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  • 151. Sehic, E.
    et al.
    Verbraeck, A.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan A.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    A game for requirements formulation for a distributed gaming and simulation environment2014In: Frontiers in Gaming Simulation: 44th International Simulation and Gaming Association Conference, ISAGA 2013 and 17th IFIP WG 5.7 Workshop on Experimental Interactive Learning in Industrial Management, Stockholm, Sweden, June 24-28, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2014, p. 129-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ProRail is the owner of a number of high fidelity train traffic simulators for designing and managing the physical rail infrastructure. Gaming simulation is used to support the analysis and redesign of rail management and control processes. The games should use the existing train traffic simulators as much as possible to reduce costs and keep the existing knowledge base and acceptance. Because of their high fidelity level, these simulators lack the more abstract level that is necessary for interaction with humans in a gaming setting. Therefore they need to be adjusted. As there are several simulators to be used and multiple disciplines involved, this is not a trivial task. On the basis of the played Early Decision at Disruptions Game it is examined what requirements need to be fulfilled to make ProRail simulators suitable for use in gaming, in order to maximize profits of the coupling between simulators and games. This paper describes the process followed and provides a refined set of requirements for coupling of simulators for use in management and control games in rail (physical) infrastructures.

  • 152.
    Shreenath, Vinutha Magal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Kornevs, Maksims
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Raghothama, Jayanth
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    A Feasibility Study for Gamification in Transport Maintenance: Requirements to implement gamification in heterogeneous organizations2015In: Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), 2015 7th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamification has been successfully applied in many domains, but mostly for simple, isolated and operational tasks. The hope for gamification as a method to radically change and improve behavior, to provide incentives for sustained engagement has proven to be more difficult to get right. Applying gamification in large networked organizations with heterogeneous tasks remains a challenge. Applying gamification in such enterprise environments posits different requirements, and a match between these requirements and the institution needs to be investigated before venturing into the design and implementation of gamification. The current paper contributes a study where the authors investigate the feasibility of implementing gamification in Trafikverket, the Swedish transport administration. Through an investigation of the institutional arrangements around data collection, procurement processes and links to institutional structures, the study finds areas within Trafikverket where gamification could be successfully applied, and suggests gaps and methods to apply gamification in other areas.

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  • 153.
    Shreenath, Vinutha Magal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Creating Designs of Future Systems with Interpretation of Cognitive Artifacts in Reinforcement Learning2019In: Design Science, E-ISSN 2053-4701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing future systems such as transport or healthcare in a city takes astute expertise. Design aids in such situations usually offer information in the form of projections or what-if analysis, using which experts make a series of decisions to create bounded designs. We present a case in which Reinforcement Learning (RL) is used to design the future transport system of a city. RL is used to create artifacts that reflect where the transport system can be changed. These agent-produced artifacts are then compared with designs made by human experts. This is achieved by analogizing the city as gridworld and using the same information that the human experts acted on as rewards. The interpretation of agent activity as cognitive artifacts of agents, along with measures of precision and recall to compare real and artificial artifacts form the basis of this work. This paper explores the use of RL in a real world context and the interpretability of results of RL with respect to design problems. The results indicate a robust initial approach to imitating expertise of designers and devising valid creativity in Socio-Technical Systems.

  • 154.
    Shreenath, Vinutha Magal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Spatial Big Data for designing large scale infrastructure A case-study of Electrical Road Systems2016In: 2016 3RD IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIG DATA COMPUTING, APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES (BDCAT), IEEE , 2016, p. 143-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision making and planning of large scale infrastructures within cities is often a long process encompassing years, between multiple institutions represented by experts that require negotiations and consensus of demands and goals. The role big data plays in such design could be crucial, by providing access to otherwise elusive information on movements of people and goods in a city which can then transparently inform the design process, especially about possible demands and related complexities on the infrastructure being planned. To harness this data, it is necessary to formulate the problem technically such that data can inform experts, by articulating their expertise through the data. In this paper we present an application to analyze millions of instances of spatial data to identify potential locations for electrical road installation(s) in a city, to aid urban planners and other relevant stakeholders in planning and designing an Electrical Road System for a city. The dataset being used is gathered from a major vehicle manufacturer in Sweden, containing millions of instances of GPS data emitted by thousands of vehicles. A plan for electrified transport system is formulated by retrieving locations suitable for both static and dynamic charging installations. We investigate the technical formulation of methods and metrics for such a complex design problem, based on criteria set by experts, thus contributing to the science of big data for design of infrastructure and to methodology of data science in an institutional context.

