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  • 151.
    Borjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Rubensson, Isak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Satisfaction with crowding and other attributes in public transport2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 79, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse customer satisfaction surveys conducted among public transport passengers over 15 years in Stockholm. We analyze satisfaction and importance of many attributes and their temporal trends, focusing on attributes that stand out from the rest in some way, which is primarily crowding. Crowding is the attribute with the lowest satisfaction and the only attribute for which satisfaction declines over time. However, in spite of the low satisfaction, crowding is still less important for the total satisfaction than the cognitive attributes reliability and frequency (the most important attributes). Only when crowding levels reach high levels, like that of the most crowded bus services in central Stockholm, does crowding become as important as the cognitive attributes. Also the attribute reliability stands out it is the most important attribute. For the attributes reliability and crowding, data allow us to compare satisfaction and importance with performance. We find that that satisfaction and importance are influenced by the performance level for both attributes.

  • 152. Boyce, David
    et al.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Modeling residential location choice in relation to housing location and road tolls on congested urban highway networks1999In: Transportation Research Part B, Vol. 33, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Boysen, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Developing larger loading gauges for Europe2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 154.
    Boysen, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Developing larger loading gauges for Europe2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The needs and opportunities for larger loading gauges in Europe are investigated for railway wagonload as well as intermodal transportation. Dimensional constraints on both railways and highways are investigated, and a set of large railway loading gauges are proposed, which are already implemented on select mainlines in northern Europe. These large gauges are compared with the most prevalent gauges presently in use, and the increased capacity is quantified for general commodities and specific load units. Recommendations are made for existing freight corridors as well as for upgraded and new railway lines.

  • 155.
    Boysen, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Effektivare godstransporter genom längre tåg2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Boysen, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Electric Light-Rail Vehicles for Hong Kong1993In: Rolling Stock Technology, no 199Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Boysen, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Electropneumatic Braking of Japanese Freight Trains1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Boysen, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Entwicklung größerer Lademaße für Europa2014In: Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau, ISSN 0013-2845, Vol. 63, no 7+8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Größere Lademaße für Güterwagen und für den Kombinierten Verkehr bringen eine deutliche Effizienzsteigerung im Güterverkehr der Bahnen. Das ist notwendig, wenn die von der EU ins Auge gefasste Verlagerung großer Transportmengen auf die Schiene angesichts des Wettbewerbs mit dem modernen Straßengüterverkehr wirtschaftlich erfolgreich sein soll. In Nordeuropa sind Großraumprofile schon im alltäglichen Bahnverkehr zu finden. Wie man diese Lademaße in den Eisenbahnnetzen Mitteleuropas umsetzen könnte, wird im Folgenden dargelegt.

  • 159.
    Boysen, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Fran-Scan, intermodal korridor2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 160.
    Boysen, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Incremental Capacity Expansion: Heavier Loads, Faster Empties and Quicker Meets2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     To meet growing demand, a study is being done on measures to raise transportation capacity, including increased tonnage per loaded train using the existing locomotives, higher return speed for empty trains, and quicker meets.  Results show that for a trailing tonnage increase of some 19 %, the longer loading, transit and unloading times would be more than recovered by raising the empty return speed by some 10 km/h.  Simultaneous entry to meets will further raise capacity and reduce cycle time

  • 161.
    Boysen, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Multipurpose application of VEL Wagon2012Report (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Boysen, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Quicker meets, heavier loads and faster empties: Effects on transportation capacity and cycle time2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Boysen, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    The Fran-Scan hi-cube intermodal corridor2011In: Proceedings of the 7th SoNorA University Think Tank Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Boysen, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Øresund and Fehmarnbelt high-capacity rail corridor standards2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Øresund and the planned Fehmarnbelt fixed links have recently adopted a set of standards thatcan significantly raise the operating efficiency and capacity of freight by rail  These standards are explained in the context of the German-Scandinavian railway corridor and in comparison to the European Technical Specifications for Interoperability  Using a quantitative model, the mass and volume loading capacity per train are calculated  Compared to present limitations in the German-Scandinavian corridor, the mass loading capacity per train can be increased by 60%, and the volume loading capacity by up to 214%.

