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  • 151.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    FIRMS’ RATIONALES FOR INTERACTION WITH RESEARCHUNIVERSITIES: the principles for public co-funding2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    R&D managers at 50 firms randomly selected from all firms who have formal relations withtwo research universities in Stockholm are being interviewed about their rationales forcollaboration. Drawing on this material, a distinctive typology of rationales and the therewithassociated effects from cooperative relations is presented. As expected, rationales related toinnovation, in terms of invented or improved products or processes, are found to be themain drivers for interaction. As regards the nature of the innovation process leading toinnovation, most respondents indicate that “indirect” relationships between collaborationoutcomes and successful innovation dominate over “direct” appropriation of results.Contrasting open ended search rationales with pursuit of defined objectives, we find thatboth types are strongly represented among the studied collaborative linkages. We also findthat interaction rationales often go beyond the pursuit of innovation per se; firms also workwith university researchers to access academic networks, to develop its human capital and torealise direct business opportunities. The consequences of these findings for policy measuressteered towards the strengthening of collaborative university-industry linkages are discussed.

  • 152.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Från forskare till företagare: en lönsam karriärväxling?2013In: Institutioner och incitament för innovation: entreprenöriella vägval för svensk tillväxt / [ed] Pontus Braunerhjelm, Stockholm: Entreprenörskapsforum , 2013, p. 73-82Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 153.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    How can we study innovation systems?: Introducing an actor-centralised perspective2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The systems of innovation approach has helped advocating a view on innovation as dependent onthe interaction over time between different actors and brought the role of institutions to the centerof interest. However, the approach has remained a general framework rather than evolved into ananalytical tool for the study of the dynamics of innovation activities. In this discussion paper, weintroduce the concept of innovation system services, defined as the set of factors that have asignificant potential influence on the opportunities of a certain groups of actors to perform a certaintype of activities efficiently. We suggest that the relevant innovation system for the actors-activitiesnexus at hand can be defined as this set of system services. We examine this analytical framework ina case study on R&D investments of multinational enterprises in Sweden. In this context, innovationsystem services are defined as the set of external factors that the case study suggests to havesignificant impact on the decisions of MNEs to invest in R&D in Sweden. The focus on servicesallows us to analyse the influence of an innovation system on the long-term development of R&D inSweden in a structured and coherent manner and to identify critical dynamics.

  • 154.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Learning by doing in science linkages2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the contribution of Cohen et al. (2002), it is well established that linkages between firms and public research organisations (PROs) serve purposes of both suggesting new R&D projects and completing existing projects. However, the extant literature has little to say about whether these two types of outcomes are linked or independent effects. This paper examines how a firm‟s ability to absorb useful impulses to new R&D projects from interaction with public research organisations depends on how and how well the firm is able to utilise such linkages in project completion. An analysis of Swedish firms suggests that interaction provides impulses to further R&D primarily when it is successfully linked to achieving objectives in ongoing R&D projects of the firm. However, linkages which are focused on contributions to short-term projects are less likely to generate useful impulses. Moreover, not only are linkages which support both long-term and short-term objectives better than linkages which solely serve short-term objectives; firm-PRO linkages in which short-term objectives play a less accented role are most likely to facilitate valuable impulses to further R&D and innovation.

  • 155.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Strategists and Academics: Essays on interaction in R&D2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis consists of five self-contained essays on interaction in R&D between university researchers and private firms. Together, these essays explore the conditions under which private firms benefit from spillovers from publicly funded and organised research. From the first essay, which sets out to empirically validate the theoretical arguments about the benefits of university-industry interaction for private firms, the thesis follows a line of pursuit that goes back and forth between exploration of the different benefits that firms enjoy from university interaction and the relationships between these benefits and the conditions of interaction. In essay II, a typology of rationales for establishing cooperative relations is presented. A considerable breadth of interaction rationales is documented, but on closer examination, a “core” set of rationales related to innovation in terms of invented or improved products or processes are found to be the main drivers of interaction. Developing this view, three critical issues previously studied within innovation economics are re-considered from the point of view of firm rationales for interaction; public co-funding of university-firm interaction (essay II), the role of geographic proximity for interaction on R&D (essay III) and the organisation of public sector research (public research institutes and universities) in relation to firm level competences (essay IV). In a fifth essay, four ideal types of strategy for localised interaction between R&D subsidiaries and universities are proposed. Through the framework developed in this essay, the rationales for interaction are related to the overall R&D strategy of multinational firms. Concluding the thesis, it is discussed how the research presented herein opens up for improved theorizing around the roles of academic research for industrial innovation.

