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  • 151.
    Di Vincenzo, Faustino
    et al.
    Department of Economic Studies, G. d'Annunzio University, Pescara, Italy.
    Mascia, Daniele
    Department of Business and Management, LUISS Guido Carli, Rome, Italy.
    Björk, Jennie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product Innovation Technology.
    Attention to ideas! Exploring idea survival in internal crowdsourcing2020In: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper analyzes how the distribution and structure of employees' attention influence idea survival in an organizational internal crowdsourcing session. Design/methodology/approach: Data from an online internal crowdsourcing session carried out within a multinational company with headquarters in Sweden were used to explore how idea attention influenced idea survival. Findings: Our findings indicate that the positive relationship between attention allocation and idea survival is mediated by idea appreciation, i.e. positive comments and suggestions that employees provide in response to ideas. In addition, we find that competition for attention negatively moderates the relationship between idea attention and positive comments. Finally, our results indicate that ideas are more likely to survive if they are submitted earlier in the crowdsourcing process and when the elapsed time since previously posted ideas in the session is longer. Practical implications: This study provides organizers of internal crowdsourcing sessions with new insights about factors influencing idea survival and about potential systematic biases in idea selection due to timing and competition between ideas. Originality/value: This paper contributes to the literature highlighting the relevance of attention-based theory in the context of crowd-based creativity and innovation management.

  • 152. Di Vincenzo, Fausto
    et al.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    Mascia, Daniele
    Exploring the Role of Structural Holes in Learning: an Empirical Study of Swedish Pharmacies2011In: 2011 6th International Forum on Knowledge Asset Dynamics (IFKAD 2011): Knowledge-Based Foundations of the Service Economy, 2011, p. 185-204Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we focus on the structural configuration of social capital, more specifically structural holes, and its inter-relationship with learning. A wide range of literature has analysed social capital and its beneficial effects, however, despite the extensive investigations of social capital, there is surprisingly enough still a lack of studies investigating the role of the structural configuration of the social capital for employees' individual learning. The objective of this paper is to address this gap in the literature, enhancing our understanding of the links between social capital and individual learning. An online questionnaire survey was administered to 252 employees affiliated with the 22 pharmacies. The analysis was made through ordinal logistic regression models based on maximum likelihood estimations. The results suggest that the presence of structural holes first increases the degree of individual learning, then reaches a maximum and begins to decrease gradually. The mechanism at work in the relationship between structural holes and individual learning is an interesting area for further research. Tentative explanations to this cognitive psychological effect are discussed in terms of cognitive distance as well as information overload.

  • 153.
    Dikme, Feride
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Svensson, Emma
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Användarinvolvering inom produktutvecklingsprocessen för skidor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, it is inevitable that the need for users' inputs are increasingly utilized by companies. Understanding the users' needs and wishes is at the center of being able to develop products that are well adapted to the users. Research on different methods is available in many different business areas as there are several examples of its profitability. Ski equipment is generally defined by its features, usability, durability and performance, therefore is its development largely governed by technology. The origin and purpose of this study is to investigate how the users are involved in the ski manufacturing business area. This study explores different methods for user involvement and seeks to understand how different degrees of user involvement are used in practice relative to the literature. This study further analyzes how different ski companies in the Nordic countries integrate users into their product development process and investigates its advantages, disadvantages and consequences. A literature study was conducted to develop a theoretical reference framework composed by various theories that had previously been researched. Thereafter, four different ski companies who produce alpine skis in the Nordic countries were interviewed based on an interview guide that had been developed to answer the research questions. Subsequently, the interviews were transcribed, keywords were traced, six themes were developed and studied in more detail. These themes are; the product developments phases, benefits, challenges, choice of user for the development process, choice of method for user involvement and degree of user involvement. All the companies' similarities and differences were analyzed within the six themes and conclusions were drawn under all of the themes. This study displayed that prototype testing is important for the product development process and is used by all interviewed companies. In addition to prototype testing, users could be involved in more ways and to greater extents. The interviewed companies showed similarities when users were involved in prototype testings but in retrospect, differences in choice of methods and degree of user involvement was immensely varied between the companies. All the companies felt that they involved the users as much as they thought fit and was possible for the product to develop. However, when the companies were compared to each other, it turned out that the degree of user involvement varied greatly. Parallels between the companies' success and degree of user involvement are speculated but no clear conclusions could be drawn.

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  • 154. Dong, Chenchen
    et al.
    Yang, Yu
    Chen, Qian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Wu, Zhenni
    A complex network-based response method for changes in customer requirements for design processes of complex mechanical products2022In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 199, p. 117124-117124, article id 117124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The soaring demand, inevitable changes, and substantial change costs associated with complex mechanical products (CMPs) have accelerated the need to reasonably and accurately respond to changes in customer requirements during the product design process. However, current related studies cannot provide a simple and intuitive decision reference for decision-makers (DMs) to respond to these changes. In this work, a complex network theory-based methodology is proposed. First, a complex network model of CMPs is constructed; this model is processed unidirectionally through analysis of the constraint relation and affiliation among parts. Second, all nodes in this network are divided into levels, and all feasible change propagation paths are selected by breadth-first search. Furthermore, to quantify the change losses of paths, a novel “change workload” is proposed, which is a comprehensive indicator, and a distinct decision reference. The “change workload” is composed of “network change rate,” “change magnification node rate,” and “change magnification rate,” whose weights are evaluated by The Entropy Method and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution. Due to the independence of the “change workload” from expert experience, the proposed methodology is reasonable and capable of outputting a list of affected parts and a preferred ordering of propagation paths, which could provide clearer and more direct guidance for DMs. This presented method is fully proven through a real-world case study of a wind turbine. 

