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  • 151.
    El Gaidi, Khalid
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Matematik - ingen åskådarsport: Matematiker på KTH reflekterar över lärande och undervisning2017Book (Other academic)
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  • 152.
    Erdeniz, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy. Försvarshögskolan.
    Military Operations Planning and Methodology: Thoughts on military problem-solving2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis discusses military operations planning and methodology by reviewing two of NATO’s planning documents, i.e. the ‘Allied Joint Doctrine for Operational-Level Planning’ (AJP 5) and the ‘Comprehensive Operations Planning Directive’ (COPD), and defends the following claim.

    Parts of the description of NATO’s Operational-Level Planning Process (OLPP), as described in the AJP 5 and the COPD, is methodologically inconsistent (contradictory), due to epistemic and practical implications of methodology.

    As such, the thesis discusses three topics: approaches to Operational Art, planning heuristics and implications of methodology. The thesis also intertwines military operations planning, methodology and military problem-solving.

    This thesis consists of two published papers and an introduction. The introduction explains and further discusses operations planning as well as terms and concepts stated within the two papers.

    Paper I focuses on the AJP 5 and discusses the methodological distinction between two approaches within Operational Art, denoted the ‘Design’ and the ‘Systemic’ approach. The distinction between these approaches is vague and paper I states one epistemic and one practical implication of methodology.

    Paper II focuses on the COPD and discusses two specific planning heuristics. The first relates to the Systemic approach and the second heuristic relates to the third approach denoted the ‘Causalist’ approach within Operational Art. A methodological contradiction exists between these specific heuristics and paper II states one epistemic and three practical implications of methodology.

    Briefly, this thesis implies that parts of NATO’s description of the OLPP suffers from a methodological contradiction. Hence, a suggestion is to revise parts of the AJP 5 and the COPD. The thesis also suggest the development of a “NATO handbook of methodology” to better explain methodological implications on military operations planning and the “how to” of military problem-solving.

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  • 153.
    Erdeniz, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy. Department of War Studies, SEDU Swedish Defence University.
    Operations planning revisited: theoretical and practical implications of methodology2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 248-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parts of NATO’s contemporary planning framework called the comprehensive operations planning directive (COPD), and parts of the operation-level planning process should be revised since they suffer from methodological inconsistency. This claim is defended by discussing contradicting methodological properties and heuristics applied when framing and managing a military problem in accordance with the COPD. The methodological inconsistency within the COPD; in other words, simultaneously applying contradictory methodological properties, implies one theoretical and three practical implications. The theoretical implication is summarised in a meta-theoretical framework and explained by discussing five methodological properties: non-linearity, emergence, independently changeable generalisations, invariance and boundaries. The three practical implications of methodology imply that methodology is guiding: the problem-frame, conceptual development and action. To improve military planners’ understanding and management of these four identified implications, NATO is recommended to develop a “handbook of methodology.” The purpose of such a handbook should be to emphasise the utility of methodology when planning military operations.

  • 154. Eriksson, D.
    et al.
    Custers, R.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Purnhagen, K.
    Qaim, M.
    Romeis, J.
    Schiemann, J.
    Schleissing, S.
    Tosun, J.
    Visser, R. G. F.
    Options to Reform the European Union Legislation on GMOs: Post-authorization and Beyond2020In: Trends in Biotechnology, ISSN 0167-7799, E-ISSN 1879-3096, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 465-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss options to reform the EU genetically modified organism (GMO) regulatory framework, make risk assessment and decision-making more consistent with scientific principles, and lay the groundwork for international coherence. In this third of three articles, we focus on labeling and coexistence as well as discuss the political reality and potential ways forward.

  • 155.
    Eriksson, Dennis
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, S-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Custers, Rene
    Vlaams Inst Biotechnol, BE-9052 Ghent, Belgium..
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Purnhagen, Kai
    Wageningen Univ, Dept Social Sci, Law Grp, NL-6706 KN Wageningen, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Law Sch, Rotterdam Inst Law & Econ, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Qaim, Matin
    Univ Goettingen, Dept Agr Econ & Rural Dev, D-37073 Gottingen, Germany..
    Romeis, Joerg
    Agroscope, Res Div Agroecol & Environm, Reckenholzstr 191, CH-8046 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Schiemann, Joachim
    JKI, Inst Biosafety Plant Biotechnol, D-06484 Quedlinburg, Germany..
    Schleissing, Stephan
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Inst Technol Theol Nat Sci, D-80539 Munich, Germany..
    Tosun, Jale
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Polit Sci, D-69115 Heidelberg, Germany.;Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg Ctr Environm, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Visser, Richard G. F.
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Plant Breeding, NL-6700 AJ Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Options to Reform the European Union Legislation on GMOs: Scope and Definitions2020In: Trends in Biotechnology, ISSN 0167-7799, E-ISSN 1879-3096, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 231-234Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss options to reform the EU genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulatory framework, make risk assessment and decision-making more consistent with scientific principles, and lay the groundwork for international coherence. The first in a threepart series, this article focuses on reform options related to the scope of the legislation and the GMO definition.

