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  • 151.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Methodology for Linked Enterprise Data Quality Assessment Through Information VisualizationsIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s development environments in the manufacturing industry require different development tools to work together. These complex environments are highly heterogeneous and constantly changing, and the development tools are producing a huge amount of data. As a result, these development environments must overcome a significant problem related to data integration. In this paper, we examine a case study from the automotive industry using the linked enterprise data approach to integrate data from different development tools. The study explains and applies a data quality assessment methodology as a post-integration phase for linked enterprise data. 

    In this study, important data quality dimensions from the literature are merged with empirical rules that have been defined by Scania CV AB employees. As a result, a comprehensive methodology is developed and introduced to assess these data quality dimensions. This paper presents the methodology, which aims to develop a data quality assessment tool—a dashboard—in addition to policies and protocols to manage data quality. Moreover, the proposed methodology includes systematic guidelines for planning the data quality assessment activity, extracting requirements for the data quality management, setting priorities to expedite the adaptation, identifying dimensions and metrics to ease the understanding, and visualizing these dimensions and metrics to assess the overall data quality.

  • 152.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Johansson, Morgan
    Hansen, Stefan
    Data Visualization of A Cyber-Physical Systems Development Toolchain: An Integration Case Study2017In: ALLDATA 2017: The Third International Conference on Big Data, Small Data, Linked Data and Open Data, Venice, Italy: IARIA XPS Press , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) requires various engineering disciplines, artifacts, and areas of expertise to collaborate. There are powerful software tools, which are used during CPS development, but it is often challenging to integrate these tools with each other. This paper proposes a data visualization approach to understanding current interoperability status and the integration needs in CPS development toolchains, and make decisions on potential integration scenarios accordingly. To this end, a case study is introduced based on a toolchain for the development of an embedded application at ABB Corporate Research. The node-link diagram (NLD) data visualization technique was used to understand integration needs and priorities. The study showed that the NLD visualization has the potential to inform toolchain architects about the interoperability situation and help them to make decisions accordingly, especially for small toolchains. Moreover, the integration solution is implemented and the result has been compared with the non-integration study.

  • 153.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Digitalizing Swedish Industry: What is Next?: Data Analytics Readiness Assessment of Swedish Industry According to Survey ResultsIn: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalizationrefers to enabling, improving, and transforming operations, functions, models, processes, or activities by leveraging digital technologies. Furthermore, digitalization is considered one of the most powerful drivers of innovation with the potential to trigger the next wave of innovation. 

    Today, the importance of digitalization is well-understood in Swedish government agencies and industry. Although there are several initiatives working to actively drive change, one question is key: What is the next step? Data analytics is a promising way to turn information into outcomes, enhance decision-making, make data-driven discoveries, minimize risk, and unearth valuable insights that would otherwise remain hidden. This paper presents survey results on data analytics adoption and usage within Swedish industry, to highlight post-digitalization industry needs. To this end, a questionnaire was designed and distributed. Answers from more than 100 respondents from the manufacturing, technology, engineering, telecommunications, and automotive industries in Sweden were collected and analyzed.

    The assessment results show that Swedish industry has a high technological readiness score. This suggests that the necessary data, tools, and skills are in place. Moreover, its cultural readiness level, which focuses on the acceptance of data-driven decision-making, scores between high and very high. At the same time, the strategic readiness level is high, except in the telecommunication domain. However, the operational readiness level is between medium and low, which shows that the business impacts of data analytics are not in place. These findings suggest that the industry should use the advantages of the current cultural readiness and concentrate efforts on exploring the business impacts of data analytics, ensuring the support from executive managers, and implementing data analytics protocols to improve strategic and technological readiness. Moreover, proper planning, timing, budgeting, and setting of clear key performance indicators/metrics need to be considered systematically in order to ameliorate the operational readiness of data analytics.

  • 154.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Liridona, Sopjani
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Visual Analytics to Support the Service Design for Sustainable Mobility2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent transport system is a general term for the combined application of communication technologies, control and information processing for transport systems. Intelligent transport system covers all modes of transportation—including public transport—and all elements of the transportation system, such as the vehicle, infrastructure, and the driver. Integrated transport system allows a series of new unconventional solutions to improve the safety of the traffic and to satisfy transport requirements using new technologies. The service design of these systems, however, brings along different challenges. 

    The process of service design requires the designers to engage with user behavior and understand the usage patterns related to the intelligent transport systems. Today, there are no well-developed methods to support this engagement. This paper suggests a data-oriented visual analytics approach to support designers in their decision-making processes, the implementation of successful services for sustainable, shared mobility service systems, and data-oriented approaches. Moreover, this paper discusses visual analytics as a tool to aid service designers by enabling real-time data analytics support.

    To this end, this paper summarizes the current literature on system innovation, challenges related to the design of these systems for sustainability and presents a shared and connected mobility service case study to illustrate the benefits of having visual analytics platforms for sustainable and intelligent transport systems. The study concludes that intuitive, data-oriented, interactive visual analytics approach has the potential to support service designers to create a coherent picture of the user in the service design process.

  • 155.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Raizer, Klaus
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Data Visualization Support for Complex Logistics Operations and Cyber-physical Systems2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, complex logistics operations include different levels of communication and interactions. This paper explores the requirements of these operations and conceptualizes important key performance indicators, stakeholders, and different data visualizations to support the stakeholders in order to understand interactions between entities easier and faster. Three different levels were identified-supply chain, automated warehouse, and intelligent agent-to define the complex logistics operations. For each level, important stakeholders and performance indicators were determined. A case study was designed and described to exemplify the role of cyber-physical systems in complex logistics operations. Moreover, different data visualizations were developed as part of a dashboard to illustrate key performance indicators of different levels for the purpose of supporting stakeholders. This exploratory study concludes by identifying important data necessary for each performance indicator, suggesting ways to collect these data, and exemplifying how data visualization approach can be used through a dashboard design.

