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  • 151. Henriksson, Dan
    et al.
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Cervin, Anton
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Årzén, Karl-Erik
    Tools for Real-Time Control Systems Co-Design2006In: ARTES: A network for Real-Time research and graduate Education in Sweden 1997–2006 / [ed] Hans Hansson, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 152. Henriksson, Dan
    et al.
    Redell, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Årzén, Karl-Erik
    Tools for Real-time Control Systems CoDesign: A Survey2005Report (Other academic)
  • 153. Hwang, J.
    et al.
    Gu, Yunjin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lee, D. Y.
    A pneumatic haptic module for simulation of catheters used in gastrointestinal endoscopy2017In: International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, IEEE Computer Society, 2017, p. 287-291, article id 7832334Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a haptic module for simulation of catheters used in GI (gastrointestinal) endoscopy. The designed haptic interface provides translational force feedback in one degree-of-freedom using the pneumatic module made of silicon rubber. The pneumatic module has a cylindrical shape with a hollow space inside. The space inside of the module can be filled with air activated by a syringe pump. The module grasps the catheter traveling through the module. The syringe pump is controlled to insufflate or remove air into the space in real-time. Experimental results show that the feedback force and the amount of injected air to the module have a linear relationship. The proposed interface is able to generate necessary force feedback during catheter simulation.

  • 154.
    Höglund, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Olofsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea AB.
    Power-Aware Scheduling in Embedded Systems: Adaptation of SDVS Scheduling using Deadline Overrun Detection2010In: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Energy Aware Design and Analysis of Cyber Physical Systems (WEA-CPS'10) / [ed] Harini Ramaprasad, Radu Dobrin, 2010, p. 26-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) take computation, communication, monitoring and control to a new level of complexity due to their inherent integration with each other and the physical world. Energy efficiency is paramount in such systems since high energy consuming hardware components are envisioned to be deeply embedded within the physical environment, thus calling for the need to incorporate energy awareness into the design and analysis of a CPS rather than as an afterthought. Solutions must reach beyond those for stand-alone real-time systems or homogeneous sensor-networks, to be able to reason about heterogeneous systems of systems integrated at multiple levels, while guaranteeing their safety-critical requirements. This workshop calls for papers that seek to rethink the notion of energy and power awareness, at the device, architectural or operating system (scheduling) levels, in the context of CPS design and analysis.

  • 155. Izosimov, Viacheslav
    et al.
    Asvestopoulos, Alexandros
    Blomkvist, Oscar
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Security-Aware Development of Cyber-Physical Systems Illustrated with Automotive Case Study2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 818-821Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for systematic consideration of security attributes in development of cyber-physical systems. We evaluate our method in development of commercial vehicles that were so far unreasonably excluded from automotive security studies (despite the great importance of commercial vehicles for the society). We have conducted analysis of a known zero-cost non-physical attack, fine-tuned to our commercial vehicle (a truck), and considered countermeasures within the development flow.

  • 156.
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Paschalis, A.
    Reviriego, P.
    Manhaeve, H.
    Application-specific solutions2017In: Dependable Multicore Architectures at Nanoscale, Springer, 2017, p. 189-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses surface transportation applications, space applications, and medical applications in detail. It extends the discussion from Chap. 3 where we considered a broader variety of application domains and their relation to dependability. The choice of these applications is due to expertise of the authors and positioning of these applications in the overall dependability palette as ones of the most challenging yet different from each other.

  • 157.
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Pop, P.
    Eles, P.
    Peng, Z.
    Synthesis of Flexible Fault-Tolerant Schedules for Embedded Systems with Soft and Hard Timing Constraints2010In: Design and Test Technology for Dependable Systems-on-Chip / [ed] R. Ubar, J. Raik, H. T. Vierhaus, IGI Global , 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Jan, Mathieu
    et al.
    CEA, LIST, Centre de Saclay.
    Jouvray, Christophe
    TRIALOG.
    Kordon, Fabrice
    Univ. P. & M. Curie, LIP6, CNRS UMR-7606.
    Kung, Antonio
    TRIALOG.
    Lalande, Jimmy
    Schneider Electric Industries, Strategy & Innovation.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Navas, Juan
    Orange Labs.
    Pautet, Laurent
    Telecom ParisTech.
    Pulou, Jacques
    Orange Labs.
    Radermacher, Ansgar
    CEA, LIST, Centre de Saclay.
    Seinturier, Lionel
    – Nord Europe, Univ. Lille 1 - LIFL CNRS UMR 8022.
    Flex-eWare: a flexible model driven solution for designing and implementing embedded distributed systems2012In: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 42, no 12, p. 1467-1494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of modern embedded systems increases as they incorporate new concerns such as distribution and mobility. These new features need to be considered as early as possible in the software development life cycle. Model driven engineering promotes an intensive use of models and is now widely seen as a solution to master the development of complex systems such as embedded ones. Component-based software engineering is another major trend that gains acceptance in the embedded world because of its properties such as reuse, modularity, and flexibility. This article proposes the Flex-eWare component model (FCM) for designing and implementing modern embedded systems. The FCM unifies model driven engineering and component-based software engineering and has been evaluated in several application domains with different requirements: wireless sensor networks, distributed client/server applications, and control systems for electrical devices. This approach highlights a new concept: flexibility points that arise at several stages of the development process, that is, in the model (design phase), in the execution platform, and during the execution itself. This flexibility points are captured with model libraries that can extend the FCM.

