated silicon oxide/silicon nitride diaphragm. The corrugations are designed to substantially reduce the influence of the fabrication-induced stress in the membrane, resulting in a highly insensitive design to process parameter variations. Furthermore, a novel multilayer metal-contact concept, comprising a 50-nm chromium/50-nm ruthenium/500-nm gold/50-nm ruthenium structure, is introduced to improve the contact reliability by having a hard-metal surface of ruthenium without substantial compromise in the contact and transmission-line resistances, which is shown by theoretical analysis of the contact physics and confirmed by measurement results. The contact resistance of the novel metallization stack is investigated for different contact pressures and is compared to pure-gold contacts. The contact reliability is investigated for different do signal currents. At a measurement current of 1.6 mA, the Ru-Au-Ru contacts have an average lifetime of about 100 million cycles, whereas the Au-Au contacts reach 24 million cycles only. For larger signal currents, the metal contacts have proven to be more robust over the Au-Au contacts by a factor of ten. The measured pull-in voltage is reduced significantly from 61 V for flat diaphragm to 36 V for corrugated diaphragm with the introduction of corrugation. The measured RF isolation with a nominal contact separation of 5 mu m is better than -30 dB up to 4 GHz and still -21 dB at 15 GHz, whereas the insertion loss of the fully packaged switch including its transmission line is about -0.7 dB up to 4 GHz and -2.8 dB at 15 GHz.

  • 164.
    Kroner, Patrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Modeling and Evaluation of Remote Temperature and Conductivity Sensor Using Radio Frequency Identification Tags2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this master thesis was to model and evaluate a new RFID sensor technology developed at GE research. The sensor uses an ordinary RFID tag to simultaneously sense the temperature and conductivity of a liquid placed on the other side of a plastic membrane. This is accomplished by using a reader antenna and a network analyzer to perform a frequency sweep to calculate the impedance at the different frequencies. Because the resonant circuit properties change with temperature and the conductivity of the liquid the resulting spectrum can be used to calculate the temperature and conductivity. This is done using a mathematical method called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The model used to describe the system is a simple circuit involving two smaller circuits connected inductively through two coils. This model was then used together with measurements to find the temperature and conductivity dependence of the different components in the model. The resulting simulation captured the bulk of the behavior of the system. PCA analysis was performed on the simulated data and compared to measurements. Considerations of noise was added and evaluated. This shows that even through there are some issues with the model it can predict certain behaviors of the sensor.

  • 165. Kvisteroy, Terje
    et al.
    Jakobsen, Henrik
    Vieider, Christian
    Wissmar, Stanley
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Ericsson, Per
    Halldin, Urban
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Källhammer, Jan-Erik
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Eriksson, Dick
    Franks, John
    VanNylen, Jan
    Vercammen, Hans
    VanHulsel, Annik
    Far infrared low-cost uncooled bolometer for automotive use2007In: Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2007, BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2007, p. 265-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A proposed EU regulation requires the automotive industry to develop technologies that will substantially decrease the risk for vulnerable road users such as pedestrians when hit by a vehicle. Automatic brake assist systems, activated by a suitable sensor, will reduce the speed of the vehicle before the impact. Far InfraRed (FIR) detectors are ideal candidates for such sensing systems. In order to enable high volume serial installation, the main development must be focused on cost reduction. Optimizing all aspects of the system, including sensor size, production yield and 3D wafer level vacuum packaging will lower today's "high end" FIR product costs by an order of magnitude. A low-cost FIR infrared bolometer is developed in the Eureka labeled PIMS (Pedestrian Injury Mitigation System) project. In the paper the background and the actual design of the first demonstrator to be finished in 2008 are described in detail.

  • 166. Källhammer, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Eriksson, Dick
    Junique, Stephane
    Savage, Susan
    Vieider, Christian
    Andersson, Jan Y.
    Franks, John
    Van Nylen, Jan
    Vercammen, Hans
    Kvisteroy, Terje
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Fulfilling the pedestrian protection directive using a long-wavelength infrared camera designed to meet both performance and cost targets2006In: Photonics in the Automobile II, 2006, Vol. 6198, p. 19809-19809Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrian fatalities are around 15% of the traffic fatalities in Europe. A proposed EU regulation requires the automotive industry to develop technologies that will substantially decrease the risk for Vulnerable Road Users when hit by a vehicle. Automatic Brake Assist systems, activated by a suitable sensor, will reduce the speed of the vehicle before the impact, independent of any driver interaction. Long Wavelength Infrared technology is an ideal candidate for such sensors, but requires a significant cost reduction. The target necessary for automotive serial applications are well below the cost of systems available today. Uncooled bolometer arrays are the most mature technology for Long Wave Infrared with low-cost potential. Analyses show that sensor size and production yield along with vacuum packaging and the optical components are the main cost drivers. A project has been started to design a new Long Wave Infrared system with a ten times cost reduction potential, optimized for the pedestrian protection requirement. It will take advantage of the progress in Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems and Long Wave Infrared optics to keep the cost down. Deployable and pre-impact braking systems can become effective alternatives to passive impact protection systems solutions fulfilling the EU pedestrian protection regulation. Low-cost Long Wave Infrared sensors will be an important enabler to make such systems cost competitive, allowing high market penetration.