  • 156.
    Eriksson, Dennis
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, S-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Custers, Rene
    VIB, Rijvisschestr 120, BE-9052 Ghent, Belgium..
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Crop Prod Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Purnhagen, Kai
    Wageningen Univ, Dept Social Sci, Law Grp, Hollandseweg 1, NL-6706 KN Wageningen, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Rotterdam Inst Law & Econ, Sch Law, Burg Oudlaan 50, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Qaim, Matin
    Univ Goettingen, Dept Agr Econ & Rural Dev, D-37073 Gottingen, Germany..
    Romeis, Jorg
    Agroscope, Res Div Agroecol & Environm, Reckenholzstr 191, CH-8046 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Schiemann, Joachim
    JKI, Inst Biosafety Plant Biotechnol, D-06484 Quedlinburg, Germany..
    Schleissing, Stephan
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Inst Technol Theol Nat Sci, D-80539 Munich, Germany..
    Tosun, Jale
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Polit Sci, Bergheimer Str 58, D-69115 Heidelberg, Germany.;Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg Ctr Environm, Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Visser, Richard G. F.
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Plant Breeding, POB 386, NL-6700 AJ Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Options to Reform the European Union Legislation on GMOs: Risk Governance2020In: Trends in Biotechnology, ISSN 0167-7799, E-ISSN 1879-3096, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 349-351Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we discuss options to reform the EU genetically modified organism (GMO) regulatory framework, to make risk assessment and decision-making more consistent with scientific principles, and to lay the groundwork for international coherence. We discussed the scope and definitions in a previous article and, thus, here we focus on the procedures for risk assessment and risk management.

  • 157. Eriksson, J.
    et al.
    Gilek, M.Rudén, ChristinaKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Regulating Chemical Risks: European and Global Challenges2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This important contribution to the scientific understanding of chemical risk regulation offers a coherent, comprehensive and updated multidisciplinary analysis, written by leading experts in toxicology, ecotoxicology, risk analysis, media and communication, law, and political science. The text focuses in particular on the new European REACH regime and its nature, causes and consequences. It examines the regime in the context of the interplay between science and policy, the role of the media, human health, and the environment. Other regulatory systems at both domestic and international levels are also studied, including the UNs Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for chemical labelling, as well as developments in the U.S. In addition, readers will find analyses of a number of new and still largely uncharted regulatory systems, along with in-depth assessments of their complexity and transnational nature.

  • 158. Erman, E.
    et al.
    Möller, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Practice-dependence and epistemic uncertainty2017In: Journal of Global Ethics, ISSN 1744-9626, E-ISSN 1744-9634, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 187-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shared presumption among practice-dependent theorists is that a principle of justice is dependent on the function or aim of the practice to which it is supposed to be applied. In recent contributions to this debate, the condition of epistemic uncertainty plays a significant role for motivating and justifying a practice-dependent view. This paper analyses the role of epistemic uncertainty in justifying a practice-dependent approach. We see two kinds of epistemic uncertainty allegedly playing this justificatory role. What we call ‘normative epistemic uncertainty’ emerges from dealing with the problem of value uncertainty in justifying applied principles when our higher-level principles are open-textured, that is, when their content is too vague or unclear to generate determinate prescriptions. What we call ‘descriptive epistemic uncertainty’ emerges from dealing with uncertainty about empirical facts, such as the problem of moral assurance, that is, the problem that the requirements of justice cannot go beyond arrangements that we can know with reasonable confidence that we can jointly establish and maintain. In both cases, practice-dependent theorists conclude that the condition of epistemic uncertainty justifies a practice-dependent approach, which puts certain restrictions on theorizing regulative principles and has wide-ranging practical implications for the scope of justice. Our claim in this paper is that neither kind of epistemic uncertainty justifies a practice-dependent approach.

  • 159. Erman, E.
    et al.
    Möller, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Practices and principles: On the methodological turn in political theory2015In: Philosophy Compass, E-ISSN 1747-9991, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 533-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of what role social and political practices should play in the justification of normative principles has received renewed attention in post-millennium political philosophy. Several current debates express dissatisfaction with the methodology adopted in mainstream political theory, taking the form of a criticism of so-called 'ideal theory' from 'non-ideal' theory, of 'practice-independent' theory from 'practice-dependent' theory, and of 'political moralism' from 'political realism'. While the problem of action-guidance lies at the heart of these concerns, the critics also share a number of methodological assumptions. Above all, their methodology is practice-dependent in the sense that an existing (social, political, or institutional) practice is assumed to put substantial limitations on the appropriate normative principles for regulating it. In other words, we cannot formulate and justify an appropriate principle without first understanding the practice (or its point and purpose) this principle is supposed to govern. The aim of this paper is to map out and analyze the common denominators of these debates with regard to methodological commitments. We will investigate how this practice-dependent method may be understood and motivated. In particular, we point to challenges that must be met in order for the position to remain both distinct and attractive.