  • 155.
    Shreenath, Vinutha Magal
    et al.
    KTH.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH.
    Wyss, Ramon Alexander
    KTH.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    C-CAMPUS: A Pilot Study On Cross-Cultural And Multi-Disciplinary Learning2014In: EDULEARN14: 6Th International Conference On Education And New Learning Technologies / [ed] Chova, LG Martinez, AL Torres, IC, IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION A& DEVELOPMENT , 2014, p. 1296-1305Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual learning environments are often associated with forms of virtual collaboration. Many studies have reported on the, often mixed, results of student collaborations from within the same population. Fewer studies have been done on cross-cultural collaboration platforms between geographically and culturally separated groups of students for learning more complex tasks. C-Campus is a cross-cultural and multi-disciplinary virtual environment with specifically tailored spaces for students to be able to learn, interact and socialize. In this environment the teachers and course developers can monitor and adjust the optimal learning conditions of the individual students. Students with diverse backgrounds from KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden and Tsinghua University in China collaborated together on C-Campus for a course focusing on Future Highway Design. The structure of the course and the assignments were designed to encourage creative thinking, personal leadership and discussion. Students were split into diverse groups to work on projects with different perspectives on their Future Highway. The discussions among students took place in the space for creative learning on C-Campus. At the end of the course, they were asked to peer review the other members of their group and to assess their own performance during the course. This pilot provided an opportunity to observe individual student behaviour and group dynamics in a cross-cultural and multi-disciplinary setting. Data was gathered on all interactions in the groups, their teacher and mentor evaluations and the peer reviews among members in groups. An exit survey was also conducted on the ease of using the platform, on group activity and on the course itself. In this paper we describe the relation between the data gathered from students' interactions on C-Campus and the perceptions of performance by their peers and teachers. The data shows that interactions on C-Campus were a good indicator for the success of student learning and also to identify different types of behaviour. Having access to this type of data during the course can thus allow teachers to optimise learning for individual students and help nurture their abilities to work in multi-cultural and cross-disciplinary teams. The paper contributes both a unique cross-cultural learning case study, and more insights in the role of specific forms of data collection for monitoring of learning success in such environments.

  • 156. Subrahmanian, Eswaran
    et al.
    Reich, Yoram
    Smolders, Frido
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Design as a Synthesis of Spaces: Using the P-S Framework2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157. Subrahmanian, Eswaran
    et al.
    Reich, Yoram
    Smolders, Frido
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    Department of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
    Designing: Insights from weaving theories of cognition and design theories2011In: Proceedings of the International Conference of Engineering Design, ICED11 / [ed] Culley, S.J.; Hicks, B.J.; McAloone, T.C.; Howard, T.J. & Badke-Schaub, P., 2011, p. 424-436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of ‘What is designing?’ from an unconventional perspective and aims to advance our understanding of what design really is. Designing has been studied from different perspectives but the underlying theoretical basis of studying the act has often been dispersed and not clear. To address these shortcomings the paper proposes a new topological structure that consists of two 3-dimensional spaces: Product-space and Social-space. The P-space is constructed by the complexity of the artifact, the number of disciplines involved and the availability of knowledge. The S-space consists of the number of disciplinary languages, number of different perspectives and the amount of openness and closeness of the social system that encapsulates the design activity. The two spaces are connected by means of theories on cognition, like: individual and distributed cognition, socio-linguistics, situated cognition, etc. Two examples serve to illustrate the proposed model and show that the act of designing involves the evolution of the artifact, social system, language and information embedded in the social and societal context.

  • 158.
    Terio, Minna
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Occupat Therapy, Alfred Nobels 23,B4, S-14183 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Perez-Rodriguez, Rodrigo
    Getafe Univ Hosp, Biomed Res Fdn, Getafe, Spain..
    Guevara, Tania Guevara
    Getafe Univ Hosp, Geriatr Serv, Getafe, Spain..
    Valdes-Aragones, Myriam
    Getafe Univ Hosp, Geriatr Serv, Getafe, Spain..
    Kornevs, Maksims
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Bjalevik-Chronan, Sanna
    Unit Dev Social Care Elderly, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Taloyan, Marina
    Karolinska Inst, Acad Primary Healthcare Ctr, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Stockholm, Region Stockhol, Sweden..
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Guidetti, Susanne
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Occupat Therapy, Alfred Nobels 23,B4, S-14183 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Med Unit Occupat Therapy & Physiotherapy, Theme Womens Hlth & Allied Hlth Professionals, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Preventing frailty with the support of a home-monitoring and communication platform among older adults-a study protocol for a randomised-controlled pilot study in Sweden2022In: Pilot and Feasibility Studies, E-ISSN 2055-5784, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: POSITIVE (i.e. maintaining and imPrOving the intrinSIc capaciTy Involving primary care and caregiVErs) is a new intervention program consisting of home-monitoring equipment and a communication platform to support treatment of frailty symptoms initially in primary care and prevent disability in older adults. Methods: The primary objectives are to estimate the potential efficacy of the POSITIVE system on improving frailty in at least one point in Fried's criteria and five points in Frailty Trait Scale. The secondary objectives are to (A) assess the recruitment, retention, drop-out rates, compliance with the intervention and the intervention mechanisms of impact; (B) evaluate the usability and acceptance of the POSITIVE system, and to get estimations on; (C) the potential efficacy of the intervention on improving the participants' physical performance, cognitive functions, mood, independency level in activities in daily living, the impact on quality of life and number of falls during the follow-up period; (D) the impact on the caregiver quality of life and caregiver burden; and (E) on the consumption of health care resources, participants' perception of health and level of care received, and healthcare professionals' workload and satisfaction. A randomised controlled, assessor-blinded pilot study design recruiting from a primary care centre in Stockholm Region will be conducted. Fifty older adults identified as pre-frail or frail will be randomised into a control or an intervention group. Both groups will receive a medical review, nutritional recommendations and Vivifrail physical exercise program. The intervention group will receive the POSITIVE-system including a tablet, the POSITIVE application and portable measurement devices. The participants receiving the POSITIVE program will be monitored remotely by a primary care nurse during a 6-month follow-up. Data will be collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months into the intervention though the platform, standardised assessments and surveys. A process evaluation as per Medical Research Council guidance will be conducted after the 6-month follow-up period. Discussion:The implications of the study are to provide estimations on the potential efficacy of the POSITIVE system in improving frailty among older adults and to provide relevant data to inform powered studies of potential efficacy and effectiveness, as well as to inform about the feasibility of the current study design.