  • 167.
    Kälvesten, Edvard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Method of joining components2000Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A method of combining components to form an integrated device, wherein the components are provided on a first sacrificial wafer, and a second non-sacrificial wafer, respectively. The sacrificial wafer carries a first plurality of components and the non-sacrificial wafer carries a second plurality of components. The wafers are bonded together with an intermediate bonding material. Optionally the sacrificial wafer is thinned to a desired level. The components of the sacrificial wafer are electrically interconnected to the component(s) on the non-sacrificial wafer. Finally, optionally the intermediate bonding material is stripped away.

  • 168.
    Lapisa, Martin A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Zimmer, F.
    Gehner, A.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Hidden-hinge micro-mirror arrays made by heterogeneous integration of two mono-crystalline silicon layers2011In: 2011 IEEE 24th International Conference On Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2011, p. 696-699Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present wafer-level heterogeneous integrated hidden-hinge micro-mirror arrays for adaptive optics applications. The micro-mirrors are made of monocrystalline silicon and fabricated by two cycles of adhesive wafer bonding on fan-out substrates with addressing electrodes. The fabrication scheme allows the down-scaling of the micro-mirrors in size, the up-scaling of the array size and the implementation of additional material layers. Furthermore, large distances of the micro-mirrors to the electrodes can be achieved and hence a large deflection of the mirrors is possible. The micro-mirrors exhibit excellent deflection stability; no drift or hysteresis can be observed.

  • 169.
    Lapisa, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Room-temperature wafer-level hermetic sealing for liquid reservoirs by gold ring embossing2009In: TRANSDUCERS 2009: 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, 2009, p. 833-836Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a novel room temperature wafer-level sealing process for hermetic sealing of reservoirs filled with liquids. This technique can be used for e.g. drug delivery devices or thermo pneumatic devices. The sealing mechanism is based on plastic deformation of metal squeeze rings and embossing of target structures. Epoxy based underfill is used for mechanical stabilization of the wafer bond. We present experimental results from room-temperature bonding of glass wafers to silicon wafers with encapsulation of liquids in reservoirs.

  • 170.
    Lapisa, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Goran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Wafer-Level Heterogeneous Integration for MOEMS, MEMS, and NEMS2011In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, ISSN 1077-260X, E-ISSN 1558-4542, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 629-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafer-level heterogeneous integration technologies for microoptoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS), microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) enable the combination of dissimilar classes of materials and components into single systems. Thus, high-performance materials and subsystems can be combined in ways that would otherwise not be possible, and thereby forming complex and highly integrated micro-or nanosystems. Examples include the integration of high-performance optical, electrical or mechanical materials such as monocrystalline silicon, graphene or III-V materials with integrated electronic circuits. In this paper the state-of-the-art of wafer-level heterogeneous integration technologies suitable for MOEMS, MEMS, and NEMS devices are reviewed. Various heterogeneous MOEMS, MEMS, and NEMS devices that have been described in literature are presented.

  • 171.
    Lapisa, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Zimmer, F.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Gehner, A.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    CMOS-integrable piston-type micro-mirror array for adaptive optics made of mono-crystalline silicon using 3-D integration2009In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, no MEMS, p. 1007-1010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel CMOS-compatible fabrication process and evaluations of a micro mirror array (MMA) made of mono-crystalline silicon (m-Si) for adaptive optic (AO) applications. The m-Si mirror layer is transfer bonded from a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) donor wafer with adhesive wafer bonding towards an intermediate patterned polymer spacer layer and clamped with metal plating. We present a CMOS compatible, bond alignment-free fabrication scheme offering the potential for high air gap distances between substrate and mirrors and we show first measurements of the fabricated mirrors.