  • 155.
    Drugge, Micaela
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Radikal produktinnovation: En studie om företags inställning och arbetssätt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The technological process is moving forward in a fast-pace with new inventions constantly entering the market. In order to be competitive, companies are required to invest in innovation. Apart of the work on innovation, for long-term success, is the work on radical innovation. In fact, previous research has demonstrated that numerous companies are neglecting the importance of radical innovation and by choice placing resources on incremental innovation. This project aims to examine how companies are reasoning around and dealing with obstacles of radical innovation. The purpose is also to study if there are processes, activities and tools specifically designed for radical innovation and to explore what the mechanisms are behind the fact that radical innovations rarely receive the same attention as incremental ones. This study is partially based on a literature review to build a theoretical background on the conceptof radical innovation, how projects can be pushed reach success and identifying the obstacles that prevent this from occurring. In this part, articles and previous research has been examined. The study is also partially based on an empirical study in the format of semi-structured interviews, where two respondents from two different companies participated. The respondents work closely with innovation and product development for a medium-sized enterprise and a large enterprise. The information collected from theory and the empirical study has then been analyzed, compared and discussed.

    Radical projects are known for problems with insecurity and risk assessment. The literature is set on that working with this kind of projects are challenging, but there are tools for managing uncertainties. There is a need of acceptance toward decision-makers confirming insecure projects, even if the result is often malfunction. According to previous research, divisible arrangement of these projects has been prosperous. In literature, the barriers that prevent radical innovation, have been divided into internal and external. In order to prevent these opposing mechanisms from affecting the work, an initial identification is essential. The results of this research indicate that work with radical innovation occurs, but to a limited extent in comparison with incremental. This is not due to radical innovation having an unsanctioned status, but rather that it has proved difficult to succeed with. The main concern is that radical projects were often dismissed in the initial selection process. Other factors are also crucial, such as lack of knowledge and external factors that impair or restrain the project. In despite of the fact that both tools and activities are available, specifically for idea generation, these resources are infrequently facilitated.

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  • 156.
    Elofsson, Emma
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Arla Sveriges framtida lastbärarstruktur: En fallstudie om kompromissen mellan funktion, ekonomi, arbetsmiljö, miljö och leanprinciper2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The load carrier structure of Arla Sweden consists of a large number of secondary packaging and load car- riers, which are used for transportation of products. Although the number of variants has decreased, the load carrier structure if still poorly adapted to form a modular and flexible solution. This has resulted in difficulty to optimize the operations in warehouses and transportation. Meanwhile, there has been an increase in the number load carrier-related accidents and musculoskeletal injuries over the past two years, which has led to a demand for a work environment evaluation to find improvement actions. In addition to this, Arla is constant- ly working for reducing the environmental and climate impacts throughout the value chain. From external side, the customers’ ordering patterns and store design have changed which have contributed to a further need to review the lead carrier structure.

    The aim of the project is to analyze the two existing secondary packaging red creates and corrugated paper trays through the value chain with regard to the five perspectives: functionality, cost, work environment, envi- ronment and lean. The aim is that the analysis will result in a design specification and a recommendation of focus areas and future load carrier structure.

    The project is performed as a case study of Arla Sweden. Techniques that were used include field studies, observations, interviews, self-assessments, surveys, tests, ergonomic assessments and analysis of historical data. The analysis covered five types of secondary packaging, three of reusable crates (red create, new Arla crate and SRS-crate) and two disposable packaging (cardboard and plastic trays).

    The results showed that the red crate was the most advantageous alternative from a cost and environmental perspective. The new Arla crate and the SRS-crate were the most expensive, but also the most beneficial from a function, safety and lean perspective. The disposable packaging received unfavorable results in all categor- ies. Still, it has a functional advantage for customers who prefer not to deal with reusable packaging.

    All load carrier structures has both advantages and disadvantages. The recommendation is based on the prior- itazion: function, work environment, environment and cost. Standardization based on lean organization strat- egy is considered to be guiding in the long term. As a result of the red crate’s cost and environmental ad- vantages, Arla is recommended continuing with the current load carrier structure in the short term and to evaluate the plastic tray with a focus on durability and functionality. Furthermore, Arla is suggested to reduce the number of picking load carriers and to standardize the picking method and packaging dimensions. To ensure further logistical development of the load carrier system, Arla is recommended to appoint a respon- sible person. In the long term an automation of the cold store in Kallhäll should be evaluated. Finally, Arla suggested moving to a modular and flexible load carrier structure consisting of a EUR pallet, a half pallet, a roller pallet, a larger crate and a small tray. This is expected to result in several benefits, including increased feed efficiency, reduced operational costs, better working environment and reduced environmental impact. 

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  • 157. Eneström, P.
    et al.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Arbetssätt och miljöhänsyn i produktutveckling: en intervjustudie i små och medelstora företag2000Report (Other academic)
  • 158. Eneström, P.
    et al.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Environmental adaptation of products in small and medium-sized enterprises2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 159. Eneström, P
    et al.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Norell Bergendahl, Margareta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Co-Operation Between Supplier: Buyer in Integrated Product Development1999In: Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Engineering Design, Munich, 1999, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 160. Eneström, P
    et al.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Norell Bergendahl, Margareta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Co-operation between Supplier-Buyer in Integrated Product Development : A Pilot Study1997In: International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, Tampere, Finland, 1997, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 161. Eneström, P.
    et al.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Norell Bergendahl, Margareta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    The need for supplier expertise in product development2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Eriksson, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Holmberg, Jacob
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Disruptiv innovation och hållbar design i produktutvecklingsprocesser: En fallstudie2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's society needs to undergo a sustainability transformation in order to meet the global climate challenges and goals. Disruptive companies are expected to lead this movement as they have an opportunity to deliver innovation and present products and solutions that the world has never seen before. Established players often have difficulty adjusting and succeeding in delivering sustainable products, among other things because they have an ability to overlook profitability in emerging markets or because the company structure and culture are difficult to change. As innovative companies of a disruptive nature are expected to lead tomorrow's green product development, it is thus interesting to investigate whether ambitious sustainability strategies can be a source of disruptive innovation. The purpose of this report is to investigate whether sustainability ambitions can act as a driving force for disruptive innovation in the product development process, as well as to investigate opportunities and challenges that arise. This is a qualitative literature study where a theoretical frame of reference is built around disruptive innovation and sustainability. Interviews have been conducted with a company that has succeeded in delivering a high-performance and sustainable product, which had a disruptive impact. The results from the interviews have been analyzed and compared against existing theory in order to be able to answer the purpose. The results show that the sustainability ambitions of the company are not necessarily the underlying driver for the disruptive product. The disruptive factor probably depends more on the company's overall vision and concept of offering a premium product which include quality, measurable performance, cutting edge of innovation and that the product must fulfill a larger purpose. To deliver on this vision, the company has had to develop almost all of the components itself, entailing a total component control and therefore great opportunities to influence on innovation, sustainability and performance.