  • 156.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Vilka roller spelar universitet och högskolor i Stockholm-Mälarregionen?2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 157.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Working with Distant Researchers: – distance and content in university-industry interaction2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of geographic proximity for interaction on R&D, by exploring the special case of university-industry contacts. While numerous studies find that geographic proximity facilitates spillover effects between university and industry by utilising evidence from e.g. patenting and publishing activities, the geographical dimension is largely understudied in studies that report evidence from direct interaction. To explore when geographical proximity matters for university-industry interaction, a series of interviews with R&D managers in Swedish engineering firms is conducted. These interviews suggest that linkages in geographical proximity are more likely to generate impulses to innovation and create significant learning effects at the firm. Similarly, geographic proximate interaction is more likely to successfully contribute to R&D projects with short time to market. For long-term R&D projects, geographic proximity is generally seen as a less critical factor. A survey to 425 R&D managers in Swedish engineering firms provides evidence that supports these hypotheses.

  • 158.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Economics.
    Working with distant researchers: distance and content in university-industry interaction2010In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 1311-1320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of geographic proximity for interaction on R&D by exploring the special case of formalised university-industry interaction in the engineering sector While numerous studies find that geographic proximity facilitates spillover effects between university and industry by utilising evidence from e g patenting and publishing activities the geographical dimension is largely understudied in studies that report evidence from direct interaction A series of interviews with R&D managers suggests that linkages in geographical proximity are more likely than distant linkages to generate impulses to innovation and create significant learning effects at the firm Similarly geographic proximate interaction is more likely to successfully contribute to R&D projects with short time to market For long-term R&D projects geographic proximity is generally seen as a less critical factor A survey to 425 R&D managers in Swedish engineering firms provides evidence that supports these hypotheses.

  • 159.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Baltzopoulos, Apostolos
    Attractors of talent: Universities, regions, and alumni entrepreneurs2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how universities may affect regional entrepreneurship through the localisation decisions of entrepreneurial alumni. Empirically a comprehensive, individual-level dataset from Sweden for the period 2003-2005 is employed. The results suggest that even when controlling for their spatial history, individuals have an increased propensity to set up in the region where they studied. This effect is found to substitute for both urbanisation economies and localisation economies as drivers of regional-level entrepreneurship. Thus, the present analysis provides evidence on how universities affect regional economic development that complements the strong focus on spin-off activities by university researchers in previous studies.

  • 160.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Ekman Rising, Marianne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management. Sevenday.
    Instrumentalisation of academic work: Creeping, myopic and individualising processes and their consequences2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Karlsson, Staffan
    KTH. Swedish Research Council.
    Mapping research on R&D, innovation and productivity: a study of an academic endavour2017In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 26, no 1-2, p. 6-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lougui, Monica
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Mergers and acquisitions in the coming-to-age phase of the Swedish ICT services industry2015In: Small and beautiful: The ICT success of Finland and Sweden / [ed] E. Giertz, A. Rickne & P. Rouvinen, VINNOVA , 2015, p. 147-155Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial consolidation through mergers and acquisitions has been important for development of the IT sector. M&As constituted a force of creative destruction parallel to the mechanism of exit through bankruptcy. Drawing on new empiricalevidence, we argue that M&As also provided new impulses and opportunities for entrepreneurship and stimulated between-firm job mobility of key persons in the sector. We conclude that the intensive M&A-activity of the period contributed to renewal and growth of the ICT software and services industry at large, but did not lead to the creation of new Swedish-based multinationals in the sector.

  • 163.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    How does University Collaboration Contribute to Successful R&D Management?2008In: IUP Journal of Managerial Economics, ISSN 0972-9305, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 7-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue—how a firm’s R&D (Research and Development) interaction with universities affects its innovation performance—remains under-researched. This study explores the relationship between firms’ collaboration with universities and their capabilities for innovation, as perceived by R&D managers. Drawing on a series of interviews with R&D managers of 45 randomly selected firms collaborating with two research universities in Sweden, we explicitly recognize mechanisms through which university relationships contribute to successful R&D management.

  • 164.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    How Does University Collaboration Contribute to Successful R&D Management?: An examination of the Swedish setting2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of through what processes R&D collaboration with universities affects a firms’innovation performance remains under-researched. In particular, university relationships have notbeen fully integrated in the open innovation framework. This study explores the relationshipbetween firms’ collaboration with universities and their capabilities for innovation, as perceivedby R&D managers. Drawing on a series of interviews with R&D managers at 45 randomlyselected firms collaborating with two research universities in Sweden, we explicitly recognisemechanisms through which university relationships contribute to successful R&D management.