  • 159.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards a Model-based Framework for Development of Engineering Tool-chains: Supporting Cyber-physical Systems Modeling and Simulation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous evolution has caused increased complexity in the functionality of Cyber-physical System (CPS). As a consequence, development of CPS typically requires more complex interactions between projects, stakeholders, and simulation from various domains bringing new challenges in the integration of models, data, information and knowledge. This report proposes a model-based framework for Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) tool-chain development. The framework has two purposes: to make a MBSE tool-chain supporting CPS modeling and simulation by model-driven and tool-integration techniques; and tosupport effective tool-chain development through a systems engineering approach. The framework which covers Social, Process, Information and Technical aspects aims to integrate various MBSE techniques related to CPS development into united toolchains.The techniques include co-simulation by the use of high-level architecture (HLA), Functional Mockup Interface (FMI),BPM Camunda, Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) and domain specific modeling. The contributions are twofold: First, this framework addresses the functionalities of MBSE tool-chains from a systems engineering perspective. Secondly, the developed MBSE tool-chain promises to support CPS modeling and simulation with better interoperability and integrated capability,- a capability to integrate existing engineering tools and system development platform.

  • 160.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Towards a Model-driven and Tool-integration Framework for Co- Simulation Environments2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) have evolved continuously over the past decades with increasing functional and technical complexity. As a consequence, the development typically involves more complex interactions of designers and stakeholders compared to the past. We are in particular investigating a framework for model-driven and tool-integration for developing the complex system, such as aircraft, aero engines and automotive vehicles. Normally, such complex system can be divided into different parts with associated engineering tasks allocated to different work groups or companies. These groups often use specific domain-specific simulator tools to assist the specification, analysis and synthesis tasks. For example, when a whole vehicle is designed, the overall system behavior and other properties depend on the characteristics of its subsystems and components being composed. It is therefore important for system developers to conduct early system integration and thereby to understand the system behaviors and analyze system performance in the initial design phases. In current industrial practices, different CAD and CAE tools are used for the development of CPS subsystems and components, such as for requirement analysis, high level design, detailed level design, implementation, testing, etc. Since the subsystem designers often use their own tools to build models, it is a challenge for the system developers to integrate those detailed models and to predict the whole system performance. This calls for a complete integration framework for different models and tools while taking the process management perspective into consideration.

    This paper describes an initial version of a framework for co-simulation and tool-integration in regard to the methodology and technical roadmap. Co-simulation is supposed as a simulation and analysis approach to verify the system requirements. With co-simulation we refer to an approach integrating subsystem models in order to predict the whole complex system performance. The framework is inspired by the SPIT model, [1]. In the framework, a formal system description is provided to share information among various stakeholders, including project managers, system engineers, modelers, system designers and simulation testers. The content of system information being described and integrated includes requirements, parameter setting, interface contracts, and tool specific information for co-simulation. Also, parameters related to optimized simulation behaviors can be added. 

  • 161.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    An  Investigation of Functionalities of the Future Toolchain of Aerospace Industry2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is advocated as one important means to deal with increasing product complexity. In this paper, we investigate the increasing interest and use of MBSE in the aerospace domain. The growth of MBSE tools causes new challenges in the corresponding tool-chain development including data and information management, tool’s applicability identification, tool-integration, etc. In this paper, a literature survey into trends and usages of large-scale MBSE tool-chains is presented. It is found that the key functionalities include functional roles, elements, abstraction levels and tool integration techniques. Additionally, we propose a methodology to provide guidance in optimizing future MBSE tool-chain functionalities for the aero-industry. In closing, we present a case study in order to illustrate the decision-making process required to develop expected tool-chains by the proposed methodology.

  • 162.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM). KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Jian, Wang
    University of Electronic Science and Technology of China,.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards A Service-oriented Framework for MBSE Tool-chain Development2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a SPIRIT framework supporting model-based systems engineering (MBSE) tool-chain development of advanced cyber-physical systems (CPS) with emphasis on tool integration, process management, automated verification and validation. The core features of the developed MBSE tool-chain include domain-specific modeling to describe CPS development, service-oriented deployment of technical resources (data, model and tool operations) and process management through IT platforms. The framework has two purposes: to support tool-chain development with a systems engineering approach; to promote interoperability of the whole developed tool-chain through a service-oriented approach. The framework covers social, process, information and technical aspects aiming to integrate various related MBSE techniques with tool-chain development. Based on the framework, an MBSE tool-chain prototype is developed, and the flexibility and interoperability are evaluated through a case study.

  • 163.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Model-driven and Tool-integration Framework for Whole Vehicle Co-simulation Environments2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the design of automotive vehicle systems, modeling and simulation technologies have been widely used for supporting their conceptualization and evaluation. Due to the increasing complexity of such systems, the overall quality management and design process optimization are becoming more important. This in particular brings the necessity of integrating various domain-specific physical models that are traditionally based on different formalisms and isolated tools. In this paper, we present the initial concepts towards a model-driven tool-integration framework with automated managed simulation services in the system development. We exploit EAST-ADL and some other existing state-of-the-art modeling technologies as the reference frameworks for a formal system description, with the content includingrequirements, design solutions, extra-functional constraints, and verification and validation cases. Given such a formal specification, dedicated co-simulation services will be developed to provide the support for automated configuration and execution of simulation tools.

  • 164.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wang, Jian
    A Tool Integration Language to Formalize Co-simulation Tool-chains for Cyber-physical System (CPS)2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-simulation has grown from point-to-point between simulation tools for specific purposes to complex tool-chains which often require additional functionalities, e.g., process management, data management, and tool integration. With these additional functionalities, the related design activities could be controlled and implemented by uni- ed platforms to improve eciency and effectiveness. Due to increasing complexity and size of co-simulation tool-chains, a systematic approach is needed to formalize their evolution in order to analyze functionalities and evaluate their structures before development. In this paper, we extend a proposed domain specific language, - named Tool Integration Language (TIL) - to describe co-simulation tool-chain architectures on a high abstraction level aiming to promote the eciency and e effectiveness of co-simulation tool-chain development by the use of Model-based System Engineering (MBSE). We introduce how the extended TIL formalizes structures and present two industrial cases of co-simulation tool-chain from previous experiences and describe them using the TIL. Finally, we conclude this paper and introduce future work -a further extension of TIL supporting MBSE tool-chain development.

