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  • 151.
    Kramers, Anna
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Advanced multimodal traveller information system for reduced energy and GHG emissions2012In: Road Transport Information and Control (RTIC 2012), IET and ITS Conference on, 2012, no 602 CP, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a systematic investigation of functionality in nine existing multimodal Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS), primarily from Sweden, Germany, the UK, and the US was made in order to identify opportunities to enable the next generation of ATIS to contribute to lower energy usage and GHG emissions. Based on the investigation there is a discussion on possible future functionalities in ATIS that can support the traveller to choose travel modes that could lead to lower energy usage and GHG emissions.

  • 152.
    Kramers, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Designing next generation multimodal traveler information systems to support sustainability-oriented decisions2014In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores functionality that could be included in the next generation multimodal travel information system to support sustainability-oriented decisions. It identifies situations in the journey's three phases, pre-, on- and post-trip that have the potential to change travel patterns and also transport choices that the individual makes in order to perform activities in their daily life. Requirements on a traveler information system were derived from these situations and choices. The identified requirements are then transferred into functionalities in a travel information system that has potentials to encourage decisions that could lead to lower energy usage. Nine traveler information systems for multimodal and public transport travel are systematically investigated to find out if they include the proposed functionality. The investigated systems are in operation primarily in Sweden, Germany, the UK and one has global coverage. The investigation results in a discussion about future opportunities with proposal to encourage sustainability oriented travel decisions in the next generation travel information system.

  • 153.
    Kramers, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Smart Cities and Climate Targets: Reducing cities' energy use with ICT and travel information2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines use of ICT in helping to reduce energy use in cities, thereby contributing to sustainable development and achievement of cities’ climate targets. It explores how targets can be developed in a consistent and transparent way, how to identify the main ICT ‘hotspots’ as regards reducing citizens’ energy use and how they can be included in city planning. Implementation of mobility management principles and climate targets was tested in two existing solutions, a traveller information system and a flexible work hub solution.

    Four key methodological considerations when setting climate targets for cities were identified. These concerned decisions on: target setting object, temporal scope, units and target range. A tool was developed for identifying promising ICT hotspots. The tool can also be used to monitor implementation of ICT solutions and the associated technological and socio-technical difficulties. In a case study in Greater Stockholm, the ICT hotspots identified were intelligent building heating systems, intelligent transport system and potential transformation of the physical environment (buildings and roads) enabled by ICT solutions.

    Two aspects of planning identified as crucial for successful implementation of energy saving ICT solutions were studied in detail: i) Timing of ICT-related decisions in the planning process; and ii) the actor networks needed to implement the ICT solutions and their management. There are few decision points in the current planning process, so the municipality as property owner and its decision-making process are of crucial importance. Two collaborative approaches to govern, network governance and coordination through meta-governance as a way of indirect steering, are proposed.

    An investigation of nine traveller information systems and a case study in Stockholm of flexible work hub solutions revealed that mobility management approaches to reduce transport demand and encourage environmentally friendly transport modes are poorly reflected in the implementation. To support mobility management approaches, traveller information systems should primarily offer, or be integrated with, other solutions that support the choices “no travel” and “shorter journey”. Flexible work hubs should be located in local nodes closer to people’s homes.

    The main conclusions from this work were that ICT solutions can be modified to support achievement of cities’ climate targets and that climate targets must be defined using transparent methodology that clarifies the target content, ensuring that the most promising energy saving ICT solutions are implemented.

     

  • 154.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Höjer, Mattias
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Lövehagen, Nina
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wangel, Josefin
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    ICT for Sustainable Cities: How ICT can support an environmentally sustainable development in cities2013In: ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 2013 / [ed] Lorenz M. Hilty, Bernard Aebischer, Göran Andersson, Wolfgang Lohmann, Zürich, 2013, p. 183-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we focus on the opportunities to use ICT to help cities reach their environmental targets and specifically how ICT can support reduction of energy use. We have developed an analytical framework to be able to identify ICT solutions opportunities that can support cities to decrease the energy use that origin from the inhabitants’ consumption in order to reach climate targets. We use a consumption perspective on energy and allocate all energy to the final consumers that are the individuals living in the city. The analytical framework can be used by city administrations and ICT solution companies for identification and mapping of ICT applications and solutions with opportunities for sustainable development in cities.

  • 155.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lövehagen, Nina
    Ericsson.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Smart sustainable cities - Exploring ICT solutions for reduced energy use in cities2014In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, p. 52-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the opportunities of using ICT as an enabling technology to reduce energy use in cities. An analytical framework is developed in which a typology of ICT opportunities is combined with a typology of household functions, i.e. all the activities that require energy. The energy used for household functions is calculated using a consumption-based lifecycle perspective. The analytical framework is intended to be of use to researchers, city and regional authorities and ICT companies interested in acquiring a better understanding of how ICT investments could contribute to reduce energy use in cities.

  • 156.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Nyberg, Marcus
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Söderholm, M.
    Work hubs: Location considerations and opportunities for reduced travel2015In: PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIROINFO AND ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2015, Atlantis Press , 2015, Vol. 22, p. 126-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities worldwide are suffering from congestion among public transport users and motorists. Mayors have set ambitious targets to reduce traffic and improve public transportation, while at the same time reducing energy use. This paper investigates the option of using flexible workplaces in local nodes within urban regions in order to transform transportation needs. The business characteristics of this type of flexible workplace and the driving forces and potential barriers in its establishment are examined in an interview study with existing hub owners. The results provide novel information on emerging technologies related to urban transportation solutions and highlight how ICT solutions can affect the accessibility and relevance of flexible workplaces and thereby support their energy reduction potential.

  • 157.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Söderholm, Malin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Flexibla arbetsplatsers betydelse för hållbar utveckling i storstadsregioner2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar en intervjuundersökning som genomförts under våren 2013. Syftet med studien var att undersöka drivkrafter och barriärer för att etablera flexibla arbetsplatser i förorter.

    Genom flexibla arbetsplatser går det att uppnå miljövinster i form av minskat energiutnyttjande genom minskat resande och bättre utnyttjande av uppvärmda ytor. Studien undersöker ocksåmöjligheten att presentera flexibla arbetsplatser i en reseplanerare som ett alternativ till att pendla till arbetet.

