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  • 151.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Capturing Energy Efficiency in Iron and Steel Production: an Empirical Analysis Using DEA and MPI2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European iron and steel industries have to work towards increased energy efficiency of production to meet requirements set by EU policies, such as the Energy Efficiency Directive. However, current energy efficiency evaluation tools, such as the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC), give only crude estimates on the improvements in the context of iron and steel production. In this study, we survey the state-of-the-art in Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) methodology and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) techniques to identify an approach that captures the energy efficiency trends in iron and steel production. We found the combination of MPI with slacks-based DEA models to be especially useful in this context. An empirical analysis of European iron and steel production showed energy efficiency improvements of 16 % up until 2007. However, the years of the global economic recession yielded drastic decreases in energy efficiency. These results stand in contrast with the results of the currently used SEC. The analysis considered the time period 1992 – 2010 and each Member State as decision-making-unit

  • 152.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Is European Iron and Steel Production Energy Efficient?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Methodological differences behind energy statistics for steel production – implications when monitoring energy efficiency2014In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 77, no SI, p. 391-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency indicators used for evaluating industrial activities at the national level are often based on statistics reported in international databases. In the case of the Swedish iron and steel sector, energy consumption statistics published by Odyssee, Eurostat, the IEA (International Energy Agency), and the United Nations differ, resulting in diverging energy efficiency indicators. For certain years, the specific energy consumption for steel is twice as high if based on Odyssee statistics instead of statistics from the IEA. The analysis revealed that the assumptions behind the allocation of coal and coke used in blast furnaces as energy consumption or energy transformation are the major cause for these differences. Furthermore, the differences are also related to errors in the statistical data resulting from two different surveys that support the data. The allocation of coal and coke has implications when promoting resource as well as energy efficiency at the systems level. Eurostat's definition of energy consumption is more robust compared to the definitions proposed by other organisations. Nevertheless, additional data and improved energy efficiency indicators are needed to fully monitor the iron and steel sector's energy system and promote improvements towards a greener economy at large.

  • 154.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Hirsch, Tomas
    SSAB EMEA AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Susanne
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandvik AB, Sandviken, Stockholm.
    Nordqvist, Alena
    Jernkontoret, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jan
    SSAB EMEA AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Magnus
    Höganäs AB, Höganäs, Sweden.
    Economic and operational factors in energy and climate indicators for the steel industry2015In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European steel producers need to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions to meet requirements set by European policies. Robust indicators are needed to follow up these efforts. This bottom-up analysis of traditional energy and climate indicators is based on plant level data from three Swedish steel producers with different product portfolios and production processes. It concludes that indicators based on both physical and economic production are interlinked with aspects both within and outside the company gates. Results estimated with Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) confirm that steel production has complex relationships with markets, societal context and operational character of the industry. The study concludes that: (i) physical indicators (based on crude steel production) may be useful at the process level, but not at the industry-wide level, (ii) the value added is not a reliable alternative since it cannot be properly estimated for companies belonging to larger international groups, and (iii) structural shifts may influence the results significantly, and veil improvements made at the process level. Finally, harmonized system boundary definitions are vital for making indicators comparable between companies. The use of traditional indicators, as defined today, may lead to uninformed decisions at the company as well as policy levels.

  • 155.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Hirsch, Tomas
    SSAB EMEA AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Susanne
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandvik AB, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Nordqvist, Alena
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandvik AB, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jan
    SSAB EMEA AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Magnus
    Höganäs AB, Höganäs, Sweden.
    Improving energy and climate indicators for the steel industry: the case of Sweden2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, p. 581-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and climate indicators are required for monitoring and controlling the effectiveness of regional as well as national initiatives towards increasing energy efficiency and reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Indicators are also needed for monitoring measures implemented within companies. Recent studies show that traditional energy efficiency indicators do not capture product differentiation or value creation in the steel industry, while observed trends capture structural shifts instead. In this study, methods combining physical and techno-economic perspectives on energy and CO2 efficiency are proposed for alleviating these problems. The methods were evaluated using data from three Swedish steel producers. The results compensate for structural shifts when focused on physical production. When focused on economic production, the methods represent the value creation of the companies more strongly than traditional indicators. The proposed methods may be useful complements to traditional indicators for monitoring energy and CO2 efficiency. However, the trends show strong links with the economic climate, which may reduce companies’ possibilities of using the indicators for monitoring their own performance. The study confirms the high complexity in monitoring energy and CO2 efficiency within steel companies focused on high-value market segments. Further research is required in exploring issues related to data confidentiality, product portfolios and processes represented in the method, influence of external factors, and aggregating indicators at sectoral level.

  • 156.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Hirsch, Tomas
    Lindqvist, Susanne
    Pettersson, Magnus
    Pettersson, Jan
    Nordqvist, Alena
    Robusta energi- och klimatindikatorer för stålindustrin2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally used indicators for evaluating energy efficiency and decrease of greenhouse gas emissions are energy per ton product, energy per value added, energy per production value, greenhouse gas emissions per ton product, greenhouse gas emissions per value added and greenhouse gas emission per production value. Within the iron and steel sector mainly the physical indicator energy per produced ton raw steel is used. This research project has aimed at evaluating and further developing the energy indicator methodology. Sandvik Materials Technology (SMT), Höganäs Sweden AB and SSAB EMEA have participated with detailed, specific, company data and deep understanding of production and market. The companies represent different ways of producing steel and can therefore in a wider perspective be seen as representing the Swedish steel industry. A large step forward has been taken by increasing the understanding for how company structures and activities are affected by different external factors and how that is mirrored in the traditional energy efficiency indicators. Traditional indicators are today not robust enough to use for monitoring or governance, other than of separate processes within the companies. They should therefore not be used as a basis for policy making or reconsideration and updating of permit conditions by authorities. The further developed indicators, presented in this work, are still not robust enough for governance, but alleviate some of the effects influencing the traditional indicators. The efficiency indexes based on the physical production indicator decreases the influence of structural changes. The economical production indicator captures the value creation in a better way, but is strongly connected to the economic climate. A large number of parameters affect energy efficiency and still only a few have been considered. Energy efficiency achieved within the PFE program is visible in the results. It is very important to continue the development of indicators since energy and CO2 efficiency are central issues for both the steel industry and the society.

  • 157.
    Månsson, André
    et al.
    Lund University, Environmental and Energy Systems Studies.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Biofuels for road transport: Analysing evolving supply chains in Sweden from an energy security perspective2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 123, p. 349-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biofuels for road transport in Sweden has increased during the past 10. years as policymakers stimulate demand in response to concerns about climate change. Using a supply chain approach, this paper analyses: (i) existing biofuel supply chains in Sweden (biogas, biodiesel and bioethanol) in terms of security of supply, and (ii) possibilities to achieve synergies between implementation of climate change mitigation practices and security of supply objectives, through increased production and use of biofuels. We argue that synergies can arise when exposure to upstream market risk decreases, the risk of the feedstock does not correlate with the fuel that it replaces, producers can switch between feedstocks and end user vulnerability to disruptions decreases. In the current Swedish context, the features of the biogas supply chain make it the most beneficial option, followed by biodiesel. In the way it has been implemented, bioethanol is the least favourable option. The paper concludes by outlining how biofuels could contribute to security of supply in the future.