  • 160. Erman, Eva
    et al.
    Möller, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Debate: Brandom and Political Philosophy2014In: The Journal of Political Philosophy, ISSN 0963-8016, E-ISSN 1467-9760, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 486-498Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 161.
    Erman, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Polit Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Möller, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    How practices do not matter2019In: Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, ISSN 1369-8230, E-ISSN 1743-8772, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 103-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In his most recent work, Sangiovanni has retreated from his stronger claims about practice-dependence. Instead of claiming that principles of justice must be practice-dependent, he now expresses his claim in a modal form, arguing that there are several ways in which practices may matter. While merely mapping out the logical space of possibilities seems to look like a modest ambition, the conditions for when practices do matter according to Sangiovanni's analysis are easily met in actuality. Consequently, if he is right, the practice-dependent approach covers a significant number of political theories. Sangiovanni's main claim is that higher-level principles with an open texture, which include most higher-level principles in political philosophy, justify a practice-dependent method in the form of a mode of application called 'mediated deduction,' according to which a thoroughgoing investigation is made of the nature of the target practice. Our task in this paper is to reject this claim. This is done in two steps. First, we question Sangiovanni's distinction between instrumental application and mediated deduction, arguing that it remains unclear whether it marks out two sufficiently distinct 'modes' to do any theoretical work. Second, we argue that the practice-dependent method is not required even if two such modes are established.

  • 162. Erman, Eva
    et al.
    Möller, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Political legitimacy and the unreliability of language2016In: Public Reason, ISSN 2065-7285, E-ISSN 2065-8958, Vol. 8, no 1-2, p. 81-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many political theorists in current debates have argued that pragmatist theories of mind and language place certain constraints on our normative political theories. In a couple of papers, we have accused these pragmatically influenced political theorists of misapplication of otherwise perfectly valid ideas. In a recent paper, one of the targets of our critique, Thomas Fossen, has retorted that we have misrepresented the role that a pragmatist theory of language plays in these accounts. In this paper, we claim that Fossen’s attempt to chisel out a role for his account in normative political theory rehearses the same problematic view of the utility of theories of language as his previous iterations. We argue that Fossen’s account is still guilty of the fallacious claim that a pragmatist theory of language (in his case Robert Brandom’s account) has implications for the form and justification of theories of political legitimacy. We specifically focus on three flaws with his current reply: the idea that criteria and conditions are problematic on a pragmatist outlook, the idea that a pragmatist linguistic account applied to a particular political context will have a distinct political-theoretical payoff, and the idea that a fundamental linguistic level of analysis supplies normative guidance for theorizing political legitimacy.

  • 163.
    Erman, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Möller, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Pragmatism and epistemic democracy2019In: The Routledge Handbook of Social Epistemology, Taylor and Francis , 2019, p. 367-376Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 164. Erman, Eva
    et al.
    Möller, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    What distinguishes the practice-dependent approach to justice?2016In: Philosophy & Social Criticism, ISSN 0191-4537, E-ISSN 1461-734X, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 3-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice-dependent approach to justice has received a lot of attention in post-millennium political philosophy. It has been developed in different directions and its normative implications have been criticized, but little attention has been directed to the very distinction between practice-dependence and practice-independence and the question of what theoretically differentiates a practice-dependent account from mainstream practice-independent accounts. The core premises of the practice-dependent approach, proponents argue, are meta-normative and methodological. A key feature is the presumption that a concept of justice is dependent on the function or aim of the social practices to which it is supposed to be applied. Closely related to this meta-normative thesis is an interpretive methodology for deriving principles of justice from facts about existing practices, in particular regarding their point and purpose. These two premises, practice-dependent theorists claim, differentiate their account since (1) they are not accepted by practice-independent accounts and (2) they justify different principles of justice than practice-independent accounts. Our aim in this article is to refute both (1) and (2), demonstrating that practice-independent accounts may indeed accept the meta-normative and methodological premises of the practice-dependent accounts, and that we are given no theoretical reason to think that practice-dependent accounts justify other principles of justice for a practice than do practice-independent accounts. In other words, practice-dependent theorists have not substantiated their claim that practice-dependence is theoretically differentiated from mainstream accounts. When practice-dependent proponents argue for other principles of justice than mainstream theorists, it will be for the usual reason in normative theory: their first-order normative arguments differ.

  • 165. Erman, Eva
    et al.
    Möller, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    WHY POLITICAL REALISTS SHOULD NOT BE AFRAID OF MORAL VALUES2015In: Journal of Philosophical Research (JPR), ISSN 1053-8364, E-ISSN 2153-7984, Vol. 40, p. 459-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous article, we unpacked the so-called "ethics first premise"-the idea that ethics is "prior" to politics when theorizing political legitimacy-that is denied by political realists. We defended a "justificatory" reading of this premise, according to which political justification is irreducibly moral in the sense that moral values are among the values that ground political legitimacy. We called this the "necessity thesis." In this paper we respond to two challenges that Robert Jubb and Enzo Rossi raise against our proposal. Their first claim is that our argument for the necessity thesis is question begging, since we assume rather than show that freedom and equality are moral values. The second claim is that Bernard Williams's Basic Legitimacy Demand demonstrates the possibility of giving political legitimacy a non-moral foundation, since it allows for a distinction to be made between politics and sheer domination. We refute both claims.