  • 158.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Governing the Smart Sustainable City: The case of the Stockholm Royal Seaport2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2016, Amsterdam: Atlantis Press , 2016, Vol. 46, p. 99-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to improve the understanding on how city administrations can integrate ICT solutions for urban sustainability into processes of planning, i.e. how to govern the Smart Sustainable City. The paper is based on a case study of how the City of Stockholm has worked with integrating ICT solutions in the urban development project the Stockholm Royal Seaport (SRS). Through interviews with city officials and analysis of planning and policy documents we track how ICT became a part of the environmental program for the SRS, how this type of technology is conceived in terms of relation to the planning and implementation of other urban technologies, as well as what expected effects are highlighted. For this specific case we also distil some general lessons learned regarding what worked well and what did not. Finally, we draw conclusions regarding how ICT and sustainability can be merged in the planning phase of new urban developments and, ultimately, how a city administration can govern a city towards a Smart Sustainable City. 

  • 159.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Towards a comprehensive system of methodological considerations for cities' climate targets2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 62, p. 1276-1287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate targets for cities abound. However, what these targets really imply is dependent on a number of decisions regarding system boundaries and methods of calculation. In order to understand and compare cities' climate targets, there is a need for a generic and comprehensive framework of key methodological considerations. This paper identifies eight key methodological considerations for the different choices that can be made when setting targets for GHG emissions in a city and arranges them in four categories: temporal scope of target, object for target setting, unit of target, and range of target. To explore how target setting is carried out in practice, the climate targets of eight European cities were analysed. The results showed that these targets cover only a limited part of what could be included. Moreover, the cities showed quite limited awareness of what is, or could be, include in the targets. This makes comparison and benchmarking between cities difficult.

  • 160.
    Kummer, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Natural resources and Life sciences, Vienna.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leitgeb, Friedrich
    University of Natural Resources and Life sciences, Vienna.
    Vogl, Christian
    University of Natural resources and Life sciences, Vienna.
    Building Resilience through Farmers’ Experiments in Organic Agriculture: Examples from Eastern Austria2012In: Sustainable Agriculture Research, ISSN 1927-050X, E-ISSN 1927-0518, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 308-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers have always lived in changing environments where uncertainty and disturbances are inevitable. Therefore, farmers need the ability to adapt to change in order to be able to maintain their farms. Experimentation is one way for farmers to learn and adapt, and may be a tool to build farm resilience. Farmers’ experiments as defined in this paper are activities where something totally or partially new is introduced at the farm and the feasibility of this introduction is evaluated. The theoretical framework applied to study farmers’ experiments is the concept of resilience. Resilience is the capacity of social-ecological systems to cope with change, and is a framework used to assess complex systems of interactions between humans and ecosystems.

    This paper explores to which extent farmers’ experimentation can help build farm resilience. In addition to arguments found in the literature, five organic farms in Eastern Austria are used to illustrate this potential. The farmers were interviewed in 2007 and 2008. The respective farmers all worked fulltime on their farms, were between 34 and 55 years old, and owned farms between 15 and 76 ha. These farmers experimented in ways that enhance resilience – at the farm and in the region. The outcome of experiments can be management changes, new insights, or technology that can be passed on and potentially be built into education and advisory institutions. To encourage farmers’ experiments, it is important to develop conditions that support farmers in their experimenting role.

  • 161.
    Kuokkanen, Senja Karoliina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Assessing future scenarios and absolute sustainability targets with environmentally extended input-output analysis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master’s thesis project, future scenarios for year 2050 were constructed for Denmark, Finland and Sweden using an environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA). Scenarios were constructed based on national sustainability targets. A case-specific five stage modeling approach was developed. Approach consists of changes in input-output tables for Electricity grid, Fossil primary energy, Industry sectors, Transport and Allocation of fossil fuel replacements. To represent business-as-usual development, EEIO tables for 2009 were used as reference and baseline scenarios. Constructed scenario models resulted in substantial CO2 emission reductions compared to baseline scenario. In scenario results for Denmark, emissions reduced 98.17 %, in Finland 81.41 % and in Sweden 77.90 %.

    Furthermore, based on Planetary Boundary framework, greenhouse gas emission carrying capacities were estimated in sectoral level for 2050. Carrying capacities for year 2050 for Denmark, Finland and Sweden were 9909.99 kton CO2-eq, 9049.42 kton CO2-eq and 18691.96 kton CO2-eq, respectively. Compared to radically reduced emissions in scenario results, Denmark and Sweden reached emission levels below estimated national carrying capacities. For Finland, carrying capacity level was exceeded by 2437.77 ktons.

    EEIOA was found to be an efficient tool for constructing and analyzing explorative long-term scenarios. In addition, it is possible to integrate absolute sustainability thresholds to EEIOA. Scenario results indicate that implementation of the existing national sustainability targets would lead to radical emission reductions in Denmark, Finland and Sweden by 2050 compared to business-as-usual development. Based on the scenario results, transport and industry sectors were identified as the emission hotspot sectors in 2050.

    EEIOA is a noteworthy method for decision-support for assessing sustainability strategies. With EEIOA, it is possible to allocate and study national sustainability targets on a sectoral level, and that way potentially substantially increase the effectiveness and implementation of defined sustainability targets. However, further research on modeling dynamics, data quality and underlined uncertainties are needed before studied approaches can develop into decision-support tools.

  • 162.
    Kupersmidt, Judith
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Vem saknar en p-plats?: Bostadsrättsinnehavares syn på boendemiljö, egen bil, fordonspooler och mobilitetstjänster2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an environmentally sustainable city urban dwellers should have reasons and opportunities to shape their daily habits so that these become part of the sustainable development. This report covers the willingness and receptivity to adopt and/or maintain habits related to car ownership, parking, the use of vehicle pools and mobility services. The study is part of the project Innovative Parking in Climate Friendly Cities, which focuses on a specific concept of housing, mobility, parking, and the outdoor green and traffic environment. The concept is designed for application in newly built condominiums in Stockholm’s so-called inner suburbs (about 5-15 km from the city). Through interviews and focus groups we investigated the interest in moving to and living in such condominiums among representatives of the target group, i.e. people who are looking to buy a flat. Not unexpectedly, representatives who mainly relied on public transport, cycling and walking showed significant interest in moving to apartments which, in exchange for a relatively low number of parking spaces per new built apartment, offered different types of mobility solutions, such as vehicle pools and home deliveries. We consider approximately half of the households in the City of Stockholm belong to this group of non-motorists today. However, uncertain access to parking near the residence was found to be deterrent for motorists. For a more versatile category of motorists (who were also using other means of transport on a daily or weekly basis) interest in moving to accommodation in line with the above concept was higher than among habitual motorists. These mixers of modes seemed susceptible to pressure and/or support from the surrounding community. We also judge that their own experience of mobility services such as membership in a car pool, or even experience among relatives or friends, would increase their propensity to try out a vehicle pool themselves. In some cases we found that the mixers would also be prepared to do away with an own car. In summary, this study has led us to conclude that there is sufficient acceptance for the concept of Innovative Parking to be tried out in real conditions, through the building of blocks of flats with mobility services in exchange for sparse parking. The representatives of the target group showed demand for, or at least interest in, a green outdoor environment, restricted traffic around the home and a broader spectrum of mobility services.