  • 165.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Vad säger forskningen om sambanden mellan offentligt finansierad forskning och ekonomisk tillväxt?2008Report (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    What do we know about Firms’ Research Collaborationwith Universities?: New Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an integrated view of knowledge transfer between university and industryby combining two different approaches. First, we report results from an econometric analysis,where recent matching techniques are used on a dataset of 2,071 Swedish firms. Our findingsfrom this analysis strongly suggest that university collaboration has a positive influence on theinnovative activity of large manufacturing firms. In contrast, there appears to be an insignificantassociation between university collaboration and the average service firm’s innovation output.Second, in the pursuit of credible explanations for these findings, we apply a semi-structuredinterview methodology on 39 randomly selected firms collaborating with two researchuniversities in Stockholm, Sweden. We identify three ideas for how collaboration may help firmsbecome more innovative in the literature of innovation studies. In analysis of the interviews, wefind very weak support for the first idea; that firms are able to exploit and market innovationsoriginating in the university. The second idea – that firms improve their internal innovativecapability by collaboration – is found to apply to about half of the investigated firms. Innovationefficiency gains in the form of reduced cost and risk for innovation projects, which is a third ideasuggested by the literature, are also suggested to be a major factor behind firms’ benefits. Finally,we offer tentative explanations for the lack of measurable effects of collaboration for servicefirms.

  • 167.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    McKelvey, Maureen
    How do Organisational and Cognitive Distances Shape Firms’ Interactions with Universities and Public Research Institutes?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how the institutional set-up of public research organisations (PROs) affects how firms are able to utilise direct interaction with publicly employed researchers. We argue that the role that PRO interaction has to play in the firm’s innovation processes depend on the organisational and cognitive distances between the firm and the PRO. In particular, this paper empirically explores how Swedish engineering firms assess the value of R&D partnerships with universities and research institutes. Our theoretical discussion of organizational distance suggests that managers should perceive institute contacts to be more strongly associated with short-term R&D projects than university contacts. This hypothesis cannot be verified. Following from our discussion of cognitive distance, we find that firms with advanced R&D capabilities obtain differential benefits. Their interaction with universities provides impulses for innovation and offers opportunities to learn to a greater extent than contacts with public research institutes. However, firms with less advanced R&D capabilities perceive no significant differences between university and institute interaction. Thus, both organizational and cognitive distance affect firms’ interactions with PROs, and our results have implications for the current push in Europe to reform universities and institutes.

  • 168.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    McKelvey, Maureen
    Universities and Public Research Institutes as Collaboration Partners2015In: Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Global Economy: Knowledge, Technology and Internationalization / [ed] Karlsson, C., Gråsjö, U., Wixe, S., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 44-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how firms assess the value of R & D partnerships with two types of public research organizations: public research institutes (PRIs) and universities. Survey data on Swedish engineering and manufacturing firms suggest that contacts with universities provide firms with impulses to innovation and offer opportunities to learn to a higher extent that contacts with PRIs. Guided by a view of institutes as more oriented towards applied R & D than universities, we also test whether managers perceive institute contacts as contributing more strongly to short-term R & D projects than universities. This hypothesis cannot, however, be verified. Our results suggest that, in terms of perceived effects of R & D managers, PRIs and universities are more similar as collaboration partners than would be expected, given the differing institutional set-ups. Implications for current discussions about the role of PRIs in national research and innovation systems are discussed.

  • 169.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics.
    McKelvey, Maureen
    Sandström, Christian
    Investing in localised relationships with universities: what are the benefits for R&D subsidiaries of multinational enterprises?2009In: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 16, p. 59-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of a long-standing interest in the distribution of knowledge spillovers from university research, there is only limited theoretical understanding of if and when opportunities to interact with a research university constitute a significant force of attraction for globally mobile investment in RD. Based on an empirical investigation of the benefits of interaction with universities, this paper proposes an analytical framework and four ideal types of strategy for localised collaboration between RD subsidiaries and universities. This taxonomy, which largely transcends industry sectors, and the illustrative cases presented in this paper provide insights into the potential scope for localised university-industry interaction from the perspective of multinational enterprises. By connecting the empirical results to the question whether these benefits are significant enough to enhance a region's attractiveness as a location for RD, we are able to develop a better understanding of the alternative strategies for policymakers and university leaders interested in stimulating such linkages.

  • 170. Brown, James
    et al.
    Martinsson, Gustav
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Petersen, Bruce
    Do financing constraints matter for R&D?2012In: European Economic Review, ISSN 0014-2921, E-ISSN 1873-572X, Vol. 56, no 8, p. 1512-1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information problems and lack of collateral value should make R&D more susceptible to financing frictions than other investments, yet existing evidence on whether financing constraints limit R&D is decidedly mixed, particularly in the studies of non-U.S. firms. We study a large sample of European firms and also find little evidence of binding finance constraints when we estimate standard investment-cash flow regressions. However, we find strong evidence that the availability of finance matters for R&D once we directly control for: (i) firm efforts to smooth R&D with cash reserves and (ii) firm use of external equity finance. Our study provides a framework for evaluating financing constraints when firms rely extensively on external finance and endogenously manage buffer stocks of liquidity to keep investment smooth, and our findings show that controlling for this smoothing behavior is critical for uncovering the full effect of financing constraints. Our findings also indicate a major role for external equity in financing R&D, highlighting a causal channel through which stock market development and liberalization can promote economic growth by increasing firm-level innovative activity.