  • 158.
    Naihma, Dintani Yudhitya Noorzakiah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Sustainability Assessment for Small Scale Biogas in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study evaluates sustainability aspects of small scale biogas production in Yogyakarta Province of Indonesia. Growing number of livestock (i.e. cows, sheep, chicken, pigs, and other domestic animals) in the region brings opportunity to produce biogas from livestock manure, leading to improve energy security especially in household, while contributing to renewable energy target which is 31% from Total Primary Energy Demand (TPES) in all sectors by 2050. Biogas potential from cattle, horse, buffalo, pig, sheep, goat, chicken and duck which own by household in all regencies within the province of Yogyakarta (i.e. Bantul, Gunung Kidul, Kulon Progo, Sleman, and City of Yogyakarta) are calculated. Biogas digesters types and options for biogas utilization are evaluated by set of indicators in terms of technical, economic and environmental dimensions. Performance of the four types of digesters (i.e. fixed dome, floating drum, polyethylene tubular and concrete tubular digester) are examined based on the dimensions. For digester assessment, the dimensions are divided into several indicators, such as the lifetime, process efficiency, capital cost, operation and maintenance cost, feed-to-water ratio. The assessment would ensure that installation of biogas have optimum technical performance, attractive investment for the owner, and does not exploit too much natural resources. Equal weighted sum method is used to compare the digesters performance. The second assessment is to evaluate options for off-grid electricity use and cooking based on several indicators which are levelized cost of energy (LCOE), Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-to-Cost Ratio (BCR), Payback period and emissions saving. The production of biofertilizer, which is not part of the current system, is taken into account for additional income for biodigester’s user. The study estimates 1,211.35 TJ/year of biogas energy can be produced from livestock manure or equals to 44.72% of the total energy consumption in the household sector in Yogyakarta province in 2013. Gunung Kidul Regency has the most potential biogas from livestock, followed by Kulon Progo, Sleman, Bantul, then City of Yogyakarta. Utilization of biogas for household cooking could reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the province up to 1,260.66 MtCO2e per year while biogas for electricity reduce 1,562.144 3

     

    MtCO2e annually. The fixed dome digester obtains the highest score in the most of indicators assessed. For biogas utilization, biogas for cooking shows better performance in economic and environmental aspects. Biogas for cooking requires lower capital cost (US$ 850 less) and get higher NPV (US$ 2,000 more) than biogas for electricity. Yet, biogas for electricity save 301.48 MtCO2e more GHG emission than biogas for cooking. From digester and biogas utilization assessments, household biogas in Yogyakarta has been used the sustainable option for digester, which is fixed dome digester, and biogas utilization, which is biogas for cooking. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is done to know parameters that affect NPV for biogas for cooking and biogas for electricity. Biogas yields, fertilizer price, and LPG price are shown as the top three parameters that affect NPV for biogas for cooking utilization. While for biogas for electricity, the affecting parameter are electricity price, biogas yields, fertilizer price, and generator efficiency. From the sensitivity analysis, several recommendations were developed to maximize the current project. The recommendations are improvement of biogas stove efficiency, recommendation for biogas installation system, creating market demand for biogas by diminishing LPG subsidy, suggestion for progress monitoring and institutional recommendation for the program. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource done several monitoring to check whether the digester is still operating. However, there is no follow-up action for digester that is not operating anymore. On the other hand, Yayasan Rumah Energi (YRE), the main provider of biogas installation and service in Yogyakarta Province, conduct annual user survey. This survey focuses on satisfaction level of digester’s user after installation. Investigation regarding the impact of biogas project, such as energy shift from LPG to biogas and digestate utilization, is missing. Besides biogas for cooking, there are opportunity to develop biogas for electricity since several regencies in Yogyakarta does not have 100% electrification ratio, such as Gunung Kidul (82%) and City of Yogyakarta (69%). Due to available biogas potential, development of biogas for electricity in Gunung Kidul is more promising than in City of Yogyakarta. Additionally, research of biogas in Indonesia should be integrated with industries and private sector. For instance, by mass production of low cost generator which had been developed by Indonesian Institute for Sciences (LIPI) and by developing mini grid installation for biogas.

  • 159.
    Nathaniel, Christian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The Implementation of a Sustainable Biodiesel Industry in Trinidad and Tobago2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 160.
    Nerini, Francesco Fuso
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Bazilian, Morgan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Gomez, Maria F.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Rural electrification options in the Brazilian Amazon A multi-criteria analysis2014In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 36-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, approximately 1.2 billion people still lack access to electricity. Recognized by the Brazilian Government as a citizen's right, access to electricity was extended to almost 15 million people since 2003 as a result of the "Luz Para Todos" (Light for all - LPT) program. However, considerable parts of the Amazon region still lack access to electricity services, largely due to the long distances that need to be covered and to challenging topography. This paper explores electrification using selected renewable sources, both for new installations and for hybridization of existing diesel generators. We present results from a multi-criteria analysis that explores trade-offs associated with electrification options. Techno-economic, environmental, social and institutional criteria and attributes are explored. We find that renewable and hybrid systems present a number of advantages for application in isolated areas of the region.

  • 161.
    Nilsson, Frida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Renewable electricity for transition towards emission-free Gothenburg by 20302018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles are on the march and are estimated to transform the current transport sector in the upcoming years. Sweden has set up a national objective of becoming independent from fossil fuels in the transport sector by 2030. Electricity as transport fuel is prompted to be one of the most promising solutions to reach the targets and reduce the emissions. This thesis investigates the municipality of Gothenburg as a case study to see how much electricity would be required to supply the transport sector for three different scenarios, including a business as usual scenario, a moderate electrification scenario, and a full electrification scenario. The full electrification, i.e. 100% electrification, is investigated further to see the renewable generation requirements to supply this transport electrification. The electricity demand calculations are developed in collaboration with an engineering consultancy company(Sweco) and are a part of a larger project, Vad behövs fö ratt elektrifiera transportsystemet i Göteborg? (PussEL). The study finds that the municipality of Gothenburg holds promising potential to further exploit renewable electricity production from offshore wind and solar PV tocover the new annual addition of 0.81 TWh. A set of simulations in order to determine the renewable electricity generation from the available resources are performed using the EnergyPLAN model. In this study, the charging of electric vehicles is assumed to be overnight charging as the major charging strategy and for this reason a backup electricity generation is included to cover the whole demand during any hours. The simulations show that a need of 100MW back-up capacity is required to ensure that the demand is covered during any hour of the day. Replacing the current natural gas with renewable options will help the municipality to reduce the overall emissions further. Urbanization, globalization and vehicle electrification will all impact the future electricity demand. However, the existing plans and strategies must be revised in order to support the electrification further. The planned renewable electricity production for the future will be insufficient to cover the futuristic electricity consumption. Moreover, the analysis shows that the electricity supply will not be the major issue, instead some of the upcoming challenges will be to ensure a secure power supply to cope with the increased amount of simultaneous charging and deal with the intermittency in a smart and integrated way. Future work and research involve integration between renewable electricity production, storage solutions with batteries in electric vehicles and grid.