  • 156.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tasala Gradin, Katja
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Interoperable Toolchains in Cyber-physical Systems with a Sustainability Perspective2018In: 2017 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability, SusTech 2017, Phoenix, AZ, USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of cyber-physical systems (CPS) requires various engineering disciplines, artifacts, and areas of expertise to collaborate. Powerful software tools are used during this development process, but while successful in one individual discipline, it is often challenging to integrate with other tools. Several studies have been done on integration solutions for these toolchains. However, the possibility of including the sustainability concept to the interoperability strategies is rarely studied. This paper discusses an approach to include sustainability aspects while improving the interoperability of toolchains in CPS manufacturing. To this end, an automobile manufacturing process has been studied as a use case, and relevant sustainability metrics for each stage of the process are identified. Life cycle sustainability assessment methodology is used to identify the sustainability metrics, and the use case is employed to exemplify how some of these metrics can be integrated with interoperable toolchains to illustrate the applicability of the approach.

  • 157.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Visual Analytics for Cyber-physical Systems Development: Blending Design Thinking and Systems Thinking2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are integrations of computational and physical processes. They represent a new generation of systems that interact with humans and expand the capabilities of the physical world through computation, communication, and control. At the same time, actions and interventions associated with this complex systems can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Furthermore, today’s practices of CPS design and implementation are not able to support the level of complexity required to detect these consequences. 

    One methodology to approach this complex problem space is systems thinking (ST). Systems thinking emerges as both a worldview and a process in the sense that it informs one's understanding regarding a system and can be used as a problem-solving approach. Systems thinking is an abstraction-oriented analysis approach, specifically designed for heterogeneous complex systems.

    At the same time, another methodology, design thinking (DT), has enjoyed significantly increased visibility and importance over the last decade. Design thinking is a creative problem-solving approach, which puts human to the center and focuses first on the needs and experiences of the user.

    This paper aims to illustrate the possibility to use design thinking and systems thinking methodologies together to better deal with the complexity related problems during CPS design and implementation. The study proposes visual analytics as an integrative tool between these two methodologies, by (1) analyzing and understanding CPS development process through systems thinking, and (2) innovating and transforming the process through design thinking. To this end, an example use case is described and the application of the blended methodology explained step by step in relation to the use case. Visual analytics and data visualization are discussed in several steps and the possible benefits highlighted.

  • 158.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Vulgarakis Feljan, Aneta
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Mohalik, Swarup Kumar
    Ericsson Research, India.
    Badrinath, Ramamurthy
    Ericsson Research, India.
    Mujumdar, Anusha Pradeep
    Ericsson Research, India.
    Fersman, Elena
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Knowledge Representation of Cyber-physical Systems for Monitoring Purpose2018In: 51st CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Elsevier, 2018, Vol. 72, p. 468-473Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated warehouses, as a form of cyber-physical systems (CPSs), require several components to work collaboratively to address the common business objectives of complex logistics systems. During the collaborative operations, a number of key performance indicators (KPI) can be monitored to understand the proficiency of the warehouse and control the operations and decisions. It is possible to drive and monitor these KPIs by looking at both the state of the warehouse components and the operations carried out by them. Therefore, it is necessary to represent this knowledge in an explicit and formally-specified data model and provide automated methods to derive the KPIs from the representation. In this paper, we implement a minimalistic data model for a subset of warehouse resources using linked data in order to monitor a few KPIs, namely sustainability, safety and performance. The applicability of the approach and the data model is illustrated through a use case. We demonstrate that it is possible to develop minimalistic data models through Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) resource shapes which enables compatibility with the declarative and procedural knowledge of automated warehouse agents specified in Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL).

  • 159.
    Hanson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Engström, Eva
    KTH.
    Kairamo, A. -K
    Varano, M.
    Enhance the attractiveness of studies in science and technology2010In: Joint International IGIP-SEFI Annual Conference 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses some aspects of attractiveness of engineering and technology studies to be monitored by ATTRACT project the Enhance the Attractiveness of Studies in Science and Technology, ATTRACT, project is within the EU A Lifelong Learning Programme - subprogram KA1 Policy Cooperation and Innovation. The objective is to present the foundation for and the goals with the project. Nine universities in EU will collaborate around four themes to increase the attractiveness of Engineering Education. The areas are: The attractiveness of being an engineer Formal hinders Attracting students to studies in science and technology /engineering education Student retention Result from the TREE - Teaching and Research in Engineering in Europe Socrates Thematic Network project, the TechBARO in Finland and the Technology Delegation project in Sweden has given inspiration in setting up the the foundation for ATTRACT project together with other international indicatives. The work is in progress 2010 to 2012 and the outcomes will be presented continually on the ATTRACT website http://www.attractproject.org/ , in journals and at conferences.

  • 160.
    Hanson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Meymi, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Oddsson, L.
    Rockström, Robin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    An instrument to predict fall risk—project stepwiz2008In: Journal of Medical Devices, ISSN 1932-6181, E-ISSN 1932-619X, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 1-1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 161. Harisubramanyabalaji, S. P.
    et al.
    ur Réhman, S.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. Scania CV AB, Södertälje, 15187, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. Scania CV AB, Södertälje, 15187, Sweden.
    Improving image classification robustness using predictive data augmentation2018In: Workshops: ASSURE, DECSoS, SASSUR, STRIVE, and WAISE 2018 co-located with 37th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, SAFECOMP 2018, Springer, 2018, p. 548-561Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safer autonomous navigation might be challenging if there is a failure in sensing system. Robust classifier algorithm irrespective of camera position, view angles, and environmental condition of an autonomous vehicle including different size & type (Car, Bus, Truck, etc.) can safely regulate the vehicle control. As training data play a crucial role in robust classification of traffic signs, an effective augmentation technique enriching the model capacity to withstand variations in urban environment is required. In this paper, a framework to identify model weakness and targeted augmentation methodology is presented. Based on off-line behavior identification, exact limitation of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model is estimated to augment only those challenge levels necessary for improved classifier robustness. Predictive Augmentation (PA) and Predictive Multiple Augmentation (PMA) methods are proposed to adapt the model based on acquired challenges with a high numerical value of confidence. We validated our framework on two different training datasets and with 5 generated test groups containing varying levels of challenge (simple to extreme). The results show impressive improvement by$$\approx $$ 5–20% in overall classification accuracy thereby keeping their high confidence.