  • 172.
    Lapisa, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Zimmer, Fabian
    Fraunhofer IPMS.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Gehner, Andreas
    Fraunhofer IPMS.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Drift-free micromirror arrays made of monocrystalline silicon for adaptive optics applications2012In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 959-970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report on the heterogeneous integration of monocrystalline silicon membranes for the fabrication of large segmented micromirror arrays for adaptive optics applications. The design relies on a one-level architecture with mirrors and suspension formed within the same material, employing a large actuator gap height of up to 5.1 μ m to allow for a piston-type mirror deflection of up to 1600 nm. Choosing monocrystalline silicon as actuator and mirror material, we demonstrate a completely drift-free operation capability. Furthermore, we investigate stress effects that degrade the mirror topography, and we show that the stress originates from the donor silicon-on-insulator wafer. The novel heterogeneous integration strategy used in this work is capable of reducing this stress to a large extent.

  • 173. Lee, Sang Hwui
    et al.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    McMahon, J. Jay
    Yu, Jian
    Kumar, Ravi J.
    Li, Hui-Feng
    Gutmann, Ronald J.
    Cale, Timothy S.
    Lu, J. -Q
    Fine keyed alignment and bonding for wafer-level 3D ICs2006In: MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS: Materials, Technology and Reliability of Low-k Dielectrics and Copper Interconnects / [ed] Tsui TY; Joo YC; Michaelson L; Lane M; Volinsky AA, WARRENDALE, PA: MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY , 2006, Vol. 914, p. 433-438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise wafer-to-wafer alignment accuracy is crucial to interconnecting circuits on different wafers in three dimensional integrated circuits. We discuss the use of fabricated structures on wafer surfaces to mechanically achieve higher alignment accuracy than can be achieved with our existing (baseline) alignment protocol. The keyed alignment structures rely on structures with tapered side-walls that can slide into each after two wafers are "pre-aligned" using our baseline alignment protocol. Results indicate that alignment accuracy is about a quarter micron, well below the one micron alignment accuracy obtained in our baseline alignment procedure using commercial state-of-the-art wafer alignment equipment. In addition to improving alignment, the alignment structures also hinder undesirable bonding-induced misalignment. The keyed alignment structures are also promising for nano-imprint lithography.

  • 174.
    Leirs, Karen
    et al.
    KU Leuven.
    Sandström, Niklas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ladhani, Laila
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Spasic, Dragana
    KU Leuven.
    Ostanin, Victor
    University of Cambridge.
    Klenerman, David
    University of Cambridge.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Ghosh, Sourav
    Loughborough University.
    Lammertyn, Jeroen
    KU Leuven.
    Screening of antibodies for the development of a fast and sensitivie influenza: A nucleoprotein detection on a nonlinear acoustic sensor2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Lobov, Gleb
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Study of the corona discharge phenomenon for application in pathogen and narcotic detection in aerosol2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within this master thesis work, a novel application of a corona discharge is presented. The phenomenon of an electro-hydro-dynamic (EHD) flow is used for the precipitation of airborne particles onto a restricted surface of a non-coronizing electrode. The non-coronizing electrode surface can be replaced by a liquid interface, by which aerosol particles can be transferred from the airflow into a liquid solution, allowing for further analysis. Due to a small volume of the liquid container, the increased concentration of trapped particles will potentially enhance the resolution of the detection system. Aerosol droplets can originate from a human breath, which opens the possibility to utilize the system for narcotics or viruses detection. In this work, effort was laid on adapting a simulation model and an experimental set-up to the concept of the airborne particle trapping. Electrical measurements were conducted to characterize the set-up, through which the main limitations of the input parameters of the system could be extracted. Moreover, an approach for the determination of the upper limit of the applicable voltage was introduced. The data collected was used to build general conclusions and recommendations, relevant to the further research on this topic.

  • 176.
    Lundgren, Stina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Jönsson, Christina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Haswell, Stephen J.
    Andersson, Helene
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Moberg, Christina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Micro reactors for the optimisation of reaction conditions in asymmetric metal catalysis2005In: Micro Total Analysis Systems 2004 / [ed] Laurell T; Nilsson J; Jensen K; Harrison DJ; Kutter JP, 2005, no 296, p. 445-447Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two types of micro reactors were employed for enantioselective metal catalysed reactions. In the first type of reactor, an electroosmotic flow was used, whereas the second type of reactor used a pressure driven flow. The purpose of the study is to develop tools for rapid and efficient optimization of reactions, utilising minimum amounts of reagents.