  • 165.
    Boysen, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Andersson, Evert
    Track-Friendly Bogies for High Speeds and Heavy Payloads1990Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Boysen, Hans E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    General model of railway transportation capacity2012In: Computers in Railways XIII: Computer System Design and Operation in the Railway and Other Transit Systems, 2012, p. 335-347Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A general model of railway transportation capacity has been developed, which models mass transportation capacity and volume transportation capacity per unit time. It can also be adapted to passenger transportation. The model is easy to use and can handle trade-offs between conflicting effects. It is a suitable tool in capacity planning for preliminary assessment of the capacity effects of candidate investment and operating scenarios, and can point to areas where detailed analysis with other methods should be applied. Application of the capacity model to cases of higher axle loads and higher speeds in freight transportation showed significant and mixed capacity effects that would not have been obvious otherwise.

  • 167.
    Boysen, Hans E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Øresund and Fehmarnbelt high-capacity rail corridor standards updated2014In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 44-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Øresund and the planned Fehmarnbelt fixed links have recently adopted a set of standards that can significantly raise the operating efficiency and capacity of freight by rail. These standards are explained in the context of the German-Scandinavian railway corridor and in comparison to the European Technical Specifications for Interoperability. Using a quantitative model, the mass and volume load capacity per train are calculated. Compared to present constraining limitations in the German-Scandinavian corridor, the mass load capacity per train can be increased by 64%, and the volume load capacity by up to 220%.

  • 168.
    Boysen, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Cross-border freight transportation by rail Oslo-Gothenburg-Copenhagen-Hamburg: Challenges and opportunities2014Report (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Broman, Emanuel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Market dynamics in on-rail competition2017In: 19th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT2016 / [ed] Celikoglu, HB Lav, AH Silgu, MA, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 22, p. 232-244Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-rail competition is perhaps the most far-reaching form of deregulation of the railways, giving travellers several options on a single line. It aims to lower fairs and raise quality of service, thereby boosting demand and social welfare. Concerns have been raised, however, regarding if effective competition is possible on such a market, allowing two or more operators to be profitable and eliminating through incentives or regulation the purchase by one operator of the others' access rights, thus restoring monopoly. In addition, the effect of competition on total welfare is unclear. The issue of how to regulate the market and conduct capacity allocation in order to maximise welfare is also as yet unanswered. Addressing these issues, the present paper studies a duopoly market through simulations. It builds on the hypothesis that competition occurs between trains with close departure times. Results indicate that total welfare increases significantly when going from profit-maximising monopoly to competition, as consumers make large gains while operators' profits fall. The way the regulator allocates departure slots has significant importance for market outcomes, including prices, frequencies and total welfare. In particular, it is possible to improve welfare by regulating the succession of departures. If trading in access rights is allowed, a would-be monopolist has incentives to buy its competitors' slots for a price they would accept. A monopolist that uses high frequency of departures as a deterrence strategy against competition increases frequency a lot compared to the profit-maximising level.

  • 170. Bueno, M.
    et al.
    Hugener, M.
    Partl, Manfred Norbert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Low temperature characterization of bituminous binders with a new cyclic shear cooling (CSC) failure test2014In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 58, p. 16-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature cracking of asphalt pavements is associated to the thermal stresses created when asphalt binder changes from a ductile into a brittle state during cooling. Under repetitive traffic loads, this change of properties can become a significant problem, resulting in the formations of large cracks on the driving surface, thus requiring early pavement repair. Nevertheless, the conventional test methods for assessing low temperature properties of bitumen are often insufficient and subject to low reproducibility. Therefore, a reliable method is necessary to characterize the performance of bituminous binders at low temperature. This work presents the cyclic shear cooling failure test (CSC-failure test) as an alternative method based on a failure test with the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) at decreasing temperature until fracture occurs. Operational parameters, like shear strain amplitude or loading frequency, have been analysed in order to develop a reproducible procedure applicable for different types of bituminous binders. Moreover, a failure criterion has been defined by analysing the different characteristic temperatures from the failure curves obtained in the test.