  • 159. Tykhonov, Dimitro
    et al.
    Jonker, Catholijn
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    Wageningen University.
    Verwaart, Tim
    Agent-Based Simulation of the Trust and Tracing Game for Supply Chains and Networks2008In: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 11, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a multi-agent simulation model of the Trust And Tracing game. The Trust And Tracing game is a gaming simulation for human players, developed as a research tool for data collection on human behaviour in food supply chains with asymmetric information about food quality and food safety. Important issues in the game are opportunistic behaviour (deceit), trust and institutional arrangements for enforcing compliance. The goal is to improve the understanding of human decision making with respect to these issues. To this end multi-agent simulation can be applied to simulate the effect of models of individual decision making in partner selection, negotiation, deceit and trust on system behaviour. The combination of human gaming simulation and multi-agent simulation offers a basis for model refinement in a cycle of validation, experimentation, and formulation of new hypotheses. This paper describes a first round of model formulation and validation. The models presented are validated by a series of experiments performed by the implemented simulation system, of which the outcomes are compared on aggregated level to the outcomes of games played by humans. The experiments cover in a systematic way the important variations in parameter settings possible in the game and in the characteristics of the agents. The simulation results show the same tendencies of behaviour as the observed human games.

  • 160. Van Bussel, R.
    et al.
    Lukosch, H.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan A.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Effects of a game-facilitated curriculum on technical knowledge and skill development2014In: Frontiers in Gaming Simulation: 44th International Simulation and Gaming Association Conference, ISAGA 2013 and 17th IFIP WG 5.7 Workshop on Experimental Interactive Learning in Industrial Management, Stockholm, Sweden, June 24-28, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2014, p. 93-101Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education in the European Union is one of the key factors to safeguard our competitiveness in the globalising economy. Based upon the Knowledge Triangle, the EU and its member states are working on improving the quality of education, the connection with research for transfer of new knowledge and the connection with industry to bring innovations. Within this paradigm, there are a lot of initiatives targeted towards higher and professional education to work on new teaching methods that implement the knowledge triangle better, especially for learning about complex systems and complex questions in society. From an economic point of view, however, the base of craftsmanship in society is key to keep up our productivity and ability to produce new and more advanced products, in times where most simple production activities get outsourced to developing countries. Vocational education is therefore arguably equally or even more important than higher and professional education. Unfortunately, vocational education is not yet functioning optimally. Our work represented in this paper aims to contribute to improve the outcomes of vocational education by exploring the use of gaming simulation that is already successful in other forms of education.

  • 161. Van Den Hoogen, J
    et al.
    Lo, J.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Debriefing in gaming simulation for research: Opening the black box of the non-trivial machine to assess validity and reliability2015In: Proceedings - Winter Simulation Conference, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 3505-3516Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaming simulation allows for experiments with sociotechnical systems and has as such been employed in the railway sector to study the effects of innovations on robustness and punctuality. Systems work as non-trivial machines and the effect of an innovation on a dependent variable is potentially context, time and history dependent. However, several constraints inhibit the use of validity increasing measures such as repeated runs and increasing sample size. Based on a debriefing framework, insights from qualitative process research and six games with Dutch and UK railway traffic operators, we provide a guide on how to assess and increase reliability and validity. The key is for game players, observers and facilitators to open up the black box and thereby assessing how the innovation brought about any changes, if these changes are insensitive to changes in parameters and if the conclusions hold outside the game.