  • 162.
    Hasan, Baha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A review On Utilizing Ontological Approaches in Integrating Assembly Design and Assembly Process Planning2017In: International Journal of Mechanical Engineering ( SSRG-IJME), ISSN 2348-8360, Vol. 4, no 11, p. 5-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Hedlund, Richard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Timarson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Intelligent Wind Turbine Using Fuzzy PID Control2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis demonstrates how small wind turbines can contributeto a greener planet by using wind energy to generateelectrical power. It compares the conventional PIDcontroller with the Fuzzy PID controller, implemented ina small wind turbine that was constructed using variousmachines.

    The concept of changing the gain parameters of the PIDcontroller with fuzzy logic, depending on the wind directionfor greater power generation, is explained and tested. This,with usage of a DC-motor that gets an output signal fromthe system which reads input values from an encoder anda wind vane. The construction included a powertrain inwhich a transmission, roller bearings and shafts were implementedin the yaw mechanism.

    The tests resulted in showing that the Fuzzy PID controllerperformed better, minimizing the error, when theerror between the wind turbine and the wind itself, wassmall. The power generation was also increased when utilizingthe Fuzzy PID controller. However, the PID controllerperformed similar to the Fuzzy PID controller whenexposed to larger errors.

  • 164.
    HELLBERG, JOAKIM
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    SUNDKVIST, AXEL
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Best PAL: Ball Exercise Sound Tracking PAL2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The PAL (Practise and Learn) Original is a ball board consisting of three wooden boards placed in a triangle, developed to practise football players’ passing ability and first touch. The former Swedish international footballer Jessica Landström observed that these ball boards can, if they are improved, help footballers to develop even more skills while practicing alone. Landstr¨om’s idea was to put lamps on top off the ball boards which light up when a certain ball board expects to receive a pass. This would force the player to look up instead of looking at the ball and hence improve their vision.

    We concluded that speaking also is important within football. So our objective became to follow up on the development of the simple PAL Original to a ball board which rotates towards a sound source. We wanted to achieve this without configuring the PAL Original’s construction.

    With the purpose of executing the idea we needed to estimate the angle between a sound source and a face of the ball board, rotate the ball board with an electric motor, communicate wirelessly between units and detect a ball hit when the ball board receives a pass.

    The final prototype consists of two systems, one system executing the sound source localization and rotation and the other system executing the detection of ball hit and wireless communication.

    The first system uses time difference of arrival (TDOA) between incoming sound for three sound sensors to calculate an angle, which in turn is communicated to a DC motorthat executes the rotation.

    The other system combines an LED to light up when a pass is expected, an accelerometer to detect a pass, and radio transceivers to communicate with each other. When at least three of these devices are used a randomizing algorithm decides which one should light its LED next when the first one detects a pass.

  • 165.
    Hellman, Hanna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Data Aggregation in Time Sensitive Multi-Sensor Systems: Study and Implementation of Wheel Data Aggregation for Slip Detection in an Autonomous Vehicle Convoy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With an impending shift to more advanced safety systems and driver assistance (ADAS) in the vehicles we drive, and also increased autonomousity, comes increased amounts of data on the internal vehicle data bus. There is a need to lessen the amount of data and at the same time increase its value. Data aggregation, often applied in the field of environmental sensing or small mobile robots (WMR’s), could be a partial solution. This thesis choses to investigate an aggregation strategy applied to a use case regarding slip detection in a vehicle convoy. The approach was implemented in a physical demonstrator in the shape of a small autonomousvehicle convoy to produce quantitative data. The results imply that a weighted adaptive average can be used for vehicle velocity estimation based on the input of four individual wheel velocities. There after a slip ratio can be calculated which is used to decide if slip exists or not. Limitations of the proposed approach is however the number of velocity references that is needed since the results currently apply to one-wheel slipon a four-wheel vehicle. A proposed future direction related to the use case of convoy driving could be to include platooning vehicles as extra velocity references for the vehicles in the convoy, thus increasing the accuracy of the slip detection and merging the areas of CO-CPS and data aggregation.

  • 166. Henriksson, Dan
    et al.
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Cervin, Anton
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Årzén, Karl-Erik
    Tools for Real-Time Control Systems Co-Design2006In: ARTES: A network for Real-Time research and graduate Education in Sweden 1997–2006 / [ed] Hans Hansson, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 167. Henriksson, Dan
    et al.
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Årzén, Karl-Erik
    Tools for Real-time Control Systems CoDesign: A Survey2005Report (Other academic)
  • 168.
    HULTROS, LISELOTT
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    SONG, XIYAO
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Connect Four Robot: Implementation of AI-strategies in a Connect Four robot2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Connect four is a two player game in which the players take turns placing discs in i a 6x7 grid. Each player has discs in their own specific color. Their aim is to get four of their own discs in a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal alignment. While doing so they have to prevent their opponent from getting four of their discs in a row.

    In this project, the purpose is to design and build a connect four playing robot, that can play connect four opposite a human. To do so, the robot has to be able to physically move and drop discs in the grid of the game, it also has to be able to figure out in which column to drop the discs, and detect where the player puts their discs.

    To achieve this, a demonstrator was built. It consists of a frame around the game, onto which motors are placed to move and drop discs into the game. Photoreflectors are placed above each column to detect the player’s discs. The motors and sensor are controlled by an Arduino, and a Raspberry Pi is tasked to run the AI algorithm to calculate the next moves for the robot.

    This was done with a satisfying result and at the end of the project the demonstrator could play connect four against a human opponent and almost always win.

  • 169. Hwang, J.
    et al.
    Gu, Yunjin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lee, D. Y.
    A pneumatic haptic module for simulation of catheters used in gastrointestinal endoscopy2017In: International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, IEEE Computer Society, 2017, p. 287-291, article id 7832334Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a haptic module for simulation of catheters used in GI (gastrointestinal) endoscopy. The designed haptic interface provides translational force feedback in one degree-of-freedom using the pneumatic module made of silicon rubber. The pneumatic module has a cylindrical shape with a hollow space inside. The space inside of the module can be filled with air activated by a syringe pump. The module grasps the catheter traveling through the module. The syringe pump is controlled to insufflate or remove air into the space in real-time. Experimental results show that the feedback force and the amount of injected air to the module have a linear relationship. The proposed interface is able to generate necessary force feedback during catheter simulation.