  • 166.
    Espinoza, Nicolas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Incomparable risks, values and preferences2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. Consistent valuation and societal prioritization of risks presupposes comparability among risks, that is, in order to rank risks in order of severity, and allocate risk preventative resources accordingly, we must be able to determine whether one risk is better or worse than another, and by how much. It is often claimed, however, that some risks are not amenable to this kind of comparison because they are incommensurable, which roughly means that they are not comparable with respect to a common cardinal measure (e.g. money). The aim of this thesis is to i) consider what it means to say that two risks are incommensurable, ii) explore if incomparability - comparison failure with respect to a common ordinal scale - ever occurs, and how to model it if it does.

    Essay I is a critical examination of the most prominent argument for incomparability, the so-called small improvement argument (SIA). It is argued that the argument fails because it conflates incomparability and a kind of evaluative indeterminacy.

    Essay II outlines so-called margin of error principles for comparative value judgements. They are based on the idea that if a proposition concerning the value relation between two value-bearing options is true, but there are sufficiently similar cases in which it is false, it is not available to be known. The usefulness of these principles is demonstrated by utilizing them in an epistemological case against SIA.

    Essay III presents a novel account of incomplete preference orderings which acknowledges that incomparability can vary in degrees. This is achieved by means of a probabilistic analysis of preferences.

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  • 167.
    Espinoza, Nicolas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Margins of error in value comparisons: a critique of the small improvement argument2007In: Meeting Abstracts;  81st Annual Meeting April 3 - 8, 2007, San Francisco  , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper margin of error principles for comparative value judgements are outlined. They are based on the idea that if a proposition concerning the value relation between two value bearing options is true, but there are sufficiently similar cases in which it is false, it is not available to be known. To demonstrate the usefulness of the principles, they are applied in building an epistemological case against the so-called small-improvement argument (SIA), which is often considered the strongest case for value incomparability. If we acknowledge margins for error in comparative value judgement, it follows that some of the crucial steps in SIA are epistemically unwarranted.

  • 168. Espinoza, Nicolas
    The small improvement argument2008In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 127-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     It is commonly assumed that moral deliberation requires that the alternatives available in a choice situation are evaluatively comparable. This comparability assumption is threatened by claims of incomparability, which is often established by means of the small improvement argument (SIA). In this paper I argue that SIA does not establish incomparability in a stricter sense. The reason is that it fails to distinguish incomparability from a kind of evaluative indeterminacy which may arise due to the vagueness of the evaluative comparatives 'better than,' 'worse than,' and 'equally as good as'.

  • 169.
    Espinoza, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Peterson, M.
    Human choice behaviour: a probabilistic analysis of incomparabilityArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 170. Evenéus, P
    et al.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    In-depth investigation based on a systemic MTO perspective in Vattenfall hydro plants2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Falk, Thomas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Less is more?: results from a case study onimproving the safety review process at a nuclearpower plantIn: International Journal of Nuclear Knowledge Management, ISSN 1479-540X, E-ISSN 1479-5418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on technical safety reviews of plant modifications at a Swedish nuclearpower plant. The primary aims of the presented study include identifying the main areas forimprovement of the existing technical safety review process, developing a new process, andevaluating whether any improvements were accomplished. It was concluded that grading ofthe primary safety review reports facilitates improved experience feedback by providingeasier access to good examples for reviewers. However, the experience feedback process is aspecific area in which the revised safety review process has not been as successful as desired.Improvements identified by implementing the revised process are primarily linked to theindependent safety review function, including better planning and means for resourceallocation as well as clearer and more unambiguous supporting instructions. Introduction offormalized independent review meetings provides increased exchange of knowledge andstrengthened the independent safety review function in the organisation.

  • 172.
    Falk, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wahlström, B.
    Nord Safety Management Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Challenges in performing technical safety reviews of modifications: A case study2012In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1558-1568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study, is to identify strengths and weaknesses of the technical safety review process at a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). In this context, the function of safety reviews are understood as expert judgements on proposals for design modifications. 1" Design modifications" are here understood as alterations of an existing design. 1 and redesign of technical systems (i.e. commercial nuclear reactors), supported by formalised safety review processes. The chosen methodology is using two complementary methods: interviews of personnel performing safety reviews, and analysis of safety review reports from 2005 to 2009.The study shows that personal integrity is a trademark of the review staff and there are sufficient support systems to ensure high quality. The partition between primary and independent review is positive, having different focus and staff with different skills and perspectives making the reviews, which implies supplementary roles. The process contributes to " getting the right things done the right way" . The study also shows that though efficient communication, feedback, processes for continuous improvement, and " learning organizations" are well known success factors in academia, it is not that simple to implement and accomplish in real life.It is argued that future applications of safety review processes should focus more on communicating and clarifying the process and its adherent requirements, and improve the feedback system within the process.