  • 162. van den Hoogen, J.
    et al.
    Lo, J.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Debriefing Research Games: Context, Substance and Method2016In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 368-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Debriefing is an intrinsic part of games for learning and proper debriefing can also be beneficial to research games. However, the literature on how to debrief research games is sparse and only provides the professional with an abstract topic guide. Aim. The purpose of this study was to design a framework for the debriefing of research games that are used in ongoing innovation processes. Method. We used the literature on debriefing and experimental research and our experience as game designers to build a framework that tackles the context, substance and method of debriefing research games. Results. Our framework provides three contributions. First, it shows how the context in which a research game is applied sometimes impacts the functionality of the game in negative ways. This can be helped by designing both the game and the debriefing together. Second, we operationalize validity to a greater extent, as this is the core of a good research game. Third, we provide a methodology for debriefing professionals that opens up the black box of the gaming simulation session. Conclusion. The debriefing framework provides a method to collectively assess the validity, reliability and robustness of the causal claims associated with the research conducted.

  • 163. van den Hoogen, J.
    et al.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Gaming and Simulation for Railway Innovation: A Case Study of the Dutch Railway System2015In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 489-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Gaming simulation allows decision-makers to experiment with sociotechnical systems, similar to computer simulation. However, the value of these tools in comparison with each other remains uncertain, especially when focusing on their real-life application in systemic innovation processes. Aim. This article builds a framework based on the literature related to innovation of complex systems in a multi-actor environment and intends to use this framework to differentiate between the value of computer simulation and gaming simulation in innovation processes. Method. Using a case study of the introduction of gaming simulation to ProRail, the Dutch railway infrastructure manager, this article explores the advantages and disadvantages of using the two tools in situations where radical innovations need to be invented, explored, tested, and implemented in an incumbent system. Results. Computer simulations, as closed exercises, allow for more radical innovations to be studied. The openness of gaming sessions as well as the need for gamers to interact with a recognizable system inhibit the use of gaming simulation in envisioning radical innovations. However, they are more suitable for the joint commissioning of research and the stepwise testing of small-scale improvements. Gaming simulation is therefore a more appropriate tool for planning a concerted transition in a multi-actor setting. Conclusion. Computer simulation better allows for the building of experimental niches, and gaming simulation better helps in the concerted planning of the implementation of innovations. The article ends with concrete directions for further research as well as ideas about combining the two tools.

  • 164. Van den Hoogen, J.
    et al.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Gaming Simulation Hybrids in the Railway Domain: How Games Impact the Volatility of Innovation Processes2016In: SIMULATION AND GAMING IN THE NETWORK SOCIETY / [ed] Kaneda, T Kanegae, H Toyoda, Y Rizzi, P, SPRINGER-VERLAG SINGAPORE PTE LTD , 2016, p. 291-307Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation processes in the railway domain are highly chaotic due to the reciprocal influences of technological, social, and institutional dynamics over time. The ways by which gaming simulation can contribute to these processes is therefore highly context, time, and history dependent. Using three case studies, we explore basic recurrent patterns in these innovation processes and how the employment of gaming simulation has alleviated or attenuated these patterns. For different product architectures that characterize the innovation artifact, different patterns arise in different sequences for the process. We conclude that gaming's main active substance is in the opening up or closing down of technological, social, and institutional spaces. In addition, this impact is again highly moderated by the specific constellation of these spaces when a game is designed, executed, and analyzed. Broadly we see that in stable times, gaming simulation is able to decrease stability and thereby front-load much of the volatility otherwise found at later stages of the innovation process. In contrast, gaming simulation's ability to decrease volatility in volatile times is more problematic.

  • 165. Van Den Hoogen, J.
    et al.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Lessons on the design of gaming simulations for convergence and divergence in volatile innovation environments2016In: Proceedings - Winter Simulation Conference, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 1044-1055Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaming simulation allows innovation stakeholders to experiment with innovations in a shielded environment. The main contribution to innovation processes is not solely the provision of knowledge to stakeholders but also the manipulation of process volatility. Volatility is the speed and magnitude by which innovations, stakeholders and institutions change during the process, creating unpredictability and uncontrollability. This paper posits that a more even distribution of volatility over time is beneficial and that gaming simulation is able to contribute to this. The use of games allows innovation managers to front-load volatility beforehand or diminish it when it occurs. Crucial is that both effects demand from games qualitatively different design choices. This paper distills, from a multitude of gaming experiments in the U.K. And Dutch railroad sector, a set of design choices to consider. This enables game designers and innovation managers to improve the impact of gaming simulation on innovation processes.