  • 171.
    Burghout, Wilco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Andreasson, I.
    Incident management and traffic information: Simulation-based traffic prediction2009In: 16th ITS World Congress, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incident response and mitigation are the main tasks of operators at traffic control centres. Simulation models have a good chance of reproducing and predicting the effects of incident response by explicitly modelling drivers' responses to the incident and provided information. In the PREDIKT project, sponsored by the Swedish National Road Administration, a state-of-the-art mesoscopic simulation model (MEZZO) has been extended to provide decision support for incident management. In this paper we describe and test a number of essential modelling components such as modelling the incident response logic, a mixed-Logit model and a method for generation of alternative routes for drivers' route switching. In addition we present the results of a fast calibration method based on Simultaneous Perturbation Statistic Approximation (SPSA). The model components are tested in a small case study that investigates the impact of delay in information after incidents.

  • 172.
    Burghout, Wilco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    A Discrete-Event Mesoscopic Traffic Simulation Model for Hybrid Traffic Simulation2006In: IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference, 2006. ITSC'06, IEEE , 2006, p. 1102-1107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a mesoscopic traffic simulation model, particularly suited for the development of integrated meso-micro traffic simulation models. The model combines a number of the recent advances in simulation modeling, such as discrete-event time resolution and combined queue-server and speed-density modeling, with a number of new features such as the ability to integrate with microscopic models to create hybrid traffic simulation. The ability to integrate with microscopic models extends the area of use to include evaluation of ITS systems, which often require the detailed modeling of vehicles in areas of interest, combined with a more general modeling of large surrounding areas to capture network effects of local phenomena. The paper discusses the structure of the model, presents a framework for integration with micro models, and illustrates its validity through a case study with a congested network north of Stockholm. It also compares its performance with a hybrid model applied to the same network.

  • 173.
    Burghout, Wilco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Incident Management and Traffic Information: Tools and Methods for Simulation-Based Traffic Prediction2010In: TRB 89th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers,, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Asphalt Pavements including the Feedstock Energy and Asphalt Additives2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads are assets to the society and an integral component in the development of a nation’s infrastructure. To build and maintain roads; considerable amounts of materials are required which consume quite an amount of electrical and thermal energy for production, processing and laying. The resources (materials and the sources of energy) should be utilized efficiently to avoid wastes and higher costs in terms of the currency and the environment.

    In order to enable quantification of the potential environmental impacts due to the construction, maintenance and disposal of roads, an open life cycle assessment (LCA) framework for asphalt pavements was developed. Emphasis was given on the calculation and allocation of energy used for the binder and the additives. Asphalt mixtures properties can be enhanced against rutting and cracking by modifying the binder with additives. Even though the immediate benefits of using additives such as polymers and waxes to modify the binder properties are rather well documented, the effects of such modification over the lifetime of a road are seldom considered. A method for calculating energy allocation in additives was suggested. The different choices regarding both the framework design and the case specific system boundaries were done in cooperation with the asphalt industry and the construction companies in order to increase the relevance and the quality of the assessment.

    Case-studies were performed to demonstrate the use of the LCA framework. The suggested LCA framework was demonstrated in a limited case study (A) of a typical Swedish asphalt pavement. Sensitivity analyses were also done to show the effect and the importance of the transport distances and the use of efficiently produced electricity mix. It was concluded that the asphalt production and materials transportation were the two most energy consuming processes that also emit the most GreenHouse Gases (GHG’s). The GHG’s, however, are largely depending on the fuel type and the electricity mix. It was also concluded that when progressing from LCA to its corresponding life cycle cost (LCC) the feedstock energy of the binder becomes highly relevant as the cost of the binder will be reflected in its alternative value as fuel. LCA studies can help to develop the long term perspective, linking performance to minimizing the overall energy consumption, use of resources and emissions. To demonstrate this, the newly developed open LCA framework was used for an unmodified and polymer modified asphalt pavement (Case study B). It was shown how polymer modification for improved performance affects the energy consumption and emissions during the life cycle of a road. From the case study (C) it was concluded that using bitumen with self-healing capacity can lead to a significant reduction in the GHG emissions and the energy usage.  Furthermore, it was concluded that better understanding of the binder would lead to better optimized pavement design and thereby to reduced energy consumption and emissions. Production energy limits for the wax and polymer were determined which can assist the additives manufacturers to modify their production procedures and help road authorities in setting ‘green’ limits to get a real benefit from the additives over the lifetime of a road.