  • 173. Ferme, Eduardo
    et al.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    AGM 25 Years: Twenty-Five Years of Research in Belief Change2011In: Journal of Philosophical Logic, ISSN 0022-3611, E-ISSN 1573-0433, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 295-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1985 paper by Carlos Alchourrn (1931-1996), Peter Gardenfors, and David Makinson (AGM), "On the Logic of Theory Change: Partial Meet Contraction and Revision Functions" was the starting-point of a large and rapidly growing literature that employs formal models in the investigation of changes in belief states and databases. In this review, the first twenty-five years of this development are summarized. The topics covered include equivalent characterizations of AGM operations, extended representations of the belief states, change operators not included in the original framework, iterated change, applications of the model, its connections with other formal frameworks, computatibility of AGM operations, and criticism of the model.

  • 174. Ferme, Eduardo
    et al.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Editorial Introduction-25 Years of AGM Theory2011In: Journal of Philosophical Logic, ISSN 0022-3611, E-ISSN 1573-0433, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 113-114Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Fermé, Eduardo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    On the Logic of Theory Change: Extending the AGM Model2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists in six articles and a comprehensive summary.

    • The pourpose of the summary is to introduce the AGM theory of belief change and to exemplify the diversity and significance of the research that has been inspired by the AGM article in the last 25 years. The research areas associated with AGM was divided in three parts: criticisms, where we discussed some of the more common criticisms of AGM. Extensions where the most common extensions and variations of AGM are presented and applications where we provided an overview of applications and connections with other areas of research.

    • Article I elaborates on the connection between partial meet contractions [AGM85] and kernel contractions [Han94a] in belief change theory. Also both functions are equivalent in belief sets, there are notequivalent in belief bases. A way to define incision functions (used in kernel contractions) from selection functions (used in partial meet contractions) and vice versa is presented. It is explained under which conditions there are exact correspondences between selection and incision functions so that the same contraction operations can be obtained by using either of them.

    • Article II proposes an axiomatic characterization for ensconcement-based contraction functions, belief base functions proposed byWilliams and relates this function with other kinds of base contraction functions.

    • Article III adapts the Fermé and Hansson model of Shielded Contraction [FH01] as well as Hansson et all Credibility-Limited Revision [HFCF01] for belief bases, to join two of the many variations of the AGM model [AGM85], i.e. those in which knowledge is represented through belief bases instead of logic theories, and those in which the object of the epistemic change does not get the priority over the existing information as it is the case in the AGM model.

    • Article IV introduces revision by comparison a refined method for changing beliefs by specifying constraints on the relative plausibility of propositions. Like the earlier belief revision models, the method proposed is a qualitative one, in the sense that no numbers are needed in order to specify the posterior plausibility of the new information. The method uses reference beliefs in order to determine the degree of entrenchment of the newly accepted piece of information. Two kinds of semantics for this idea are proposed and a logical characterization of the new model is given.

    • Article V focuses on the extension of AGM that allows change for a belief base by a set of sentences instead of a single sentence. In [FH94], Fuhrmann and Hansson presented an axiomatic for Multiple Contraction and a construction based on the AGM Partial Meet Contraction. This essay proposes for their model another way to construct functions: Multiple Kernel Contraction, that is a modification of Kernel Contraction,proposed by Hansson [Han94a] to construct classical AGM contractions and belief base contractions.

    • Article VI relates AGM model with the DFT model proposed by Carlos Alchourrón [Alc93]. Alchourrón devoted his last years to the analysis of the notion of defeasible conditionalization. His definition of the defeasible conditional is given in terms of strict implication operator and a modal operator f which is interpreted as a revision function at the language level. This essay points out that this underlying revision function is more general than AGM revision. In addition, a complete characterization of that more general kind of revision that permits to unify models of revision given by other authors is given.

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  • 176.
    Fischer, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Technology in Health Care.
    A Socio-Material Study of User Involvement: Interrogating the practices of technology development for older people in a digitalised world2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Population ageing and increased digitalization each constitute an ongoing and profound transformation within contemporary modes of living, as growing advances in technological development mix and intermingle with the lived realities of older people as the final recipients. It is against the backdrop of this interplay that user involvement has enjoyed ever-rising advocacy to an almost normative degree. Beyond articulating methodological principles, however, the literature has remained surprisingly vague as to the practical implementation of the approach. Less appears to be known, both empirically and conceptually, about how design and user involvement are done in practice and how they would matter to bring about intentional or unintentional effects. 

    To engage with these developments, this thesis aims at taking the practices of user involvement and design to the centre of its inquiry by adopting a perspective from Science and Technology Studies (STS). Specifically, the thesis seeks to both build on and contribute to the established body of STS on the connection between technology design and older users and ask: What is there to learn about user involvement as a method, if we focus on the practices of doing user involvement? To answer this question, the thesis studies four different aspects of the practices of user involvement and design. In particular, the thesis reviews the literature on how user involvement mattered in previous empirical projects that include older people (Paper I), it examines how different configurations of participation matter in design workshops (Paper II), it scrutinizes the achievement of user involvement in corporate practices (Paper III) and it traces the circumstantial performances of such practices (Paper IV). The largest empirical piece comes from a two-year ethnographic study of a small- to medium-sized enterprise, the material from which informed Paper III and Paper IV.