  • 166. Van Den Hoogen, J.
    et al.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan A.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Games for searching technology landscapes2014In: Frontiers in Gaming Simulation: 44th International Simulation and Gaming Association Conference, ISAGA 2013 and 17th IFIP WG 5.7 Workshop on Experimental Interactive Learning in Industrial Management, Stockholm, Sweden, June 24-28, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2014, p. 153-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The value of gaming simulation for the search process in innovation projects is currently unknown. This paper studies this value in the railway sector. Based on models of search, we build a typology of different search strategies. In a case study we focus on several innovation projects that have either used real-world case studies or gaming simulation as a test method. We found that the use of gaming simulation has two interesting influences. Firstly, they allow searchers to apply a lucky-shot search strategy by which they can recognize promising solutions further outside the local optimum. Game players help to determine the robustness of the solution by searching neighboring configurations during and after the gameplay. Secondly, we found hints that search breadth is limited to the extent that game players are able to recognize the simulated system. We portray both the opportunities and threats for gaming simulation in innovative projects.

  • 167. Van den Hoogen, Jop
    et al.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Tools for railway transitions: How decision support tools contribute to concerted and systemic transformations of railway systems2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since  the Dutch  railway system  is  already  used  at  maximum  capacity and financial and spatial constraints  make  large  investments in infrastructure  im-possible, the railway infrastructure manager ProRail has opted for a focus on pro-cess  innovations to  transform  the  system  into  a  more  robust  one  capable  of  ac-commodating  the needed frequency  increases.  This  paper  therefore  focusses  on these  process  innovations  and  using  both  a  complex  adaptive  system  perspective as well as a  sociotechnical perspective presents the uncertainties decision makers within  the  involved  parties  must  face. Using  the  principles  stemming  from  re-search on transition management we assessed how different decision support tools such  as  computer  simulations,  gaming  simulations  and live-tests contribute to lowering  uncertainty. While  computer  simulations  offer  regime-inclined  players an arena to test out new solutions, gaming-simulations and live-test through their openness allow for the concerted planning of transformations

  • 168. Van den Hoogen, Jop
    et al.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    When Innovations should be Gamed: The value of gaming simulations for systemic transformations of networked infrastructures2012In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 169. Van der Arend, Sonja
    et al.
    Broekhans, Bertien
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    Department of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
    Consultants als professionals: Verkenning van de kwaliteit van advieswerk als opgave2011 (ed. 120)Book (Refereed)
  • 170. Van der Arend, Sonja
    et al.
    Broekhans, Bertien
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Professionalizing Practices in Advisory Work : Presenting a Conceptual Approach to Study the Relations among Institutionalization, Reflective Learning, and Quality in Consultancy2013In: Exploring the Professional Identity of Management Consultants / [ed] Anthony F. Buono, Léon de Caluwé, Annemieke Stoppelenburg, Information Age Publishing , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 171. van Lankveld, G.
    et al.
    Sehic, E.
    Lo, J. C.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan A.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Assessing Gaming Simulation Validity for Training Traffic Controllers2017In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 219-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The Dutch railway company ProRail is performing large-scale capacity upgrades to their infrastructure network. As part of these upgrades, ProRail uses gaming simulations to help prepare train traffic controllers for new infrastructure situations. Researching the validity of these gaming simulations is essential, since the conclusions drawn from gaming simulation use may result in decisions with large financial and social impact for ProRail and Dutch train passengers. Aim. In this article, we aim to investigate the validity of the gaming simulations for training traffic controllers for new situations in rail infrastructure. We also aim to contribute to the discussion on the minimum level of fidelity required to develop and conduct gaming simulations in a valid way. Method. We investigate the validity by using training sessions in conjunction with questionnaires. We based the approach and questionnaires on the earlier work of Raser. Results. Our results show that the validity of the gaming simulation ranges from medium to good. They also show that while the fidelity of the gaming simulation is not like the real-world operating conditions, this does not reduce validity to low levels. Conclusions. We conclude that the gaming simulation used in this study was of medium to good validity. We also conclude that maximum fidelity is not required in order to run a valid gaming simulation session.