  • 170.
    Höglund, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Olofsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea AB.
    Power-Aware Scheduling in Embedded Systems: Adaptation of SDVS Scheduling using Deadline Overrun Detection2010In: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Energy Aware Design and Analysis of Cyber Physical Systems (WEA-CPS'10) / [ed] Harini Ramaprasad, Radu Dobrin, 2010, p. 26-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) take computation, communication, monitoring and control to a new level of complexity due to their inherent integration with each other and the physical world. Energy efficiency is paramount in such systems since high energy consuming hardware components are envisioned to be deeply embedded within the physical environment, thus calling for the need to incorporate energy awareness into the design and analysis of a CPS rather than as an afterthought. Solutions must reach beyond those for stand-alone real-time systems or homogeneous sensor-networks, to be able to reason about heterogeneous systems of systems integrated at multiple levels, while guaranteeing their safety-critical requirements. This workshop calls for papers that seek to rethink the notion of energy and power awareness, at the device, architectural or operating system (scheduling) levels, in the context of CPS design and analysis.

  • 171. Izosimov, Viacheslav
    et al.
    Asvestopoulos, Alexandros
    Blomkvist, Oscar
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Security-Aware Development of Cyber-Physical Systems Illustrated with Automotive Case Study2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 818-821Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for systematic consideration of security attributes in development of cyber-physical systems. We evaluate our method in development of commercial vehicles that were so far unreasonably excluded from automotive security studies (despite the great importance of commercial vehicles for the society). We have conducted analysis of a known zero-cost non-physical attack, fine-tuned to our commercial vehicle (a truck), and considered countermeasures within the development flow.

  • 172.
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Paschalis, A.
    Reviriego, P.
    Manhaeve, H.
    Application-specific solutions2017In: Dependable Multicore Architectures at Nanoscale, Springer, 2017, p. 189-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses surface transportation applications, space applications, and medical applications in detail. It extends the discussion from Chap. 3 where we considered a broader variety of application domains and their relation to dependability. The choice of these applications is due to expertise of the authors and positioning of these applications in the overall dependability palette as ones of the most challenging yet different from each other.

  • 173.
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Pop, P.
    Eles, P.
    Peng, Z.
    Synthesis of Flexible Fault-Tolerant Schedules for Embedded Systems with Soft and Hard Timing Constraints2010In: Design and Test Technology for Dependable Systems-on-Chip / [ed] R. Ubar, J. Raik, H. T. Vierhaus, IGI Global , 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Jan, Mathieu
    et al.
    CEA, LIST, Centre de Saclay.
    Jouvray, Christophe
    TRIALOG.
    Kordon, Fabrice
    Univ. P. & M. Curie, LIP6, CNRS UMR-7606.
    Kung, Antonio
    TRIALOG.
    Lalande, Jimmy
    Schneider Electric Industries, Strategy & Innovation.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Navas, Juan
    Orange Labs.
    Pautet, Laurent
    Telecom ParisTech.
    Pulou, Jacques
    Orange Labs.
    Radermacher, Ansgar
    CEA, LIST, Centre de Saclay.
    Seinturier, Lionel
    – Nord Europe, Univ. Lille 1 - LIFL CNRS UMR 8022.
    Flex-eWare: a flexible model driven solution for designing and implementing embedded distributed systems2012In: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 42, no 12, p. 1467-1494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of modern embedded systems increases as they incorporate new concerns such as distribution and mobility. These new features need to be considered as early as possible in the software development life cycle. Model driven engineering promotes an intensive use of models and is now widely seen as a solution to master the development of complex systems such as embedded ones. Component-based software engineering is another major trend that gains acceptance in the embedded world because of its properties such as reuse, modularity, and flexibility. This article proposes the Flex-eWare component model (FCM) for designing and implementing modern embedded systems. The FCM unifies model driven engineering and component-based software engineering and has been evaluated in several application domains with different requirements: wireless sensor networks, distributed client/server applications, and control systems for electrical devices. This approach highlights a new concept: flexibility points that arise at several stages of the development process, that is, in the model (design phase), in the execution platform, and during the execution itself. This flexibility points are captured with model libraries that can extend the FCM.

  • 175.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards a Model-based Framework for Development of Engineering Tool-chains: Supporting Cyber-physical Systems Modeling and Simulation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous evolution has caused increased complexity in the functionality of Cyber-physical System (CPS). As a consequence, development of CPS typically requires more complex interactions between projects, stakeholders, and simulation from various domains bringing new challenges in the integration of models, data, information and knowledge. This report proposes a model-based framework for Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) tool-chain development. The framework has two purposes: to make a MBSE tool-chain supporting CPS modeling and simulation by model-driven and tool-integration techniques; and tosupport effective tool-chain development through a systems engineering approach. The framework which covers Social, Process, Information and Technical aspects aims to integrate various MBSE techniques related to CPS development into united toolchains.The techniques include co-simulation by the use of high-level architecture (HLA), Functional Mockup Interface (FMI),BPM Camunda, Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) and domain specific modeling. The contributions are twofold: First, this framework addresses the functionalities of MBSE tool-chains from a systems engineering perspective. Secondly, the developed MBSE tool-chain promises to support CPS modeling and simulation with better interoperability and integrated capability,- a capability to integrate existing engineering tools and system development platform.

  • 176.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Towards a Model-driven and Tool-integration Framework for Co- Simulation Environments2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) have evolved continuously over the past decades with increasing functional and technical complexity. As a consequence, the development typically involves more complex interactions of designers and stakeholders compared to the past. We are in particular investigating a framework for model-driven and tool-integration for developing the complex system, such as aircraft, aero engines and automotive vehicles. Normally, such complex system can be divided into different parts with associated engineering tasks allocated to different work groups or companies. These groups often use specific domain-specific simulator tools to assist the specification, analysis and synthesis tasks. For example, when a whole vehicle is designed, the overall system behavior and other properties depend on the characteristics of its subsystems and components being composed. It is therefore important for system developers to conduct early system integration and thereby to understand the system behaviors and analyze system performance in the initial design phases. In current industrial practices, different CAD and CAE tools are used for the development of CPS subsystems and components, such as for requirement analysis, high level design, detailed level design, implementation, testing, etc. Since the subsystem designers often use their own tools to build models, it is a challenge for the system developers to integrate those detailed models and to predict the whole system performance. This calls for a complete integration framework for different models and tools while taking the process management perspective into consideration.