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  • 163.
    Erlandsson, Kasper
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Seing, Eric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Kommunikationskanaler inom produktutvecklingsprocessen: före och under covid-19 pandemin2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Well-functioning communication is very important for companies, and especially in product development projects. Historically, communication has been built around physical contact, even if it has changed recently in conjunction with globalization and digitalization where companies have used more communication at a distance. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed the conditions for companies to communicate, which have forced many companies to make quick changes to adapt how they communicate. The purpose of this report is to study which communication channels have been used in the product development process before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Focus on changes in how channels are used, if new channels have been added and the consequences. The report is a literature study in conjunction with our own interviews to gather information about communication within the product development process. The literature study has given a ground for how communication works inside of companies before the pandemic. The interviews have been focused on how the communication is presently, during the pandemic and how the communication has changed because of it, and what effects the changes have done to the work itself. Three organizations of different sizes have been studied. Two organizations experienced a big change because of the pandemic, in how they communicate and what effects it has done to their work, where the creative segment has been a challenge and the informal communication drastically diminished. Despite large readjustments, both have managed the situation well. Even some improvements with the communication are mentioned. For example, the opportunity to jump in and out of a meeting and the digital growth for employees of communication channels. The third organization has continued working in place and has not experienced any drastic changes correlated to the communication.

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  • 164.
    Erninger, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Wikner, Frida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Involvering av franchisetagare i produktutvecklingsprocessen - Rekommendationer för ICA Sverige2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests several benefits for companies that choose to include their customers in the product development process. It also reveals that making use of the employees’ creativity and knowledge is essential to become successful in the market. Unfortunately, many companies fail to do so. The format of franchising has increased in popularity. The strengths of the format are built on the sharing of knowledge between the franchisor and the franchisees.  The franchisees can be seen as customers who purchase the products, but also as an employee since they represent the company and have direct access to information about the end consumer’s situation and needs. Therefore, the franchisors should start to view their franchisees as co-creators of value and integrators of resources. The Swedish franchise network ICA wish to find out more about what the communication between the franchisor and franchisee looks like today, concerning questions relating to the innovation or product development process. They also wish for a recommendation on how this can be improved in the future. An empirical study was therefore conducted at the two departments, with open and semi structured interviews. The mapping of the existing communication channels showed that the communication lacked a proper structure and that ICA lacks a developed digital system in order to maintain an open dialogue and share knowledge between ICA centrally and the franchisees. It also showed that a greater inclusion would result in several benefits. For future communication, the employees wanted channels for both general communication with the network as a whole, as well as opportunities for a more exclusive dialogue with selected franchisees. The study recommends a new approach to integration, transparency and dialogue with franchisees for ICA. The study also proposes a number of concrete tools that takes into account the wishes, requirements and conditions identified by the employees.

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  • 165. Farrugia, L.
    et al.
    Castro, L. R.
    Beldi, N. B.
    Wünsch, A.
    Hagman, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Drágár, Z.
    Cleaning genie: An international case study in integrated product development2014In: Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Integrated Design Engineering, IDE 2014, Otto-von-Guericke-University , 2014, p. 133-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper documents the product development project that was carried out following the first session of the Integrated Product Development Summer School (ipdISS14). The first part of this summer school was held in Malta in May 2014. The second part was held in Magdeburg in September. The team was comprised of six members from five EU institutions and the aim of the project was develop a cleaning solution for delicate objects by using an Integrated Product Development methodology. The report presents the process in detail as well as important lessons learned. The final solution proposed, Cleaning Genie, is a cleaning add-on for cordless screwdrivers for the consumer market. Many households are lacking effective and cost efficient means of cleaning delicate objects, little did they know that the common cordless screwdriver that most of them have in their toolbox together with the affordable Cleaning Genie add-ons can solve their cleaning problems. Cleaning Genie is targeting an enormous consumer market by applying bundling and low price strategies.