  • 171. Brown, James R.
    et al.
    Martinsson, Gustav
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. Swedish Institute for Financial Research.
    Petersen, Bruce C.
    Law, Stock Markets, and Innovation2013In: Journal of Finance, ISSN 0022-1082, E-ISSN 1540-6261, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 1517-1549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study a broad sample of firms across 32 countries and find that strong shareholder protections and better access to stock market financing lead to substantially higher long-run rates of R&D investment, particularly in small firms, but are unimportant for fixed capital investment. Credit market development has a modest impact on fixed investment but no impact on R&D. These findings connect law and stock markets with innovative activities key to economic growth, and show that legal rules and financial developments affecting the availability of external equity financing are particularly important for risky, intangible investments not easily financed with debt.

  • 172.
    Brown, Nils W. O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Wintzell, Helene
    Mervärden för fastighetsägare vid miljöcertifiering av byggnader – en enkätstudie av fastighetsägare medmiljöcertifierade lokalfastigheter2014Report (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Bäckman, Jon
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design. KTH, Superseded Departments, Industrial Economics and Management.
    Kommer svenska högavkastande företagsobligationer att bli ett vanligare placeringsalternativ i Sverige?2012Student paper other, 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknadsförutsättningarna för en utveckling av den svenska marknaden för högavkastande företagsobligationer är idag bättre än någonsin. För första gången är bankerna motiverade att hjälpa svenska företag med marknadsfinansiering via exempelvis företagsobligationer. Tidigare har denna verksamhet setts som konkurrerande till bankernas egen lånefinansiering. Regulatoriska förändringar, såsom Basel III, ligger till grund för denna nya viktiga förutsättning.

     

    Det händer saker på bred front och mycket sker samtidigt. Nya aktörer och organisationer har bildats, färdiga marknadsplatser för högavkastande företagsobligationer finns nu att tillgå. Fler regulatoriska förändringar har skett och kommer att ske framöver. Syftet med dessa regulatoriska förändringar är bland annat att förbättra transparensen på markanden och öka intresset för ränteplaceringar som alternativ till aktieplaceringar för vissa institutionella investerare.

     

    Rapportens resultat motiverar en utveckling av den svenska marknaden för högavkastande företagsobligationer, med fler emittenter och fler emitterade instrument. Den uteblivna avkastningen och det volatila beteendet av den svenska aktiemarknaden de sista 12 åren, motiverar investerare att se sig om efter alternativa placeringar. När marknadsräntorna är rekordlåga blir företagsobligationer ett mycket intressant alternativ.

     

    Kunskapsnivåerna behöver dock höjas både hos framtida potentiella emittenter och hos investerare. Större resurser hos befintliga intermediärer och kanske fler aktörer kommer att krävas för att klara av det ökade behovet av obligationsfinansiering hos de svenska företagen. Fler emitterade instrument och en bättre transparens på marknaden kommer att ge investerare bättre möjligheter att utvärdera förväntad avkastning och de risker som finns förknippade med detta placeringsalternativ.

     

    Huruvida högavkastande företagsobligationer kommer att bli ett framtida sparalternativ för svenska sparare är lite osäkrare. Fler emissioner av högavkastande företagsobligationer tros komma redan den närmaste tiden, medan det kan ta längre tid för den nya potentiella sparformen att etablera sig bland investerare. En ökning av detta placeringsalternativ hos svenska sparare kommer förmodligen att ske succesivt, men i vilken mån denna sparform på sikt etablerar sig återstår att se.

  • 174.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kostnadseffektivitet i valet av infrastrukturinvesteringar2015Report (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    VTI.
    Infrastrukturens påverkan på ekonomisk tillväxt2013Book (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Odeck, James
    Welde, Morten
    Spelar samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet någon roll för infrastrukturbeslut?: En jämförelse mellan Sverige och Norge2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 15-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige och Norge använder samhällsekonomiska analyser för att prioritera mellan infrastrukturinvesteringar – eller säger sig åtminstone göra det. Vi analyserar nationella infrastrukturplaner från de två länderna för att undersöka om samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet spelar någon roll för vilka investeringar som väljs och om andra faktorer spelar roll. I den norska infrastrukturplanen 2014–23 verkar inte samhällsekonomisk effektivitet ha påverkat regeringens eller trafikverkens beslut överhuvudtaget. I den svenska infrastrukturplanen 2010–21 verkar effektivitet ha haft viss påverkan på trafikverkens investeringsförslag, men en närmast försumbar betydelse för regeringens beslut. I bägge länderna ökar sannolikheten att en investering genomförs om regeringen har högt väljarstöd i regionen.