  • 165.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM). KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Yuejie, Wen
    China Academy of Space Technology.
    Gürdür, Didem
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Qi, Li
    Suzhou Tongyuan Software and Control Technology Co. Ltd.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    MBSE Applicability Analysis in Chinese Industry2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is an emerging technique widely used in current industry. It is a leading way expected to become a next-generation standard practice in the systems engineering. Fundamental tenets of systems engineering can be supported by a model-based approach to minimize design risks and avoid design changes in late development stages. The models can be used to formalize, analyze, design, optimize, verify and validate target products which help developers to integrate engineering development, organization and product across domains. Though model-based development is well established in specific domains, such as software, mechanical system, electric systems, its role in integrated development from system aspect is still a big challenge for current Chinese industry. In this paper, a survey from volunteers who related with MBSE is taken by questionnaires. The purpose of this survey is to highlight the usage and status of MBSE in current Chinese industry and address roughly the understandings of MBSE concepts among system developers in China based on the answers about usages, advantages, barriers, concerns, trends of MBSE, particularly the perspective of tool-chain development.

  • 166. Johansson, R.
    et al.
    Alissa, S.
    Bengtsson, S.
    Bergenhem, C.
    Bridal, O.
    Cassel, A.
    Chen, Dejiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gassilewski, M.
    Nilsson, J.
    Sandberg, A.
    Ursing, S.
    Warg, F.
    Werneman, A.
    A strategy for assessing safe use of sensors in autonomous road vehicles2017In: 36th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, SAFECOMP 2017, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10488, p. 149-161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When arguing safety for an autonomous road vehicle it is considered very hard to show that the sensing capability is sufficient for all possible scenarios that might occur. Already for today’s manually driven road vehicles equipped with advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), it is far from trivial how to argue that the sensor systems are sufficiently capable of enabling a safe behavior. In this paper, we argue that the transition from ADAS to automated driving systems (ADS) enables new solution patterns for the safety argumentation dependent on the sensor systems. A key factor is that the ADS itself can compensate for a lower sensor capability, by for example lowering the speed or increasing the distances. The proposed design strategy allocates safety requirements on the sensors to determine their own capability. This capability is then to be balanced by the tactical decisions of the ADS equipped road vehicle.

  • 167.
    Jonasson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Roos, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Design and evaluation of an active electromechanical wheel suspension system2008In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 218-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an electromechanical wheel suspension, where the upper arm of the suspension has been provided with an electric levelling and a damper actuator, both are allowed to work in a fully active mode. A control structure for the proposed suspension is described. The complex design task involving the control of the electric damper and its machine parameters is tackled by genetic optimisation. During this process, these parameters are optimised to keep the power dissipation of the electric damper as low as possible, while maintaining acceptable comfort and road-holding capabilities. The results of the evaluations carried out demonstrate that the proposed suspension can easily adopt its control parameters to obtain a better compromise of performance than that offered by passive suspensions. If the vehicle is to maintain acceptable performance during severe driving conditions, the damper has to be unrealistically large. However, if the electric damper is combined with a hydraulic damper, the size of the electric damper is significantly reduced. In addition, the design of the electric damper with the suggested control structure, including how it regenerates energy, is discussed.

  • 168.
    Jonhed, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Mass estimation using mapped road grade data in heavy duty vehicles2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One way of achieving more fuel efficient, more environmentally friendly and user-friendly Heavy-duty vehicles is to develop new embedded control features. Many of these features are based on vehicle mass is known. Methods of finding the current vehicle mass can be implemented in many different ways, including various methods that require user interaction or manual weighing of the vehicle. These should be avoided as they are inefficient and add operations to the driver. Another alternative method is estimation by adaptive filters. This examination is based on this method and assumes that the road grade is known. The method developed consists primarily of a recursive least squares method to estimate against a physical vehicle model in the longitudinal direction. The time-varying input signals are noise reduced by stepwise integration into intervals of 10 seconds and low-pass filtering. For estimation to be carried out, a number of conditions have been set. Verification of the method was carried out through both simulations and by executing it in a vehicle's control system. The results show that the mass is estimated with a relative error of 5 % after 600 seconds of driving. The conclusions include that this method gives a good estimation and it does not stress the vehicle control system so that it becomes unusable. Before using this method, more work should be performed on getting a more accurate model of vehicle, especially on the parameters used in this.

  • 169. Kaznov, Viktor
    et al.
    Svahn, Johan
    Roos, Per
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Behere, Sagar
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Architecture and Safety for Autonomous Heavy Vehicles: ARCHER2017In: Automated Driving: Safer and More Efficient Future Driving / [ed] Daniel Watzenig, Martin Horn, Springer, 2017, p. 571-581Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machines are converging towards autonomy. The transition is driven by safety, efficiency, environmental and traditional ‘robotics automation concerns’ (dirty, dull and dangerous applications). Similar trends are seen in several domains including heavy vehicles, cars and aircraft. This transition is, however, facing multiple challenges including how to gradually evolve from current architectures to autonomous systems, limitations in legislation and safety standards, test and verification methodology and human–machine interaction.

  • 170.
    Khabbazi, Mahmood Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Hasan, M.K
    Shapi’i, A
    Sulaiman, R
    Keshavarz, Y
    Mousavi, A
    Object-oriented Modelling for Module-based Production Logistics Inventory System2013In: Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, ISSN 1991-8178, E-ISSN 2309-8414, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 555-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes module-based object-oriented data models for inventory systemfocusing on the production logistics business processes. It expounds the methodology and modellingprocedure to provide the inventory system requirements. Through warehousing business processanalysis for production logistics and based on the object-oriented technique in a modular basis, thedomain and entity class diagrams are modelled. Through identifying all the required and realizingsystem interfaces, the system is able to be integrated with other back office systems. The model is ableto manipulate all warehousing operation data including receiving, storing, retrieval, allocations andtraceability, and load balancing for actual inventory stock keeping units in real-time to support quickdecision making with minimum efforts and or errors.