    The findings highlight how user involvement in practice is both contingent and transformative, as it selectively enrols different participants and performs multiple realities. In practice, user involvement appears to be dependent on a set of underlying premises and socio-material conditions and thus is always a dynamic and momentary achievement. Furthermore, the thesis shows how the practices of user involvement themselves may bring into existence different realities, articulating and materializing particular versions of objects and images of ageing. Accordingly, the thesis contributes theoretically by illuminating the underlying socio-material facets of user involvement, and by emphasizing ageing as a particular object/image of design. Specifically, the appended papers encompass a conceptual framework, as well as three new concepts: design multiple, shifting interstices and viscous image landscape, in order to theorize the underlying conditions for user involvement, its relationship with design and its entanglement with ageing. Practically, the thesis enunciates three main implications regarding questions of goodness, politics and ethics.

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  • 177.
    Forstorp, Per-Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI.
    Who's Colonizing Who?: The Knowledge Society Thesis and the Global Challenges in Higher Education2008In: Studies in Philosophy and Education, ISSN 0039-3746, E-ISSN 1573-191X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 227-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two notions of "globalization'' and "knowledge society'' are often assumed to be relatively neutral descriptions of contemporary social and cultural developments, although they are embedded in discourses on power and domination. In this paper the argument is made that both these notions can be understood as expressions of an ideology of neo-colonialism and that they assume an ethnocentric or Eurocentric bias rather than being neutral descriptions of the "natural'' unfolding of social and political changes. The thesis of the "knowledge society'', in particular, needs to be demythologized as a vehicle for the rebirth of nations and regions in the context of increasing global challenges. A critical perspective such as this is a desired complement to the otherwise glossy versions of the future of "knowledge work'' and "creative work'' based on a doctrine of "fundamentalism of education''. The critical understanding of contemporary regimes for knowledge, learning and education on the international scene provide a necessary counterpoint to the dominating political and educational discourses advocating the advent of "knowledge society''.

  • 178.
    Foucault, Michel
    College de France.
    Kihlgård, Jakob (Translator)
    Biopolitikens födelse (utdrag)2006In: Fronesis, ISSN 1404-2614, no 22-23, p. 61-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 179. Foucault, Michel
    Fröhlig, Florence (Translator)
    Vad är kritik?2011In: Fronesis, ISSN 1404-2614, no 36-37, p. 25p. 127-152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, SE-164 29, Kista, Sweden.
    Algorithmic Fairness, Risk, and the Dominant Protective Agency2023In: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441, Vol. 36, no 4, article id 76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing use of automated algorithmic decision-making, issues of algorithmic fairness have attracted much attention lately. In this growing literature, existing concepts from ethics and political philosophy are often applied to new contexts. The reverse—that novel insights from the algorithmic fairness literature are fed back into ethics and political philosophy—is far less established. However, this short commentary on Baumann and Loi (Philosophy & Technology, 36(3), 45 2023) aims to do precisely this. Baumann and Loi argue that among algorithmic group fairness measures proposed, one—sufficiency (well-calibration) is morally defensible for insurers to use, whereas independence (statistical parity or demographic parity) and separation (equalized odds) are not normatively appropriate in the insurance context. Such a result may seem to be of relatively narrow interest to insurers and insurance scholars only. We argue, however, that arguments such as that offered by Baumann and Loi have an important but so far overlooked connection to the derivation of the minimal state offered by Nozick (1974) and thus to political philosophy at large.

  • 181.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, SE-164 29, Kista, Sweden.
    First- and Second-Level Bias in Automated Decision-making2022In: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441, Vol. 35, no 2, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in artificial intelligence offer many beneficial prospects. However, concerns have been raised about the opacity of decisions made by these systems, some of which have turned out to be biased in various ways. This article makes a contribution to a growing body of literature on how to make systems for automated decision-making more transparent, explainable, and fair by drawing attention to and further elaborating a distinction first made by Nozick (1993) between first-level bias in the application of standards and second-level bias in the choice of standards, as well as a second distinction between discrimination and arbitrariness. Applying the typology developed, a number of illuminating observations are made. First, it is observed that some reported bias in automated decision-making is first-level arbitrariness, which can be alleviated by explainability techniques. However, such techniques have only a limited potential to alleviate first-level discrimination. Second, it is argued that second-level arbitrariness is probably quite common in automated decision-making. In contrast to first-level arbitrariness, however, second-level arbitrariness is not straightforward to detect automatically. Third, the prospects for alleviating arbitrariness are discussed. It is argued that detecting and alleviating second-level arbitrariness is a profound problem because there are many contrasting and sometimes conflicting standards from which to choose, and even when we make intentional efforts to choose standards for good reasons, some second-level arbitrariness remains. 