  • 177.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Technical University of Denmark, Denmark .
    Response time patterns in a stated choice experiment2015In: Journal of Choice Modelling, ISSN 1755-5345, E-ISSN 1755-5345, Vol. 14, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how response times vary between unlabelled binary choice occasions in a stated choice (SC) experiment, with alternatives differing with respect to in-vehicle travel time and travel cost. The pattern of response times is interpreted as an indicator of the cognitive processes employed by the respondents when making their choices. We find clear signs of reference-dependence in response times in the form of a strong gain-loss asymmetry. Moreover, different patterns of response times for travel time and travel cost indicate that these attributes are processed in different ways by respondents. This may be of particular relevance for choice experiments in the transportation field, where the travel time attribute is central.

  • 178.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kristofferesson, Ida
    Sweco.
    The gothenburg congestion charge. Effects, design and politics2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 75, p. 134-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the traffic effects of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013. The system is similar to the system introduced in Stockholm in 2006; both are designed as time-of-day dependent cordon pricing systems. We find that many effects and adaptation strategies are similar to those found in Stockholm, indicating a high transferability between smaller and larger cities with substantial differences in public transport use. However, there are also important differences regarding some of the effects, the accuracy of the model forecasts and public support arising from different topologies, public transport use, congestion levels and main objectives communicated to the public. Finally, the Gothenburg case suggests that whether congestion charges are introduced or not depends on the support among the political parties, and that this is determined primarily by the prevailing institutional setting and power over revenues, and to a lower extent by the public support, and benefits from congestion reduction.

  • 179.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Trafikverkets modeller ger bra underlag: Debatt2016In: Dagens IndustriArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 180.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Flam, Harry
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Kågeson, Per
    Stoppa Ostlänken nu!: Debatt2016In: Dagens IndustriArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 181.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Flam, Harry
    Kågeson, Per
    Jättestor nytta, men ännu större kostnad: DN Debatt2016In: Dagens NyheterArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 182.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Econ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Eliasson, Gunnar
    KTH. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Ind Org, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjoo, Karolin
    Lund Univ, Econ Hist, Lund, Sweden..
    The Swedish industrial support program of the 1970s revisited2018In: Journal of evolutionary economics, ISSN 0936-9937, E-ISSN 1432-1386, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 805-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economy-wide dynamic cost-benefit study of the Swedish industrial subsidy program 1976 through 1984 (Carlsson et al. Res Policy 10(43):336-354 1981; Carlsson J Ind Econ 32(1):9-14, 1983a, b) is revisited in light of later economic development. Since the Swedish Micro to Macro model (Eliasson Am Econ Rev 67(1):277-281 1977a, 2017a) was used for quantification, this article is both (1) a study on the calibration of high dimensional micro-based and nonlinear economic systems models, and (2) a post inquiry into the empirical credibility of the cost-benefit calculations performed. We find that the Micro-based Macro model represents the minimum of detailed resolution necessary for the dynamic cost benefit calculations of the micro interventions in the Swedish economy we study. Even though the increased model complexity meant significant parameter calibration difficulties, a thoroughly researched model specification with exactly defined policy interfaces (with the markets of the economy) should take priority over parameter estimation problems, and always be preferred to estimating the parameters of a wrongly specified model perfectly. The oil price shocks of the 1970s caused radical market disorder in the western economies, bankrupting some 35% of Swedish manufacturing and threatening the Swedish government with massive unemployment. We confirm the earlier results that the government choice of a radical employment rescue policy came at enormous social cost in the form of economic stagnation, and still did not prevent the unemployment of the rest of OECD Europe from hitting Sweden a decade later, and persisting well into the next millennium. According to an alternative simulated policy scenario on the model, had the subsidies been replaced with a general lowering of the payroll tax of the same magnitude and the consequent increase in unemployment taken immediately during 1976-1980, production structures would have been radically and rapidly reorganized, normal employment would have been rapidly restored, and neither the stagnation nor the radical increase in unemployment of the early 1990s would have occurred. In retrospect we see no reason to worry about the empirical credibility of this computed dynamic trade off between Keynesian demand and Schumpeterian supply effects (caused by resource reallocations and endogenous structural change due to the price change), as we did then. We conclude with certainty that this trade-off would not even have been discovered as a possibility had we used a traditional model that did not embody these micro-macro linkages.