  • 171.
    Khan, Suleman
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Design and optimization of parallel haptic devices: Design methodology and experimental evaluation2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The simulation of surgical procedures, in the case of hard tissues such as bone or teeth milling, using a haptic milling surgery simulator requires a haptic device which can provide high stiffness and transparency. To mimic a real milling process of hard tissue, such as for example creating a narrow channel or cavity, the simulator needs to provide force/torque feedback in 5–6 degrees of freedom (DOF). As described in this thesis, research has been performed to develop and optimize a haptic device that can provide high stiffness and force/torque capabilities to facilitate haptic interaction with stiff tissues. 

    The main contributions of this thesis are:

    (i) The use of a model-based design methodology for the design of haptic devices.  The proposed methodology is applied to a case study, i.e. the design and optimization of a haptic device based on parallel kinematics. Device requirements were elicited through dialogues with a prospective user from a neurosurgery clinic. In the conceptual design phase, different parallel concepts have been investigated and analyzed based on functional qualities such number of degrees of freedom, workspace size and force/torque capabilities. This analysis led to the selection of a specific 6 DOF kinematic structure for which dimension synthesis was performed including multi-objective optimization followed by control synthesis. Finally, a device prototype was realized and its performance verified.

    (ii) Optimization of the device for best kinematic and dynamic performance. For optimization, performance indices such as workspace-to-footprint ratio, kinematic isotropy and inertial indices were used. To cope with the problem of non-uniform units in the components of the Jacobian matrix, various normalization techniques were investigated. A new multi-objective optimization function is introduced to define the optimization problem, which is then resolved using multi-objective genetic algorithms. A sensitivity analysis of the performance indices against each design parameter is performed, as a basis for selecting a final set of design parameter values.

    (iii) A control strategy is investigated to achieve high transparency and stability of the device. The control strategy is based on careful analysis of the dynamics of the haptic device, computed torque feed-forward control and force control based on current feedback.

    (iv) Finally, experiments both separately in the lab and by using the device in a haptic milling surgery simulator were performed. Results from a face validity study performed in collaboration with orthopedists verify that the new haptic device enables high-performance force and torque feedback for stiff interactions.  

  • 172.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Aftab, Ahmad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Design Optimization of the Tau Haptic Device2011In: ICUMT: Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), 2011 3rd International Congress on, IEEE , 2011, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this paper is motivated by the use of haptics in medical simulation, particularly simulation of surgical procedures in hard tissue such as bone structures. In this context, characteristics such as motion, stiffness, workspace-to-footprint ratio, and low inertia are key factors in the design of a haptic device. This paper introduces a procedure for design optimization of haptic devices based on a hybrid mechanism. For design optimization, performance indices such as workspace volume, kinematic isotropy and static torque requirements indices are defined. A new multi-criteria objective optimization (MOO) function is introduced to define the optimization problem. Multi-objective algorithms are used to solve this optimization problem using the defined objective function. Furthermore sensitivity analysis of the performance indices against each design parameter is presented as a basis for selecting a final set of design parameters to develop a prototype. Finally, a CAD model and prototype of the device is developed based on the simulation results.

  • 173.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A design Methodology for haptic devices2011In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED11), Vol. 4 / [ed] Culley, S.J.; Hicks, B.J.; McAloone, T.C.; Howard, T.J. & Lindemann, U., 2011, p. 288-298Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a design methodology for optimal design of haptic devices, considering aspects form all involved engineering domains. The design methodology is based on parametric modeling, iterative and integrated design approach that leads to easier design space exploration for global optimal design and initial verification in the conceptual design phase. For global optimization, performance indices such as; workspace volume, isotropy, stiffness, inertia and control of the device were from all involved engineering domains were considered. To handle this complex and non-linear optimization problem, a multi-objective algorithm together with a new developed optimization function was used, to obtain a global optimum solution. A case study, where the methodology has been applied to develop a parallel haptic device is presented in detail in this paper. The results obtain from the test case model show significant improvements in the performances of the device.

  • 174.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Design Approach for a New 6-DoF Haptic Device Based on Parallel Kinematics2009In: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MECHATRONICS, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 195-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach to a methodology for design, analysis and optimization of haptic devices. This approach roughly divides the design process into; device requirements, conceptual design, device design, control design and finally building a prototype of the device. In addition, we have applied the first two phases of this methodology, i.e. device requirements and conceptual design on the development of a new 6-DoF haptic device. The intended application area for this device is medical simulations and this research is one important component towards achieving manipulation capabilities and force/torque feedback in six degrees of freedom during medical simulations. Three candidate concepts, all based on parallel kinematic structures, have been investigated and analyzed. The performance parameters being analyzed have covered workspace analysis and force/torque requirements to fulfill the specified TCP force performance. The initial analysis of these three concepts has shown, after a smaller modification of one of the concepts that all concepts seem to satisfy, the initially stated requirements.

  • 175.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Design Optimization and Performance Evaluation of a 6-DOF Haptic DeviceIn: Journal of mechanical design (1990), ISSN 1050-0472, E-ISSN 1528-9001Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Dynamic based control strategy for haptic devices2011In: World Haptics Conference (WHC), 2011 IEEE Issue Date: 21-24 June 2011 / [ed] IEEE, 2011, p. 131-136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency is a key performance measure for haptic devices. In this paper, we investigate a control strategy to increase the transparency of a haptic device. This control strategy is based on careful analysis of the dynamics of the haptic device, computed torque feed forward control and current feedback based force control. The inverse dynamic equation of motion for the device is derived using Lagrangian formalism and the dominating terms are identified for some representative motion trajectories. The user contact dynamic model is identified using experiments on the device with different users. A PI controller using motor current measurements is used to follow the reference force from the virtual environment. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy.