  • 163.
    Larsen, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Sjögårde, Peter
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Publication Infrastructure.
    Sustainability as a topic at a technical university: A bibliometric analysis2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Larsson, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Towards a Sustainable Food System: Entrepreneurship, Resilience and Agriculture in the Baltic Sea Region2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis compares conventional agriculture and Ecological Recycling Agriculture (ERA) in terms of their environmental and socio-economic effects. Environmental effects include greenhouse gas emissions and energy use, but this analysis focuses on nutrient losses. Socio-economic effects include production, costs and benefits at macro, firm and household level. Comparisons were made at regional (Baltic Sea), national (Swedish) and local (community/municipality) level. At regional level, the main challenge is to make agriculture more environmentally friendly and reduce nutrient losses, while maintaining food production. At national level, the challenges are to shift the product mix towards more vegetables and less meat and to address the geographical division between animal and crop production. At local level, the challenge is to achieve sustainable environmental, economic and social rural development. At regional level, the empirical findings were scaled up to create three scenarios. In one scenario, agriculture in Poland and the Baltic States was transformed to resemble the Swedish average structure and resource use, which gave increased nitrogen and phosphorus surplus and substantially increased food production. Two other scenarios in which agriculture in the entire Baltic Sea area converted to ERA gave reductions in nitrogen surplus and eliminated the phosphorus surplus, while food production decreased or remained stable, depending on the strategy chosen. At national level, the environmental effects of different production methods, transport and different food baskets were compared. A household survey was performed to construct an alternative food basket, which was high in vegetables, low in meat and high in locally produced organic food compared with the average Swedish food profile. It was also 24% more expensive. Food basket content was found to be as important as production method in reducing environmental effects. Local production and processing was less important. At local level, an importer and wholesaler of organic fruit and vegetables and a group of environmentally concerned consumers were studied. The business was found to be resilient, i.e. well-suited to adapt to turbulence, and with a history of being innovative.

  • 165.
    Larsson, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hahn, Thomas
    von Oelreich, Jacob
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    The resilience of a sustainability entrepreneur in the Swedish food system2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational resilience emphasizes the adaptive capacity for renewal after crisis. This paperexplores the resilience of a business with both a social and an environmental orientation—a not-forprofitbusiness that claims to contribute to sustainable development of the food system. We ask whatconstitutes social and sustainable entrepreneurship in this case, and discuss determinants of theresilience of the business. The business, Biodynamiska Produkter (BP), has experienced periods ofgrowth, conservation, and rapid decline in demand, followed by periods of re-organization. Our resultssuggest that BP, with its social mission and focus on organic food, meets the criteria of both a socialand sustainability entrepreneurship organization. Two major crises in the late 1980s and late 1990swere met by re-organization and novel market innovations. Other criteria for resilience, met by BP,include flexibility, high level of trust, authentic value-based leadership promoting experimentation andadaptability, and a long-term authentic local trade-mark supporting customer loyalty. BP has beeneconomically resilient but not thriving. Controlling the value chain and following the social andenvironmental objectives were given higher priority than expanding its operations. In 2003 BPlaunched a box scheme and after its crisis in 2008/2009 focused on consolidation rather than newinnovations.

  • 166.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Montrucchio, Valeria
    Polytechnic of Turin.
    Bistagnino, Luigi
    Polytechnic of Turin.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Group Model-Building to identify potential sources of environmental impacts outside the scope of LCA studies2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 72, p. 96-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific methodologies that consider a more comprehensive/diverse set of parameters must be explored by the LCA community. This study utilises the Group Model-Building (GMB) method to identify, and Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) technique to make explicit, variables which are not typically considered in LCA studies, but may have significant influence upon environmental impacts through cause-effect links and feedback loops in product systems. A literature review on LCAs concerning household washing machines and conventional passenger cars product systems is performed to investigate what are the commonly used functional unit, life cycle stages and system boundaries. Two parallel GMB sessions were organised to elicit relevant variables and relations in the product systems and build in a first version of CLDs. Individual interviews with the participants were undertaken to refine and validate the system models. Final versions of the system models were built. GMB and CLD can serve as a basis for (i) delimitating appropriated system boundaries for LCA and (ii) identifying variables/areas to be included in sensitivity and scenario analysis. Sensitivity and scenario analysis examine the influence that those variables/areas have on the environmental impacts of the product and describe both different contexts and profiles of users. GMB and CLD have the potential to bridge the divide between quantitative and qualitative variables, for more robust understanding of the causes and mechanisms of environmental impacts and improving conclusions and recommendations in LCA.

  • 167.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Singh, Jagdeep
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Unintended environmental consequences of improvement actions: A qualitative analysis of systems' structure and behavior2015In: Systems research and behavioral science, ISSN 1092-7026, E-ISSN 1099-1743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We qualitatively analysed how and why environmental improvement actions often lead to unintended environmental consequences. Different theories are integrated to delineate the underlying system structure causing this system behavior. Causal loop diagram technique is utilized to explore and visualize: how incremental improvements in material and energy efficiency can unintendedly cause consumption to increase; how this consumption rebound effect is linked to generation of waste and pollution; and how this can give rise to social and negative externalities, economic inequalities and other broad unintended consequences in our society. Consumption and incremental innovation are found to be the highest leverage points and reinforcing factors driving unintended environmental consequences in this complex system. The paper in addition explores two potential modes of behaviour dissimilar to those of unintended environmental consequences. These emerging modes of behaviour are product-service systems and environmental policy instruments. Their combination forms a prominent transition pathway from a production-consumption-dispose economy to a so-called circular economy.