  • 183.
    Cechin, Andrei
    et al.
    Wageningen University.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Economia verde: por que o otimismo deve ser aliado ao ceticismo da razão2012In: Estudos Avançados, ISSN 0103-4014, E-ISSN 1806-9592, Vol. 26, no 74, p. 121-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The green economy initiative carries with it the optimistic view that theeconomy can and should be driven by investments in clean activities as opposed to theextraction of natural resources and polluting industries. However there are limits to theemphasis that is often put on efficiency improvements and on the substitution betweensectors of an economy. For the economy to be green, the reduction in environmentalimpact per unit of GDP should be higher than GDP growth over a period. Even thoughrecent evidence shows that some countries aparently passed the peak in the use of materialsand energy, global extraction of natural resources and CO2 emissions has increased.A probable cause is that rich countries have outsourced polluting activities to poorercountries. It is time to bring the skepticism of reason to the debate and seriously discussdegrowth, not of GDP or of opportunities for human development, but of the globalresource extration and carbon emissions.

  • 184. Chen, Taotao
    et al.
    Kokko, Ari
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    FDI and spillovers in China: non-linearity and absorptive capacity2011In: Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, ISSN 1476-5284, E-ISSN 1476-5292, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a fixed effect variance decomposition model we estimate SURmodels to analyse FDI spillovers from contagion and spillovers fromcompetition on local firms in China. While the former type of spillovermainly depends on the degree of foreign presence, the latter kind is relatedto how foreign and local firms interact. The main conclusion is that FDIhas been beneficial for the Chinese economy but that spillovers are notevenly distributed across firms and industries. Spillovers from contagiontend to exhibit an inverse U-shaped pattern with respect to the degree offoreign presence at the industry level, whereas spillovers from competitionare more linear. Industries with high absorptive capacity and/or highefficiency are the ones best equipped to take advantage of spillovers fromforeign-owned firms.

  • 185.
    Clausén, Gabriella
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Do profitable banks with a solid capital base have a higher ratio of capital buffer?: Reviewing the impact of regulation, the previous financial crisis and banks own incentives of having excess capital.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The financial crisis starting in mid-2007 is still affecting us, and with increased regulation banks and institutions are supposed to get more solvent and the industry to become more stable. The Basel Committee is working towards more unified regulation across countries, but the question is how the increased regulation is affecting banks financials. Do profitable banks with a solid capital base have a higher ratio of capital buffer? Looking at banks in 16 OECD countries during the period 1993-2009, with country-level panel-data displayed in two simultaneous equation estimations illustrating how profit and capital buffer has changed during these years, and the relation between them. To get an understanding of how the crisis affected these variables the regressions are also done for a pre-crisis period of 1993-2006. Internal funding variables and other economic control variables are explanatory variables and results show the internal funding variables have a large effect on profit and for capital buffer profit have the largest impact. Results imply that profitable banks with a solid capital base do have a higher ratio of capital buffer. The results coincide with the franchise value theory which is applied in the paper. 

  • 186.
    Costa, Matteo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Harrucksteiner, Alexander
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Malusà, Sandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Oggioni, Niccolò
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Sebastiani, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    van Dam, Benjamin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    A future view on the Nakano district2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project is about reshaping the environment and energy system of Nakano, a residential district inside the city of Tokyo. A qualitative model has been designed, setting the system boundaries and the main features in it. In a second step, ideas about our vision of Nakano in 2040 were developed. The proposed ideas deal with energy, such as the introduction of renewables, but also economics, such as the drop of battery prices, and social well-being, such as the introduction of green areas in the ward.

    In our vision for a more sustainable Nakano, a bicycle highway would be introduced and along this, PV panels would be installed to provide shading and electricity generation at the same time. By 2040, cars could represent a service rather than a property. Currently, most of them are fossil-fuel powered and our idea is that this would drastically change. Furthermore, a sustainable car sharing system using autonomous electric vehicles (EVs) was designed. Urban planning has been treated, dealing with converting low-rise buildings into larger apartment buildings to increase the green areas across theward and enhance the building quality. Building quality and performance have also been a core part in the project due to the poor indoor thermal comfort that currently dominates buildings in Nakano.

    Economic assumptions for 2040 have been made, especially about price trends for the main technologies introduced in the different scenarios. In order to introduce our ideas in the system and see how they would affect it, we developed four different scenarios, each one generated by different assumptions and energy mixes. These are, Business-as-Usual (BAU), in which current trends are generally followed; Renewable and Nuclear (R&N), where renewables and nuclear are set to be the main actors in the energy supply sector; Zero Nuclear Policy (0-Nuclear), in which nuclear energy has been phased out and, as a consequence, renewables are supposed to meet the entire demand together with the grid; and The Ocean and the Sun (O&S), where nuclear energy is still phased out and ocean energy and large scale solar PV are the new energy sources introduced in the energy mix of the ward.

    The whole project was aimed at fulfilling the goals regarding the KPIs. At the end of the report, the results have been shown compared to the original targets. It was proven that reaching every KPI’s target in every scenario was neither technologically nor economically feasible. Anyhow, still a lot of targets were met, and significant improvements compared to today’s conditions of the ward were achieved. Finally, since time is finite, a lot of future work remains that could be a veryinteresting addition to this study about a sustainable future for Nakano.