    This paper describes an initial version of a framework for co-simulation and tool-integration in regard to the methodology and technical roadmap. Co-simulation is supposed as a simulation and analysis approach to verify the system requirements. With co-simulation we refer to an approach integrating subsystem models in order to predict the whole complex system performance. The framework is inspired by the SPIT model, [1]. In the framework, a formal system description is provided to share information among various stakeholders, including project managers, system engineers, modelers, system designers and simulation testers. The content of system information being described and integrated includes requirements, parameter setting, interface contracts, and tool specific information for co-simulation. Also, parameters related to optimized simulation behaviors can be added. 

  • 177.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    An  Investigation of Functionalities of the Future Toolchain of Aerospace Industry2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is advocated as one important means to deal with increasing product complexity. In this paper, we investigate the increasing interest and use of MBSE in the aerospace domain. The growth of MBSE tools causes new challenges in the corresponding tool-chain development including data and information management, tool’s applicability identification, tool-integration, etc. In this paper, a literature survey into trends and usages of large-scale MBSE tool-chains is presented. It is found that the key functionalities include functional roles, elements, abstraction levels and tool integration techniques. Additionally, we propose a methodology to provide guidance in optimizing future MBSE tool-chain functionalities for the aero-industry. In closing, we present a case study in order to illustrate the decision-making process required to develop expected tool-chains by the proposed methodology.

  • 178.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Jian, Wang
    University of Electronic Science and Technology of China,.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards A Service-oriented Framework for MBSE Tool-chain Development2018In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 568-575, article id 8428746Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a SPIRIT framework supporting model-based systems engineering (MBSE) tool-chain development of advanced cyber-physical systems (CPS) with emphasis on tool integration, process management, automated verification and validation. The core features of the developed MBSE tool-chain include domain-specific modeling to describe CPS development, service-oriented deployment of technical resources (data, model and tool operations) and process management through IT platforms. The framework has two purposes: to support tool-chain development with a systems engineering approach; to promote interoperability of the whole developed tool-chain through a service-oriented approach. The framework covers social, process, information and technical aspects aiming to integrate various related MBSE techniques with tool-chain development. Based on the framework, an MBSE tool-chain prototype is developed, and the flexibility and interoperability are evaluated through a case study.

  • 179.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Model-driven and Tool-integration Framework for Whole Vehicle Co-simulation Environments2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the design of automotive vehicle systems, modeling and simulation technologies have been widely used for supporting their conceptualization and evaluation. Due to the increasing complexity of such systems, the overall quality management and design process optimization are becoming more important. This in particular brings the necessity of integrating various domain-specific physical models that are traditionally based on different formalisms and isolated tools. In this paper, we present the initial concepts towards a model-driven tool-integration framework with automated managed simulation services in the system development. We exploit EAST-ADL and some other existing state-of-the-art modeling technologies as the reference frameworks for a formal system description, with the content includingrequirements, design solutions, extra-functional constraints, and verification and validation cases. Given such a formal specification, dedicated co-simulation services will be developed to provide the support for automated configuration and execution of simulation tools.

  • 180.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wang, Jian
    A Tool Integration Language to Formalize Co-simulation Tool-chains for Cyber-physical System (CPS)2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-simulation has grown from point-to-point between simulation tools for specific purposes to complex tool-chains which often require additional functionalities, e.g., process management, data management, and tool integration. With these additional functionalities, the related design activities could be controlled and implemented by uni- ed platforms to improve eciency and effectiveness. Due to increasing complexity and size of co-simulation tool-chains, a systematic approach is needed to formalize their evolution in order to analyze functionalities and evaluate their structures before development. In this paper, we extend a proposed domain specific language, - named Tool Integration Language (TIL) - to describe co-simulation tool-chain architectures on a high abstraction level aiming to promote the eciency and e effectiveness of co-simulation tool-chain development by the use of Model-based System Engineering (MBSE). We introduce how the extended TIL formalizes structures and present two industrial cases of co-simulation tool-chain from previous experiences and describe them using the TIL. Finally, we conclude this paper and introduce future work -a further extension of TIL supporting MBSE tool-chain development.

  • 181.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH Royal Inst Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wang, Jiqiang
    Nanjing Aeronaut & Astronaut Univ, Coll Energy & Power Engn, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH Royal Inst Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wang, Jian
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Sch Informat & Commun Engn, Chengdu 611731, Sichuan, Peoples R China..
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH Royal Inst Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    A Service-Oriented Tool-Chain for Model-Based Systems Engineering of Aero-Engines2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 50443-50458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a service-oriented tool-chain with an emphasis on domain-specific views, simulation automation, and process management to support model-based system engineering of aero-engines. In the tool-chain, a domain-specific modeling approach is adopted to facilitate the descriptions of co-design workflows and the related development information. The relevant domain-specific models are the basis for automated creation of a Web-based process management system consolidating and controlling service-oriented technical resources (models, data, and tools). In particular, the system also provides support for automated orchestration of tool operations, model, and simulation configurations. In order to promote the model and tool interoperability, the tool-chain adopts open standards for integrations, including open services for lifecycle collaboration and functional mock-up interface. Finally, through a case study of simulation-based aero-engine performance analysis, we evaluate the flexibility and efficiency of this tool chain by comparing it with a traditional simulation process both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  • 182.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM). KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Yuejie, Wen
    China Academy of Space Technology.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Qi, Li
    Suzhou Tongyuan Software and Control Technology Co. Ltd.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    MBSE Applicability Analysis in Chinese Industry2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is an emerging technique widely used in current industry. It is a leading way expected to become a next-generation standard practice in the systems engineering. Fundamental tenets of systems engineering can be supported by a model-based approach to minimize design risks and avoid design changes in late development stages. The models can be used to formalize, analyze, design, optimize, verify and validate target products which help developers to integrate engineering development, organization and product across domains. Though model-based development is well established in specific domains, such as software, mechanical system, electric systems, its role in integrated development from system aspect is still a big challenge for current Chinese industry. In this paper, a survey from volunteers who related with MBSE is taken by questionnaires. The purpose of this survey is to highlight the usage and status of MBSE in current Chinese industry and address roughly the understandings of MBSE concepts among system developers in China based on the answers about usages, advantages, barriers, concerns, trends of MBSE, particularly the perspective of tool-chain development.