  • 172.
    Verwaart, Tim
    et al.
    Wageningen University and Research.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    Demonstration of a multi-agent simulation model of trust in supply chains2004In: Proceedings of the 16th Belgian-Dutch conference on artificial intelligence, 21 – 22 October 2004, Groningen, The Netherlands., 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Verwaart, Tim
    et al.
    Wageningen University and Research.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Jonker, Catholijn
    Delft University of Technology.
    Tykhonov, Dmytro
    Delft University of Technology.
    Modeling and Simulation of Selling, Buying, Deceit, and Trust Behavior in the Trust and Tracing Game2005In: Proceedings of the 17th Belgian-Dutch Conference on Artificial Intelligence (BNAIC'05). Brussels, 17-18 October 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Wang, Qiuchen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Adopting an Actor Analysis Framework to a Complex Technology Innovation Project: A Case Study of an Electric Road System2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electric road system (ERS) is a transportation solution that provides electricity for fully electric vehicles while in motion. This solution might contribute to sustainable transportation by overcoming range anxiety problems that fully electric vehicles, especially heavy vehicles, have encountered due to battery technology limitations. However, large-scale ERS implementations are challenging, both technically and socially. An ERS is not only an engineering project, but also a complex technology innovation system composed of multiple subsystems and stakeholders, which requires an interdisciplinary means of aligning relations, problems, and solutions. In the policy analysis domain, researchers have developed actor analysis methods to support policy making processes. Actor analysis methods can provide an analytical reflection in solving complex multi-actor policy making challenges that ERSs are also facing. To uncover the complexity of multiple subsystems and stakeholders involved in an ERS, this paper applied a method to align system characteristics with the stakeholders' perceptions to understand multi-stakeholder contexts in complex technology innovation projects. Desk research was first conducted to summarise ERS characteristics. Then, the dynamic actor network analysis method framework was adopted to establish an action, factor, goal (AFG) list, which was revised by independent researchers. Next, the AFG list was used to collect the perceptions of the ERS stakeholders, expressed as AFG selections and causal links through stakeholder interviews. The resulting AFG list was iterated through two rounds of interviews and then validated in a Swedish ERS case workshop. The results from this methodology showed that the actor analysis method can not only be applied to policy analysis domains, but can also be applied to technology innovation complex systems, using the electric road system as a case study, to help uncover the ERS complexity from the concerns of stakeholders and to secure a pathway towards sustainable technology implementation.

  • 175.
    Wang, Qiuchen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    The complexity of stakeholder influence on MaaS: A study on multi-stakeholder perspectives in Shenzhen self-driving mini-bus case2021In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, p. 101070-, article id 101070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging technologies are changing our preferences for transportation solutions, which focus on service efficiency, safety, and sustainability. Mobility as a service (MaaS) is a user-oriented transportation solution that integrates both public and private operators into the same platform. The implementation of MaaS aims to simplify users’ booking procedures and increase the usability of various kinds of transportation resources. However, the integration of a myriad of transportation subsystems raises interpretation challenges from associated multi-stakeholder and subsystems. To overcome these challenges, the authors have involved different stakeholders from related subsystems to reveal concerns. This study aims to analyse a novel public transportation system - the self-driving mini-bus service in Shenzhen. The result shows that system characteristics and stakeholder concerns can be established using an Action, Factor and Goal structure. Stakeholders involved described their perceptions of self-driving bus integration in MaaS. The description could be used by analysts to uncover integration gaps further and could be updated by involving more stakeholders according to project developments. This study highlights the complexity of self-driving mini-buses integration challenges in MaaS from a stakeholder perspective, which provides learnings to advance the MaaS adoption in the future.

  • 176.
    Wang, Qiuchen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Berlin, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Uncovering stakeholder influences in electric road systems using two assessment methods: The case of eRoadArlanda2020In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, Electric Road Systems (ERS) are gaining importance in the quest for sustainable solutions for road transportation. The main driver is the 2018 Swedish climate law that requires a 70% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 for domestic transport, excluding aviation, compared to the 2010 level. Due to the urgent need for change, the first decade of ERS evolution has been heavily focused on technological development towards a market-ready technology. Indeed, developing ERS technology is the priority of the two ERS demonstration projects on public roads in Sweden: eHighway E16 (inaugurated: 2016, status: ongoing), and eRoadArlanda (inaugurated: 2018, status: ongoing). Consequently, ERS literature reflects the empirical reality from an evidently technological focal point. However, the nature of ERS makes it a system of systems and couples a large number of stakeholders together, many of them with no previous collaboration. Thus, it is important to address ERS using a holistic focus, including social aspects. The aim of this paper is to uncover the interests and influences of different stakeholder groups in ERS development through the organisation of an ERS project as the unit of analysis. For the purpose of triangulation, the ERS stakeholders in the eRoadArlanda demonstration project have been studied in two separate studies at different points in time and using different methods prior to the comparison of findings. The first study uses interviews and an actor network analysis method to understand the ERS stakeholders' interests, influences, actions, factors and goals selections using causal maps, while the second study uses field data collection with interviews as the primary data source, as well as an iterative approach in order to discuss ERS stakeholders' interest, influence, contribution and motivation with those involved in eRoadArlanda. The findings show the different interest and influence of different stakeholders on ERS development. Further, concerns tend to differ between stakeholder groups, while contribution and motivation also vary among stakeholders within the groups.