  • 166. Folkesson, A
    et al.
    Gralén, KNorell Bergendahl, MargaretaKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.Sellgren, Ulf LKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Research for practice: Innovation in products, processes and organizations2003Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 167. Folkesson, A
    et al.
    Gralén, KNorell Bergendahl, MargaretaKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.Sellgren, Ulf LKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Research for practice: Innovation in products, processes and organizations.2003Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 168. Franch, Xavier
    et al.
    Kennet, R.
    Mancinelli, F.
    Susi, Angelo
    Ameller, D.
    Annosi, Maria Carmela
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ben-Jacob, R.
    Blumenfeld, Y.
    Franco, O. H.
    Gross, D.
    Lopez, L.
    Morandini, M.
    Hilari, M. O.
    Siena, A.
    The ACME [*] Platform for Risk Management in Open Source Software Adoption2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 169. Fresa, Antonio
    et al.
    Annosi, Maria Carmela
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Forte, F.
    Corrective Maintenance Process: A Case Study from a Telecom Software Development and Maintenance Organization2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 170.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol, Entrepreneurship & Innovat Res Grp, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Richtner, Anders
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Management & Org, SE-11383 Luleå, Sweden..
    Brattström, Anna
    Lund Univ, Sch Econ & Management, Dept Business Adm, Box 117, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Björk, Jennie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Opportunities and challenges in the new innovation landscape: Implications for innovation auditing and innovation management2019In: European Management Journal, ISSN 0263-2373, E-ISSN 1873-5681, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 151-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation auditing is a well-established practice used by managers to identify strengths and weaknesses in innovation. Existing audit frameworks fall short, however, because they neglect three major trends that currently transform the innovation landscape. These trends are as follows: 1) a shift from closed to more open models of innovation ("openness"), 2) a shift from providing physical products to industrial product services ("servitization"), and 3) a shift from an analog to a highly digitalized world ("digitalization"). This article identifies new innovation practices, opportunities, and challenges that arise for manufacturing firms along these trends. The article proposes a revised innovation audit framework, which acknowledges these trends and supports innovation management in increasingly dynamic and competitive environments. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 171.
    FRISK ARFVIDSSON, NILS
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    ÖSTLIN, DAVID
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Kunskapsbevarande under och inom produktutvecklingsprojekt: Hur flödet av kunskap fungerar hos företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att ta tillvara på tidigare kunskap och information blir av större vikt för företag. Strategier för att ta tillvara på denna typ av information har blivit vanligare och företag använder sig av teorier så som Knowledge Management och Information Management. Inom produktutvecklingsprojekt skapas mycket kunskap och det är därför viktigt att företag har processer för hur de lagrar och tar tillvara på kunskapen för att sedan implementera kunskapen i senare projekt. Denna studie syftar till att förstå hur företag använder tidigare kunskap och skapar mening från den, inom produktutvecklingsprojekt. Den syftar även till att förstå hur företag går tillväga för att spara och lagra denna kunskap. För att förstå varför individer agerar som de gör i specifika situationer har även resultaten analyserats ur aspekter som kognitivism och meningsskapande. Detta belyser hur individer bemöter och bearbetar information. Vidare framgår det att de strategiska tillvägagångsätt som enkelt kan implementeras hos företag saknar den psykologiska aspekt som är nödvändig för att förstå personalen. Studien har analyserat hur två tillverkande, innovativa globala företag tar tillvara på och implementerar kunskap med koppling till teorier och litteraturstudie. Arbetet är utfört genom ett kvalitativt tillvägagångssätt. Studien har utförts genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med en projektledare och två projektarbetare på respektive företag. Genom att utföra dessa intervjuer går det att påvisa att företagen har processer för att lagra information, kunskap och data, dock har respondenterna svårt att klassificera vad som är skillnaden mellan dessa. Ytterligare finner studien att dessa processer är tydliga för lagringen av information och data men vid överföringen av kunskap förlitar sig företagen på personalisering, att kunskap överförs genom interaktion med andra individer. Företagen är även omedvetna om de metoder och processer som finns för att främja personaliseringen även om de anammar flertalet av dem. Vidare är det just under början av projekten som processerna för kunskapsimplementering är extra tydliga. Det framgår också att de tydliga processerna för lagringen av information och data är konkreta och förankrade högt i hierarkin på företaget, hur informationen lagras är alltså bestämt på en högre nivå. Dock visar resultatet av studien att det finns en viss avsaknad hos de som implementerar processerna för personalens kognitivism och meningsskapande. Däremot om denna information används i framtida projekt och processer är ytterst oklart.

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  • 172. Frisk, E
    et al.
    Nordqvist, E
    Norell Bergendahl, Margareta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Concurrent Engineering: Strategies for Feasibility Studies in Product Development1995In: International Conference on Engineering Design ICED 1995, Praha, 1995Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 173. Garbajosa, J.
    et al.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Wang, X.
    Generating innovations for the internet of things: Agility and speed2017In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) bears great potential for innovation in modern companies. Agility and speed both matter when innovating in such a context. The first Inno4IoT workshop focuses on how to properly achieve and balance the two aspects while innovating IoT-based solutions, which represents unique opportunities and challenges to researchers and practitioners alike. An overview of the three working papers presented and published in the workshop is provided in this introductory paper.

  • 174. Giaccone, S. C.
    et al.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product Innovation Technology.
    Unveiling the role of risk-taking in innovation: antecedents and effects2022In: R&D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 93-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses innovation development with a focus on risk-taking, widely considered a relevant driver for the exploration and exploitation of new ideas. The study empirically examines the effects of risk-taking propensity on innovation performance and its antecedents. We consider the role of several key antecedents related to the organizational structure and the activities of firms aimed at encouraging employees to take risks in innovation. We performed an empirical survey within a global and innovation-oriented Swedish company to test our hypotheses. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to analyze the collected data. The results highlight the significant effect of risk-taking on innovation performance and show that the availability of organizational resources, innovation support activities, clear innovation goals, and collaboration have a significant positive effect on risk-taking. However, contrary to the hypothesis, well-established innovation processes have a significant but negative effect on risk-taking and innovation performance. This study contributes to existing knowledge on the role of risk-taking for innovation, providing insights into designing organizational contexts that encourage an appropriate risk appetite in employees.

  • 175. Gieskes, J. F. B.
    et al.
    Hyland, P. W.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Organizational Learning Barriers in Distributed Product Development: Observations from a Multi-National Company2002In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 310-319Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Grimheden, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Berglund, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Creating a better world by international collaboration in product innovation engineering - The piep way2009In: DS 59: Proceedings of E and PDE 2009, the 11th Engineering and Product Design Education Conference - Creating a Better World, 2009, p. 38-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes efforts undertaken within the Swedish Product Innovation Engineering program (PIEp), in the area of education for product innovation. A key aspect of the program is to create a systematic change in higher engineering education in product development, to move toward a focus on innovative product development, where entrepreneurship thrives and student ideas are brought to reality. Examples include the introduction of new undergraduate and graduate courses in innovation engineering, close integration between project courses offered at PIEp partner universities, joint research projects, and workshops that allow entrepreneurs and companies to better utilize student ideas and projects. During the first years of PIEp, in the build-up phase, a large effort has been placed on creating an international network of'innovation friends'. We strongly believe that there is no need to invent the wheel again - rather we have an obligation to search for, find and gather all relevant actors within this field, on the global arena. Within the rather limited network of partners and friends we have established this far, we have explored several common interest areas, including activities such as university-spanning workshops and collaborative projects.