  • 187. Cotte Poveda, Alexander
    et al.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA): An application for the industry2013In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 1315-1321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the management in Colombian industrial sectors using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). This method conceptualizes cases as combinations of attributes and use Boolean algebra to derive simplified expressions of combinations that lead to a specific outcome. In this analysis, we show the value of this method for studying the management in the industrial from different approaches.

  • 188. Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Hennlock, Magnus
    Neij, Lena
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Engström, Gustav
    Berg, Lars
    Turesson, Anders
    Möjligheter och begränsningar med samhällsekonomiska analyser.2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 189.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Do University Units Differ in the Efficiency of Resource Utilization?: – a case study of the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many efficiency studies have been conducted to look at the relative performance of universities. Judgments were made on the overall performance of universities compared to the best performing ones in the sample. Meanwhile the possibility of efficiency variation within the same university was not taken into account. The focus of this paper is on the measurement of technical efficiency within the units of the same university. It is interesting to see if the average efficiency score of university can reflect the performance of various units operating within the same technical university. The analysis is conducted for the Royal Institute of Technology of Sweden (KTH), using the data from the Research Assessment Exercise conducted by KTH in 2008. *It provides a unique opportunity of quantifying different teaching and research outputs while controlling for quality. Technical efficiency scores are estimated using non-parametric production frontier methodologies. Different model specifications are tested.

  • 190.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Do University Units Differ in the Efficiency of Resource Utilization?: a case study of the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), StockholmIn: Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, ISSN 2050-7003, E-ISSN 1758-1184, , p. 29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of universities is attracting increased interest, with most studies comparing the performance between different universities. However, the within-university variation is largely overlooked in the literature. Using data envelopment analysis this paper identifies heterogeneity in the performance of 47 units of a leading Swedish university (the Royal Institute of Technology) in terms of resource utilization. The findings suggest the following:

    First, three quarters of the units exhibit similar high performance. Second, the units are more efficient in using resources for research than for teaching. Third, efficiency in research is highly correlated with efficiency in teaching, implying a complementary relationship.

  • 191.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Essays on University Efficiency Analysis and Entrepreneurship among University Graduates2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of five papers: three deal with the efficiency of higher education institutions (HEI) and two with entrepreneurship among university graduates. The efficiency of HEIs is analyzed at three different levels: units of one university, universities of one country and universities of a group of European countries.

    Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) the first paper compares technical efficiency among university units at the Royal Institute of Technology (Stockholm). An interesting result is that there seems to be a complementary relationship between efficiency of resource utilization in teaching and in research.

    The second paper applies stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to estimate the cost efficiency of Swedish higher education institutions. According to the estimates, half of the Swedish HEIs have an above average efficiency of 85 percent. The efficiency differences are mainly influenced by the source of funding, HEI size, the number of students per faculty as well as faculty and student compositions.

    The third paper analyses the cost efficiency of universities among a set of public higher education institutions from six European countries by means of stochastic frontier techniques. The results suggest small variation in the mean economic efficiency of higher education institutions from UK, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Switzerland, implying that the efficiency differences are not explained by country effects. Instead the variations in efficiency are related to organizational differences.

    The two essays on entrepreneurship among university graduates are based on a unique dataset encompassing individual level data on all employees registered in the Swedish labor market. The first paper explores the differences in entrepreneurial choice of graduates from different universities. The main finding from this paper is that the entrepreneurial choice of graduates from internationally ranked Swedish universities systematically differs from others with the difference varying by the area of education.

    The second paper on entrepreneurship aims at explaining the high interest in entrepreneurship among arts graduates and finds that the need for self-expression is among the main motivations for their high interest in entrepreneurship. 

  • 192.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    The Economic Efficiency of Swedish Higher Education InstitutionsIn: Journal of Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, , p. 23Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using parametric frontier techniques, this paper investigates the economic efficiency of Swedish higher education institutions (HEIs) with an attempt to determine the factors causing efficiency differences. The analysis is conducted for 30 HEIs over the time period 2001-2005. A set of HEI organizational factors as well as faculty and student compositions are examined as potential determinants of economic efficiency.

    According to the estimates, half of the Swedish HEIs have above average efficiency of 85 percent. The economic efficiency is positively affected by HEI size, the number of students per faculty and a high proportion of young professors in the faculty. Another interesting finding is that the source of financing matters for efficient use of resources; in particular, HEIs with a higher level of government support are found to be less efficient.

  • 193.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    The Economic Efficiency of Swedish Higher Education Institutions2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates the economic efficiency of higher education institutions (HEI) in Sweden to determine the factors that cause efficiency differences. Stochastic frontier analysis is utilized to estimate the economic efficiency of 30 HEI using both pooled and panel data approaches. HEI specific factors such as size, load, staff and student characteristics as well as government allocations are suggested to be the potential determinants of economic efficiency.The results suggest that HEI are not identical in their economic efficiency; though the average efficiency is high, they do perform differently. This variation is explained by the joint influence of HEI specific factors; the quality of labor is found to be highly significant for the cost efficiency of Swedish HEI.