  • 177.
    Wang, Qiuchen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Liu, Hongyi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production engineering.
    Ore, Fredrik
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, S-63105 Eskilstuna, Sweden.;Scan CV AB, Global Ind Dev, S-15187 Södertälje, Sweden..
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production engineering.
    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production engineering, Advanced Maintenance and Production Logistics.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Multi-actor perspectives on human robotic collaboration implementation in the heavy automotive manufacturing industry- A Swedish case study2023In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 72, p. 102165-, article id 102165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementing an industrial collaborative robot for Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) in the automotive manufacturing industry is an emerging technology-driven solution aiming to increase production efficiency and reduce the human operator's ergonomic load. Successful implementation of innovative technology depends on technical feasibility and on the acceptance by the affected actors. Many studies exist that focus on the technical aspects of HRC, however, research that focuses on understanding the multi-actor concerns of HRC adoption is rare. In an effort to support the successful adoption of industrial collaborative robots, this study aims to un-derstand the concerns of the various actors who work at the operational and management levels influencing future HRC adoption in the heavy automotive manufacturing industry.A literature review was conducted to understand the HRC implementation challenges and the methods used to investigate multi-actor involvement in advance of, and during, the implementation stage. After reviewing existing studies, the actor analysis method was selected to present the actors' perceptions using the action, factor, and goal (AFG) list to understand different actors' opinions of HRC adoption, using a Swedish heavy vehicle manufacturing company case study.The case study results showed that the actors from the same organization had different concerns but mostly positive expectations for future HRC adoption. The actors' perception map shows the details pertaining to Ac-tions, Concerns, and Goals as well as the logical flow between these elements in regards to HRC future adoption. The involvement of different actor groups prior to new solution implementation contributes to a holistic view of potential implementation influences and challenges in the organization. Actor analysis can provide a set of analysis processes that comply with multi-actor perceptions to understand future adoption challenges from different perspectives. In the next step, safety-related issues and under-development standardization are the key challenges of HRC implementation.

  • 178. Warmelink, Harald
    et al.
    Bekebrede, Geertje
    Harteveld, Casper
    Mayer, Igor
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Lessons learned from a decade of geme development for higher education in Delft2012In: Simulations, Games and Role Play in University Education / [ed] Nygaard, C., Courtney N., & Leigh, E., Libri Publishing , 2012, 1, p. 171-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Warmelink, Harald
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    Delft University of Technology.
    Mayer, Igor
    Delft University of Technology.
    Verbraeck, Alexander
    Delft University of Technology.
    Introducing serious gaming in a multinational: experiences with the supervisor serious game for HSE training2009In: Proceedings of the ISAGA 2009 conference / [ed] GY Kin, Y Cai, Gee, Y., National University Singapore , 2009, p. 41-57Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Wu, Zhimao
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Natl Key Lab Sci & Technol Micro Nano Fabricat, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China.;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Inst NanoMicroEnergy, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China.;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Dept Micro Nano Elect, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Gang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Natl Key Lab Sci & Technol Micro Nano Fabricat, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China.;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Inst NanoMicroEnergy, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China.;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Dept Micro Nano Elect, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Mu, Erzhen
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Natl Key Lab Sci & Technol Micro Nano Fabricat, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China.;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Inst NanoMicroEnergy, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China.;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Dept Micro Nano Elect, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Qiuchen
    KTH.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan A.
    KTH.
    Hu, Zhiyu
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Natl Key Lab Sci & Technol Micro Nano Fabricat, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China.;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Inst NanoMicroEnergy, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China.;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Dept Micro Nano Elect, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Nanofire and scale effects of heat2019In: Nano Convergence, ISSN 2196-5404, Vol. 6, article id 5Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion is a chemical reaction that emits heat and light. Nanofire is a kind of flameless combustion that occurs on the micro-nano scale. Pt/Al2O3 film with a thickness of 20 nm can be prepared as a catalyst by micro-nano processing. When the methanol-air mixture gas passes through the surface of the catalyst, a chemical reaction begins and a significant temperature rise occurs in the catalyst region. Compared to macroscopic combustion, Nanofire has many special properties, such as large temperature gradients, uniform temperature distribution, and fast temperature response. The large temperature gradient is the most important property of Nanofire, which can reach 1330 K/mm. Combined with thermoelectric materials, it can realize the efficient conversion of chemical energy to electric energy. Nanoscale thickness offers the possibility of establishing thermal gradient. On the other hand, large thermal gradient has an effect on the transport properties of phonons and electrons in film materials. From these we can get the scale effects of heat. This article will provide an overview of the preparation, properties and applications of Nanofire, and then a comprehensive introduction to the thermal scale and thermal scale effects.