  • 162.
    Nordström, Eeva-Liisa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Fossilfri kollektivtrafik: En företags- och samhällsekonomisk kostnadsjämförelse av förnybara drivmedel för stadsbussar i Uppsala utifrån tre skattescenarier2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 163.
    Nourozi, Behrouz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Wang, Qian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Ploskic, Adnan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Maximizing thermal performance of building ventilation using geothermal and wastewater heat2019In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 143, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient use of waste heat recovery and geothermal heat can play an important role in lowering the overall energy use of buildings. This study evaluated the potential of geothermal energy and heat recovery from residential wastewater to reduce the energy need of building-ventilation in cold climates. The performance of the mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) system in a multi-family building located in central Sweden was studied. The focus of the investigation was on reduction of frosting in the air handling unit during the coldest months. Three configurations of one air preheating system fed by two renewable heat sources, wastewater and geothermal energy, were studied. It was found that compared to building without an air preheating system, the suggested air preheating systems reduced the defrosting time to 25%. By controlling and maintaining the preheated air temperature to slightly above the defrosting start, air heat recovery efficiency of MVHR above 80% was achieved for 90% of the studied time during heating season when frosting occurs. The energy need for the circulation pumps in the suggested air preheating systems was 5% of the recovered thermal energy from wastewater. The simulation results suggested that the air preheating system using wastewater heat recovery with a temperature-stratified storage tank was the most efficient one among the studied systems.

  • 164.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Carbon emissions and development paths: A discussion of the Kuznets environmental curve2010In: UNCTAD Public Symposium 2010, Geneva: United Nations , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common goal among governments is to promote socio-economic development and raise living standards of populations worldwide. As of today, some countries have achieved considerable development levels as measured by the Human Development Index (HDI). On the other hand, a large part of the world population lives in developing countries, and many still lack access to the services and goods thought to be standard in the modern society. This discussion paper engages in a critical discussion of the Kuznets Environmental Curve concept which implies a emporary increase in carbon emissions per unit of GDP as countries transition to higher development levels. The coming years will see enduring efforts for socio-economic improvements in low and mid-developed countries, but the feasibility of conventional development models is put into question. Development paths based on emission-intensive growth have to be phased-out towards a low-carbon equivalent, not only by the leading countries but most importantly in the developing world.

  • 165.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Consumer choice between ethanol and gasoline: Lessons from price mechanisms in Brazil and Sweden2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Solar Power in the European Context: Conversion Efficiency and the Issue of Carbon2009In: Journal of Contemporary European Research, ISSN 1815-347X, E-ISSN 1815-347X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 114-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union is committed to increasing the use of renewable energies across Europe. One of the ways this is to be done is through the promotion of solar photovoltaics (PV), a method with significant environmental benefits. However, the high costs of electricity generated through PV have constrained the market reach of this option. This paper takes the form of a policy discussion, analyzing the fundamental issues concerning this type of energy, and its place in the European alternative energy market. Furthermore, a scenario is drafted to estimate how efficient solar panels should ideally be to make electricity produced by them cost-competitive with conventional, grid-tied energy sources.  The study considers both a conventional scenario and another, with carbon capture costs incorporated into the final electricity prices. It is observed that in order to be competitive with conventional fossil-based electricity, photovoltaic conversion efficiencies should be around 34%. Incorporating carbon costs would further help promote solar PV, making it more price-attractive compared to emission-intensive electricity generation based on fossil fuels. The final part of the paper sheds light on the new developments on European PV, mainly in regards to the 2008 European Commission Climate Change Package, its implications and reactions from the industry.

  • 167.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The Development of Bioethanol Markets under Sustainability Requirements2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a theoretical and empirical examination of the developmentof bioethanol markets since 2005 when sustainability regulations forbiofuels were introduced globally. The experiences of Brazil and Sweden,and the influence of European regulations on the development ofbioethanol markets receive special attention. The work is based onprimary and secondary data sources gathered between 2009 and 2014,including interviews, field research, data from public and private sources,as well as an extensive literature review. The thesis uses case examples ofcountries that have adopted bioethanol as a transport fuel, such as Braziland Sweden.The research is structured using a bottom-up approach, and addressesthree specific angles of the complex issue of how bioethanol marketshave developed under sustainability requirements.The first part introduces an economic sustainability view of ethanol. Thecharacteristics of bioethanol fuel are presented together with conceptsand a theoretical framework for analysing biofuel sustainability. Policytools are also discussed, particularly those used to introduce fuel ethanolin the transport sector. The discussion is centred on the competitionbetween ethanol and gasoline, considering the hypothesis that consumersare sensitive to prices and tend to choose fuels based on their cost-perenergyunit. The analysis is supported by the case examples of Brazil andSweden, with special focus on the delicate balance between fueleconomies of bioethanol and gasoline systems in the face of differentways oil products are priced in those countries. Findings show thatdrivers tend to choose between bioethanol (E85/E100) or gasoline (E5-E25) depending on the relative prices between the two fuels. Theresearch results suggest that different pricing strategies for bioethanoland gasoline affect how consumers perceive the attractiveness of eachfuel. The examples of E100 in Brazil and E85 in Sweden provide insightson the elastic consumer behaviour that new markets may experience,serving to guide strategies in different contexts.The second part of this work bridges experiences in national contextswith the recent trend for biofuel sustainability regulation in internationalmarkets. Based on the hypothesis that the ethanol industry is responsiveto sustainability regulations, an examination of the development of theiiBrazilian bioethanol industry is carried out. This provides a comparisonframework drawing patterns between the industry's reaction to nationalregulations (past) and international regulations (recent). For this purpose,a comparison between the European sustainability requirements forethanol and the industry’s status quo is explored. Findings show that theEU sustainability criteria for biofuels are likely to have three effects onthe bioethanol industry: (i) compliance through incrementalimprovements in sustainability practices and certification; (ii) riskdiversification by engaging in multi-output production models; and (iii)market leakage towards less-regulated markets.The third part of the thesis brings together the first two parts. Itexamines how in a fuel competition context, the incorporation of costsrelated to sustainability certification can change the attractiveness ofhigh-bioethanol blends for consumers. The model of sustainabilityadopted by major international markets is based on regulations enforcedby mandatory certification. As biofuel market share increased, producerswere faced with costs for sustainability certification in order to obtainmarket access. While it was expected that ‘sustainably’ produced biofuelswould be rewarded with higher prices in the EU, this work found thatprice premiums for ethanol have in general been very small or inexistent,with certified fuels becoming the new norm in the market. New costsbrought into the market through sustainability certification can make itdifficult to balance between national policies heavily reliant on consumerchoice between fuels (and associated price-elasticities), and thedeployment of high blends of ethanol, such as E100 and E85.By analysing the three aspects (consumer behaviour and marketdynamics for ethanol in Brazil and Sweden, the introduction ofsustainability criteria for biofuels, and the implications of sustainabilityfor consumer choice between fuels) this work seeks to increaseunderstanding of the highly complex issue of biofuel market formationin the face of sustainability requirements. The key finding is thatsustainability certification has a cost, which needs to be orchestrated withother sectors of the economy to achieve the desired objectives. Thisthesis suggests that crucial areas of economic and environmentalsustainability have been often dealt with separately in biofuelpolicymaking, which has created weaknesses that deserve attention infuture policy efforts in order to improve biofuel systems.