  • 194.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Björn, Hårsman
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Entrepreneurship and Arts Related EducationIn: Journal of Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, , p. 32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to improve understanding of the observed high level of entrepreneurship among arts graduates. Specifically, the entrepreneurship rates of university graduates in the arts, architecture and engineering are compared. The occupational choice model applied has three options: wage employment, owning and a combination of the two.

    The utility function governing the choice includes income as well as an indicator of the disutility resulting from differences between the skills required and the skills supplied. The model implies that an alternative providing a better match might be preferred to one providing a higher income. Using Swedish data, this paper shows that the possibility of using artistic skills has stronger impact on the choice of occupation than income considerations.

  • 195.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Deiaco, Enrico
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    McKelvey, Maureen
    Institute for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, University of Gothenburg.
    How and why does cost efficiency of universities differ across European countries?: An explorative attempt using new micro data2012In: The European Higher Education Landscape: Diversity and Performance / [ed] Banaccorsi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the cost efficiency of universities in a set of public higher education institutions (HEI) from six European countries by means of stochastic frontier techniques. Using a new cross-national set of university input and output variables as well as series of university-related exogenous variables, it explores cross-country variation in cost efficiency and the impact of institutional factors on efficiency variation.

    The results suggest small variations in the mean economic efficiency of higher education institutions from the UK, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Switzerland, implying that efficiency differences in HEIs of these countries are not explained by country effects. Austrian HEIs are an exception in this respect. Furthermore, according to our results big universities and those with a high proportion of teaching and research personnel are more efficient, everything else equal.

  • 196.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Entrepreneurship among university graduates2010In: 50th Anniversary of European Congress of the Regional Science Association Jönköping, Sweden, 19-23 August, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to shed light upon entrepreneurship among university graduates. We are interested in differences across educational areas and among universities regarding entrepreneurial selection and performance. The paper differs from similar studies in two respects. In order to broaden the common definitions used to measure entrepreneurship we suggest a typology making it possible to differentiate between various types of entrepreneurs. Secondly, we differentiate between both level of education, area of education and university of graduation. In order to capture some of the uncertainties related to the choice among our entrepreneurial categories we use individual time series income data.Using cross-section data on Swedish graduates we examine the impact of university on entrepreneurial choice and performance of graduates from 44 Swedish universities. A separate analysis is done for graduates of 5 education fields to control for heterogeneity of education. The results suggest that entrepreneurial preferences differ by education fields, that graduates of some universities are more entrepreneurial than others. We also find that the preferences for different entrepreneurial occupations differ across universities. As to the university effect on graduates’ earnings we find significant university effect for only a small group of universities, which differ by field of education and entrepreneurial category.

  • 197.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    University choice and entrepreneurship2014In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 42p. 729-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at shedding light upon the impact of universities on graduates' entrepreneurial choice. Previous studies analyze the relationship between the choice of university and labor market success of graduates in terms of their subsequent wages, employability or over-education, whereas the possible link between the choice of university and entrepreneurial choice is neglected. Using 1998-2008 data on graduates from Swedish higher education institutions, the paper finds significant variation in the impact of universities on the career choice of graduates. The results suggest that graduates with degrees in the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine and teacher education from more prestigious universities systematically differ from others in their entrepreneurial choice. At the same time, no statistically significant difference is found for technical science graduates.

  • 198. Dagsvik, John K.
    et al.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301).
    Compensating variation and Hicksian choice probabilities in random utility models that are nonlinear in income2005In: The Review of Economic Studies, ISSN 0034-6527, E-ISSN 1467-937X, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 57-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss Hicksian demand and compensating variation in the context of discrete choice. We first derive Hicksian choice probabilities and the distribution of the (random) expenditure function in the general case when the utilities are nonlinear in income. We subsequently derive exact and simple formulae for the expenditure and choice probabilities under price (policy) changes conditional on the initial utility level. This is of particular interest for welfare measurement because it enables the researcher to compute the distribution of compensating variation in a simple way. We also derive formulae for the joint distribution of expenditure, the choice before and after a policy change has been introduced.

  • 199. Dahlhammar, Tobias
    et al.
    Brown, Terrence
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Voices of entrepreneurship and small business immigrant enterprises in kista, stockholm2005In: Innovation and entrepreneurship in functional regions / [ed] Iréne Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 200.
    Dall Schmidt, Torben
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Kangasharju, Aki
    VATT, Helsinki.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Future labour supply in regions of the Nordic countries:  A method to forecast and test spatial patterns of future labour supply2011Conference paper (Other academic)
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