  • 177. Maire, Guillaume
    et al.
    Vivien, Laurent
    Sattler, Guillaume
    Kazmierczak, Andrzej
    Sanchez, Benito
    Gylfason, Kristinn Björgvin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Griol, Amadeu
    Marris-Morrini, Delphine
    Cassan, Eric
    Giannone, Domenico
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Hill, Daniel
    High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers2008In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 328-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High efficiency surface grating couplers for silicon nitride waveguides have been designed, fabricated, and characterized. Coupling efficiencies exceeding 60 % are reported at a wavelength of 1.31 mu m, as well as angular and wavelength -3 dB tolerances of 4 and 50 nm, respectively. When the wavelength is increased from 1310 nm to 1450 nm the coupling efficiency progressively decreases but remains above 20 % at 1450 nm. The influence of the duty ratio of the grating has also been investigated: maximum coupling efficiency was obtained at 50 % duty ratio.

  • 178. Maire, Guillaume
    et al.
    Vivien, Laurent
    Stragier, Anne-Sophie
    Kazmierczak, Andrzej
    Sanchez, Benito
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Griol, Amadeu
    Marris-Morini, Delphine
    Cassan, Eric
    Giannone, Domenico
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Hill, Daniel
    Tolerance analysis of high efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Malm, Gunnar B.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Micromechanical Process Integration and Material Optimization for High Performance Silicon-Germanium Bolometers2012In: 2012 MRS Spring Meeting - Symposium L – Group IV Photonics for Sensing and Imaging, Materials Research Society, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconductor-based thermistors are very attractive sensor materials for uncooled thermal infrared (IR) bolometers. Very large scale heterogeneous integration of MEMS is an emerging technology that allows the integration of epitaxially grown, high-performance IR bolometer thermistor materials with pre-processed CMOS-based integrated circuits for the sensor read-out. Thermistor materials based on alternating silicon (Si) and silicon-germanium (SiGe) epitaxial layers have been demonstrated and their performance is continuously increasing. Compared to a single layer of silicon or SiGe, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) can be strongly enhanced to about 3 %/K, by using thin alternating layers. In this paper we report on the optimization of alternating Si/SiGe layers by advanced physically based simulations, including quantum mechanical corrections. Our simulation framework provides reliable predictions for a wide range of SiGe layer compositions, including concentration gradients. Finally, our SiGe thermistor layers have been evaluated in terms of low-frequency noise performance, in order to optimize the bolometer detectivity.

  • 180. Malmqvist, R.
    et al.
    Ouacha, A.
    Kaynak, M.
    Ahsan, N.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Reconfigurable RF Circuits and RF-MEMS2012In: Microwave and Millimeter Wave Circuits and Systems: Emerging Design, Technologies, and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p. 325-356Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The twelfth chapter, Reconfigurable RF Circuits and RF-MEMS, was contributed by Robert Malmqvist from Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) and Uppsala University, Sweden, Aziz Ouacha from FOI, Sweden, Mehmet Kaynak from IHP GmbH, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany, Naveed Ahsan Linköping University, Sweden, and Joachim Oberhammer from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. While most of today's RF circuits are designed for a specific (fixed) function and frequency range, a much higher degree of flexibility would be possible using highly reconfigurable circuit implementations and front-ends architectures. This chapter presents examples of reconfigurable RF circuits that have been realised using either fully transistor based solutions or by employing RF MicroElectroMechanical Systems (RF-MEMS). First a novel approach for implementing reconfigurable circuitry based on the concept of Programmable Microwave Function Arrays (PROMFA) is presented. Various reconfigurable circuit designs based on the emergence of high performance RF-MEMS switches being developed in GaAs, GaN and SiGe RFIC/MMIC process technologies are then reviewed. In the final section, an overview of state-of-the-art RF-MEMS based phase shifter designs intended for electronic beam-steering antennas and phased array systems is presented.

  • 181. McMahon, J J
    et al.
    Kumar, R J
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Lee, S H
    Yu, J
    Lu, J Q
    Gutmann, R J
    Unit processes for Cu/BCB redistribution layer bonding for 3D ICs2006In: Advanced Metallization Conference 2005 (AMC 2005) / [ed] Brongersma SH; Taylor TC; Tsujimura M; Masu K, WARRENDALE: MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY , 2006, p. 179-183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel via-first, back-end-of-the-line (BEOL) compatible, monolithic wafer-level three-dimensional (3D) interconnect technology platform is presented. This platform employs wafer bonding of damascene-patterned metal/adhesive redistribution layers on two wafers to provide both high density of inter-wafer electrical interconnects and strong adhesive bond of two wafers in a single unit processing step. Two key steps for this approach are 1) fabrication of a metal/adhesive redistribution layer on the BEOLprocessed wafers by damascene patterning and 2) face-to-face alignment and bonding of two wafers utilizing copper/tantalum (Cu/Ta) and benzocyclobutene (BCB) redistribution layers. A baseline process and two modified processes are investigated toward evaluation of 1) acceptable wafer-scale nonplanarity, removal rate, and surface damage after CMP and 2) seamless bonding at all three possible interfaces with sufficiently strong BCB-to-BCB critical adhesion energy and Cu-to-Cu contact resistance. Migration of voids in the sputtered copper during bonding and etch profiles for different etch processes are discussed.