  • 183. Johansson, R.
    et al.
    Alissa, S.
    Bengtsson, S.
    Bergenhem, C.
    Bridal, O.
    Cassel, A.
    Chen, Dejiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gassilewski, M.
    Nilsson, J.
    Sandberg, A.
    Ursing, S.
    Warg, F.
    Werneman, A.
    A strategy for assessing safe use of sensors in autonomous road vehicles2017In: 36th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, SAFECOMP 2017, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10488, p. 149-161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When arguing safety for an autonomous road vehicle it is considered very hard to show that the sensing capability is sufficient for all possible scenarios that might occur. Already for today’s manually driven road vehicles equipped with advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), it is far from trivial how to argue that the sensor systems are sufficiently capable of enabling a safe behavior. In this paper, we argue that the transition from ADAS to automated driving systems (ADS) enables new solution patterns for the safety argumentation dependent on the sensor systems. A key factor is that the ADS itself can compensate for a lower sensor capability, by for example lowering the speed or increasing the distances. The proposed design strategy allocates safety requirements on the sensors to determine their own capability. This capability is then to be balanced by the tactical decisions of the ADS equipped road vehicle.

  • 184.
    Jonasson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Roos, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Design and evaluation of an active electromechanical wheel suspension system2008In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 218-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an electromechanical wheel suspension, where the upper arm of the suspension has been provided with an electric levelling and a damper actuator, both are allowed to work in a fully active mode. A control structure for the proposed suspension is described. The complex design task involving the control of the electric damper and its machine parameters is tackled by genetic optimisation. During this process, these parameters are optimised to keep the power dissipation of the electric damper as low as possible, while maintaining acceptable comfort and road-holding capabilities. The results of the evaluations carried out demonstrate that the proposed suspension can easily adopt its control parameters to obtain a better compromise of performance than that offered by passive suspensions. If the vehicle is to maintain acceptable performance during severe driving conditions, the damper has to be unrealistically large. However, if the electric damper is combined with a hydraulic damper, the size of the electric damper is significantly reduced. In addition, the design of the electric damper with the suggested control structure, including how it regenerates energy, is discussed.

  • 185.
    Jonhed, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Mass estimation using mapped road grade data in heavy duty vehicles2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One way of achieving more fuel efficient, more environmentally friendly and user-friendly Heavy-duty vehicles is to develop new embedded control features. Many of these features are based on vehicle mass is known. Methods of finding the current vehicle mass can be implemented in many different ways, including various methods that require user interaction or manual weighing of the vehicle. These should be avoided as they are inefficient and add operations to the driver. Another alternative method is estimation by adaptive filters. This examination is based on this method and assumes that the road grade is known. The method developed consists primarily of a recursive least squares method to estimate against a physical vehicle model in the longitudinal direction. The time-varying input signals are noise reduced by stepwise integration into intervals of 10 seconds and low-pass filtering. For estimation to be carried out, a number of conditions have been set. Verification of the method was carried out through both simulations and by executing it in a vehicle's control system. The results show that the mass is estimated with a relative error of 5 % after 600 seconds of driving. The conclusions include that this method gives a good estimation and it does not stress the vehicle control system so that it becomes unusable. Before using this method, more work should be performed on getting a more accurate model of vehicle, especially on the parameters used in this.

  • 186. Kaznov, Viktor
    et al.
    Svahn, Johan
    Roos, Per
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Behere, Sagar
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Architecture and Safety for Autonomous Heavy Vehicles: ARCHER2017In: Automated Driving: Safer and More Efficient Future Driving / [ed] Daniel Watzenig, Martin Horn, Springer, 2017, p. 571-581Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machines are converging towards autonomy. The transition is driven by safety, efficiency, environmental and traditional ‘robotics automation concerns’ (dirty, dull and dangerous applications). Similar trends are seen in several domains including heavy vehicles, cars and aircraft. This transition is, however, facing multiple challenges including how to gradually evolve from current architectures to autonomous systems, limitations in legislation and safety standards, test and verification methodology and human–machine interaction.

  • 187.
    Khabbazi, Mahmood Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Hasan, M.K
    Shapi’i, A
    Sulaiman, R
    Keshavarz, Y
    Mousavi, A
    Object-oriented Modelling for Module-based Production Logistics Inventory System2013In: Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, ISSN 1991-8178, E-ISSN 2309-8414, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 555-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes module-based object-oriented data models for inventory systemfocusing on the production logistics business processes. It expounds the methodology and modellingprocedure to provide the inventory system requirements. Through warehousing business processanalysis for production logistics and based on the object-oriented technique in a modular basis, thedomain and entity class diagrams are modelled. Through identifying all the required and realizingsystem interfaces, the system is able to be integrated with other back office systems. The model is ableto manipulate all warehousing operation data including receiving, storing, retrieval, allocations andtraceability, and load balancing for actual inventory stock keeping units in real-time to support quickdecision making with minimum efforts and or errors.

  • 188.
    Khan, Suleman
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Design and optimization of parallel haptic devices: Design methodology and experimental evaluation2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The simulation of surgical procedures, in the case of hard tissues such as bone or teeth milling, using a haptic milling surgery simulator requires a haptic device which can provide high stiffness and transparency. To mimic a real milling process of hard tissue, such as for example creating a narrow channel or cavity, the simulator needs to provide force/torque feedback in 5–6 degrees of freedom (DOF). As described in this thesis, research has been performed to develop and optimize a haptic device that can provide high stiffness and force/torque capabilities to facilitate haptic interaction with stiff tissues. 

    The main contributions of this thesis are:

    (i) The use of a model-based design methodology for the design of haptic devices.  The proposed methodology is applied to a case study, i.e. the design and optimization of a haptic device based on parallel kinematics. Device requirements were elicited through dialogues with a prospective user from a neurosurgery clinic. In the conceptual design phase, different parallel concepts have been investigated and analyzed based on functional qualities such number of degrees of freedom, workspace size and force/torque capabilities. This analysis led to the selection of a specific 6 DOF kinematic structure for which dimension synthesis was performed including multi-objective optimization followed by control synthesis. Finally, a device prototype was realized and its performance verified.