  • 168.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Life cycle aspects of nanomaterials2013Report (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Lemperos, Xenofon Chrysovalantis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Developing and integrating a web-based LCA tool to rail vehicle systems design.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The design phase is one of the most important stages in the product development process. At this stage, important decisions are taken regarding the product specifications and characteristics. Apart from the product itself, these decisions can affect the environment throughout the entire lifetime of the product. Since designers know from the early stages of the product development the material composition and how the product will operate, estimations are possible regarding the environmental impacts that the product can have.Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a methodology that can help in defining and calculating the impacts of a product from the moment its materials are extracted from the earth (cradle) up to the point when the product is wasted (grave). Today there are several tools available based on LCA methodology to support calculating the environmental impact. Environmental engineers can use these tools in order to find the hot spots in the products’ life cycle and with the aid of this information work in order to minimize the environmental impacts.This study focus on developing a tool that will assist design engineers in the rolling stock manufacturing company, Bombardier Transportation, to make environmental assessments in the early design phases of train products and systems. Furthermore the purpose of this study is also to provide an overview whether a tool like this can be included into the design process of the train products.Due to the size of the company there is the need to develop a customized tool to support the design department in the best possible way. The tool developed is web-based using GaBi Envision and can be used in parallel with the design software. During the tool development there have been discussions with the designers regarding their needs, the tool structure and operation of the tool. A case study for two train motors with different material composition was used to evaluate the final tool.The results helped to understand the applicability of the tool in the early stages of product development and which difficulties occur when interpreting the outcomes of the tool. Moreover since design engineers normally do not have a background in environmental studies it is also important that the tool can provide easily understandable feedback based on the environmental impact assessment. With this in mind the tool can be improved in the future for better support of design engineers.

  • 170.
    Lemperos, Xenofon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Comparison of Klimatkalkyl, LICCER & SimaPro: Three models to quantify life cycle energy and carbon dioxide in early road infrastructure planning2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Early environmental assessments provide important information for decision making processes in road construction projects. This report is about a comparative study among different Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools used in road construction. These are, KlimatKalkyl, LICCER and SimaPro. KlimatKalkyl was developed by a consultancy firm and used by Trafikverket, LICCER was developed by a collaboration of three universities and used in research studies and SimaPro is used by industry and academia for environmental studies. In this report the results are referring only to primary energy consumption in GJ/year and Global Warming Potential (GWP) in CO2-eq. kg/year.

    The following report includes three cases studies based on different road projects. The results generated from each tool are compared in order to evaluate the tools and present the similarities and differences among them in quantitative and qualitative manner. Variations in the outputs regarding the impact in the environment mainly come from the different input formats and calculation processes that the tools have. Regarding the road type, the three models are generating different results for energy or CO2 emissions. In the qualitative comparison it is showed that the tools have different input formats and at some cases one has more input details against the other. 

  • 171.
    Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Social capital and economic growth in China’s provinces2013In: Social Capital and Rural Development in the Knowledge Society / [ed] Hans Westlund and Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 182-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Liljefors, Pontus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Social sustainability in Swedish urban development - what does it mean?: A casestudy of three Citylab Action pilot projects2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cities around the world are facing challenges of rapid population growth, social inequality, environmental degradation and climate change. Within the realm of planning and policy, one answer to these issues has been the invention of certification systems to support the transition to a sustainable urban development. In the last ten years a number of certification systems for sustainable urban development on neighbourhood level have been developed, such as BREEAM Communities and LEED Neighborhood Development. Though an important contribution for a systematic way to treat sustainability in urban development, such systems have been criticised in a number of criteria, among which an important deficiency is their lack of factors for social sustainability.

    A new Swedish certification system for neighbourhood level, Citylab Action, is since January 2016 being tested in a pilot round with twelve Swedish urban development projects. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how three of the pilot projects worked with social sustainability and within which areas the Citylab Action Guide best could be developed to support socially sustainable urban development. The following research questions were formulated:

    1. What is a relevant understanding of social sustainability for contemporary urban development drawing on the academic literature?
    2. How do the selected Citylab Action projects understand and work with social sustainability? What are projects’ key challenges for creating socially sustainable neighbourhoods?
    3. What are the projects’ experiences with Citylab Action in relation to their work with social sustainability?

    The thesis had a critical approach and took ground in a literature study, which rendered an analytical framework and the normative standpoint that social sustainability needs to be concerned with increasing social justice. Täby Park, DrottningH and Masthuggskajen were selected as cases, and studies involved interviews with two civil servants from each project and analysis of planning documents related to the projects’ work with social sustainability. An analysis of the empirical material was carried out underpinned by the analytical framework, which contained the questions:

    • How is social sustainability (implicitly) defined and operationalised?
    • How is the project oriented in regards to the dualism of development and maintenance?
    • Who is considered in the development of the district?

    Results showed theoretical understanding of social sustainability, as well as operational work, were very different between projects. Synthesis suggests a key challenge for the projects’ work with social sustainability concerns the tendency of marginalising people with less purchasing power. For the development of the Citylab Action Guide to better support socially sustainable urban development, four proposals are given. The Guide should include:

    1. more aspects for how to work with existing inhabitants,
    2. more distinct aims for projects to execute a comprehensive analysis of the effects on segregation patterns,
    3. more attention to the creation of affordable apartments and socially mixed housing, and
    4. aims for considering the seven discrimination grounds and socio-economic status in the outcomes of planning.
  • 173.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Data for separate collection and recycling of dry recyclable materials2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to present environmental and economic data for some collection and recycling processes in Sweden. The data can be used in Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing analysis as well as other tools for assessing environmental and economic impacts of different waste management systems and strategies. The report provides data on kerbside collection of plastic and metal packaging, and beverage cartons in Sweden. For each material fraction the source segregation efficiency and quality of the separated waste streams is presented, followed by data on the processes collection at the kerbside, handling at transfer and sorting stations, and primary reprocessing at the recycling plant. The waste streams are followed to the point in which the secondary material can replace virgin materials.

    For each process the following data is included (as relevant for each process): electricity, heat and fuel use, generation of waste and by products, transportation work, material input per tonne material output, process related CO2-emissions, and economic costs. The chapters that cover reprocessing at the recycling plants also include a discussion on which materials that can be replaced by waste, by-products, and the secondary material.

  • 174.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Silicon-based nanomaterials in a life-cycle perspective, including a case study on self-cleaning coatings2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Trafikverket or Trafikverket’s contractors are considering the use of several products that in some way have to do with nanotechnology for sealing and impregnating various types of surfaces, for example road safety cameras. It has been noted that the potential health and environmental risks of nanomaterials should be evaluated over their entire life cycle. Further to previous risk assessments made on the nano-products considered by Trafikverket, it is therefore relevant to analyse the product’s impacts from a life cycle perspective.

    The aims of this project are to (i) Provide a state-of-the-art background on the types, production processes, uses and current debates on the classification, and human and eco-toxicity of nano-silica and silane based nanofilms, (ii) To analyse if there are any arguments, from an environmental perspective, for the application of self-cleaning coatings to speed cameras compared to conventional practice, (iii) To qualitatively discuss the potential importance of nanoparticle emissions from self-cleaning coatings in the context of other sources of nanoparticle emissions.