  • 182. McMahon, J J
    et al.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Kumar, R J
    Yu, J
    Lu, J Q
    Gutmann, R J
    CMP compatibility of partially cured benzocyclobutene (BCB) for a via-first 3D IC process2005In: Chemical-Mechanical Planarization-Integration, Technology and Reliability / [ed] Kumar A; Lee JA; Obeng YS; Vos I; Johns EC, WARRENDALE, PA: MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY , 2005, Vol. 867, p. 63-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafer-level three dimensional (3D) IC technology offers the promise of decreasing RC delays by reducing long interconnect lines in high performance ICs. This paper focuses on a via-first 3D IC platform, which utilizes a back-end-of-line (BEOL) compatible damascene-patterned layer of copper and Benzocyclobutene (BCB). This damascene-patterned copper/BCB serves as a redistribution layer between two fully fabricated wafer sets of ICs and offers the potential of high bonding strength and low contact resistance for inter-wafer interconnects between the wafer pair. The process would thus combine the electrical advantages of 3D technology using Cu-to-Cu bonding with the mechanical advantages of 3D technology using BCB-to-BCB bonding. In this work, partially cured BCB has been evaluated for copper damascene patterning using commercially available CMP slurries as a key process step for a via-first 3D process flow. BCB is spin-cast on 200 mm wafers and cured at temperatures ranging from 190 degrees C to 250 degrees C, providing a wide range of crosslink percentage. These films are evaluated for CMP removal rate, surface damage (surface scratching and embedded abrasives), and planarity with commercially available copper CMP slurries. Under baseline process parameters, erosion, and roughness changes are presented for single-level damascene test patterns. After wafers are bonded under controlled temperature and pressure, the bonding interface is inspected optically using glass-to-silicon bonded wafers, and the bond strength is evaluated by a razor blade test.

  • 183. Melin, Jessica
    et al.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Behaviour and design considerations for continuous flow closed-open-closed liquid microchannels2005In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 682-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a method of combining open and closed microchannels in a single component in a novel way which couples the benefits of both open and closed microfluidic systems and introduces interesting on-chip microfluidic behaviour. Fluid behaviour in such a component, based on continuous pressure driven flow and surface tension, is discussed in terms of cross sectional flow behaviour, robustness, flow-pressure performance, and its application to microfluidic interfacing. The closed-open-closed microchannel possesses the versatility of upstream and downstream closed microfluidics along with open fluidic direct access. The device has the advantage of eliminating gas bubbles present upstream when these enter the open channel section. The unique behaviour of this device opens the door to applications including direct liquid sample interfacing without the need for additional and bulky sample tubing.

  • 184.
    Melin, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    PRESSURE DRIVEN CONTINUOUS FLOW IN CLOSED-OPEN-CLOSED LIQUID MICROCHANNELS2004In: 8th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (microTAS 2004) / [ed] Laurell T; Nilsson J; Jensen K; Harrison DJ, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004, no 297, p. 139-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a closed-open-closed liquid microchannel that allows direct interfacing with on-chip continuous liquid flow and studies its performance and robustness. The novel component was successfully tested for flow performance, sample addition, and gas bubble removal and compares well with the theoretical model. The novel component behaves as a fluidic transistor where the open channel inlet, the open channel outlet and the air correspond to the source (P-S), drain (P-D), and gate (P-G=P-air), respectively- If P-G-P-D congruent to 0, the component acts as a fluidic diode.

  • 185. Mesgarzadeh, B.
    et al.
    Sadeghifar, M. R.
    Fredriksson, P.
    Jansson, C.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Alvandpour, A.
    A low-noise readout circuit in 0.35-ï¿œm CMOS for low-cost uncooled FPA infrared network camera2009In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering / [ed] Bjørn F. Andresen, Gabor F. Fulop, Paul R. Norton, 2009, Vol. 7298, p. 72982F-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a differential readout circuit technique for uncooled Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) sensors. The differential operation allows an efficient rejection of the common-mode noise during the biasing and readout of the detectors. This has been enabled by utilizing a number of blind and thermally-isolated IR bolometers as reference detectors. In addition, a pixel-wise detector calibration capability has been provided in order to allow efficient error corrections using digital signal processing techniques. The readout circuit for a 64ᅵ64 test bolometer-array has been designed in a standard 0.35-ᅵm CMOS process. Circuit simulations show that the analog readout at 60 frames/s consumes 30 mW from a 3.3-V supply and results in a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 125 mK for f/1 infrared optics. ᅵ2009 SPIE.