    (ii) Optimization of the device for best kinematic and dynamic performance. For optimization, performance indices such as workspace-to-footprint ratio, kinematic isotropy and inertial indices were used. To cope with the problem of non-uniform units in the components of the Jacobian matrix, various normalization techniques were investigated. A new multi-objective optimization function is introduced to define the optimization problem, which is then resolved using multi-objective genetic algorithms. A sensitivity analysis of the performance indices against each design parameter is performed, as a basis for selecting a final set of design parameter values.

    (iii) A control strategy is investigated to achieve high transparency and stability of the device. The control strategy is based on careful analysis of the dynamics of the haptic device, computed torque feed-forward control and force control based on current feedback.

    (iv) Finally, experiments both separately in the lab and by using the device in a haptic milling surgery simulator were performed. Results from a face validity study performed in collaboration with orthopedists verify that the new haptic device enables high-performance force and torque feedback for stiff interactions.  

  • 189.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Aftab, Ahmad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Design Optimization of the Tau Haptic Device2011In: ICUMT: Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), 2011 3rd International Congress on, IEEE , 2011, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this paper is motivated by the use of haptics in medical simulation, particularly simulation of surgical procedures in hard tissue such as bone structures. In this context, characteristics such as motion, stiffness, workspace-to-footprint ratio, and low inertia are key factors in the design of a haptic device. This paper introduces a procedure for design optimization of haptic devices based on a hybrid mechanism. For design optimization, performance indices such as workspace volume, kinematic isotropy and static torque requirements indices are defined. A new multi-criteria objective optimization (MOO) function is introduced to define the optimization problem. Multi-objective algorithms are used to solve this optimization problem using the defined objective function. Furthermore sensitivity analysis of the performance indices against each design parameter is presented as a basis for selecting a final set of design parameters to develop a prototype. Finally, a CAD model and prototype of the device is developed based on the simulation results.

  • 190.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A design Methodology for haptic devices2011In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED11), Vol. 4 / [ed] Culley, S.J.; Hicks, B.J.; McAloone, T.C.; Howard, T.J. & Lindemann, U., 2011, p. 288-298Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a design methodology for optimal design of haptic devices, considering aspects form all involved engineering domains. The design methodology is based on parametric modeling, iterative and integrated design approach that leads to easier design space exploration for global optimal design and initial verification in the conceptual design phase. For global optimization, performance indices such as; workspace volume, isotropy, stiffness, inertia and control of the device were from all involved engineering domains were considered. To handle this complex and non-linear optimization problem, a multi-objective algorithm together with a new developed optimization function was used, to obtain a global optimum solution. A case study, where the methodology has been applied to develop a parallel haptic device is presented in detail in this paper. The results obtain from the test case model show significant improvements in the performances of the device.

  • 191.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Design Approach for a New 6-DoF Haptic Device Based on Parallel Kinematics2009In: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MECHATRONICS, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 195-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach to a methodology for design, analysis and optimization of haptic devices. This approach roughly divides the design process into; device requirements, conceptual design, device design, control design and finally building a prototype of the device. In addition, we have applied the first two phases of this methodology, i.e. device requirements and conceptual design on the development of a new 6-DoF haptic device. The intended application area for this device is medical simulations and this research is one important component towards achieving manipulation capabilities and force/torque feedback in six degrees of freedom during medical simulations. Three candidate concepts, all based on parallel kinematic structures, have been investigated and analyzed. The performance parameters being analyzed have covered workspace analysis and force/torque requirements to fulfill the specified TCP force performance. The initial analysis of these three concepts has shown, after a smaller modification of one of the concepts that all concepts seem to satisfy, the initially stated requirements.

  • 192.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Design Optimization and Performance Evaluation of a 6-DOF Haptic DeviceIn: Journal of mechanical design (1990), ISSN 1050-0472, E-ISSN 1528-9001Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Dynamic based control strategy for haptic devices2011In: World Haptics Conference (WHC), 2011 IEEE Issue Date: 21-24 June 2011 / [ed] IEEE, 2011, p. 131-136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency is a key performance measure for haptic devices. In this paper, we investigate a control strategy to increase the transparency of a haptic device. This control strategy is based on careful analysis of the dynamics of the haptic device, computed torque feed forward control and current feedback based force control. The inverse dynamic equation of motion for the device is derived using Lagrangian formalism and the dominating terms are identified for some representative motion trajectories. The user contact dynamic model is identified using experiments on the device with different users. A PI controller using motor current measurements is used to follow the reference force from the virtual environment. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy.

  • 194.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Investigation of parallel kinematic mechanism structures for haptic devices2009In: 2nd Nordic Conference on Product Lifecycle Management – NordPLM’09, Gothenburg January 2009., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today modeling and simulation tools like FE (Finite Element) and MBS (Multi Body Systems) simulation tools are commonly used within mechanical engineering. These types of tools offer capabilities of Virtual prototyping (VP) with the possibility to investigate and explore a product before a physical prototype is manufactured. This can reduce the number of physical prototypes needed and save both time and money. These tools are also well known to be an effective means to support the process of verification of formulated requirements. They can be used e.g. for evaluation and selection of alternative solutions or as a final check or optimisation of a solution concept. The use of these kinds of tools can be even more effective if an information framework for handling the information created during the verification process can support them.

    The outline of such an information framework has been presented by Andersson [1], [2], which support traceability and reuse of partial result created during the verification of a specific requirements attribute as well as a possibility to study the effects that changes in the requirements specification have on product properties. This type of framework need a fine granularity of information, to be able to reuse partial results e.g. component simulation models but also that the models are structured such that we can reuse them in new model configurations.

    This paper presents an investigation of 6-dof haptic devices based on parallel structure that can be used in a surgical training simulator for temporal bone milling or as a 6-dof input- output teleoperated haptic master device. This investigation follows the verification process outlined by Andersson [1], [2], where the haptic devices in this case the product concept to be evaluated. The basic idea behind these concepts is to develop a haptic device with a large workspace and high stiffness within this workspace based on modeling and analysis of two different concepts. The study will concentrate to find a way to measure performance parameters to be able to evaluate and compare different structures.