  • 182.
    Frichot, Hélène
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Critical Studies in Architecture.
    Drawing, Thinking, Doing: From Diagram Work to the Superfold2011In: Access: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies, ISSN 0111-8889, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1998, when the names Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari still exuded a seductive attraction for architectural thinkers and practitioners, Any Magazine, edited by Cynthia C. Davidson, published an edition entitled Diagram Work, which was guest edited by architects Ben van Berkal and Caroline Bos. The diagram work in question drew predominantly on the philosophical thought of Deleuze and Guattari, especially their version of the diagram, or ‘diagrammatic’, as mobilised in their book A Thousand Plateaus where the diagram is also referred to as an ‘abstract machine’. This essay will present a series of different ways in which the concept of the diagram can be argued to be at work in Deleuze, and Deleuze and Guattari’s ethico-aesthetics. Their speculative, projective and radically creative employment of the diagram will also allow me to present a discussion of Deleuze’s concept of the ‘Superfold’, which he introduces briefly in the Appendix of his book Foucault. I will conclude by discussing the relevance of the concept of the Superfold with regard to computational architectures and (post)digital diagrammatic processes, and also as a concept that alerts us to the risk of assuming too much about our relationship with diagrammatic forces. 

  • 183.
    Frichot, Hélène
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Critical Studies in Architecture.
    What can we learn form the Bubble Man and his Atmospheric Ecologies2011In: IDEA Journal, ISSN 1445-5412, p. 102-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With this essay I present the fragile thought-image of the soap-bubble to venture an augmented understanding of what an atmospheric ecology might be, what it might include, and how it might contribute to a thinking of interiors. In contemporary digital design the soap-bubble or soap film is most often investigated for what it can tell us about material behaviour, and how an understanding of material behaviour as it occurs in ‘Nature’ can be innovatively applied to design problems. Soap film can be studied in terms of what it tells us about surface tension and minimal distribution of material, which then allows the designer to better understand tensile structures. It also contributes to an understanding of cell walls (from the scale of the microscopic to the macroscopic), and how an interior condition responds to the pressure of an exterior condition.Appropriated from nature through a process of biomimicry the behaviour of soap film and soap-bubbles has been broadly used to test speculative design schemes and also to generate new digital techniques and technologies. I propose to liberate the thought-figure of the soap-bubble from this set of technical studies and applications in order to extend an understanding of how it can be used to frame atmospheric ecologies, especially after the manner in which soap-bubbles cluster and froth. Ecology here must be understood in an expanded sense that encompasses not just naturally occurring systems, championed by special interest groups that fight for a specific environmental niche, but also subjective and social ecologies, and how these different systems remain profoundly intertwined. I draw on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, Jakob von Uexküll, and also Gregory Bateson to offer other visions of what an atmospheric ecology might be, and how it can offer us more open definitions of the interiors in which we need to find a way to survive. 

  • 184.
    Frichot, Hélène
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Critical Studies in Architecture.
    When Things Get Wild2011In: KERB: Journal of Landscape Architecture, ISSN 1324-8049, Vol. 19, p. 56-59Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Aristotle’s virtues and how to acquire them2013In: Virtue Ethics and Human Enhancement, Springer Nature , 2013, p. 31-42Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Now the turn has come to say more both about which virtues, and capacities, Aristotle had in mind and how agents are expected to acquire them. While the focus in this chapter is on the character virtues as well as the intellectual virtues the discussion also extends to how agents are supposed to instill them and how we become (more) virtuous agents. Consequently, a number of key concepts connected to the virtues, e.g., the Doctrine of the Mean, moral expertise and the process of deliberation, are explained and problematized. In addition to providing a theory background the following is also intended to work as a ‘reference chapter’ that the reader could re-visit while reading other parts of the book.

  • 186.
    Fröding, Barbro
    Lincoln College, Oxford.
    Cognitive Enhancement, Virtue Ethics and the Good Life2011In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 223-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the respective roles that medical and technological cognitive enhancements, on the one hand, and the moral and epistemic virtues traditionally understood, on the other, can play in enabling us to lead the good life. It will be shown that neither the virtues nor cognitive enhancements (of the kind we have access to today or in the foreseeable future) on their own are likely to enable most people to lead the good life. While the moral and epistemic virtues quite plausibly are both necessary and sufficient for the good life in theory, virtue ethics is often criticised for being elitist and unachievable in practice for the vast majority. Some cognitive enhancements, on the other hand, might be necessary for the good life but are far from sufficient for such an existence. Here it will be proposed that a combination of virtue and some cognitive enhancements is preferable.

  • 187.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Conclusion2013In: Virtue Ethics and Human Enhancement, Springer Nature , 2013, p. 83-85Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Looking around the world today it is quite clear that a great many are not leading as good a life as they potentially could. Here it has been suggested that this situation could, to some extent, be improved on were people in general to become more virtuous as this would have a positive impact on the cognitive abilities and capacity for decision-making. Against this it has been argued that it is naïve to talk about virtues. That there is little evidence is there that we can achieve stable character traits and, further, that the best explanation for why we keep behaving the way we do is that it is human nature.

  • 188.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Critique of virtue ethics2013In: Virtue Ethics and Human Enhancement, Springer Nature , 2013, p. 61-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few chapters it has been argued that the life of virtue is the best, happiest and most desirable life. Even accepting that, one might wonder whether or not it is possible to have this life. This chapter will address some of those concerns and elaborate on the habituation process and the importance of role models, i.e. methods through which the virtues are instilled.