  • 177.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Investigation of parallel kinematic mechanism structures for haptic devices2009In: 2nd Nordic Conference on Product Lifecycle Management – NordPLM’09, Gothenburg January 2009., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today modeling and simulation tools like FE (Finite Element) and MBS (Multi Body Systems) simulation tools are commonly used within mechanical engineering. These types of tools offer capabilities of Virtual prototyping (VP) with the possibility to investigate and explore a product before a physical prototype is manufactured. This can reduce the number of physical prototypes needed and save both time and money. These tools are also well known to be an effective means to support the process of verification of formulated requirements. They can be used e.g. for evaluation and selection of alternative solutions or as a final check or optimisation of a solution concept. The use of these kinds of tools can be even more effective if an information framework for handling the information created during the verification process can support them.

    The outline of such an information framework has been presented by Andersson [1], [2], which support traceability and reuse of partial result created during the verification of a specific requirements attribute as well as a possibility to study the effects that changes in the requirements specification have on product properties. This type of framework need a fine granularity of information, to be able to reuse partial results e.g. component simulation models but also that the models are structured such that we can reuse them in new model configurations.

    This paper presents an investigation of 6-dof haptic devices based on parallel structure that can be used in a surgical training simulator for temporal bone milling or as a 6-dof input- output teleoperated haptic master device. This investigation follows the verification process outlined by Andersson [1], [2], where the haptic devices in this case the product concept to be evaluated. The basic idea behind these concepts is to develop a haptic device with a large workspace and high stiffness within this workspace based on modeling and analysis of two different concepts. The study will concentrate to find a way to measure performance parameters to be able to evaluate and compare different structures.

  • 178.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Jacobian Matrix Normalization - A Comparison of Different Approaches in the Context of Multi-Objective Optimization of 6-DOF Haptic Devices2015In: Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, ISSN 0921-0296, E-ISSN 1573-0409, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 87-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on Jacobian matrix normalization and the performance effects of using different criterion and techniques. Normalization of the Jacobian matrix becomes an issue when using kinematic performance indices and the matrix contains elements with non-homogenous physical units, i.e. representing both translational and rotational motions. Normalization is necessary in multi objective optimization if kinematic performance indices are used based on the full Jacobian matrix. Different methods have been proposed in literature for defining a scaling factor used to normalize the Jacobian. Based on a comparison of a few of these methods, we conclude that it is better to have the scaling factor as a design variable in the multi objective optimization. However, as an alternative, a new scaling factor is proposed based on the relationship between linear actuator motion range in joint space and rotational end effector motion in task space, a proposal underpinned by simulation, analysis and comparison of optimization results using existing normalization techniques. For optimization, performance indices for workspace, kinematic sensitivity, device isotropy and inertia are considered. To deal with the multi-objective optimization problem, genetic algorithms are employed together with a normalized multi-objective optimization function. The performances of different device configurations (depending on the normalization method and the global isotropy index used) are presented in this article.

  • 179.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Multi-objective Optimal Design of a 6-DOF Haptic Device Based on Jacobian NormalizationIn: IEEE transactions on robotics and automation, ISSN 1042-296XArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Khan, Suleman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Optimal Design of a 6-DoF Haptic device2011In: Mechatronics (ICM), 2011 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this paper is motivated by the use of haptics in applications of medical simulation, particularly simulation of surgical procedures in hard tissue such as bone structures. In such a scenario haptic device characteristics such as stiffness, motions, suitable workspace and device footprint are key design factors. This paper presents a procedure for optimal design of a parallel kinematic structure for a 6-Dof haptic device. For optimization, performance indices such as workspace volume, kinematic isotropy and static actuator force requirements are defined. A specific Jacobian matrix normalization is introduced for defining the kinematic isotropy and actuator force requirement indices. For defining the optimization problem, a novel multi-criteria objective function is introduced. Based on this objective function, a genetic algorithm is used to solve the multi-objective and non-linear optimization problem. Also, sensitivity analysis of the performance indices against each design parameter is presented as a basis for selecting a final set of design parameters for prototype development. Finally, using these results, a prototype was implemented.

  • 181.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Improving Fuel Efficiency of Commercial Vehicles through Optimal Control of Energy Buffers2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel consumption reduction is one of the main challenges in the automotiveindustry due to its economical and environmental impacts as well as legalregulations. While fuel consumption reduction is important for all vehicles,it has larger benefits for commercial ones due to their long operational timesand much higher fuel consumption.

    Optimal control of multiple energy buffers within the vehicle proves aneffective approach for reducing energy consumption. Energy is temporarilystored in a buffer when its cost is small and released when it is relativelyexpensive. An example of an energy buffer is the vehicle body. Before goingup a hill, the vehicle can accelerate to increase its kinetic energy, which canthen be consumed on the uphill stretch to reduce the engine load. The simplestrategy proves effective for reducing fuel consumption.

    The thesis generalizes the energy buffer concept to various vehicular componentswith distinct physical disciplines so that they share the same modelstructure reflecting energy flow. The thesis furthermore improves widely appliedcontrol methods and apply them to new applications.

    The contribution of the thesis can be summarized as follows:

    • Developing a new function to make the equivalent consumption minimizationstrategy (ECMS) controller (which is one of the well-knownoptimal energy management methods in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs))more robust.

    • Developing an integrated controller to optimize torque split and gearnumber simultaneously for both reducing fuel consumption and improvingdrivability of HEVs.