  • 168.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The European Biofuels Policy: from where and where to?: Summary of paper for presentation for Risø Energy Conference, Denmark May 10-12, 20112011In: Energy Systems and Technologies for the Coming Century, Risø-R-1776(EN) May 2011 Proceedings Risø International Energy Conference 2011, May 10 - 12 / [ed] Leif Sønderberg Petersen and Hans Larsen, RISO STU, 2011, p. 268-274Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels for transport had a long history prior to their formal introduction in the European Union by means of formal directives in 2003 and 2009. Dating back to years before the First World War, busses were already rolling in Paris on a mixture of ethanol and petrol. Between 1920 and 1950 the French continued using sugar-beetbased ethanol as a tool to improve energy independence and reduce trade deficits (Kutas et al, 2007 p. 15). Ethanol utilization as a fuel blend only fell once oil prices achieved record lows in the 1960´s, as large reserves started being tapped in the middle-east.

    In the 1970s oil price shocks brought concerns about the European dependence on foreign energy, and the following decades saw many actions which started to change the biofuels panorama in Europe. By 1973 biodiesel research was already being conducted in Wieselburg, Austria, and in 1982 the country had its first pilot plant for biodiesel (producing fatty-acid methyl ester - FAME). After successful experiences with ethanol in Brazil, the first European directive which opened potential large markets for biofuels in Europe was the Council Directive 85/536/ECC, which authorized blends of 5% ethanol and 15% Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE, a bioether) on petrol. The usage of bioethanol for blending, however, was hampered by the low prices of oil products which marked the late 1980s and most of the 1990s (the same reasons which dealt a blow to the Brazilian ethanol program during that time).

    In tandem with the development of biofuels in Europe, carbon emissions were already consolidated in scholarly literature as the major causal factor behind climate change (Nordhaus, 1983; Daansgaard, 1993). Since the UN's Brundtland commission report from 1987, alternatives to de-carbonize the transport sector were in high demand, but the deployment of alternatives was hampered by a conjuncture of low oil prices. The following years in the 1990s were instrumental for the emergence of the modern environmental policy pursued by the EU, which became rooted in its commitment to the Rio-92 conference and later commitment to the Kyoto protocol. Early in that decade the first attempt at biofuel-promotion legislation at the EU level took place, while at national levels the adoption of technical standards for biofuels gained steam.

  • 169.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The impacts of the EU Biofuels sustainability scheme in bioethanol markets2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission has adopted recent legislation aggregating many aspects of the promotion of renewable energy in Europe. This Directive proposal was put forward by the European Commission(EC)on 23 January 2008 and adopted in December of the same year. It was part of the Climate Change Package providing the EC regulatory approach on the most critical implications of a stronger biofuels policy for Europe. In the proposal the Commission unveils its sustainability criteria for the production and usage of biofuels, as well as binding 10% targets for all European member states by 2020.

    The objective of this research is to explore the impacts of the proposed European sustainability criteria on the Brazilian bioethanol production and markets and the implications that this may have on the development of biofuel markets at a global level.

  • 170.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The Impacts of the EU Sustainability Scheme for Biofuels in Bioethanol Markets2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The European Commission has adopted recent legislation aggregating many aspects of the promotion of renewable energy in Europe. This Directive proposal was put forward by the European Commission (EC) on 23 January 2008 and adopted in December of the same year. It was part of the Climate Change Package providing the EC regulatory approach on the most critical implications of a stronger biofuels policy for Europe.  In the proposal the Commission unveils its sustainability criteria for the production and usage of biofuels, as well as binding 10% targets for all European member states by 2020. The objective of this research is to explore the impacts of the proposed European sustainability criteria on the Brazilian bioethanol production and markets and the implications that this may have on the development of biofuel markets at a global level.

  • 171.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assuncao, Lucas
    United Nations.
    Sustainable biofuels in the EU: the costs of certification and impacts on new producers2011In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, Vol. 2, no 6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While certification aims to differentiate biofuels according to their sustainability, itcan also affect prospects for market access. While the final consumer ultimately bearsthe costs of certified biofuels, the split of certification costs along supply chains couldhave strong implications for new producers in developing countries.

  • 172.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assunção, Lucas
    UNCTAD.
    van Dam, Jinke
    Toneto Jr, Rudinei
    FEARP-USP.
    The price for biofuels sustainability2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 59, p. 898-903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and usage of biofuels has increased worldwide, seeking goals of energy security, lowcarbonenergy and rural development. As biofuels trade increased, the European Union introducedsustainability regulations in an attempt to reduce the risks associated with biofuels. Producers were thenconfronted with costs of sustainability certification, in order to access the EU market. Hopes were thatsustainably-produced biofuels would be rewarded with higher prices in the EU. Based on a review ofrecent literature, interviews with traders and price data from Platts, this paper explores whethersustainability premiums emerged and if so, did they represent an attracting feature in the market forsustainable biofuels. This article finds that premiums for ethanol and biodiesel evolved differentlybetween 2011 and 2012, but have been in general very small or inexistent, with certified fuels becomingthe new norm in the market. For different reasons, there has been an apparent convergence betweenbiofuel policies in the EU and the US. As market operators perceive a long-term trend for full certificationin the biofuels market, producers in developing countries are likely to face additional challenges in termsof finance and capacity to cope with the sustainability requirements.

  • 173.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Batidzirai, Bothwell
    Chinhoyi University of Technology .
    The Development of Biofuel Capacities - Strengthining the Position of African Countries through Increased Energy Security2011In: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness: The Role of Sugar Cane in Africa / [ed] Francis X Johnson and Vikram Seebaluck, Earthscan , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    African countries face a broad spectrum of challenges in their pursuit for progress. Among the key challenges to sustainable development in the region is the issue of energy security. Fears of oil supply disruptions, high prices, power blackouts and fuelwood shortages have all become issues of concern especially for poor oil importing countries in SSA (Batidzirai and Wamukonya, 2010; UNECE, 2007). Concerns are more critical for landlocked countries, where transportation costs of fuel are high and supply lines are vulnerable to disruptions in the case of civil unrest, natural disasters, geopolitical instability or barriers to trade (Habitat, 1993; Scurlock et al, 1991).

    For most Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the ability to meet growing demand for energy is among the top national priorities. The availability of reliable and affordable energy in sufficient quantities is essential for meeting basic needs and driving economic development. While seeking to improve their energy security, SSA countries must tackle a number of challenges; including diversification of supply, securing capital and financing for energy infrastructure, develop technical expertise and technical solutions tailored to specific national needs.

    Where conditions are conducive, biofuels have potential to substitute a significant amount of energy used in the transport, electricity and cooking sectors. Biofuels are an attractive transport energy option for most SSA countries as the production does not require sophisticated technologies. Furthermore many SSA countries possess abundant natural resources and favourable conditions such as high temperatures, solar incidence and availability of land which are pre-requisites for development of successful biofuels industries. Recent studies have shown that potential for biomass energy is very high in SSA. The sugar industry is one of the key sectors which has potential to contribute significantly to the supply of bioethanol fuel for transportation as well as supply of bagasse-fired electricity.