  • 177.
    Grimheden, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Hanson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Norell Bergendahl, Margareta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    PIEp: Product Innovation Engineering Program2007In: Proceedings of ICED 2007, the 16th International Conference on Engineering Design, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the establishment of a large research, education and development program in the area of innovation engineering, the Product Innovation Engineering Program, PIEp. The program is intended as a network of researchers, educators and students in innovation with the purpose of creating a systematic shift toward innovation and entrepreneurship in institutes of higher education and research. The initial PIEp consortium consists of: Faculty of Engineering at Lund University, Umeå Institute of Design at Umeå University, International Business School and School of Engineering at Jönköping University, Center for Technology and Health, Sweden and is coordinated by the School of Industrial Technology and Management at the Royal Institute of Technology. PIEp is organized in five activity fields, ranging from research in innovation to product- and business development through education in innovation. The organization is based on a model where the five fields generate knowledge and feed back knowledge and experiences to the other fields. The program is initially funded by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems, VINNOVA, Innovationsbron AB (a Swedish organization that supports business development through incubators and seed capital), the collaborating universities and a number of private sponsors. The program was launched in late 2006 and is intended to run for ten years. The first research projects and educational activities have started, and the PIEp program is now inviting more national and international partners.

  • 178.
    Grimheden, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Norell Bergendahl, Margareta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Product Innovation Engineering Program: A Systematic Change Towards Innovation in Engineering Education2007In: Proceedings of the 3rd International CDIO Conference, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Grimheden, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Coaching Students into the Concept of Design Engineering2005In: Proceedings of the International conference on engineering design, ICED 05, Melbourne, Australia, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Grimheden, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Examples of research areas related to the Product Innovation Engineering Program, PIEp2008Report (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Gutierrez, Ernesto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Abedi, Aref
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Wallsten, Jakob
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    A method for designing processes for Project Portfolio Management2010In: Proceedings of the 8th International NordDesign Conference 2010 / [ed] Andreas Dagman, Rikard Söderberg, 2010, p. 55-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is the process that aims to the evaluation, selection and prioritization of ideas and projects for developing new products. PPM is considered a key managerial task and a core competence influencing companies.

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  • 182.
    Gutierrez, Ernesto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University.
    What's a good idea?: understanding evalaution and selection of new product ideas2009In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED'09), Vol. 3, 2009, p. 121-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how ideas for new products are evaluated and selected in industrial companies. It is based on an empirical and explorative study in three companies, using qualitative interviews. The findings indicate that a good idea is the result of a process in which at the same time the idea is generated, evaluated and selected. This process determines which ideas are further developed, which of them reach a formal decision-making forum and, to some extent, the decisions made in these official forums. This process is characterized by a social and a cognitive aspect, overlooked in normative literature. The social aspect is about interaction between people that makes possible to combine formal and informal processes, and rational and non-rational approaches for developing and evaluating ideas with different grades of ambiguity and uncertainty. The cognitive aspect refers to how ideas and company's context are interpreted, in individual and collective levels, for making evaluations on ideas. Implications of these findings for designing supporting methods for evaluation and selection of ideas are discussed; and general descriptions of a practical method suggested.

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  • 183.
    Gutierrez, Ernesto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Dealing with legitimacy: A key challenge for Project Portfolio Management decision makers2014In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 30-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has considered combining different decision-making approaches to be critical to achieve flexibility in Project Portfolio Management (PPM). Lacking flexibility, i.e., making decisions only by rational and formal approaches, might lead to a deficient balance between different types of ideas and projects, and this may lead to innovation opportunities being missed. However, the challenges that decision makers might face in achieving that flexibility have not been investigated thoroughly. In an interview study of three industrial companies, we explored how different decision-making approaches are combined in PPM. We found that rational and formal decision-making processes are experienced as more legitimate than informal and non-rational ones. Decision makers deal with legitimacy by certain mechanisms that allow them to bypass high accepted approaches and legitimizing decisions made by low accepted ones. We discuss how these mechanisms, while contributing to achieving flexibility, might also cause a bias in decisions and destabilization in resource allocation.

  • 184.
    Gutiérres, Ernesto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Janhager, Jenny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Project Portfolio Management: research for improving practice2009Report (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Gutiérrez, Ernesto
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Decision making in innovation: understanding selection and prioritizaiton of development projects2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has its origin in empirical evidence. Some Swedish companies claimed that despite having plenty of proposals for developing new products, they experienced problems when choosing from all those alternatives. Their problem was how to select among new ideas the ones for being developed and the ones to be rejected, how many projects to run according to their capacity, when to start a development project and when to stop one, and how to decide among ongoing projects which the most important ones were. The companies’ problem was decision making in the context of innovation.

     According to literature, a deeper understanding is needed of the decision making process in innovation, taking into account its organizational and procedural complexities. The purpose of this thesis is to achieve an understanding of the decision making process in innovation.  The thesis is based on an explorative study, with interviews carried out in three companies that have new product development as a core competitive factor. The empirical study focuses on the decisions made for selection and prioritization of different innovative alternatives. 

    As a result of the analysis of the empirical data a conceptualization of the decision making process was developed. Furthermore, it was described the relevant problems that decision makers experience, the main characteristics of the decision making process and the role that decision making plays in innovation. The implications of these findings for designing work procedures to support decision making in innovation were discussed; and general descriptions of two practical methods suggested. 