  • 186.
    Millbro, Mattias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    LabView Based Measurement System Design for Data Acquisition During HTOL Tests at TranSIC AB2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    TranSIC AB needs to conduct High Temperature Operating Life (HTOL) tests on silicon carbide transistors in order to ensure product reliability and gather information for development purposes. The goal of this master thesis was to select measurement related hardware and develop LabView software capable of controlling and monitoring up to 48 transistors during HTOL tests. National Instruments cDAQ and Agilent 34972A were compared for data acquisition purposes. Calculations and hardware requirements resulted in the purchase and system integration of a Agilent 34972A data logger with three 34901A 20 channel multiplexer expansion cards. LabView software was programmed using a extended Producer/Consumer Design Pattern as the main structure. Software requirements was fulfilled using SubVIs for both user visible windows and functionality related data handling. The finished software fulfilled all initial requirements but several possible future improvements are suggested. The system is now in full scale use at TranSIC AB.

  • 187.
    Mola, Albert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    An Athermal Slot-Waveguide Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for Lab-on-Chip Applications2011Student paper other, 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Label-free optical biosensors are interesting for their compact size, capability for quantitative real-time measurements, and detection of very low analyte quantities. However, these sensors are highly temperature sensitive. Consequently, active temperature control is usually employed in such sensors, but for low cost, mobile, lab-on-chip applications, active temperature control is often not feasible, due to the additional size and cost it entails. This thesis presents methods to minimize the temperature sensitivity of optical silicon slot-waveguides for biosensing applications. By taking advantage of the opposite polarity of the thermo-optic coefficients (TOCs) of silicon and water, and choosing a suitable geometrical design, an athermal slot-waveguide can be created. Three waveguides were designed close to the athermal operating point. The design was based on finite element simulations. The studied waveguides are trough-etched on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate and designed to operate in water. For the characterization of the temperature sensitivity of the slot-waveguides, an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer was designed. This design includes surface grating couplers, single-mode waveguides, multimode-interference couplers, strip-slot converters and directional couplers. Three Mach-Zehnder interferometers with different asymmetries were designed. The devices were patterned in a single electron beam lithography step and micro-fabricated by plasma etching of an SOI wafer with a 220 nm device layer and a 2 m buried oxide. For the first characterization measurements, a refractive index matching oil (Cargille 50350) suitable for the grating couplers, was used as top cladding. The quality of all the devices allowed us to make a group index evaluation in the the wavelength range from 1460-1580 nm, and determine the temperature sensitivities of the slot-waveguides. The group index evaluation confirms the validity of the design and fabrication methods. The thermal compensation works as expected. To allow characterization of the slot-waveguides operating in water, a microfludic cartridge was molded in off-stoichiometry thiol-ene polymer.

  • 188.
    Mowlér, Marc
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Lindmark, Björn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    A 2-bit reconfigurable meander slot antenna with RF-MEMS switches2005In: Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2005 IEEE: volym 2A, 2005, p. 396-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel antenna with two RF-MEMS switches placed symmetrically on an asymmetrical meander-shaped slot yielding four different operating frequencies is proposed. The final antenna was manufactured and the four different switching configurations were verified with dummy switches. The measured results were satisfying for all four frequencies with a return loss well above 10 dB. In addition, the actual switches were mounted on the antenna. This proved that the antenna properties are unaffected by the switches. Further use of additional switches on the same antenna is discussed in the paper.

  • 189.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Adhesive Wafer Bonding, Applications and Trends2010In: Semiconductor Wafer Bonding 11: Science, Technology, And Applications - In Honor Of Ulrich Gosele, Electrochemical Society, 2010, no 4, p. 273-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafer bonding with intermediate polymer adhesives is an important fabrication technique for advanced microelectronics, micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS / NEMS) and packaging applications. The main advantages of adhesive wafer bonding include the insensitivity to surface topography, the low bonding temperatures (between room temperature and 450 degrees C, depending on the polymer adhesive), the compatibility with standard CMOS integrated circuit wafers and the ability to join different types of materials. While adhesive wafer bonding is a comparably simple, robust and low-cost process, concerns need to be considered such as the permeability of polymers for gasses and moisture, limited temperature stability and limited data about long-term stability of many polymers in demanding environments. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of adhesive wafer bonding technologies, applications and future trends.