  • 174.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Cechin, A.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Sustainability policy: A case study of the limits to biofuel sustainability2013In: Mechanism Design for Sustainability: Techniques and Cases, Springer Netherlands, 2013, p. 283-305Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are attractive alternative energy carriers not least due to their interface with existing infrastructure for conventional fuels in the transportation sector. But while representing a renewable alternative to petroleum fuels, an expanded usage of biofuels could conflict with ecological and social systems. In face of this risk, a number of countries are designing sustainability standards and safeguard mechanisms for biofuels, in an attempt to reduce the negative effects of their growing usage. This chapter explores biofuel sustainability policies, their economic rationale, and specially their limits, as seen from the basic strategies of dematerialization, detoxification, and transmaterialization. The chapter then frames where biofuel sustainability policies have margin for action, exemplified by the case of the European scheme proposed in 2009. By understanding the economic rationale and guiding principles behind efforts to improve biofuel sustainability, the chapter can contribute to better understand the actual scope and limitations of policy efforts currently aiming to promote responsible biofuels usage. The study concludes by proposing that transparency and dialogue, including parties directly and indirectly affected by biofuel strategies, as the only way to legitimize the sharing of risks in this emerging international market.

  • 175.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    da Silva Filho, Antonio Carlos
    Uni-FACEF, Brazil.
    Bruno, Francaroli
    Ethanol vs. Gasoline in Brazil: what to expect when sustainability is incorporatedManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    da Silva Filho, Antonio Carlos
    Uni-FACEF.
    de Oliveira Silva, Giulia
    Uni-FACEF.
    Guasti Lima, Fabiano
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    When is pure ethanol attractive as a fuel option? Quantifying the gasoline vs ethanol dilemma faced by consumers in Brazil2011In: Journal of Academy of Business and Economics, ISSN 1542-8710, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 109-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian light vehicle fleet runs mainly on two energy carriers: Gasoline and Ethanol (E100). While inBrazil bioethanol is used both as a low blend with gasoline (E20-25) and in a pure, separate option(E100), a large share of the fleet is flex-fuel capable, meaning cars can take pure ethanol, gasoline or anymixture of both. The choice on which fuel to use depends on consumer preferences when presented withboth choices at the pump. Previous research indicates that prices are a major factor influencing the fuelchoice at any given moment. Gasoline prices were relatively stable between 2005 and 2011, whileethanol prices experienced strong fluctuations based on sugarcane harvest seasons, suboptimalregulatory stocks and increasing demand due to the rising share of flex-fuel cars as well as exports to theUS and European Union markets. Therefore, depending on relative prices between ethanol and gasoline,the consumer appears to decide on the economic attractiveness of each fuel. The limit ratio betweenethanol and gasoline prices is considered to lie between 0.6 and 0.7 (due to different energy content andengine efficiencies characteristic to ethanol and gasoline). This study enhances previous investigationson consumer behavior in face of high biofuels blends, in form of an in-depth statistical analysis of thechoice phenomenon. The study focuses on the price-trigger which leads to fuel shift based on demandand price data from the Brazilian Agency for Oil, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP), the Ministry ofAgriculture and the Brazilian Statistical Institute (IBGE) for the period between January 2005 and January2011, with monthly resolution. Relative prices and consumption between ethanol and gasoline priceswere calculated for all 27 Brazilian states (1971 observations). The analysis proceeded in form ofcorrelations and non-linear regressions in order to determine the quantitative reaction from the market inface of different price variations faced by consumers at the pump, in different seasons of the year. Theresulting regressions from the Brazilian case serve as a tool for policy-makers to seek efficient biofuelspromotion strategies, which specially guarantee the economic sustainability of the competing fuels,specially the attractiveness of biofuels when used as high-blends.

  • 177.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Tailor-made solutions: Small-scale biofuels and trade2010In: Bridges Trade BioRes Review, ISSN 1996-9198, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 10-11Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In current debates on biofuels trade, the focus tends to be on large-scale production. However, the production of small-scale biofuels is better suited for many smaller developing and least-developed countries. Small-scale biofuels can bring many social and environmental benefits at the local level and, cumulatively, their production and utilisation can bring significant trade benefits.

  • 178.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Carbon Intensities of Economies from the Perspective of Learning Curves2013In: Challenges in Sustainability, ISSN 2297-6477, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 94-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While some countries have achieved considerable development, many others still lack accessto the goods and services considered standard in the modern society. As CO2 emissions and development are often correlated, this paper employs the theoretical background of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) and the learning curves toolkit to analyze how carbon intensities have changed as countries move towards higher development (and cumulative wealth) levels. The EKC concept is then tested with the methodology of learning curves for the period between 1971 and 2010, so as to capture a dynamic picture of emissions trends and development. Results of both analyses reveal that empirical data fails to provide direct evidence of an EKC for emissions and development. The data does show, however, an interesting pattern in the dispersion of emissions levels for countries within the same HDI categories. While data does not show that countries grow more polluting during intermediary development stages, it does provide evidence that countries become more heterogeneous in their emission intensities as they develop, later re-converging to lower emission intensities at higher HDI levels. Learning rates also indicate heterogeneity among developing countries and relative convergence among developed countries. Given the heterogeneity of development paths among countries, the experiences of those which are managing to develop at low carbon intensities can prove valuable examples for ongoing efforts in climate change mitigation, especially in the developing world.

  • 179.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Consumer choice between ethanol and gasoline: Lessons from Brazil and Sweden2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 11, p. 6936-6942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of flex-fuel vehicles since 2003 has made possible for Brazilian drivers to choose between high ethanol blends or gasoline depending on relative prices and fuel economies. In Sweden, flex-fuel fleets were introduced in 2005. Prices and demand data were examined for both Brazil and Sweden. Bioethanol has been generally the most cost-efficient fuel in Brazil, but not for all states. In any case, consumers in Brazil have opted for ethanol even when this was not the optimal economic choice. In Sweden, a different behavior was observed when falling gasoline prices made E85 uneconomical in late 2008. In a context of international biofuels expansion, the example of E85 in Sweden indicates that new markets could experience different consumer behavior than Brazil: demand falls rapidly with reduced price differences between ethanol and gasoline. At the same time, rising ethanol demand and lack of an international market with multiple biofuel producers could lead to higher domestic prices in Brazil. Once the limit curve is crossed, the consumer might react by shifting back to the usage of gasoline.

  • 180.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Ethanol or gasoline?: Consumer choice in face of different fuel pricing systems in Brazil and Sweden2010In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 685-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of high biofuel blends and flex-fuel fleets, consumers are faced with variations in the attractiveness of high-ethanol blends (E85 and E100), which depend, among other factors, on the different price mechanisms applied to gasoline. This research article examines scenarios in which different levels of oscillation in oil prices are transmitted to final gasoline markets in Brazil, influencing the attractiveness of ethanol to consumers. Our analysis suggests that the consumer might prefer more constant price advantages (e.g., in Brazil), while reacting negatively to very volatile markets (e.g., in Sweden). Since consumers apparently use more biofuels in a context of less price volatility, price stability might be an important aspect for policy makers to consider when designing policies to promote biofuel markets.

  • 181.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Gasoline pricing systems and the attractiveness of high-ethanol blends: The cases of Brazil and Sweden2010In: Conference proceedings 3rd International Scientific Conference on “Energy systems with IT” at Alvsjö fair in association with Energitinget March 16-17 2010 / [ed] Erik Dahlqvist, Jenny Palm, Malardalen University Press , 2010, p. 132-139Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioethanol fuel is considered by a number of countries as a tool to reduce the carbon intensity of the transport sector, improve energy security and promote rural development. (Macedo et al., 2008; Hoekman, 2009; Goldemberg, 2007). This has been reflected by the broader move towards biofuels taken by leading economic blocks. The European Union and United States have both manifested their intention to increase the share of biofuels in their final energy consumption (European Commission 2009; US Congress 2007). Most fuel-grade ethanol in the world is used as an oxygenate into gasoline (low blend) which allows the utilization of conventional fuel infrastructure. On the other hand, some countries opted for high-blend ethanol (E100 and E85) in their fuel pools as a way to offer a "green" alternative to gasoline.