  • 189.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Examples of useful capacities2013In: Virtue Ethics and Human Enhancement, Springer Nature , 2013, p. 43-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter will provide concrete examples of a number of moral and epistemic virtues and show how they can help people in general to live better lives in the modern society. By ‘better’ it should be noted that I mean both in the sense they increase their own well-being and contribute to a broader improvement of society. The account provided here draws on scientific research into the ways in which people assimilate information and form their beliefs (as explained and exemplified in Chap. 3), as well as virtue theory. Further to this, the field of ‘Virtue Epistemology’ is introduced. While it is a relatively young field much interesting and, for the purposes here, highly applicable research has already been carried out.

  • 190.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hope as a virtue in an Aristotelian contextIn: The Journal of Philosophy, Psychiatry, & PsychologyArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    On the Importance of Treating Oneself Well2010In: Polish Journal of Philosophy, ISSN 1897-1652, E-ISSN 2154-3747, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The biological obstacles2013In: Virtue Ethics and Human Enhancement, Springer Nature , 2013, p. 23-29Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the biological obstacles that stand between us and the type of good decision-making which enables us to live the happy life. Recent scientific studies indicate that our failure to lead the happy life can be explained in terms of lacking cognitive capacities. Humans in general are bad at responding to information, an inability which extends both ‘the gathering of information phase’ and to ‘the drawing conclusions and acting on them phase’. This has some very negative consequences.

  • 193.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The good life2013In: Virtue Ethics and Human Enhancement, Springer Nature , 2013, p. 9-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces Aristotle’s version of the good life. The Greek term is eudaimonia but I will use the words ‘fulfilled’, ‘happy’ and ‘good’ interchangeably when I refer to this type of life. As part of this discussion a number of key concepts e.g. the dialectic method, the function argument and ergon will also be explained. I will try to keep the theory (as well as the Greek terms) to a minimum and mix it up with practical examples. A theoretical background is, however, necessary for the later discussion of the applicability and usefulness of virtue ethics.

  • 194.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The problem2013In: Virtue Ethics and Human Enhancement, Springer Nature , 2013, p. 1-7Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Looking around the world today two things are obvious: (1) humans are severely challenged in the area of rational decision-making, and (2) as a result of e.g. technological developments society around us is getting increasingly complex. Numerous scientific studies in the fields of, for example, neurology and neuropsychology have shown that information overload and stress have a very negative impact on capacities such as memory (both process and long-term), risk assessment and epistemic deference.

  • 195.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Three enhancement methods2013In: Virtue Ethics and Human Enhancement, Springer Nature , 2013, p. 67-82Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Looking around the globe the same dismal scenario repeats itself: in the face of glaring evidence humans are led to make bad decisions by greed, selfishness, lack of responsibility, low capacity for taking in the bigger picture, irrational fear, bias and so forth. Our poor decision-making has large scale, potentially disastrous, consequences for millions of people. Consider, for example, the human suffering in the wake of global warming, armed conflicts and the financial crisis.

  • 196.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Vem kan äga en cell (Who can Own a Cell?)2005In: Filosofins Nya Möten (The Novel Terrains of Philosophy), Gidlunds förlag, 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Virtue Ethics and Partiality to Oneself: Organ donation within families2010In: Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research, ISSN 0970-7794, Vol. XXVII, no 3, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 198.
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Why We Are Not Allowed to Sell That Which We Are Encouraged to Donate2009In: Contemporary Bioethics: A Reader with Cases / [ed] Jessica Pierce, George Randels, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Fröding, Barbro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    Juth, Niklas
    Cognitive Enhancement and the Principle of Need2015In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 231-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we argue that (i) the principle of need, on some interpretations, could be used to justify the spending of publically funded health care resources on cognitive enhancement and (ii) that this also holds true for individuals whose cognitive capacities are considered normal. The increased, and to an extent, novel demands that the modern technology and information society places on the cognitive capacities of agents, e.g., regarding good and responsible decision-making, have blurred the line between treatment and enhancement. More specifically, it has shifted upwards. As a consequence, principles of need on their most reasonable interpretations can be used to support publically funded cognitive enhancement. At least this is so, if broader aims than curing and ameliorating diseases are included in the goals of health care. We suggest that it would be plausible to see health care as accepting such broader goals already today.

  • 200.
    Fröding, Barbro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Osika, W.
    Cognitive Flexibility2015In: SpringerBriefs in Ethic, Springer Nature , 2015, p. 63-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter takes a closer look at cognitive flexibility. Firstly, we define this core cognitive capacity and explain why it is good to have it to a high degree. Secondly, we examine the link between the meditation techniques promoted here (see Chap. 2 ) and increased cognitive flexibility, as well as the impact on other psychological capacities. Thirdly, we point out that high cognitive flexibility (as an example of such improved psychological capacities) does not guarantee responsible moral decision-making. Consequently we need a robust, and action guiding, moral framework which can anchor these capacities and guide vacillating agents. The chapter finishes with a brief discussion of the connection between improved core cognitive capacities and the installing of a set of key epistemic virtues. This subject is then expanded on in Chap. 5.

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