    • Developing a one-step prediction control method for improving the gearchanging decision.

    • Studying the potential fuel efficiency improvement of using electromechanicalbrake (EMB) on a hybrid electric city bus.

    • Evaluating the potential improvement of fuel economy of the electricallyactuated engine cooling system through the off-line global optimizationmethod.

    • Developing a linear time variant model predictive controller (LTV-MPC)for the real-time control of the electric engine cooling system of heavytrucks and implementing it on a real truck.

  • 182.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Lindgärde, Olof
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Reducing Auxiliary Energy Consumption of Heavy Trucks by Onboard Prediction and Real-time Optimization2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 188, p. 652-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric engine cooling system, where the coolant pump and the radiator fan are driven by electric motors, admits advanced control methods to decrease auxiliary energy consumption. Recent publications show the fuel saving potential of optimal control strategies for the electric cooling system through offline simulations. These strategies often assume full knowledge of the drive cycle and compute the optimal control sequence by expensive global optimization methods. In reality, the full drive cycle is unknown during driving and global optimization not directly applicable on resource-constrained truck electronic control units. This paper reports state-of-the-art engineering achievements of exploiting vehicular onboard prediction for a limited time horizon and minimizing the auxiliary energy consumption of the electric cooling system through real-time optimization. The prediction and optimization are integrated into a model predictive controller (MPC), which is implemented on a dSPACE MicroAutoBox and tested on a truck on a public road. Systematic simulations show that the new method reduces fuel consumption of a 40-tonne truck by 0.36% and a 60-tonne truck by 0.69% in a real drive cycle compared to a base-line controller. The reductions on auxiliary fuel consumption for the 40-tonne and 60-tonne trucks are about 26% and 38%, respectively. Truck experiments validate the consistency between simulations and experiments and confirm the real-time feasibility of the MPC controller. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 183.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Fuel Saving Potential of Optimal Engine Cooling System2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The engine cooling system in trucks is one of the main sources of parasite load. Thus optimal control of the engine thermal management system with the objective of minimizing energy consumption can substantially improve fuel efficiency. Existing methods on the engine thermal control system concentrate mainly on regulating the engine coolant temperature within a safety range. This paper explicitly calculates the energy consumption of the cooling system using the optimal control methods to decide the trajectories of the control values of the cooling system. During the optimal operation, the engine cooling system serves as another energy buffer to balance the engine workload in conventional trucks. To expose the maximal fuel saving potential of the optimal engine thermal control system, we apply dynamic programming in the investigation and the results are compared with a simple state feedback controller.

  • 184.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Improvement of fuel efficiency and drivability using simple prediction for gear changing2013In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 2013, no PART 1, p. 518-523Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreasing fuel consumption and emissions in automobiles has been an active research topic in recent years. A promising technology is the hybridization of powertrain. The main focus in this area is usually on the development of optimal power management control methods. For parallel HEVs (hybrid electric vehicle), the primary control variable is the torque split between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor but gear number can also be considered as a control parameter. ECMS (equivalent consumption minimization strategy) is one of the well-known real time power management strategies and has been used extensively in different works; however, using ECMS for controlling gearbox cannot always lead to optimal fuel consumption and drivability. The slow dynamics of gearbox might introduce unnecessary gear changing, which leads to suboptimal fuel efficiency and degraded drivability. In this paper, a simple prediction strategy is implemented to improve fuel efficiency and drivability. The presented prediction method does not use any information from the environment and does not need any extra sensor. The strategy is not computationally heavy compared to other predictive methods. The simplicity of the method makes it suitable for implementations.

  • 185.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Improving Fuel Economy and Robustness of an Improved ECMS Method2013In: 2013 10th IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation  (ICCA), IEEE , 2013, p. 598-603Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid electric vehicles have shown significant improvement for both fuel efficiency and emission reduction, and attracted many researchers. Paramount for the fuel efficiency of HEVs is the energy management control strategies. ECMS (equivalent consumption minimization strategy) is one of the well-known real time power management strategies and has been used extensively in different works; however, its intrinsic difficulty is to find the optimal equivalent factor, which in theory is determined by the a priori knowledge of the complete driving cycle. Different methods have been proposed to solve this issue, but each one has its own pros. and cons. Especially, the applicability of each method for different cycles as well as the computation overhead are two main concerns in the methods presented so far. In this paper, a new method is presented for calculating equivalent factor in the ECMS method. The method does not rely on any prediction nor the a priori knowledge of driving cycles. Its robustness is demonstrated through different driving cycles with distinct characteristics. Our new method will improve the effectiveness and robustness of the ECMS method.

  • 186.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    One-step prediction for improving gear changing control of HEVs2014In: Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics, ISSN 0915-3942, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 799-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreasing fuel consumption and emissions in automobiles continues to be an active research problem. A promising technology is powertrain hybridization. Study in this area usually focuses on the development of optimal power management control methods. The equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) is a widely used real-time control method used for determining the optimal trajectory of the power split between the engine and motor. Reports also cover applying ECMS to find an optimal gear changing strategy, but results are not always satisfactory in fuel economy and drivability. One possible reason for this is that gearbox dynamics are slow, but ECMS is based on instant optimization and neglects this time delay. This paper proposes a simple prediction strategy for improving ECMS performance used with gear changing control. The proposed controller improves fuel efficiency and drivability without the need of adding extra sensors to the automobile. The proposed method’s simplicity makes it suitable for implementation.