  • 175.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Asphalt Roads: Decision Support at the Project Level2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport infrastructures such as roads are assets for the society as they not only ensure mobility but also strengthen society’s economy. Considerable amount of energy and materials, that include bitumen, aggregates and asphalt, are required to build and maintain roads. Improper utilization of energy and/or use of materials may lead to more waste and higher costs. The impact on the environment cannot be neglected either. Life cycle assessment (LCA) as a method can be used to assess the environmental impacts of a road system over its entire life time. Studying the life cycle perspective of roads can help us improve the technology in order to achieve a system that has a lower impact on the environment. There are number of LCA tools available. However, implementation of such tools is still unseen in real road projects. This clearly indicates that there are gaps which are needed to be filled in order to bring these tools into practice. An open road LCA framework was developed for the asphalt roads in order to help in decision support at the late project planning stage such as that related to the green procurement. The framework takes into account the construction, maintenance and end of life phases and focuses on energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Threshold values for the production of some additives were also determined to show how LCA tools can help material suppliers to improve the road materials production processes and the road authorities to set limits on the use of different materials based on the environmental criteria. Additive consideration and feedstock energy in road LCAs were also identified as gaps that were looked in detail. The attributes that are important to consider in an asphalt road LCA that seeks to serve as a decision support in a procurement situation are described.

    A brief literature review was carried out that focused on project LCAs, and specifically those considering pavements, as this level is assumed to be appropriate for questions relevant in a procurement situation. Following the different standards; road LCAs developed all over the world have generated a lot of knowledge and the studies have been different from each other such as in terms of goals and system boundaries. Hence, the patterns observed have been very different from study to study. It was also difficult to assess the decision support level for which the various LCA frameworks or tools were developed. It is important to define system boundaries based on where in the system the decision support is needed. For LCA to be useful for decision support in a procurement situation, it is important to have a clear understanding of the attributes that constitute the life cycle phases and how data of high quality for them are obtained. The level of consistency and transparency of road LCAs becomes increasingly important in pre-procurement and procurement situations. The key attributes used in a road LCA should mirror the material properties used in a pavement design and therefore be closely linked to the performance of the road in its life cycle.

    From the different case studies, it was found that asphalt production and transportation of materials are usually highest in the energy and GHG emissions chain. It is highly favorable to have the quarry site, the asphalt plant and the construction site not far from each other and to use the electricity that has been produced in an efficient way. Based on the laboratory test results, it is shown that the effects of chemical warm mix asphalt additives (WMAA)s must be evaluated on a case by case basis since WMAA interaction with the aggregate surface mineralogy appears to play a significant role and thus affects its long term structural behavior. Using the material properties obtained from the Superpave indirect tensile test (IDT) results, pavement thickness design was done in which Arlanda aggregate based asphalt mixtures resulted in thinner pavements as compared to Skärlunda aggregate based asphalt mixtures for the same design life period. Energy (feedstock and expended) saving and reduction in GHG emissions were also seen with addition of WMAA, for both aggregate type cases, based on the data used. Importantly, the results presented illustrate the importance of a systems based LCA approach for evaluating the sustainability for different design and construction options. In this context, having actual pavement material properties as the key attributes in the LCA enables a pavement focused assessment of environmental costs associated with different design options.

  • 176.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Low Temperature Performance of Wax Modified Mastic Asphalt2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current interest in energy saving asphalt production techniques is great and several new processes have been developed to reduce the mixing and compaction temperatures for hot mix asphalt. In particular, mastic asphalt products (Gussasphalt) require high working temperatures, and harder requirements concerning bitumen fumes and carbon dioxide emissions have been introduced for such products. Consequently, the need of a new means of producing and placing mastic asphalt at lower temperatures is particularly large.

    One way of reducing asphalt mixture temperature is by using special flow improving additives like wax. This technique has successively been tried in several studies for polymer modified mastic asphalt used for bridge decks and parking areas in Sweden. However, there still are uncertainties about possible negative impact on crack susceptibility at lower temperatures due to the addition of wax.

    In this study, 4% montan wax (Asphaltan A) was used for one particular polymer modified mastic asphalt product. Type and amount of wax additive was selected based on results from earlier studies. The impact on binder, binder/filler mixtures and mastic asphalt from production was tested in the laboratory, focusing on low temperature performance. The bending beam rheometer (BBR) was used for determining low temperature creep compliance and the tensile stress restrained specimen test (TSRST) for determining fracture temperatures. Binder properties were determined using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and conventional tests (softening point, penetration, elastic recovery, Fraass breaking point, viscosity and storage stability). Aging was performed using the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT) at 200°C.