    A life cycle assessment is performed for maintenance of road safety cameras in Sweden in a business as usual (BAU) scenario and in a scenario where the cameras have been coated with a self-cleaning silane based nanofilm (Nano ProHard). The functional unit is the maintenance of road safety cameras in Sweden to allow for an acceptable speed camera picture quality over one year. The life cycle impact assessment methods ReCiPe Midpoint (Hierarchist) and Cumulative Energy Demand have been used. All life cycle phases from extraction of raw materials to end-of-life have been included. Inventory data is gathered from Ecoinvent 2.2. The detergent used in the business as usual scenario is approximated with the Ecoinvent process "Soap, at plant/RER S" and the alkoxysilanes in NanoProHard with "Tetrachlorosilane, at plant/GLO S".

    Results show that the biggest impacts in the BAU-scenario are related to operation of vehicles for inspection of the road safety cameras in the maintenance phase, and to the production of soap. The biggest impacts in the Nano-scenario are related to operation of vehicles in the maintenance phase, and to production of soap, Nano ProHard Clean and Nano ProHard, mainly due to the ethanol in the product. Comparing the two scenarios (excluding operation of vehicles in the maintenance phase) it was seen that BAU had a bigger contribution than Nano in all impact categories except for fossil depletion, due to use of ethanol in the Nano-scenario. However, a sensitivity analysis revealed that this may not always be the case. It should also be noted that the toxicity in the use phase has not been assessed.

    In cases where very little detergent is used for cleaning, for example in those cases where only water is used in the BAU-scenario, it may not be beneficial to use a nanofilm. However, in case the road safety cameras are usually washed very often, and/or with big amounts of detergent, use of nanofilm could have lower GHG-emissions than maintenance in BAU-scenario. However, it can again be emphasised that the toxicity of the products in the use phase has not been assessed, and that this is an aspect that must also be considered when concluding on which maintenance regime to choose. It must also be noted that soap is not the commonly used detergent in maintenance, and that results could vary significantly depending on detergent used.

    It can be concluded that there are no clear environmental benefits if Trafikverket were to apply self-cleaning coatings to their road safety cameras, compared to conventional practice. The main source of impacts from maintenance of the road safety cameras is vehicle operation and this cannot be reduced by application of a nanofilm due to the current requirement of inspecting the cameras once per week. Considering the lack of knowledge on the product, and the possible toxicity of its components, it is not recommended that the product is used without further investigations into the type of chemicals used.

  • 175.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Resource use and greenhouse gas emissions of office fit-outs - A case study2016In: CESB 2016 - Central Europe Towards Sustainable Building 2016: Innovations for Sustainable Future, Grada Publishing, 2016, p. 182-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the type and quantity of material resources used and waste generated in an office fit-out project, and to quantif' the embodied energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the fit-out. The study was performed for an office lit-out project, typical for large property owners and attractive office premises, in an office building in central Stockholm, Sweden. The total embodied greenhouse gas emissions of the fit-out project amounted to 74.5 kg C02-equivalents/m2 and the total embodied energy to 1 .7 Gum2. Depending on frequency of fit-outs, the embodied greenhouse gas emissions and energy of fit-outs could exceed the embodied greenhouse gas emissions and energy of the initial construction or operational energy use seen in a life-cycle perspective.

  • 176.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fredén, Johanna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Adolfsson, Ida
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Larsson, Gustav
    Skanska Sverige AB, Grön affärsutveckling.
    Brogren, Maria
    Sveriges Byggindustrier.
    Byggandets klimatpåverkan: Livscykelberäkning av klimatpåverkan och energianvändning för ett nyproducerat energieffektivt flerbostadshus i betong2015Report (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Limén, Helene
    et al.
    KTH.
    Sandberg, Teresia
    KTH.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Westin, Birgitta
    KTH.
    ISCN-GULF Sustainable Campus Charter Report 20122012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 178.
    Limén, Helene
    et al.
    KTH.
    Sandberg, Teresia
    KTH.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Westin, Birgitta
    KTH.
    ISCN-GULF Sustainable Campus Charter Report 20132014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 179.
    Lindstaf, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Planetära gränser och hållbar stadsplanering2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 180. Lucas, Paul L.
    et al.
    Kok, Marcel T. J.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Alkemade, Rob
    Integrating Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Goal Structure, Target Areas and Means of Implementation2014In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 193-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations' discussions on defining a new set of post-2015 development goals focus on poverty eradication and sustainable development. Biodiversity and ecosystem services are essential for poverty eradication, which is also one of the foundations of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Based on an assessment of current proposals of goals and targets, and a quantitative pathway analysis to meet long term biodiversity and food security goals, this paper discusses how biodiversity and ecosystem services can be integrated into a broad set of goals and targets, and concludes with relevant target areas and means of implementation for which specific targets need to be defined. Furthermore, it responds to the call of the CBD to consider the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and the related Aichi biodiversity targets in the post-2015 development agenda. The paper's analysis identifies three overlapping but also supplemental ways to integrate biodiversity and ecosystem services in the post-2015 agenda: integrated goals, goals addressing earth system functioning and goals addressing environmental limits. It further concludes seven target areas to be included under the goals to address biodiversity and ecosystem services in the context of food and agriculture: access to food, demand for agricultural products, sustainable intensification, ecosystem fragmentation, protected areas, essential ecosystem services and genetic diversity. The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity provides a good basis for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in the post-2015 development agenda. Many Aichi targets address the proposed target areas and the means of implementation discussed, while they need to be complemented with targets that specifically address human well-being, as well as institutions and governance.

  • 181.
    Mahdavi, Mernaz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Sociala krav vid offentliga upphandlingar: -att ställa sociala krav inom byggbranschen med fokus på mångfald2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 182.
    Malm, Sofie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Mobility discourses in past present and sustainable planning: The case of Karachi2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 183. Malmaeus, J. M.
    et al.
    Alfredsson, Eva C.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Potential Consequences on the Economy of Low or No Growth - Short and Long Term Perspectives2017In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, Vol. 134, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Malmodin, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lundén, Dag
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. TeliaSonera, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Andersson, Greger
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. TeliaSonera, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. TeliaSonera, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Life Cycle Assessment of ICT: Carbon Footprint and Operational Electricity Use from the Operator, National, and Subscriber Perspective in Sweden2014In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 829-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is growing throughout society, and new products and solutions are developed at an increasing rate. To enable environmental assessment of specific ICT products and other products that rely on ICT in some way, a more complete, detailed, and up-to-date study based on real measurements is needed. To date, similar studies have not been readily available or fully comprehensive. This study assessed the overall operational electricity use and life-cycle-based carbon footprint (CF) relating to ICT in Sweden, including activities not commonly addressed previously, such as shared data transport networks and data centers and manufacturing of network infrastructure. Specific, detailed inventory data are presented and used for assessment of the Internet Protocol core network, data transmission, operator activities, and access network. These specific data, in combination with secondary, more generic data for end-user equipment, allow a comprehensive overall assessment. The majority of the ICT network CF is the result of end-user equipment, mainly personal computers, followed by third-party enterprise networks and data centers and then access networks. The parts closest to the user proved to be clearly responsible for the majority of the impact. The results are presented for Swedish ICT networks and for ICT networks in general based on a global average electricity mix.