    The main findings indicate that for making decisions in the context of innovation, organizations must be able to face uncertain and ambiguous situations, and achieve a collective understanding about what is to be done. To do this, different approaches for making decisions and understanding innovation are needed. However, regardless of the appropriateness of these approaches, they receive different levels of acceptance within organizations; and decision makers must deal with the different grades of organizational acceptance of the different approaches. As a consequence, an organization displays certain dynamic using different approaches for making decisions and for understanding innovation. Such dynamic influences the companies’ innovative potential and the output of the innovation process.

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  • 186.
    Gutiérrez, Ernesto
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Evaluation and selection of ideas and projects in product development2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development has become an important competitive factor for most companies. A central task is to select which projects, often from a large number of project proposals, are to be developed in order to achieve strategic objectives without exceeding available resources. Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is the research discipline which focuses on the decision-making processes used to evaluate, select and prioritise projects. Previous research has stated that companies must be able to select and commit resources to different types of ideas and projects. However, it is widely believed that PPM literature has not sufficiently investigated the challenges that companies might face when putting into practice different decision-making approaches to select different types of ideas and projects.

    This thesis aims to explore how different types of ideas and projects are evaluated and selected in the context of the development of complex technological products. It is based on a qualitative research approach and interviews and observations have been carried out with the cooperation of six companies.

    The findings of this thesis reveal that because different decision-making approaches encounter different levels of acceptance within an organisation, the dynamics by which an idea evolves are affected by the way in which decision makers deal with the legitimacy of the decision-making approaches that they put into practice. Decision makers use some mechanisms that allow them to avoid drawing exclusively on the highly accepted approaches when they are not considered to be suitable, and to give legitimacy to the decisions that have been made by the less accepted approaches. In addition, the way in which decision makers experience a decision situation influences how it is approached. If they experience ambiguity, they might display a decision-making logic in which actions are allowed to be taken within self-organised social interactions, in order to make sense of the idea, project or criteria. However, the occurrence of self-organised interactions is conditioned by how decision makers negotiate resources with stakeholders that display different interests and decision-making logics.

    These findings question the objective view that assumes that ideas and projects are already defined at the moment the decision is made and are able to be classified in pre-defined categories. It also led to the question of whether problems in fulfilling resource allocation plans and the risk of biases in decision making are problems that arise due to poor decision-making practices, and whether they should, instead, be understood as probable consequences of a flexible process.

    Finally, this thesis explores a way of enhancing decision makers’ abilities through scenarios in which decision makers experience decision situations and reflect on their own ways of making decisions.

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  • 187.
    Gutiérrez, Ernesto
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Managing ambiguity when evaluating and selecting new ideas in Project Portfolio Management2014In: International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (IJITM), ISSN 0219-8770, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 1450030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating and selecting new ideas are central activities in Project Portfolio Management (PPM). PPM dominant approach assumes that both ideas and decision criteria are clearly defined at their evaluation. It does not take into consideration ambiguous situations in which ideas are not fully understood, or there are opposing opinions about their classification. We explore evaluation of ideas when PPM decision makers experience ambiguity. We found that they allow ideas to be developed further, which helps them to understand purposes, reveal benefits and construct judgments. However, it also affects resource allocation because it requires resources that had already been assigned.

  • 188.
    Gutiérrez, Ernesto
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    When sensemaking meets resource allocation: an exploratory study of ambiguous ideas in Project Portfolio Management2011In: 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 2011), 2011, p. 373-382Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in Project Portfolio Management (PPM) has proposed tools and models for evaluating, selecting and prioritizing ideas and projects in product development. However, empirical evidence indicates that most companies still experience problems when managing their portfolios. PPM literature has mainly focused on evaluation models in which clearly defined ideas are evaluated against predetermined decision criteria. It is considered that this approach is not suitable for ambiguous ideas, where people face difficulties in understanding or classifying an idea. In this article we explore the evaluation of ambiguous ideas in PPM. We found that when people experience ambiguity they take small steps in the further development of an idea for giving to it the clarity that it was lacking before. This process for making sense of the ambiguous situation is conditioned by the resource allocation process which has its own logic and dynamic. We discuss these findings for explaining why some ideas are not evaluated according to the evaluation models proposed in PPM literature; and why the resource allocation process within PPM does not work as management planned it to.

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  • 189.
    Gutiérrez, Ernesto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Janhager, Jenny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Designing work procedures for project portfolio management2008In: PROCEEDINGS OF NORDDESIGN 2008 / [ed] Roosimolder, L., TALLINN UNIV TECH , 2008, p. 285-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is about how companies evaluate, select and prioritize ideas and projects for developing new products. This is aimed to align development investments with company's strategic goals and to reduce the risk caused by uncertainty. Research regarding the procedural aspects of PPM is still considered not enough developed. It is needed a better theoretical ground about which organizational processes should be included in PPM, how they influence each other, and how a work procedure should be designed for suiting a specific company. This paper focuses on understanding the characteristics of processes and activities within PPM. It is grounded on an empirical study in three companies based on qualitative research inter-views. It was found that that processes within PPM have five main characteristics: reciprocal influence, parallel running, network of actors, multiple decision levels and decision-realization gap. It is also discussed the implications of these findings for the design of work procedures for PPM.

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  • 190.
    Gutiérrez, Ernesto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Janhager, Jenny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Innovation and decision making: understanding selection and prioritization of development projects2008In: 2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY, VOLS 1-3, IEEE , 2008, p. 333-338Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the problems decision makers experience when selecting and prioritizing new ideas and development projects. It is based on an explorative study, with interviews carried out in three companies that have new product development as a core competitive factor.

    The findings indicate that to deal with all the situations and problems that may arise in the innovation process, various approaches for making decisions and understanding innovation are needed. However, regardless of the appropriateness of these approaches for given circumstances, they receive different levels of acceptance at an organizational plane. This puts decision makers in the conflictive situation of sometimes having to use approaches to work that are appropriate but not accepted, and other times accepted but inappropriate. Furthermore, an organization's potential to create new products, and consequently its future competitiveness, depends on how its members deal with the organizational acceptance of the approaches used.