    As expected, the addition of wax to the polymer modified binder showed a viscosity reduction at higher temperatures, corresponding to a similar positive effect of more than 10°C on production and laying temperature for the mastic asphalt. DMA and BBR results showed some increase in stiffness and a more elastic response of the wax modified binder at medium and low temperatures. The TSRST fracture temperature was 5 °C higher for the mastic asphalt containing 4% wax, indicating however no dramatic negative impact on crack susceptibility.

  • 177.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Assessment of the attributes based life cycle assessment framework for road projects2015In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Number of life cycle assessment (LCA) tools has been suggested for pavements. However, very few have been adopted by the road authorities. Key reasons for this lack of implementation have been the tendency for very broad LCA analyses that include system boundaries considerably beyond the more natural system boundaries associated with road design, construction and maintenance as well as the lack of available LCA tools that have attributes that reflect key road properties. In this paper, a new attributesbased pavement LCA framework is evaluated for use on real road materials. Aggregates from two different sources and the effect of using a warm mix asphalt additive (WMAA) in asphalt mixtures were investigated in the laboratory. Different pavement design alternatives were generated using the laboratory data and analyzed using the road LCA framework. Asphalt production and material transportation were found to be the most energy consuming processes. The results presented showed that having actual pavement material properties as the key attributes in LCA enables a pavement focused assessment of environmental impacts associated with different design options and, LCA can help in decision support by evaluating environmental impacts of different design alternatives in a project planning/design stage.

  • 178.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Considering the benefits of asphalt modification using a new technical LCA framework2016In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, ISSN 1392-3730, E-ISSN 1822-3605, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 597-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asphalt mixtures properties can be enhanced by modifying it with additives. Even though the immediatebenefits of using polymers and waxes to modify the binder properties are rather well documented, the effects of suchmodification over the lifetime of a road are seldom considered. To investigate this, a newly developed open technical lifecycle assessment (LCA) framework was used to determine production energy and emission limits for the asphaltadditives. The LCA framework is coupled to a calibrated mechanics based computational framework that predicts the intimepavement performance. Limits for production energy of wax and polymers were determined for the hypotheticalcase studies to show how LCA tools can assist the additives manufacturers to modify their production procedures andhelp road authorities in setting ‘green’ limits to get a real benefit from the additives over the lifetime of a road. From thedetailed case-studies, it was concluded that better understanding of materials will lead to enhanced pavement design andcould help in the overall reduction of energy usage and emissions.

  • 179.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Optimizing the Highway Lifetime by Improving the Self Healing Capacity of Asphalt2012In: Transport Research Arena 2012, 2012, Vol. 48, p. 2190-2200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is of imminent urgency to optimize the lifetime of asphalt binders from the remaining available crude sources. This paper presents a recently developed model in which the self-healing capacity of bitumen is based on fundamental chemo-mechanical parameters. The implications of the enhanced bitumen healing rates are investigated by utilizing a newly developed Open Life Cycle Assessment framework. From the case study it was concluded that using bitumen with self-healing capacity can lead to a significant reduction in Greenhouse Gas emission and energy usage. Additionally, the importance of knowing the fuels and emission of bitumen modifiers on the highway sustainability was demonstrated.

  • 180.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Jelagin, Denis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Using Life Cycle Assessment to Optimize Pavement Crack-Mitigation2012In: Scarpas et al. (Eds.), 7th RILEM International Conference on Cracking in Pavements: Vol. 1, Delft, The Netherlands, 2012, p. 299-306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cracking is very common in areas having large variations in the daily temperatures and can cause large discomfort to the users. To improve the binder properties against cracking and rutting, researchers have studied for many years the behaviour of different binder additives such as polymers. It is quite complex, however, to decide on the benefits of a more expensive solution without looking at the long term performance. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies can help to develop this long term perspective, linking performance to minimizing the overall energy consumption, use of resources and emissions. To demonstrate this, LCA of an unmodified and polymer modified asphalt pavement using a newly developed open LCA framework has been performed. It is shown how polymer modification for improved performance affects the energy consumption and emissions during the life cycle of a road. Furthermore, it is concluded that better understanding of the binder would lead to better optimized pavement design, hence reducing the energy consumption and emissions. A limit in terms of energy and emissions for the production of the polymer was also found which could help the polymer producers to improve their manufacturing processes, making them efficient enough to be beneficial from a pavement life cycle point of view.