  • 185.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Birgisdottir, Harpa
    SBI, Denmark.
    Houlihan Wiberg, Aoife
    NTNU, Trondheim.
    Moncaster, Alice
    University of Cambridge.
    Brown, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    John, Viola
    ETH Zürich.
    Passer, Alexander
    Technical University of Graz.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Soulti, Eleni
    University of Cambridge.
    Design strategies for low embodied energy and greenhouse gases in buildings: analyses of the IEA Annex 57 case studies2014In: Proceedings of the World Sustainable Building Conference, SB14, Barcelona, October 28-30, 2014., 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the IEA Annex 57 case study method, consisting of a format fordescribing individual case studies and an evaluation matrix covering all case studies. Samplecase studies are used to illustrate the method and the evaluation matrix through a firstpreliminary analysis. In compiling and evaluation existing, transparent case studies we havetaken a stakeholder perspective. By so doing it is intended to identify fordecision makers thekey issues affecting EE/EC in buildings. Analysis in this paper focuses on one of the six casestudy themes, building design strategies for EE/EC mitigation and references cases coveringe.g. material selection, building shape, construction stage strategies and strategies to handlethe trade-off between embodied and operational impacts in net-zero emission building design.

  • 186.
    Marquardt, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish unviersity of agricultural sciences, Uppsala.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Porro, Roberto
    World Agroforestry Centre.
    Farmers' Perspectives on Vital Soil-related Ecosystem Services in Intensive Swidden Farming Systems in the Peruvian Amazon2013In: Human Ecology, ISSN 0300-7839, E-ISSN 1572-9915, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 139-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing dilemma is how to conserve Amazonian forest while allowing local people to secure their livelihoods. Small-scale swidden farming in Amazonia is entirely dependent on the continued provision of ecosystem services (ES) that generate the conditions for agriculture. This study identified soil-related ES needed for, and enhanced by, productive swidden systems from the farmer's perspective. Workshops in six farming communities in northeastern Peru discussed various land uses, swidden systems that continue to be productive, and swidden systems on degraded land. The participating farmers noted changes in their production systems and described the ES (or lack thereof) in terms of soil quality, crop production quantity and quality, burning practices, forest regeneration, and farming skill. The central elements described in farmers' own strategies for managing soil-related ES were fallow management for biomass production and crop diversity, factors identified as central to future ES management work in established agricultural areas in Amazonia.

  • 187.
    Marquardt, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish unviersity of agricultural sciences, Uppsala.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Salomonsson, Lennart
    Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Uppsala.
    Improved fallows: A case study of an adaptive response in Amazonian swidden farming systems2013In: Agriculture and Human Values, ISSN 0889-048X, E-ISSN 1572-8366, no 30, p. 417-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many smallholders in the Amazon employ swidden (slash-and-burn) farming systems in which forest or forest fallows are the primary source of natural soil enrichment. With decreasing opportunities to claim natural forests for agriculture and shrinking landholdings, rotational agriculture on smaller holdings allows insufficient time for fallow to regenerate naturally into secondary forest. This case study examines how Peruvian farmers use "improved fallows" as an adaptive response to a situation of decreasing soil fertility and how the farmers describe the rationale underlying the various actions taken in these modified fallow systems. The results indicate that farmers establish improved fallows using contextual ecological knowledge and various techniques to introduce a large diversity of tree species. This practice is also used to restore degraded land to agricultural production. The tasks of maintaining productivity on agricultural land and reforesting degraded areas is becoming increasingly urgent in the Amazon, making agricultural practices that involve reforestation and tree management highly relevant. Since swidden farming systems are the basis for the livelihoods of most Amazon smallholders, good farming practices elaborated by swidden farmers are important for sustainable small-scale family farming systems in the Amazon.

  • 188.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Dreborg, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Developing integrated explorative and normative scenarios: The case of future land use in a climate-neutral Sweden2014In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 60, p. 59-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition from the current oil-based world economy to an economy based on renewable resources can become a strong driving force for land use change. This paper describes the development of integrated explorative and normative scenarios for the analysis of future land use in a climate-neutral Sweden. The aim is to show how backcasting scenarios fulfilling far-reaching greenhouse gas reduction targets can be related to assumptions on possible external developments, in order to contribute to the discussion on future sustainable land use. A target-fulfilling scenario element was combined with an external scenario element, i.e. developments that cannot be influenced by the targeted actors. The scenarios were developed and analysed in collaboration with local actors. Four scenarios were used to describe how land in Sweden could be used when Sweden has achieved zero emissions of greenhouse gases in 2060. The explorative dimension stretched from a situation where there is no international climate agreement to one where there is an international agreement on reducing greenhouse gases. The backcasting dimension illustrated different strategies to achieve the target and stretches from a very influential municipal level to one where the national/EU level is most influential.

  • 189.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Consideration of life cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for improved road infrastructure planning2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is one of the biggest challenges of our society. The road transport sector is responsible for a big share of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, which are considered to be the dominant cause of global warming. Although most of those emissions are associated with traffic operation, road infrastructure should not be ignored, as it involves high consumption of energy and materials during a long lifetime.

    The aim of my research was to contribute to improved road infrastructure planning by developing methods and models to include a life cycle perspective. In order to reach the aim, GHG emissions and energy use at different life cycle stages of road infrastructure were assessed in three case studies using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). These case studies were also used for development of methodology for LCA of road infrastructure. I have also investigated the coupling of LCA with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the possibility to integrate LCA into Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA).

    The results of the first case study indicated that operation of the tunnel (mainly, lighting and ventilation) has the largest contribution in terms of energy use and GHG emissions throughout its life cycle. The second case study identified the main hotspots and compared two methods for asphalt recycling and asphalt reuse. The results of the third case study indicated that due to the dominant contribution of traffic to the total impact of the road transport system, the difference in road length plays a major role in choice of road alternatives during early planning of road infrastructure. However, infrastructure should not be neglected, especially in the case of similar lengths of road alternatives, for roads with low volumes of traffic or when they include bridges or tunnels.