  • 187.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Optimization of gear shifting and torque split for improved fuel efficiency and drivability of HEVs2013In: SAE Technical Papers: Volume 2, 2013, S A E Inc , 2013, Vol. 2, p. 2013-01-1461-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreasing fuel consumption and emissions in automobiles has been an active research topic in recent years. Vehicles with alternative powertrain systems, especially hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), have shown significant reduction in fuel consumption and emissions, and therefore have attracted many researchers to this field. The focus is usually on the development of optimal power management control methods. For parallel HEVs, the primary control variable is the torque split between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor. More advanced approaches also simultaneously search for the optimal gear number and engine on/off state, which can further reduce the fuel consumption but also complicate the problem. In the literature on HEVs, the emphasis is typically only on fuel efficiency and sometimes the emissions. The drivability of the vehicle is usually not considered during the optimization process. Furthermore, gearbox models do not usually reflect the real behavior of vehicle due to over simplification in vehicle models. This paper studies the energy management problem of parallel HEVs. Fuel consumption and drivability are optimized through an integrated optimization process by searching optimal torque split and gear number simultaneously. Intelligent filters are designed to stabilize the values of gear number to avoid frequent oscillation. The method is suitable for real-time implementation and has been tested in the simulation software Autonomie.

  • 188.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Predictive control of the engine cooling system for fuel efficiency improvement2014In: Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 61-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The engine cooling system in trucks is one of the main sources of parasite load. Thus fuel efficiency can be improved by optimal control of engine thermal management system considering fuel consumption minimization as the objective. Although several optimal control methods have been proposed for the engine cooling system, their main emphasize is on regulating engine and coolant temperature in an acceptable range rather than minimizing fuel consumption. In contrast, this paper investigates the fuel saving potential of predictive optimal control methods for the engine cooling system of conventional trucks. Our method exploits the idea of energy buffers in the automotive system, where the engine cooling system and the battery serve as energy buffers. The advantages of this approach are the recovery of brake energy and the balance of energy sources so that the total energy loss is minimized. A model predictive controller is used as the real time controller, and the results are compared with a simple state feedback controller and a global optimal solution obtained by dynamic programming. The results show limited but notable improvement in fuel efficiency. The results also construct a base for ongoing research on energy buffer control in conventional heavy trucks.

  • 189.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Fuel efficiency improvement in HEVs using electromechanical brake system2013In: 2013 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), IEEE , 2013, p. 322-327Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, two of the main concerns in transportation industry are reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and tough regulations are put on the vehicle manufacturers in these regards. One of the main approaches towards reducing CO2 emissions is hybridization of the powertrain system. Substantial R&D in this area over the last couple of years has resulted in rather optimal components and control strategies, and hence that further substantial improvements are difficult. This motivates research on other energy consuming vehicle subsystems, e.g. pneumatic and hydraulic systems. In this paper, the brake system of a hybrid city bus is studied. A complete electrification of the primary brake system would eliminate the use of low efficiency pneumatics for braking. It is therefore interesting to investigate how much energy can be saved by using electrically actuated and controlled primary brakes. The study is based on simulations in Autonomie which is a MATLAB/SIMULINK based vehicle simulation software package. Different representative driving cycles are studied. It is shown that fuel consumption can be reduced in the range of 0.5 to 1.5% by substituting the pneumatic brake system with a mechatronic one. This may seem limited, but can, combined with substitution of also other less efficient subsystems with their mechatronic counterparts, result in a substantial environmental and economic improvement.

  • 190. Kjellsson, J.
    et al.
    Törngren, Martin E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A concept for secure production programming of embedded industrial field devices2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of securing the investment made in software is increasing for small embedded devices, as the size of the development efforts are rapidly growing. The meaning of securing in this context is related to protecting against cloning, prohibit reverse engineering of software, preventing alterations performed in order to tweak performance etc. Sales of illegal copies of devices are a major threat to industrial companies. We introduce a concept which mitigates the issues of counterfeiting and unauthorized production, allowing for production of embedded devices in locations which are not trusted. We define this concept as Secure Production Programming. It targets software-intense microcontroller-based embedded devices where it is crucial to protect the embedded software. Moreover, the concept allows for programming of the complete software in any (un-trusted) location without the risk of exposing the intellectual properties contained in the software, eliminating the risk that someone successfully can download the software on non-authentic hardware. A proof of concept implementation of the Secure Production Programming is presented, and performance figures are given.

  • 191. Kleberger, P.
    et al.
    Javaheri, A.
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Broberg, H.
    Security Concerns in Communication with the Connected Car using DoIP2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n this paper, we investigate the threats and challenges when using untrusted network links for communication with the connected car. A prototype system using the Diagnostics over IP (DoIP) protocol has been implemented within our project. We highlight the DoIP security challenges that we have identified. We further discuss how the environment appears to attackers, which vulnerabilities can be exploited and what the possible consequences can be. Possible countermeasures and security mechanisms are discussed to address these threats and vulnerabilities.

  • 192.
    Lagerkvist Blomqvist, JOHAN
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    OSTERMAN, NILES
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Automatic control of a dynamic system.: Positioning of a spherical object on a flat surface.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling the value of a variable and compensating for external influences is

    a fundamental problem in a wide range of applications. This thesis investigates

    the issues of such control problems; it presents theory on control design and

    system modeling as well as the development of a demonstrator in the form of

    a ball-balancing platform to apply these concepts on. This project’s purpose is

    to design a dynamic system and a state space controller that performs as well

    as possible with respect to response time and precision.

    The purpose of the project is achieved by analyzing the dynamic problem and

    from it create a theoretical model. This is then used to design a state space

    controller in order to continuously regulate the position of a ball on the platform.

    The final step is to build a demonstrator which will be used to verify that

    the designed controller fulfills the criteria that was assigned at the beginning

    of the project.

    The controller was tested by performing a step in the set-point with 15 millimeters.

    This made it possible to analyze the step response in order to determine

    the rise time, overshoot and the static error of the system. The result of the

    tests was a rise time of 0.3 seconds, with a overshoot of 4%, which fulfills the

    speed demands of the system. The static error had a peak of 3 millimeters

    offset from the set-point. The main part of the error was caused by a hardware

    issue in the form of the ball not moving even though the platform is tilting.