  • 181.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Jelagin, Denis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Dept of Civil Engineering, Bozok University, 66100 Yozgat, Turkey.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    The Effect of Wax Modification on the Performance of Mastic Asphalt2010In: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology (IJPRT), ISSN 1997-1400, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 86-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the mechanical performance of the polymer modified mastic asphalt with 4% montan wax (Asphaltan A) additive. The impact of wax modification on binder, binder/filler mixtures and mastic asphalt was investigated in the laboratory. Wax modified binder properties were determined using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and conventional tests (softening point, penetration, elastic recovery, breaking point, viscosity and storage stability). The bending beam rheometer (BBR) was used for determining low temperature creep compliance and the tensile stress restrained specimen test (TSRST) for determining low temperature fracture. The fatigue cracking behavior of mastic asphalt was investigated using Superpave Indirect Tensile Test (IDT). Based on HMA Fracture Mechanics the influence of wax on the asphalt mixture resistance to fatigue and brittle cracking has been evaluated. The addition of wax to the polymer modified binder resulted in a viscosity reduction at higher temperatures, indicating a possible lower production and laying temperature as compared to asphalt without wax additive. DMA and BBR results showed some increase in stiffness and a more elastic response of the wax modified binder at medium and low temperatures. The TSRST fracture temperature was higher for the mastic asphalt containing wax, indicating a certain negative impact of wax modification.

  • 182.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Importance of systems approach for evaluating the life cycle environmental costs of a road projectManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Importance of systems approach for evaluating the life cycle environmental impacts of a road projectManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aggregates from two different sources and the effect of using a warm mix asphalt additive(WMAA) in asphalt mixtures were investigated in the laboratory. Different pavement designalternatives were generated using the laboratory data and analysed using a road life cycleassessment (LCA) framework. It was concluded that the effects of WMAAs must beevaluated on a case by case basis since WMAA interaction with the aggregate surfacemineralogy appears to play a significant role. Asphalt production and material transportationwere found to be the most energy consuming processes having high greenhouse gasemissions. The results presented also showed that having actual pavement material propertiesas the key attributes in LCA enables a pavement focused assessment of environmental costsassociated with different design options.

  • 184.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Mirzadeh, Iman
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Bitumen Feedstock Energy and Electricity Production in Pavement LCA2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asphalt production consumes considerable amount of fuel and electric energy as significant amount of materials (bitumen and aggregates) are blended together for the construction of flexible pavements. Bitumen is used in asphalt as a binder but can also be used as an alternate energy source. Feedstock energy of bitumen becomes relevant in the life cycle cost (LCC) study, as cost of the binder would be reflected in its alternative value as fuel. In this study, a method was suggested to calculate energy content of the bitumen. Importance of choosing electricity not produced in local diesel generators was also demonstrated. Replacing fuel with inefficiently produced electricity for heating the materials in the asphalt plant would result in high environmental impacts. The calculation of feedstock energy and the understanding of efficient energy production and use could be utilized in the life cycle assessment (LCA) of the roads.

  • 185.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Mirzadeh, Iman
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Life Cycle Assessment Framework for Asphalt Pavements: Methods to Calculate and Allocate Energy of Binder and Additives2014In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 290-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction, maintenance and disposal of asphalt pavements may lead to considerable environmental impacts, in terms of energy use and emissions during the life of the pavement. In order to enable quantification of the potential environmental impacts due to construction, maintenance and disposal of roads, an open life cycle assessment (LCA) framework for the asphalt pavements is presented in this paper. Emphasis was placed on the calculation and allocation of energy used for binder and additives at the project level. It was concluded from this study that when progressing from LCA to its corresponding life cycle cost, the feedstock energy of the binder becomes highly relevant as the cost of the binder will be reflected in its alternative value as fuel. Regarding additives like wax, a framework for energy allocation was suggested. The suggested project level LCA framework was demonstrated in a limited case study of a Swedish asphalt pavement. It was concluded that the asphalt production and transporting materials were the two most energy-consuming processes, emitting most greenhouse gases depending on the fuel type and electricity mix.