    We discuss the implications of these findings for designing work procedures for selecting and prioritizing ideas and projects.

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  • 191.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Liridona, Sopjani
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Visual Analytics to Support the Service Design for Sustainable Mobility2018In: 2018 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability, SusTech 2018, IEEE, 2018, p. 84-89, article id 8671353Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent transport system is a general term for the combined application of communication technologies, control and information processing for transport systems. Intelligent transport system covers all modes of transportation - including public transport - and all elements of the transportation system, such as the vehicle, infrastructure, and the driver. Integrated transport system allows a series of new unconventional solutions to improve the safety of the traffic and to satisfy transport requirements using new technologies. The service design of these systems, however, brings along different challenges.The process of service design requires the designers to engage with user behavior and understand the usage patterns related to the intelligent transport systems. Today, there are no well-developed methods to support this engagement. This paper suggests a data-oriented visual analytics approach to support designers in their decision-making processes, the implementation of successful services for sustainable, shared mobility service systems, and data-oriented approaches. Moreover, this paper discusses visual analytics as a tool to aid service designers by enabling real-time data analytics support.To this end, this paper summarizes the current literature on system innovation, challenges related to the design of these systems for sustainability and presents a shared and connected mobility service case study to illustrate the benefits of having visual analytics platforms for sustainable and intelligent transport systems. The study concludes that intuitive, data-oriented, interactive visual analytics approach has the potential to support service designers to create a coherent picture of the user in the service design process.

  • 192. Hafström, I
    et al.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Max, A
    An Exploration of Swedish Companies’ Offshoring of R&D Activities to China2010In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A trend among manufacturing companies is offshoring of R&D. The aim of this study is to investigate Swedish companies' offshoring of R&D activities to China, utilizing both a survey and explorative case studies. The survey results show that 9% of the companies have offshored R&D to China, that performance in China is satisfactory, primarily in terms of costs, and that there is a need for strong integration mechanisms to handle coordination and information sharing. Based on the case studies, a categorization of firms offshoring R&D into Market- & Talent-driven firms and Low-cost & Supply-driven firms is proposed, as these have different challenges and require different managerial solutions. Finally, a dilemma concerning information sharing and innovation is identified and discussed.

  • 193.
    Hagman, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Diffusion of Battery Electric Vehicles: The Role of Total Cost of Ownership2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to their high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions and possibilities of using renewable electricity, Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) have been proposed as a way to alleviate the negative consequences of transport. However, as with other energy-efficient innovations market uptake or diffusion of BEVs have so far been limited. Three main barriers for BEV diffusion have been identified in the literature: limited range, lack of charging and high purchase price. Range and charging have been extensively studied. The high purchase price and other ownership costs of BEVs has not received the same amount of attention. The focus of this thesis is to go beyond the purchase price of BEVs, that in general is higher than for Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs). This thesis will center on costs; as the low running cost of BEVs validates further investigations regarding the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) compared to ICEVs. The aim of this thesis is therefore to investigate the TCO of BEVs for both private and professional use-cases relative to the TCO of ICEVs, and further, to explore to which degree TCO is incorporated in the vehicle choice process. The main theoretical underpinnings of this thesis are innovation diffusion theory, a set of theories that describes the process by which an innovation is adopted among the members of a social system. In a narrower consumer behavior setting, rational choice and the emerging literature in behavior economics also forms an important theoretical basis for this thesis. The method choices in the four studies included in this thesis reflects the complex socio-technical system that BEVs inhabits. A mix of quantitative (e.g. surveys and driving data) and qualitative (interviews) methods have been used.

    The results of Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) computations in this thesis indicate that the actual cost of BEVs can be lower than for equivalent ICEVs. This has been validated for different contexts and use-cases in both private and professional settings. However, the actual TCO of BEVs is likely to have a small influence on vehicle choice. The results indicate that only a small minority (4 %) of mainstream vehicle buyers conducted a complete TCO analysis and that the majority (58 %) did not calculate any ownerships costs into their vehicle choice process. In addition, vehicle buyers have a poor understanding of on-going vehicle ownership costs of their present vehicle. Thus, they are uninformed about vehicle costs in general and of TCO in particular. Calculating TCO is a challenging task for consumers, requiring both cognitive efforts and time. It can be suspected that vehicle buyers instead use purchase price as a proxy for TCO. Approximation of costs through purchase price could yield significant overestimation in the cost of owning and operating a BEV. This thesis argues that the market introduction of BEVs requires a new approach to evaluate vehicle costs among the stakeholders involved. The relationship between high effort costs and unknown ownership cost is radically altered due to the low ownership costs of BEVs. The potential rewards of being attentive to TCO are thus larger in the case of BEVs compared to ICEVs. Several aspects have been found to correlate to being more TCO attentive: higher income, higher educational level, having a larger comparison set of vehicles and increased stated importance of TCO in vehicle choice. However, vehicle buyers receive little assistance from vehicle

    salespeople in estimating TCO of BEVs. Vehicle salespeople often focus on purchase price instead of taking the time to estimate TCO. Lower financial incentives for selling BEVs could be an underlying cause for vehicle salespeople not to emphasize the potential cost superiorities of BEVs in relation to ICEVs. In addition, the results allude that additional barriers related to BEV diffusion remains important. This is exemplified in the professional use-case of taxis that was investigated in this thesis, where range and charging limitations of BEVs negatively affected work conditions.

    Four main conclusions can be drawn based on the results of this thesis: BEVs can be TCO competitive with ICEVs, TCO is rarely applied in the vehicle choice process, the market introduction of BEVs requires a new approach to evaluate vehicle costs among the stakeholders involved, and that improved understanding and application of vehicle TCO would improve the diffusion outlook of BEVs by improving their relative advantage. Based on these conclusions it is recommend that industry and public policy address the apparent misalignment between perceived and actual TCO of BEVs. This can be done by: improving knowledge of TCO among vehicle buyers, creating a comprehensive yet simple to use TCO computational tool and increasing the financial incentives of selling BEVs for vehicle salespeople.