    However, biofuels can only deliver an effective contribution to climate change mitigation if, at the end, they prove to be an attractive choice for consumers.

    This summary is based on work presented at the 3 rdInternational Scientific Conference on Energy Systems with IT, part of Energitinget 2010. It consists of a summary of an initial investigation from Pacini and Silveira (upcoming), with a deepened focus on a further examination on how gasoline pricing systems can be important in determining the attractiveness of high ethanol blends for the consumer (Pacini and Silveira, 2010).

  • 182.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    da Silva Filho, Antonio Carlos
    Uni-FACEF, Brazil.
    The European Biofuels Policy: from where and where to?2013In: European Energy Journal, ISSN 2211-9175, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the development of the European biofuels policy, from its origins in the form of scattered national initiatives tocurrent directives enforced at EU level. Future trends are discussed based on a forecastingexercise for biofuels consumption in the EU27 following three steps. Firstly, the origins and evolution of biofuels policy in Europe arepresented, with particular attention to thegradual shift from national initiatives toEU-level directives after 2003. Secondly, theEuropean Energy Journal | Volume 3 | Issue 1 | January 2013The European Biofuels Policy: from where and where to18paper analyses recent developments, such asthe implementation of the RED, the RenewableEnergy Action Plans (NREAPs), the mandatorysustainability criteria for biofuels and thedevelopment of certification schemes. Toconclude, the paper provides projections forthe future use of biofuels in the EU27 based onthe policy framework in place as well as recent information from member states’ strategies.These projections serve as a tool for policy benchmark and baseline for policy adjustments.

  • 183.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Strapasson, Alexandre
    Imperial College, London.
    Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry2012In: Journal of Contemporary European Research, ISSN 1815-347X, E-ISSN 1815-347X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 367-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD) and Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  • 184.
    Palmén, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Will Improved Palm Oil Yields suffice to the Development of Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstock in indonesia?2015In: CYSENI 2015, Lithuanian Institute , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By the expansion of oil palm plantations, Indonesia has become a world leading producer of crude palm oil. However, Indonesia has also been largely criticized due to issues of land use change and deforestation. The country now promotes the use of palm oil for biodiesel production as part of policies to achieve renewable energy targets. Currently yields on palm oil plantations are far from optimal. Do new policies promoting biodiesel production address the issue of yields properly? This study analyses the driving forces for the expansion of palm oil plantations in Indonesia and the palm oil yields obtained in the country. Data is collected through a multi-disciplinary structured literature review of relevant palm oil publications from the last 15 years. We identify the policies that have been put in place and the strategies used to establish palm oil plantations in the past years. We look at the newly defined policies of the Indonesian government towards renewables and climate mitigation, in particular, targets for biodiesel production and fuel substitution. The idea is to verify whether the new policy will address the low yield issue. Presently, palm oil yields are much lower in Indonesia than in neighbouring Malaysia, also a major producer. Particularly, smallholders have lower yields than private and government estate plantations. Expanding production has been focused on covering new areas with palm oil plantations and less on developing farming methods. In earlier stages, the establishment of plantations included proper education of farmers and incentives to maintain production. Smallholders nowadays start palm oil production with little or no previous experience; still they favour oil palm over traditional crops. New policies have to address farming improvements to guarantee sustainable feedstock for biodiesel.

  • 185.
    Pardo Martinez, Clara Inés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analysis of energy use and CO2 emission in service industries: Evidence from Sweden2012In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 5285-5294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the trends in energy use and CO2 emissions for 19 sub-sectors in the Swedish service sectors following the classification of the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC) at the 2-digit level of aggregation over the period 1993-2008. This empirical study intends to examine energy use, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions using data envelopment analysis (DEA) and panel data techniques. DEA is applied to assess energy efficiency within a production framework. Panel data techniques are used to determine which variables influence energy efficiency. The results show that Swedish services industries have increased energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the period 1993-2008. The results from the DEA show significant variation in energy efficiency across service industries. The results also indicate that this sector has increased technical efficiency and energy efficiency while decreasing CO2 emissions, especially in the later years of our sample period. The results of panel data techniques show that higher energy taxes, electricity consumption, investments and labour productivity generate higher energy efficiency, while higher fossil fuel consumption leads to lower energy efficiency. All findings of this study are important for developing effective energy policies that encourage better energy use and energy management in the service industries.

  • 186.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Ines
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Semida, Silveira
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in Swedish manufacturing industries2013In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 117-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the trends in energy consumption and CO2 emissions as a result of energy efficiency improvements in Swedish manufacturing industries between 1993 and 2008. Using data at the two-digit level, the performance of this sector is studied in terms of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, energy efficiency measured as energy intensity, value of production, fuel sources, energy prices and energy taxes. It was found that energy consumption, energy intensity and CO2 emission intensity, measured as production values, have decreased significantly in the Swedish manufacturing industries during the period studied. The results of the decomposition analysis show that output growth has not required higher energy consumption, leading to a reduction in both energy and CO2 emission intensities. The role of structural changes has been minor, and the trends of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions have been similar during the sample period. A stochastic frontier model was used to determine possible factors that may have influenced these trends. The results demonstrate that high energy prices, energy taxes, investments and electricity consumption have influenced the reduction of energy and CO2 emission intensities, indicating that Sweden has applied an adequate and effective energy policy. The study confirms that it is possible to achieve economic growth and sustainable development whilst also reducing the pressure on resources and energy consumption and promoting the shift towards a low-carbon economy.

  • 187.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inez
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    An analysis of eco-efficiency in energy use and CO2 emissions in the Swedish service industries2013In: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, ISSN 0038-0121, E-ISSN 1873-6041, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 120-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study determines the trends in energy efficiency and CO2 emissions of the Swedish service sector using data at the 2-digit level of aggregation for the Swedish service industry over the period 1993-2008, this empirical study examines eco-efficiency in terms of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions based on a number of models. The results show that Swedish service industries increased energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the sample period, whereas energy and CO2 emission intensities have shown a decrease in recent years. Eco-efficiency models based on the Malmquist data envelopment analysis model suggest that Swedish service industries have an excellent potential to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions. Second-stage panel data techniques show that energy taxes, investments and labour productive have a significant and positive influence on energy and CO2 emission intensities implying that increasing these variables lead to higher energy efficiency and lower CO2 emission intensity. This analysis demonstrates the importance of designing and applying adequate energy policies that encourage better energy use and management in this industrial sector for the goal of achieving a low carbon economy.

  • 188.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analyzing energy efficiency in german and colombian non-energy intesnive sectors using empirical analysis2011In: 34th IAEE International Conference Institutions, Efficiency and Evolving Energy Technologies, Stockholm: Stockholm School of Economics , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is employed to study the comparative performance of German and Colombian non-energy intensive sectors between 1998 and 2005. The results of the DEA indicate that the great majority of these sectors improved on this index during the sample period, demonstrating that energy input is an important variable within the production structure and a key element in technology development. At a second stage, regression analysis using panel data analysis reveals that several factors, including labour productive, enterprise size, investments and capital input can be considered determinants of differences in energy efficiency among German and Colombian non-eenrgy intensive sectors. Our results also show that different energy policies should apply across non-energy intensive sectors and that they should encourage the importance of energy efficiency in order to improve it, especially in small and medium enterprises and manufacturing industries of developing countries.