  • 190.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Decharat, Adit
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Populin, Michael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Zimmer, Fabian
    Lemm, Jörn
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Wafer bonding with nano-imprint resists as sacrificial adhesive for fabrication of silicon-on-integrated-circuit (SOIC) wafers in 3D integration of MEMS and ICs2009In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 154, no 1, p. 180-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the use of thermosetting nano-imprint resists in adhesive wafer bonding. The presented wafer bonding process is suitable for heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) integration of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits (ICs). Detailed adhesive bonding process parameters are presented to achieve void-free, well-defined and uniform wafer bonding interfaces. Experiments have been performed to optimize the thickness control and uniformity of the nano-imprint resist layer in between the bonded wafers. In contrast to established polymer adhesives such as, e.g., BCB, nano-imprint resists as adhesives for wafer-to-wafer bonding are specifically suitable if the adhesive is intended as sacrificial material. This is often the case, e.g., in fabrication of silicon-on-integrated-circuit (SOIC) wafers for 3D integration of MEMS membrane structures on top of IC wafers. Such IC integrated MEMS includes. e.g., micro-mirror arrays, infrared bolometer arrays, resonators, capacitive inertial sensors, pressure sensors and microphones.

  • 191.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Decharat, Adit
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Jansson, Christer
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Performance model for uncooled infrared bolometer arrays and performance predictions of bolometers operating at atmospheric pressure2008In: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 168-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive calculational model for the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of infrared imaging systems based on uncooled bolometer arrays. The equations are presented in a new and convenient form. The NETD model is validated and benchmarked using published performance data of a state-of-the-art uncooled infrared bolometer array. The NETD model is used to evaluate possible system and bolometer design improvements. The results of the calculations suggest that infrared imaging systems based on uncooled bolometer arrays with a bolometer pixel pitch of 28 mu m x 28 mu m have the potential to reach NETDs on the order of 12 mK. The calculations also suggest that NETDs on the order of 200 mK can be achieved with infrared imaging systems based on uncooled bolometer arrays that operate in air at atmospheric pressure.

  • 192.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Jansson, Christer
    Decharat, Adit
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Källhammer, Jan-Erik
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Uncooled infrared bolometer arrays operating in a low to medium vacuum atmosphere: Performance model and tradeoffs2007In: MEMS 2006: 19th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Technical Digest, 2007, Vol. 6542, p. M5421-M5421Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a comprehensive calculational model for the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of infrared imaging systems based on uncooled bolometer arrays. The NETD model is validated and benchmarked using published performance data of state-of-the-art uncooled infrared bolometer arrays. The calculational model is used to evaluate possible infrared sensor and system design tradeoffs that allow optimization for low-cost infrared systems with improved reliability and lifetime, while still achieving a NETD of about 150 mK, required for pedestrian injury mitigation systems. We propose an approach in which high performance crystalline semiconductor materials with very low 1/f-noise properties and a temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of 3 %/K are used as thermistor material for the bolometers. The resulting increased bolometer performance can be used to operate the infrared imaging arrays in a vacuum atmosphere with increased gas pressure while still achieving useful NETD levels. The proposed calculational model suggests that a NETD on the order of 150 mK can be reached with uncooled infrared bolometer arrays operating in vacuum pressures on the order of 6 mbar. Such specifications for the bolometer vacuum package dramatically simplify wafer-level vacuum packaging and ease long-term reliability issues, contributing to lowering the vacuum packaging and thus, the overall infrared imaging chip costs.

  • 193.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Kumar, R J
    McMahon, J J
    Yu, J
    Matthias, T
    Wimplinger, M
    Lindner, P
    Lu, J. Q.
    Cale, T. S.
    Gutmann, R J
    Effects of bonding process parameters on wafer-to-wafer alignment accuracy in benzocyclobutene (BCB) dielectric wafer bonding2005In: Materials, Technology and Reliability of Advanced Interconnects-2005 / [ed] Besser PR; McKerrow AJ; Iacopi F; Wong CP; Vlassak JJ, WARRENDALE, PA: MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY , 2005, Vol. 863, p. 393-398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafer-level three-dimensional (3D) integration is an emerging technology to increase the performance and functionality of integrated circuits (ICs). Aligned wafer-to-wafer bonding with dielectric polymer layers (e.g., benzocyclobutene (BCB)) is a promising approach for manufacturing of 3D ICs, with minimum bonding impact on the wafer-to-wafer alignment accuracy essential. In this paper we investigate the effects of thermal and mechanical bonding parameters on the achievable post-bonding wafer-to-wafer alignment accuracy for polymer wafer bonding with 200 trim diameter wafers. Our baseline wafer bonding process with soft-baked BCB (similar to 35% cross-linked) has been modified to use partially cured (similar to 43% crosslinked) BCB. The partially cured BCB layer does not reflow during bonding, minimizing the impact of inhomogeneities in BCB reflow under compression and/or slight shear forces at the bonding interface. As a result, the non-uniformity of the BCB layer thickness after wafer bonding is less than 0.5% of the nominal layer thickness and the wafer shift relative to each other during the wafer bonding process is less than 1 mu m (average) for 200 mm diameter wafers. The critical adhesion energy of a bonded wafer pair with the partially cured BCB wafer bonding process is similar to that with soft-baked BCB.