  • 186.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Life Cycle Assessment for the Green Procurement of Roads: A Way ForwarManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), Sweden .
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Life Cycle Assessment for the GreenProcurement of Roads: A Way Forward2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 90, p. 163-170Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology can be used to assess the environmental impacts of a road system over its entire life time. However, it is very important to align the potentials and limitations of such tools with their intended purpose. For the LCA to be useful for the decision support in a procurement situation, it should therefore be important to have a clear understanding of the technical features (attributes) that build up the life cycle phases. In this paper, different types of decisions situations are outlined based on at what level of complexity (network or specific project) and at what stage within the planning process (early planning or late planning/design) the decision is to be made, and relevant methodological choices for these decision situations are discussed. Further, the attributes that are important to consider in an asphalt road LCA that seeks to serve as a decision support in a procurement situation are suggested and technical features for these attributes are outlined with focus on Energy and GreenHouse Gas emissions. It can be concluded that in order to aid the implementation of green procurement, it would help if the attributes of the system are defined in a transparent manner and consistently calculated. It is, however, also important that the attributes should mirror the material properties used in a pavement design and therefore be closely linked to the performance of the road in its life time. It is also recommended to report the feedstock energy in the road LCAs.

  • 188.
    Bång, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Wahlstedt, Johan
    Linse, Leif
    Methodology for Timing and Impact Analysis of Signalized Intersections2016In: INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ENHANCING HIGHWAY PERFORMANCE (ISEHP), (7TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF SERVICE, 3RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON FREEWAY AND TOLLWAY OPERATIONS), Elsevier, 2016, p. 75-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Swedish capacity manual has been developed based on a major research project called METKAP. This paper is focused on the deterministic methods for calculation of signal timing and traffic performance measures for isolated, fixed time signalized intersections documented in the new manual (STA 2013a) and applied in the CAPCAL 4 software (Linse 2013). The use of the methods is mandatory in projects for the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). Special focus has been devoted to the following issues: 1) Modelling of saturation flow for opposed lanes. 2) Impact of short approach and exit lanes. 3) Iterative signal timing process based on critical conflict identification, intergreen and minimum green times. The deterministic methods can also be applied for selection of maximum green time for VA-controlled intersections, and as planning tool for analysis of the traffic performance alternative intersection types, designs. They can also be used to identify "bottleneck intersections" and for determination of minimum cycle time and required green time ratios for coordinated traffic signal systems. Micro simulation can be used as an alternative method, e.g. to model complex, signal control strategies and active priority of public transport vehicles. Need for simulation also arises if adjacent traffic facilities influence the studied system, and for animation purposes. However, micro simulation has important short-comings compared to deterministic methods. Simulation models require validated and detailed input data, e.g. regarding vehicle characteristics, arrival distribution, route choice and driver behavior. It is also difficult to estimate saturation flow, capacity and volume-to-capacity ratio since the simulated queue discharge is normally based on car-following models. Determination of optimal intersection design and signal timing requires a very large number of simulation runs and is therefore very time consuming and costly.

  • 189.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Forecasting demand for high speed rail2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 70, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is sometimes argued that standard state-of-practice logit-based models cannot forecast the demand for substantially reduced travel times, for instance due to High Speed Rail (HSR). The present paper investigates this issue by reviewing the literature on travel time elasticities for long distance rail travel and comparing these with elasticities observed when new HSR lines have opened. This paper also validates the Swedish long distance model, Sampers, and its forecast demand for a proposed new HSR, using aggregate data revealing how the air-rail modal split varies with the difference in generalized travel time between rail and air. The Sampers long distance model is also compared to a newly developed model applying Box-Cox transformations. The paper contributes to the empirical literature on long distance travel, long distance elasticities and HSR passenger demand forecasts. Results indicate that the Sampers model is indeed able to predict the demand for HSR reasonably well. The new non-linear model has even better model fit and also slightly higher elasticities.