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  • 194.
    Hagman, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Janhager Stier, Jenny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Selling electric vehicles: Experiences from vehicle salespeople in Sweden2020In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles have thus far only captured a small share of the vehicle market. Much research has been focused on the perspective of existing or prospective adopters of Electric Vehicles. Less emphasis has been placed on intermediaries such as vehicle salespeople, who could be an important mediator in the product matching process by providing useful information, facilitating direct experience and having a direct influence on adoption decisions of vehicle buyers. This paper addresses this research gap by means of a qualitative investigation of vehicle salespeople at OEMs who sell both Electric Vehicles and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles on the Swedish market. 15 interviews with vehicle salespeople at leading OEMs were conducted in the fall of 2017. The results reveal that the sales process of vehicles is mainly focused on the sales of Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles. Electric Vehicles are treated as a niche product which often requires the vehicle buyer to initiate the sales process. It can be concluded that relatively few steps have been taken by OEMs, dealerships and vehicle salespeople to influence mainstream buyers to consider Electric Vehicles as an alternative to Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles at the point of sale. Possible reasons for the bias towards Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles can be found in the apparent lack of training and experience regarding Electric Vehicles among vehicle salespeople, longer sales and delivery times for Electric Vehicles and a commission structure that that often favors Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles.

  • 195.
    Hagman, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Langbroek, Joram H. M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Conditions for electric vehicle taxi: A case study in the Greater Stockholm region2019In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 450-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the usability of electric vehicles (EVs) in a taxi company in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. By investigating cost and revenue data of both electric and conventional taxi vehicles, as well as by interviewing taxi drivers and carriers, an assessment has been made of the financial and operational implications of using EVs in a company's taxi fleet. Both the drivers' and the carriers' perspectives have been examined. The main findings are that the investigated e-taxis have a similar or lower Total Cost of Ownership and slightly higher profitability than the investigated conventional taxis. For taxi drivers, using e-taxis implies more advanced planning and revenue service time being sacrificed for charging. However, certain customers' preferences for EVs, as well as benefits such as corporate clients favoring e-taxis and a zero emission priority queuing system at Stockholm's main international airport (partly) compensate for time devoted to charging. In order to facilitate increased use of e-taxis, more fast charging facilities should become available at strategic locations. Besides that, there are signs that carriers' lack of information about the opportunities and consequences of shifting towards e-taxis hamper a wider deployment of e-taxis.

  • 196.
    Hagman, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Janhager Stier, Jenny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    The TCO Paradox: A Key Problem in the Diffusion of Energy Efficient Vehicles?2017In: American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, ISSN 2164-5167, E-ISSN 2164-5175, Vol. 7, p. 1267-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore how mainstream vehicle buyers perceive and apply Total Cost of Ownership in their vehicle choice process. All else equal, rational consumers ought to evaluate Total Cost of Ownership in order to acquire the real cost of owning a particular vehicle under consideration, unless bounded rationality is affecting their behavior. The results reveal that vehicle buyers generally are capable of understanding the relative size of indi- vidual costs that make up vehicle Total Cost of Ownership but fail to evaluate and apply multiple costs in their vehicle purchase process. Regression analysis exposes that income, educational level, stated importance of Total Cost of Ownership and the number of vehicles in the choice set have a positive asso- ciation with the degree that consumers conduct an evaluation of vehicle Total Cost of Ownership. Failure to consider Total Cost of Ownership can lead to uneconomic vehicle choices, which is here labeled as the TCO paradox. This could have an especially negative effect on the diffusion of battery electric ve- hicles, which require a more detailed cost analysis in order to extract its low operating cost structure.

  • 197.
    Hagman, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Janhager Stier, Jenny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    The Total Cost of Ownership paradox and its implications for Electric Vehicle diffusion2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Hagman, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Janhager Stier, Jenny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Total cost of ownership and its potential implications for battery electric vehicle diffusion2016In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409, Vol. 18, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have been slow to diffuse on the international as well as the Swedish market. Previous studies have indicated situational factors such as economic factors, size and performance to be of major importance for vehicle purchasers in their choice of vehicle. In this paper, the authors explore a consumer centric total cost of ownership (TCO) model to investigate the possible discrepancy between purchase price and the TCO between internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and BEVs. The creation and testing of the TCO model reveals that computation could be a challenging task for consumers due to bounded access of relevant data and the prediction of future conditions. The application of the model to the vehicle sample found that BEVs could be cheaper compared to ICEVs and HEVs. The findings in this paper could prove to be of importance for policy and marketing alike in designing the most appropriate business models and information campaigns based on consumer conditions in order to further promoting the diffusion of BEVs in society.

  • 199.
    Hagman, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Stier, Jenny J.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Total cost of ownership and its potential implications for electric vehicle diffusion2014In: Proceedings of NordDesign 2014 Conference, NordDesign 2014, Aalto University , 2014, p. 366-375Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Battery Electric Vehicles have been slow to diffuse on the international as well as the Swedish market. Existing literature have pointed to situational factors such as economical factors, size and performance to be of high importance for car purchasers in their choice of car. In this paper the authors investigates the apparent discrepancy between purchase price and the Total Cost of Ownership between Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicles. The Total Cost of Ownership computation reveals that Battery Electric Vehicles can be cost competitive with Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles, a significant finding that could prove to be of importance for the diffusion of Battery Electric Vehicles, although further studies are needed to test car purchasers' knowledge regarding the Total Cost of Ownership analysis.

  • 200.
    Hagman, Lars Arne
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Machine Design.
    Norell Bergendahl, Margareta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Teaching in Integrated Product Development: experiences from project based learning2001In: The International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 01, aug 2001, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
1234567 151 - 200 of 467
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