    This thesis contributed in terms of foreground and background data collection for further LCA studies of road infrastructure. Preliminary Bill of Quantities (BOQ) was identified and used as a source for site-specific data collection. A new approach was developed and tested for using geological data in a GIS environment as a data source on earthworks for LCA. Moreover, this thesis demonstrated three possible ways for integrating LCA in early stages of road infrastructure planning.

  • 190.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Kluts, Ingeborg
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Toller, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), Sweden.
    Brattebø, Helge
    Birgisdóttir, Harpa
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    CONSIDERATION OF LIFE CYCLE ENERGY USE AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING PROCESSES: EXAMPLES OF SWEDEN, NORWAY, DENMARK AND THE NETHERLANDS2014In: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, E-ISSN 1757-5605, Vol. 16, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with life cycle stages of roadinfrastructure are currently rarely assessed during road infrastructure planning. This studyexamines the road infrastructure planning process, with emphasis on its use of EnvironmentalAssessments (EA), and identifies when and how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) canbe integrated in the early planning stages for supporting decisions such as choice of roadcorridor. Road infrastructure planning processes are compared for four European countries(Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands).The results show that only Norway has a formalised way of using LCA during choiceof road corridor. Only the Netherlands has a requirement for using LCA in the laterprocurement stage. It is concluded that during the early stages of planning, LCA could beintegrated as part of an EA, as a separate process or as part of a Cost-Benefit Analysis.

  • 191.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Brattebø, Helge
    Birgisdóttir, Harpa
    Toller, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Life cycle impacts during early stages of road infrastructure planning: a case study in Sweden2014In: Transport Research Arena (TRA) 2014 Proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road infrastructure has effects on the environment throughout all of its life cycle phases: construction,maintenance, operation and end-of-life. It has been observed, however, that these life cycle impacts are notusually considered during early stages of road infrastructure planning (i.e. decisions on road corridor).The recently developed LICCER tool enables assessment of road corridor alternatives during early stages of roadinfrastructure planning. It includes input data for roads, bridges and tunnels. It also considers future emissionsfrom traffic. The life cycle impact categories covered are energy use and contribution to climate change.The developed tool is being tested in a case study. Construction of a specific road in Sweden was used todemonstrate how the model is able to show differences between road corridor alternatives. Sensitivity analysiswas applied to show the robustness of its results.

  • 192.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Liljenström, Carolina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    O’Born, Reyn
    Brattebø, Helge
    Birgisdóttir, Harpa
    Toller, Susanna
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Potting, José
    Robustness and relevance of a new model assessing life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of road corridor alternatives: a case study in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Life cycle energy and climate change considerations in the early stages of road infrastructure planning processes2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Life cycle energy and climate change considerations in the road infrastructure planning processes in the Netherlands and Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Mirjolet, Claire
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Miljöstyrning i Riksbyggens ombyggnadsprocess med hjälp av Miljöbyggnad2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How the renovation of the vast Swedish existing building stock with renovation needs will be performed is considered as decisive in order to achieve the target set by the Swedish government of reducing the energy use by 20 percent by 2020. Consequently, the challenge of the building sector consists in reducing the energy use in the existing building stock but at the same time ensuring that the indoor environmental quality is improved and the cultural values are maintained.

    So far, there have been a few renovation projects which strongly have reduced the energy use and at the same time have taken into account the environmental aspects and the cultural values. The main reasons are that there have been few incentives and a lack of routines in order to steer efficiently a “sustainable renovation”.

    The participants in a Nordic project on sustainable renovation thought that it would be a strong advantage to link the concept of sustainable renovation to the Miljöbyggnad certification system. Indeed it is trusted by the Swedish building and construction sectors and can provide sustainability targets in order to steer renovation processes.

    The objective of the master thesis is to show how the Miljöbyggnad certification system could be integrated in practice in the renovation process of Riksbyggen, an organization which administers housing associations (Bostadsrättsföreningar) and build houses. The method used consists in interviewing different employees who work with renovation and studying the management system of Riksbyggen in order to be able to suggest appropriate steps in their process which enable the integration of the Miljöbyggnad certification system. These steps were discussed within Riksbyggen and with researchers. Finally, the master thesis results in a procedure which step by step describes how the Miljöbyggnad certification system could be integrated in the early stages of the current renovation process of Riksbyggen. The proposal focuses on the early stages and is composed of different steps including carrying out a survey in order to investigate how the residents perceive their indoor environment and selecting targets for the project. The master thesis appreciates the extra time and the extra competences which would be required by such integration. Moreover, the report indicates how Riksbyggen could work further in order to apply in practice these steps and suggests how the Miljöbyggnad certification system could be integrated in the other stages.

    As opposed to new production, where the certification in itself is often the main driving force for using the Miljöbyggnad certification system, the official certification after a renovation is optional. The proposal focuses rather on supporting the environmental management during a renovation project thanks to the Miljöbyggnad certification system. The main advantages which appear are that the certification gives a framework in order to steer the whole renovation process and that it provides a good support in order to assess an existing building.

    Nevertheless, the master thesis shows that there are also some difficulties in order to integrate the certification. Therefore, the report indicates how these difficulties could be overcome and in which direction the Miljöbyggnad certification system could be developed further in order to meet the needs of the housing companies. Indeed, it could be difficult to select a package of renovation measures which aims to reach a better rating according to the certification because it sometimes might not be reasonable. However, it is possible to plan the renovation project in order to improve the rating for the three following categories: energy, indoor environment and materials or for some indicators. Moreover, the survey which investigates how the residents perceive their indoor environment should become an important part of the process and the results of the survey could be used in order to communicate about successful renovation projects.

  • 196.
    Moberg, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Borggren, Clara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ambell, Christine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Guldbrandsson, Fredrik
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Bondesson, Anna
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Malmodin, Jens
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Bergmark, Pernilla
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Simplifying a life cycle assessment of a mobile phone2014In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 979-993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibilities for full life cycle assessment (LCA) of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) products are often limited, so simplification approaches are needed. The aim of this paper is to investigate possible simplifications in LCA of a mobile phone and to use the results to discuss the possibilities of LCA simplifications for ICT products in a broader sense. Another aim is to identify processes and data that are sensitive to different methodological choices and assumptions related to the environmental impacts of a mobile phone. Different approaches to a reference LCA of a mobile phone was tested: (1) excluding environmental impact categories, (2) excluding life cycle stages/processes, (3) using secondary process data from generic databases, (4) using input-output data and (5) using a simple linear relationship between mass and embodied emissions. It was not possible to identify one or a few impact categories representative of all others. If several impact categories would be excluded, information would be lost. A precautionary approach of not excluding impact categories is therefore recommended since impacts from the different life cycle stages vary between impact categories. Regarding use of secondary data for an ICT product similar to that studied here, we recommend prioritising collection of primary (specific) data on energy use during production and use, key component data (primarily integrated circuits) and process-specific data regarding raw material acquisition of specific metals (e.g. gold) and air transport. If secondary data are used for important processes, the scaling is crucial. The use of input-output data can be a considerable simplification and is probably best used to avoid data gaps when more specific data are lacking. Further studies are needed to provide for simplified LCAs for ICT products. In particular, the end-of-life treatment stage need to be further addressed, as it could not be investigated here for all simplifications due to data gaps.