  • 190.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Ministern har fel om infrastrukturen: Debattartikel2016In: Land, ISSN 0023-7531Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 191.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Valuing perceived insecurity associated with use of and access to public transport2012In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 22, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a stated choice experiment and drawings of four different type-environments to assess how various security-promoting factors in the built physical environment influence valuation of walking time when accessing public transport. Valuations that can be applied for evaluating policies to improve perceived security are obtained. Consistent results are achieved, indicating that the method is promising for incorporating aspects in the physical environment in the welfare analysis. The results indicate a systematic variation in value of walk time in different physical environments and it is more dependent of the physical environment for women than for men. This paper thereby contributes to the literature by showing that results by social sciences can be verified using methods and theories traditionally used in transport and welfare analysis and may therefore be incorporated in standard CBA. A contribution of this study is the insight that the perception of insecurity involved in accessing the public transport system is a welfare loss that can be quantified.

  • 192.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Finanspolitiska rådet, 2015.: Svensk finanspolitik. Underlagsrapport2015Book (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kostnadseffektivitet i valet av infrastrukturinvesteringar2015Report (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    New Values of time and their application in appraisal2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference and the Summer School, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    Centre for Transport Studies, WSP Analysis and Strategy, Sweden.
    The Stockholm congestion charges-5 years on. Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2012In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 20, no SI, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first five years of operation, until mid-2011. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges has increased slightly over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative fuel vehicles were exempt from the charges through 2008, and we show that this substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesising recent research and Swedish experience. We conclude that objective and subjective effects on the traffic system, as well as general environmental and political attitudes, formed the basis of the strong public support, while institutional reforms and resolution of power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general.

  • 196.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Valuations of travel time variability in scheduling versus mean-variance models2012In: Transportation Research Part B, ISSN 0191-2615, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 855-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard method of estimating the value of travel time variability for use in policy appraisal is to estimate the parameters of a reduced-form utility function, where some measure of travel time variability (such as the standard deviation) is included. A problem with this approach is that the obtained valuation will in general depend on the standardized travel time distribution, and hence cannot be transferred from one context to another. A recently suggested remedy for this problem has been to estimate a scheduling model, which in theory is transferrable, and use the implied reduced-form to derive valuations for use in appraisal. In this paper we estimate both a scheduling model and the implied reduced-form model, using stated choice data. The valuation of travel time variability implied by the scheduling model turns out to be substantially smaller than what is obtained from a reduced-form model estimated on the same sample. The results suggest that the scheduling model does not capture all of the disutility arising from travel time variability. Hence, although it can be shown that scheduling and reduced-form models are theoretically equivalent, that hypothesized equivalence is not reflected in the empirical evidence. We speculate that the derivation of reduced-form models from an underlying scheduling model omits two essential features: first, the notion of an exogenously fixed "preferred arrival time" neglects the fact that most activities can be rescheduled given full information about the travel times in advance, and second, disutility may be derived from uncertainty as such, in the form of anxiety, decisions costs or costs for having contingency plans. We also report our estimates of the valuation of travel time variability for public transit trips, for use in applied appraisal.

  • 197.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    VTI.
    Infrastrukturens påverkan på ekonomisk tillväxt2013Book (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Johnsson Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Why experience changes attitudes to congestion pricing: The case of Gothenburg2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 85, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities have seen public support for congestion charges increase substantially after charges have been introduced. Several alternative explanations of this phenomenon have been suggested, but so far little evidence has been available to assess the relative importance of these explanations. We study attitudes to congestion pricing in Gothenburg before and after congestion charges were introduced in January 2013. Attitudes to the charges did indeed become more positive after the introduction, just as in previous cities. Using a two-wave postal survey, we separate contributions to the attitude change from a number of sources: benefits and costs being different than anticipated, use of hypothecated revenues, reframing processes, and changes in related attitudes such as attitudes to environment, equity, taxation and pricing measures in general. We conclude that the dominant reason for the attitude change is status quo bias, rather than any substantial changes in beliefs or related attitudes, although some of these factors also contribute. Contrary to a common belief, nothing of the attitude change is due to benefits being larger than anticipated.

  • 199.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Trängselskatt på Essingeleden minskar trängseln kraftigt. PM till TV4 201104252011Report (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Tågens höghastighetsbanor en dålig affär för samhället: DN debatt2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-01-01Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1234567 151 - 200 of 1723
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