  • 189.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Estimating and Analyzing Energy Efficiency in German and Colombian Manufacturing Industries Using DEA and Data Panel Analysis2011In: 17th annual international sustainable development research conference. Moving Towarda Sustainable Future: Opportunities and challenges / [ed] The Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York: The Earth Institute, Columbia University , 2011, p. 15-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is employed to study the comparative performance of German and Colombian manufacturing industries between 1998 and 2005. The results of the DEA indicate that the great majority of manufacturing industrial sectors improved on this index during the sample period, demonstrating that energy input is an important variable within the production structure and a key element in technology development. At a second stage, regression analysis using panel data analysis reveals that several factors, including labour productive, enterprise size, investments and capital input can be considered determinants of differences in energy efficiency among German and Colombian manufacturing industries. Our results also show that different energy policies should apply across manufacturing industries and that they should encourage the importance of energy efficiency in order to improve it, especially in non-energy-intensive sectors, small and medium enterprises and manufacturing industries of developing countries.

  • 190.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Estimating and analyzing energy efficiency in German and Colombian manufacturing industries using DEA and data panel analysis. Part I Energy Intensive Sectors2011In: Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, ISSN 1556-7257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is employed to study the comparative performance of German and Colombian energy intensive sectors between 1998 and 2005. The results of the DEA indicate that the great majority of energy intensive sectors improved on this index during the sample period, demonstrating that energy input is an important variable within the production structure and a key element in technology development. At a second stage, regression analysis using panel data analysis reveals that several factors, including labour productive, the share of electricity, investments and enterprise size can be considered determinants of differences in energy efficiency among German and Colombian energy intensive sectors. Our results also show that different energy policies should apply, and that they should encourage the importance of energy efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable economic development and climate stabilization today and in the near future.

  • 191.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Estimating and analyzing energy efficiency in German and Colombian manufacturing industries using DEA and data panel analysis. Part II Non-Energy Intensive Sectors2011In: Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, ISSN 1556-7257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysis energy efficiency trends in German and Colombian non-energy intensive sectors using data envelopment analysis (DEA) between 1998 and 2005. The results of the DEA show considerable variation in energy efficiency across non-energy intensive sectors during the sample period. At a second stage, regression analysis using panel data analysis reveals that several factors, including labour productive, enterprise size, and capital input can be considered determinants of differences in energy efficiency among German and Colombian non-energy intensive sectors. Our results also show that different energy policies should apply in non-energy intensive sectors and that they should encourage the importance of energy efficiency in order to improve it, especially in small and medium enterprises and industrial sector of developing countries.

  • 192.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Investments and Energy Efficiency in Colombian Manufacturing Industries2011In: 17th annual international sustainable development research conference Moving Towarda Sustainable Future:: Opportunities and challenges / [ed] The Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York: The Earth Institute, Columbia University , 2011, p. 169-171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the effects of investments on energy efficiency performance using data from Colombian manufacturing industries. These industries were analysed as a whole and as energy intensive sectors(EISs) and nonenergy intensive sectors (NEISs) between 1998 and 2005. Using a simple factor demand model, we estimate the structural parameters of the model using both time-series and cross-sectional dimensions of the data, and we include the effect that investments have on energy efficiency in Colombian manufacturing industries. The results showed that in Colombian manufacturing industries overall, as well as in NEISs, the main variables that determine energy efficiency performance are energy prices, machinery and equipment investments and foreign investments. Whereas electricity prices show lower significance levels, investments in research and development (R&D) are not statistically significant. In contrast, for EISs, only energy prices and foreign investments are statistically significant. Therefore, these results demonstrate the close relationship between energy prices and investments with respect to energy efficiency improvements in Colombian manufacturing industries. These findings have important implications for policy makers aiming to encourage governments to adopt strategies that combine energy prices and technological change, as well as those policy makers wishing to strengthen foreign investment in order to improve technology development, productivity and energy efficiency in manufacturing industries.

  • 193.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Cotte Poveda, A.
    Energy, development, and economic growth in Colombia2013In: Global Energy Policy and Security, Springer London, 2013, p. 311-330Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to describe the causal relationships between energy use, development, and productivity in Colombia. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study was conducted by application of several econometric techniques. The time-series methodology used in this is based on the Granger causality test, which has been found appropriate by using the cointegration technique. Findings: This study shows that economic growth and development drive total energy consumption. The results regarding the relationship among energy, poverty, and inequality indicate that increases in gross domestic product and energy supply per capita contribute to decrease poverty. The results also confirm that access to modern energy services helps to decrease poverty. Moreover, the improvements in energy efficiency and decreases in CO2 emissions have contributed to development and growth. Practical Implications: The results of this study showed the importance of the formulation and adoption of good policies and strategies that encourage sustainable energy use to improve growth and development, especially in developing countries. Originality/Value: This chapter provides an empirical approach for finding the causal relationship between development, productivity, and energy consumption in Colombia. The methodology and the results used in this study could be used for exploring the importance of energy in the productivity and economic development.

  • 194.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Cotte Poveda, Alexander
    Energy efficiency in Colombian manufacturing industries: An analysis with Data Envelopment Analysis and Panel Data techniques: La eficiencia energética en la industria manufacturera Colombiana:una estimación con Análisis Envolvente de Datos-DEAy Datos de Panel2011In: REVISTA ECONOMÍA, GESTIÓN Y DESARROLLO, ISSN 1909-4477, no 11, p. 39-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is employed to analysis the trendsin energy efficiency in the Colombian manufacturing industries taking as reference energy intensive sectors (EISs).The results of theDEAindicate that the great majority ofEISs improved on this index, demonstrating that energy input is an important variable within the production structure and a key element in technology development.At a second stage, regression analysis using panel data analysis reveals that several factors, including labour productive, enterprise size, investments and capital input can be considered determinants in the trends of energyefficiency. These results indicate that different energy policies should apply in the manufacturing industries to encourage the importance of energy efficiencythrough technology changes and investments in order to improve productivity, decrease energy consumption and pollution.

  • 195.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Cotte Poveda, Alexander
    The trends in poverty and inequality: An evidence for Colombian departments: Las tendencias de la pobreza y la desigualdad: una evidencia para los departamentos de Colombia2011In: Ensayos Revista de Economía, ISSN 1870-221X, Vol. XXX, no 2, p. 29-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates poverty and inequality trends using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and panel data in Colombia during the sample period between 1993 and 2007. In this analysis, we suggest a DEA model to measure and rank poverty, inequality and development trends. The results from the DEA model show variation in the scores across Colombian departments during the sample period. A second-stage panel data analysis with fixed effects reveals that departments with higher population density, unemployment, homicide rates and property concentration have a lower efficiency score, whereas departments with higher health and education coverage and public investments have better results according to DEA and panel data estimations. Findings of this analysis demonstrate that the decrease in poverty and inequality could be achieved through adequate strategies that guarantee development and economic growth with policies concentrated to improve social welfare.