    This due to irregularities on the ball’s surface as well as the resistive touch

    screens cushioning effect. The static error was therefore deemed as acceptable.

  • 193.
    Larses, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Engineering mechatronics systems: a meta-level description of system and system development based on the Montesquieu system model in an automotive context2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Larses, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Function Modelling to Improve Software Documentation2005Report (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Larses, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Views on General System Theory2005Report (Other academic)
  • 196.
    Lau, Kung-Kiu
    et al.
    The University of Manchester.
    Pantel, Marc
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tran, Cuong
    The University of Manchester.
    Component-Based Development2013In: CESAR: Cost-efficiation Methods and Processes for Safety-relevant Embedded Systems / [ed] Ajitha Rajan, Thomas Wahl, Springer, 2013, p. 179-212Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we focus on the use of component-based development (CDB) in Cesar. First, we introduce what we mean by components and how they fit into the product lifecycle. Then, we report on the two major technological innovations of the project: the X-MAN and HRC frameworks.

  • 197. Lindgärde, O.
    et al.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tenstam, A.
    Soderman, M.
    Optimal Vehicle Control for Fuel Efficiency2015In: SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles, ISSN 1946-391X, E-ISSN 1946-3928, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 682-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONVENIENT is a project where prediction and integrated control are applied on several subsystems with electrified actuators. The technologies developed in this project are applied to a long-haul tractor and semi-trailer combination. A Volvo truck meeting the Eu6 emission standard is rebuilt with a number of controllable electrified actuators. An e-Horizon system collects information about future road topography and speed limits. Controllable aerodynamic wind deflectors reduce the wind drag. The tractor is also equipped with a full digital cluster for human machine interface development. A primary project goal is to develop a model-based optimal controller that uses predictive information from the e-Horizon system in order to minimize fuel consumption. Several energy buffers are controlled in an integrated and optimal way using model predictive control. Several buffers are considered, such as the cooling system, the battery, and the vehicle kinetic energy. This paper presents details on the model predictive controller of the battery system and of the cooling system. Another project goal is to reduce fuel consumption by using adaptive aerodynamics. Controllers are developed that automatically sets an optimal roof deflector angle and the optimal side deflector angle. The results presented in this paper are encouraging. A third focus is the human machine interface and especially the communication between the driver and the control system during driving. This project develops a driver interface that encourages the driver to use the adaptive cruise controller when appropriate. The CONVENIENT project will be finalized this year. This paper presents the main project findings.

  • 198. Lindgärde, O.
    et al.
    Söderman, M.
    Tenstam, A.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Optimal Complete Vehicle Control for Fuel Efficiency2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONVENIENT is a project where prediction and integrated control are applied on several subsystems with electrified actuators. The technologies developed in this project are applied to a long-haul tractor and semi-trailer combination. A Volvo truck meeting the Eu6 emission standard is rebuilt with a number of controllable electrified actuators. An e-Horizon system collects information about future road topography and speed limits. Controllable aerodynamic wind deflectors reduce the wind drag. The tractor is also equipped with a full digital cluster for human machine interface development. A primary project goal is to develop a model-based optimal controller that uses predictive information from the e-Horizon system in order to minimize fuel consumption. Several energy buffers are controlled in an integrated and optimal way using model predictive control. Several buffers are considered, such as the cooling system, the battery, and the vehicle kinetic energy. This paper presents details on the model predictive controller of the battery system and of the cooling system. Another project goal is to reduce fuel consumption by using adaptive aerodynamics. Controllers are developed that automatically sets an optimal roof deflector angle and the optimal side deflector angle. The results presented in this paper are encouraging. A third focus is the human machine interface and especially the communication between the driver and the control system during driving. This project develops a driver interface that encourages the driver to use the adaptive cruise controller when appropriate. The CONVENIENT project will be finalized this year. This paper presents the main project findings.

  • 199. Liu, Junhui
    et al.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Li, Zhiwu
    The Optimal Road Grade Design for Minimizing Ground Vehicle Energy Consumption2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing energy consumption of ground vehicles is a paramount pursuit in academia and industry. Even though the road infrastructural has a significant influence on vehicular fuel consumption, the majority of the R&D efforts are dedicated to improving vehicles. Little investigation has been made in the optimal design of the road infrastructure to minimize the total fuel consumption of all vehicles running on it. This paper focuses on this overlooked design problem and the design parameters of the optimal road infrastructure is the profile of road grade angle between two fixed points. We assume that all vehicles on the road follow a given acceleration profile between the two given points. The mean value of the energy consumptions of all vehicles running on the road is defined as the objective function. The optimization problem is solved both analytically by Pontryagin's minimum principle and numerically by dynamic programming. The two solutions agree well. A large number of Monte Carlo simulations show that the vehicles driving on the road with the optimal road grade consume up to 31.7% less energy than on a flat road. Finally, a rough cost analysis justifies the economic advantage of building the optimal road profile.

  • 200.
    Ljunggren, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    En studie över tillämpligheten av deep learning inom sjöövervakning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis deep learning is proven to be applicable in the field of seasurveillance. Commercial ships using the AIS system have to report the type of thevessel such as fishing ship or cargo ship. A problem with AIS data is that it can beeasily manipulated and therefore deliberately or accidentally incorrect. This thesis will focus on detecting false ship types. To detect a false ship type 19 different methods were tested on the 1100 hour long AIS data set. Three of these methods were baseline methods using a more conventional approach to the sea surveillanceproblem. The testing showed that the best performing method was one of the deeplearning methods proving that deep learning is indeed suitable in sea surveillance.

1234567 151 - 200 of 354
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