  • 194.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Lapisa, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Bleiker, Simon J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Dubois, Valentin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Grogg, Daniel
    Despont, Michel
    Wafer-level heterogeneous 3D integration for MEMS and NEMS2012In: Proceedings of 2012 3rd IEEE International Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration, LTB-3D 2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 247-252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the state-of-the-art in wafer-level heterogeneous 3D integration technologies for micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) is reviewed. Various examples of commercial and experimental heterogeneous 3D integration processes for MEMS and NEMS devices are presented and discussed.

  • 195.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Lu, J. Q.
    Handbook of Wafer Bonding2012In: Polymer Adhesive Wafer Bonding / [ed] P. Ramm, J.-Q. Lu, M.M.V. Taklo, Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 196.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Lu, J. -Q
    Polymer Adhesive Wafer Bonding2012In: Handbook of Wafer Bonding, Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2012, p. 33-61Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    McMahon, J. J.
    Yu, J.
    Lee, S.H.
    Lu, J.-Q.
    Cale, T.S.
    Gutmann, R.J.
    Wafer-Level 3D Integration Technology Platforms for ICs and MEMS2005In: TWENTY SECOND INTERNATIONAL VLSI MULTILEVEL INTERCONNECTION (VMIC), 2005, p. 486-493Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafer-level three-dimensional (3D) integration is an emerging technology to increase theperformance and functionality of integrated circuits (ICs) and microelectromechanical systems(MEMS). In ICs, wafer-level 3D integration based on wafer bonding offers the potential for a highdensity of micron-sized through-die vias necessary for highest performance memory stacks,microprocessors with large L2 caches and ASICs with large embedded memories. In MEMS devices,wafer-level 3D integration based on wafer bonding offers the potential for integrating highperformance transducer materials such as various monocrystalline semiconductor materials withelectronic circuits for arrayed, highly integrated sensor and actuator components. This invited paperpresents an overview of current wafer-level 3D integration platforms that use wafer bonding withpolymer adhesives for ICs and MEMS applications.

  • 198.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Adhesive sacrificial bonding of spatial light modulators2003Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A method of combining components to form an integrated device, wherein at least one first component is provided on a first surface of a sacrificial substrate, and at least one second component is provided on a first surface of a non-sacrificial substrate. At least one support structure is formed on at least one of the first surfaces of the sacrificial substrate, and the non-sacrificial substrate, respectively, such that said at least one support structure is extended outwardly from at least one of the first surfaces. The sacrificial substrate carrying the first component, and the non-sacrificial substrate carrying the second component, respectively, are bonded, so that the first and second surfaces will be facing one another with a distance defined by a thickness of the support structure. At least a part of the sacrificial substrate is removed.; The first component and second components are interconnected.

  • 199.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
    Lu, J. Q.
    Gutmann, R. J.
    Adhesive wafer bonding2006In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 99, no 3Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafer bonding with intermediate polymer adhesives is an important fabrication technique for advanced microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems, such as three-dimensional integrated circuits, advanced packaging, and microfluidics. In adhesive wafer bonding, the polymer adhesive bears the forces involved to hold the surfaces together. The main advantages of adhesive wafer bonding include the insensitivity to surface topography, the low bonding temperatures, the compatibility with standard integrated circuit wafer processing, and the ability to join different types of wafers. Compared to alternative wafer bonding techniques, adhesive wafer bonding is simple, robust, and low cost. This article reviews the state-of-the-art polymer adhesive wafer bonding technologies, materials, and applications.

  • 200.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Method for sealing a microcavity and package comprising at least one microcavity2002Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A hermetically sealed package comprises a first wafer and a second wafer joined together by a bonding formed by a patterned intermediate bonding material. The bonding material is an adhesive bonding material and in that the package comprises at least one diffusion barrier formed in a different material from the bonding material.A number of packages can be made simultaneously by a method comprising the step of providing a patterned intermediate bonding material on at least one of said first and second wafer aligning said first and second wafer and applying pressure to join the first wafer and the second wafer together by means of the patterned intermediate bonding material further comprising the step of providing a material suitable for forming a diffusion barrier on at least one of said first and second wafer, in addition to the bonding material.

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