  • 197.
    Molin, Elvira
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Saken är biff: En granskning av samförstånd och motsättningar vid införandet av en minskad nötköttskonsumtion2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    About one third out of the greenhouse gases produced by the Swedish households come from food consumption, with Sswedes being among the worlds’ larbiggest consumers of beef; consuming roughly, 26 kg per person and year. Beef consumption accounts for approximately 7 % of the Swedish greenhouse gas emissions which is not negligible.

    While the consumption of beef has been identified in many previous studies to impact the environment negatively,G grazing animals can contribute to a healthy environment by keeping landscapes open, thereby supporting biodiversity. , and there is land more suitable for grazing than for growing crops. However, if the number of animals is too large it will lead to environmental damage., and ruminants contribute to greenhouse gas emissions by producing methane whilst digesting. The magnitude of the environmental impact from agriculture depends on what methods are used, but the cultivation of feed has been identified as the greatest cause of environmental damage in the production system of livestock.

    New technology could be used to reduce the environmental impacts from agriculture and the consumption of beef. Food security will be a challenge for the future, with the rising global population and changing conditions for agricultural practices in many areas. Several studies have concluded that adapting our diets is necessary to complement other climate mitigation measures. Yet, not much is done to reduce the beef consumption.

    Thise study was performed by interviewing different stakeholders regarding their views on beef consumption, where the interviewees respondents were a sample of politicians and relevant organization representatives. They were asked about the importance of reducing beef consumption in order to reach environmental targets, and methods ofor doing so; how great the reduction ought to be, as well as within what time perspective we ought to see changes in consumption.

    The results showed a willingness to change and reduce the beef consumption due to its environmental impacts. The climate effects from livestock were recognised and other environmental aspects were also highlighted. Most respondents were able to quantifypresent a number of how much they believed meat consumption ought to be reduced, with suggestions ranging from 20 to 50 per cent. Furthermore, all the respondents agreed upon using informational policy instruments and continued scientific work to achieve the suggested aims. A few were additionally in favour of implementing economic policy instruments, but none advised administrative policy instruments as an appropriate measure.

    It is clearDespite the knowledge that the beef consumption has an extensively negative environmental impact and needs to be addressed, and though most respondents expressed willingness to work for a reduction of the consumption they were still hesitant to introduce any vast measures. This could be due to concerns of losing members or votes. Environmental as well as consuming issues are political matters and the risk of losing votes might be greater if not acting as the young adults, millennials, have already initiated a change toward a more plant based diet.

  • 198.
    Mousaviun, Zohreh
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    How auto-dependency can be decreased in Ahwaz?: Land use and transit integration, lessons from Stockholm and Curitiba2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 199.
    Musabasic, Adi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Energy and climatescenarios within the doughnut?: Treatment of planetary boundaries, social foundations for human prosperity and economic growth in energy and climate scenarios2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 200.
    Myhrberg, Therese
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Målkonflikter inom kommunal Översiktsplanering och Miljöbedömning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Alltsedan målstyrning infördes inom svensk beslutsfattning och förvaltning har målkonflikter varit ett faktum som politiker och tjänstemän måste ta ställning till på ett eller annat sätt. En målkonflikt uppstår då uppfyllelsen av ett samhällsmål motverkar uppfyllelsen av ett annat samhällsmål. Det kan exempelvis röra sig om kontrasterande mål gällande nybyggnation och att samtidigt bevara natur- och kulturvärden. Forskningsprojektet SPEAK, som denna studie har koppling till, och som handlar om att identifiera brister och förbättringsåtgärder inom svensk miljöbedömning, ser målkonfliktshantering inom kommunal planering som ett bristområde som behöver förbättras, inte minst genom att erhålla ökad kunskap om nuläget.

    Denna studie har till syfte att utreda hur målkonflikter identifieras och hanteras på kommunal nivå i Sverige inom ramen för kommunal översiktsplanering med tillhörande miljökonsekvensbeskrivning, samt att ge några rekommendationer för hur målkonfliktshantering skulle kunna förbättras. Studien baseras på en textanalys gjord utifrån plandokument från 80 kommuner, samt en mer djupgående intervjustudie med tjänstemän som arbetat med översiktsplanerna på tre kommuner.

    Idag saknas lagkrav på att inkludera målkonfliktsanalyser inom kommunal planering och miljöbedömning. Detta är troligen huvudanledning till att målkonflikter i nuläget lyfts fram i relativt liten grad i plandokumenten. Enligt resultaten från textanalysen tar 60 % av de granskade kommunerna upp målkonflikter någonstans i översiktsplanen eller den tillhörande miljökonsekvensbeskrivningen, men endast 11 % utför en strukturerad analys. Bristen på lagkrav kan också vara en anledning till att det i nuläget inte finns några övergripande strategier och verktyg att utgå ifrån som planerare, vilket har lett till enskilda kommuner har fått hitta sina egna lösningar.

    Att utgå ifrån kartor, respektive matriser, för att strukturerat kunna identifiera och analysera målkonflikter är metoder som använts i fallen med några av de intervjuade kommunerna. Sådana metoder kan hjälpa till att enkelt och strukturerat öka uppmärksamheten på de målkonflikter som kan uppstå i plandokumenten, samt att lyfta med dem till senare beslutssteg. Uppföljning av målkonflikterna till senare planeringssteg är dock utifrån intervjustudien i många fall oklar eller bristande. Att målkonflikterna följs upp är avgörande för att målkonfliktsanalysen ska ge någon positiv effekt på planeringen och inte förbli en skrivbordsprodukt. Att arbeta nära beslutsfattarna i en grupp bestående av personer med bred kompetens har identifierats som en framgångsfaktor för ett lyckat resultat där målkonflikterna har god chans att följas upp.

    I många fall handlar målkonflikter där man måste välja mellan ett mål eller ett annat i grund och botten om personliga värderingar och världsåskådningar. Målkonfliktshantering blir då i praktiken en fråga om diskussion och kompromisser. Att beslutsfattarna i dessa fall får väl informerade beslutsunderlag sammansatta utifrån bred kompetens kan då kraftigt öka möjligheten för att de bästa besluten tas för varje enskild situation.

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