  • 196.
    Perez Garcia, Adriana
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Techno-economic feasibility study of a small-scale biogas plant for treating market waste in the city of El Alto2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every day 493 tonnes of waste containing 67% of organic material is generated in the city of El Alto in Bolivia. The majority of the waste is disposed to a landfill that is expected to reach its maximum capacity by 2015. Therefore, new waste treatment methods need to be explored. The high content of organic material in waste makes biogas technologies a potential solution for waste treatment in El Alto. These technologies can generate a renewable energy source and organic fertilizer that can provide several benefits to the city. The objective of this study is to investigate the techno-economic feasibility of a small-scale biogas plant for treating organic market waste in the city of El Alto. To this end, a multi-criteria analysis was performed to identify a suitable technology. The garage-shaped digester was selected as the most appropriate technology for the conditions of El Alto. By implementing this technology, 1.8 GWh of electricity and 2,340 tonnes of organic fertilizer can be produced annually. Furthermore, an economic analysis of two scenarios was conducted. The Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return, Payback time, Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) and sensitivity analysis were evaluated. The biogas plant resulted economically viable in both cases. However, the LCOE estimated (0.17-0.26 USD/kWh) were very high in comparison to the LCOE from natural gas in Bolivia (0.026 USD/kWh). Regarding the sensitivity analysis, several parameters were evaluated from which the compost price was the most influential on changing the NPV. The study also included the estimation of the emission savings. A total of 900 tonnes of CO2/year could be avoided for producing electricity from biogas. Moreover, social benefits could also be generated such as new job opportunities. The use of a small-scale biogas plant for treating organic market waste in the city of El Alto is a cost-effective option. Though, it is fundamental that the government support the waste-to-biogas technologies by introducing economic mechanisms and promoting awareness to ensure the markets for both, biogas and organic fertilizer.

  • 197.
    Ravi Kumar, Swetha
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    A techno-economic analysis of a residential solar Photovoltaic system installed in 2010: A comparative case study between California and Germany2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With environmental concerns and energy needs increasing, many regions in the world are promoting renewable energy technologies making use of various policy instruments. Although today the PV systems price is decreasing, which gives it a competitive edge; we see the technology still being dependent on policy instruments for its dissemination.

     

    The aim of this study is to research on whether or not a solar PV system is economically viable under certain circumstances. The study analyzes this by performing a cost beneficial analysis for the lifetime of the solar PV system making use of a discounted savings model. The systems being considered in this study are from California and Germany as these regions are leading in solar PV dissemination in their respective regions. The policies that are aiding the deployment of solar PV technologies are varied and thus this study compares benefits from different policy instrument for a residential customer investing in a solar PV system.

     

    The research objectives in this study are pursued making use of major concepts such as Grid Parity, Levelized Cost of Electricity and financial methods such as discounting.  Further, to understand how the different independent variables such as retail electricity prices, PV system pricing, WACC, self-consumption rate and storage availability are having an impact and how the results change with variation in these variables, a sensitivity analysis is conducted.

     

    The results obtained in this study show that a solar PV system installed in California and Germany both make net benefits over their lifetime. When compared, the Californian solar PV system under the Net Energy Metering policy is making more net economic benefits in the range of $ 40,351 in Eureka and $53,510 in San Francisco; when compared to the German solar PV systems under the Feed in Tariff ranging $4,465 in Berlin and $11,769 in Munich. Furthermore the Californian solar PV systems still prove to be more beneficial even when compared to the German solar PV systems under the self-consumption law of the Feed in Tariff ranging $ 6,443 in Berlin and $ 13,141 in Munich.  But when the self-consumption rate is increased in the German case, it is noted that the associated benefits increase.

     

    The study at hand thus results in the California Net Energy Meter policy instrument proving to be more beneficial to a residential customer than the German Feed in tariff with and without self-consumption. Another important finding made in this study is that despite the German solar PV system making lesser benefits than the Californian ones, they attain Grid Parity before the ones in California. 

  • 198.
    Remy, Florian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Potential for the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Curitiba, Brazil2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Curitiba is a city of two million inhabitants located in the South of Brazil. It is a pioneer in waste management in the country, and is famous for its programs promoting recycling and organic waste collection. The city is now willing to take waste management one step further by investigating new solutions to treat and recover energy from organic municipal solid waste. This report is the fruit of a collaboration between two departments of the municipality of Curitiba, four local universities, the Swedish environment protection agency and the Royal Institute of Technology – KTH.

    The purpose of this report is to assess the potential for the development of anaerobic digestion as a solution to treat the organic municipal solid waste generated in Curitiba. The report offers an overview of the current waste treatment and of the main sources of organic waste in Curitiba. The annual amount of organic waste generated in the city is estimated to 144,350 tons, of which 913 tons come from food markets supervised by SMAB, the secretary of food supply. Three different scenarios, corresponding to three ranges of waste sources, have been considered. In the first one, the organic wastes generated by one of the two public markets of Curitiba are treated on-site. In the second one, all the organic wastes from food markets, street markets and popular restaurants are treated together in a medium-scale anaerobic digester. In the third one, all the sources of organic municipal solid waste identified in Curitiba are considered, including residential, institutional and small commercial waste.

    The annual methane production is estimated to 5,400 m3, 86,000 m3 and 12,600,000 m3 respectively for the three scenarios. In the last two scenarios, the methane could be converted into electricity, resulting in an annual electricity production of 257 MWh and 37,600 MWh. The first scenario does not consider a post-treatment of the digestate remaining at the end of the digestion. Between 46 and 50 tons of digestate could be used as a liquid fertilizer on-site and the surplus could be sold. For the two other scenarios, the digestate would be dewatered and composted to be sold as a dry fertilizer. The dry fertilizer production is estimated to 386 tons and 63,000 tons respectively every year.

    Each of the scenario considered would be financially viable, with a discounted payback period varying from 8 months for the small-scale scenario, to over 15 years for the second scenario. The third scenario would be the most lucrative, with a net present value of about 150 million reals.

  • 199.
    Rosillo-Calle, Frank
    et al.
    Imperial College London.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Food versus Fuel: An informed introduction to biofuels2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    'Food versus Fuel' presents a high-level introduction to the science and economics behind a well-worn debate, that will debunk myths and provide quality facts and figures for academics and practitioners in development studies, environment studies, and agricultural studies. Compiled by an internationally renowned scientist and authority, and to include perspectives from 'pro' and 'anti' biofuels experts and activists, from the North and South, the aim of this book is to bring a balanced approach to the current debate on the major issues affecting the development of biofuels in a concise and clear manner in order to provide an informed, nuanced but accessible introduction, grounded in science and economics rather than conjecture and controversy.

  • 200.
    Rutkowski, E. W.
    et al.
    UNICAMP State University of Campinas.
    Demantova, G. C.
    UNICAMP State University of Campinas.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    As redes técnicas do saneamento: Sanitation technical networks2010In: Revista DAE, ISSN 0101-6040, no 184, p. 69-72Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deteriorating health conditions of the industrial cities transformed them from pole of wealth to focus of diseases. Since then, there is a relentless quest for improvement of the environmental quality. The complexity of urban relations on space sets environmental basin as a unit of territorial management. The sanitation technical networks are presented as a tool for shared municipal management sanitation as the Sanitation and Solid Waste National Policies proposed.

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