  • 195.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Jacobian Matrix Normalization - A Comparison of Different Approaches in the Context of Multi-Objective Optimization of 6-DOF Haptic Devices2015In: Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, ISSN 0921-0296, E-ISSN 1573-0409, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 87-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on Jacobian matrix normalization and the performance effects of using different criterion and techniques. Normalization of the Jacobian matrix becomes an issue when using kinematic performance indices and the matrix contains elements with non-homogenous physical units, i.e. representing both translational and rotational motions. Normalization is necessary in multi objective optimization if kinematic performance indices are used based on the full Jacobian matrix. Different methods have been proposed in literature for defining a scaling factor used to normalize the Jacobian. Based on a comparison of a few of these methods, we conclude that it is better to have the scaling factor as a design variable in the multi objective optimization. However, as an alternative, a new scaling factor is proposed based on the relationship between linear actuator motion range in joint space and rotational end effector motion in task space, a proposal underpinned by simulation, analysis and comparison of optimization results using existing normalization techniques. For optimization, performance indices for workspace, kinematic sensitivity, device isotropy and inertia are considered. To deal with the multi-objective optimization problem, genetic algorithms are employed together with a normalized multi-objective optimization function. The performances of different device configurations (depending on the normalization method and the global isotropy index used) are presented in this article.

  • 196.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Multi-objective Optimal Design of a 6-DOF Haptic Device Based on Jacobian NormalizationIn: IEEE transactions on robotics and automation, ISSN 1042-296XArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Optimal Design of a 6-DoF Haptic device2011In: Mechatronics (ICM), 2011 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this paper is motivated by the use of haptics in applications of medical simulation, particularly simulation of surgical procedures in hard tissue such as bone structures. In such a scenario haptic device characteristics such as stiffness, motions, suitable workspace and device footprint are key design factors. This paper presents a procedure for optimal design of a parallel kinematic structure for a 6-Dof haptic device. For optimization, performance indices such as workspace volume, kinematic isotropy and static actuator force requirements are defined. A specific Jacobian matrix normalization is introduced for defining the kinematic isotropy and actuator force requirement indices. For defining the optimization problem, a novel multi-criteria objective function is introduced. Based on this objective function, a genetic algorithm is used to solve the multi-objective and non-linear optimization problem. Also, sensitivity analysis of the performance indices against each design parameter is presented as a basis for selecting a final set of design parameters for prototype development. Finally, using these results, a prototype was implemented.

  • 198.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Improving Fuel Efficiency of Commercial Vehicles through Optimal Control of Energy Buffers2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel consumption reduction is one of the main challenges in the automotiveindustry due to its economical and environmental impacts as well as legalregulations. While fuel consumption reduction is important for all vehicles,it has larger benefits for commercial ones due to their long operational timesand much higher fuel consumption.

    Optimal control of multiple energy buffers within the vehicle proves aneffective approach for reducing energy consumption. Energy is temporarilystored in a buffer when its cost is small and released when it is relativelyexpensive. An example of an energy buffer is the vehicle body. Before goingup a hill, the vehicle can accelerate to increase its kinetic energy, which canthen be consumed on the uphill stretch to reduce the engine load. The simplestrategy proves effective for reducing fuel consumption.

    The thesis generalizes the energy buffer concept to various vehicular componentswith distinct physical disciplines so that they share the same modelstructure reflecting energy flow. The thesis furthermore improves widely appliedcontrol methods and apply them to new applications.

    The contribution of the thesis can be summarized as follows:

    • Developing a new function to make the equivalent consumption minimizationstrategy (ECMS) controller (which is one of the well-knownoptimal energy management methods in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs))more robust.

    • Developing an integrated controller to optimize torque split and gearnumber simultaneously for both reducing fuel consumption and improvingdrivability of HEVs.

    • Developing a one-step prediction control method for improving the gearchanging decision.

    • Studying the potential fuel efficiency improvement of using electromechanicalbrake (EMB) on a hybrid electric city bus.

    • Evaluating the potential improvement of fuel economy of the electricallyactuated engine cooling system through the off-line global optimizationmethod.

    • Developing a linear time variant model predictive controller (LTV-MPC)for the real-time control of the electric engine cooling system of heavytrucks and implementing it on a real truck.

  • 199.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Lindgärde, Olof
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Reducing Auxiliary Energy Consumption of Heavy Trucks by Onboard Prediction and Real-time Optimization2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 188, p. 652-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric engine cooling system, where the coolant pump and the radiator fan are driven by electric motors, admits advanced control methods to decrease auxiliary energy consumption. Recent publications show the fuel saving potential of optimal control strategies for the electric cooling system through offline simulations. These strategies often assume full knowledge of the drive cycle and compute the optimal control sequence by expensive global optimization methods. In reality, the full drive cycle is unknown during driving and global optimization not directly applicable on resource-constrained truck electronic control units. This paper reports state-of-the-art engineering achievements of exploiting vehicular onboard prediction for a limited time horizon and minimizing the auxiliary energy consumption of the electric cooling system through real-time optimization. The prediction and optimization are integrated into a model predictive controller (MPC), which is implemented on a dSPACE MicroAutoBox and tested on a truck on a public road. Systematic simulations show that the new method reduces fuel consumption of a 40-tonne truck by 0.36% and a 60-tonne truck by 0.69% in a real drive cycle compared to a base-line controller. The reductions on auxiliary fuel consumption for the 40-tonne and 60-tonne trucks are about 26% and 38%, respectively. Truck experiments validate the consistency between simulations and experiments and confirm the real-time feasibility of the MPC controller. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 200.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Fuel Saving Potential of Optimal Engine Cooling System2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The engine cooling system in trucks is one of the main sources of parasite load. Thus optimal control of the engine thermal management system with the objective of minimizing energy consumption can substantially improve fuel efficiency. Existing methods on the engine thermal control system concentrate mainly on regulating the engine coolant temperature within a safety range. This paper explicitly calculates the energy consumption of the cooling system using the optimal control methods to decide the trajectories of the control values of the cooling system. During the optimal operation, the engine cooling system serves as another energy buffer to balance the engine workload in conventional trucks. To expose the maximal fuel saving potential of the optimal engine thermal control system, we apply dynamic programming in the investigation and the results are compared with a simple state feedback controller.

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