  • 181.
    Zhang, Cevin
    et al.
    Beijing Technol & Business Univ, Sch Media & Design, Higher Educ Garden Sunlight South Rd 1, Beijing 102488, Peoples R China.;Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Dept Biomed Engn & Hlth Syst, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development, Avancerad underhållsteknik och produktionslogistik.
    Härenstam, Karin Pukk
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Pediat Emergency Dept, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Game Experience and Learning Effects of a Scoring-Based Mechanic for Logistical Aspects of Pediatric Emergency Medicine: Development and Feasibility Study2021In: JMIR Serious Games, E-ISSN 2291-9279, Vol. 9, no 1, article id E21988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Using serious games for learning in operations management is well established. However, especially for logistics skills in health care operations, there is little work on the design of game mechanics for learning engagement and the achievement of the desired learning goals. Objective: This contribution presents a serious game design representing patient flow characteristics, systemic resource configurations, and the roles of the players based on a real Swedish emergency ward. The game was tested in a set of game-based learning practices in the modalities of a physical board game and an online multiplayer serious game that implemented the same game structure. Methods: First, survey scores were collected using the Game Experience Questionnaire Core and Social Presence Modules to evaluate the experience and acceptance of the proposed design to gamify real processes in emergency care. Second, lag sequential analysis was applied to analyze the impact of the game mechanics on learning behavior transitions. Lastly, regression analysis was used to understand whether learning engagement attributes could potentially serve as significant predicting variables for logistical performance in a simulated learning environment. Results: A total of 36 students from courses in engineering and management at KTH Royal Institute of Technology participated in both game-based learning practices during the autumn and spring semesters of 2019 and 2020. For the Core Module, significant differences were found for the scores for negative affect and tension compared with the rest of the module. For the Social Presence Module, significant differences were found in the scores for the psychological involvement - negative feelings dimension compared with the rest of the module. During the process of content generation, the participant had access to circulating management resources and could edit profiles. The standard regression analysis output yielded a Delta R-2 of 0.796 (F1(4,)(31)=2725.49, P<.001) for the board version and 0.702 (F2(4,)(31)=2635.31, P<.001) for the multiplayer online version after the learning engagement attributes. Conclusions: The high scores of positive affect and immersion compared to the low scores of negative feelings demonstrated the motivating and cognitive involvement impact of the game. The proposed game mechanics have visible effects on significant correlation parameters between the majority of scoring features and changes in learning engagement attributes. Therefore, we conclude that for enhancing learning in logistical aspects of health care, serious games that are steered by well-designed scoring mechanisms can be used.

  • 182.
    Zhang, Cevin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development. Bremer Institut fuer Produktion und Logistik Bremen Germany.
    Pukk Härenstam, Karin
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    A Serious Logistical Game of Paediatric Emergency Medicine: Proposed Scoring Mechanism and Pilot Test2019In: Games and Learning Alliance / [ed] Antonios Liapis; Georgios N. Yannakakis; Manuel Gentile; Manuel Ninaus, Springer Publishing Company, 2019, p. 468-478Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outcomes of care for various diseases and urgent conditions in an emergency department are dependent on balancing the patient’s need and available resources through management and coordination under often rapidly changing preconditions. However, although it is central to resilient operations, decision-making in dynamic resource management is rarely visible to managers. Sometimes the identification of successful strategies is apparent only through adverse event reports. A simulation game could be helpful for the acquisition of non-technical skills in addressing operational conundrums that could threaten the defence ability of a paediatric emergency department under care production pressures. This contribution presents a Sandtable serious logistical game of the care production system and, in particular, proposes its scoring mechanism, which was tested in a set of logistical experiments. The results show that through gamification, participants were challenged in terms of their intrinsic self-interest when it came to approaching the work. More importantly, the proposed extrinsic reward system allows all parallel functional roles to be equally rewarded as the game evolves. Anticipatory human resource management is identified as a successful strategy for achieving a sustainable working environment if the organizational resilience is confronted with patient inflow surges during the busiest hours of the busiest day.

  • 183.
    Zhang, Cevin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Sebastiaan, Meijer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    A Simulation Game of Patient Transportation2019In: Neo-Simulation and Gaming Toward Active Learning / [ed] Ryoju Hamada;Songsri Soranastaporn; Hidehiko Kanegae; Pongchai Dumrongrojwatthana; Settachai Chaisanit; Paola Rizzi; Vinod Dumblekar, Springer, 2019, 1, p. 53-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The handling of patients is a complex process. The training and education of patient transportation workers are meant to ensure efficiency and health outcomes. A simulation game, joined by personnel with working experience or prospective professionals in the healthcare system, is a life-like medium for improving decision makings in non-rational operation management. However, few examples are known in regard to synthesizing complex systems, such as clinical facilities, into healthcare simulation games. In order to fill this gap, this work proposes the adopt theory and reports the development of a simulation game that reconciles patient handling with the support of different types of simulation techniques. The simulation game has a physical entity simulator as its back-end and a panel of command and control for each player as its front end. The physical entity simulator is based on the interactions of mobile agents. Agent-based modeling targets the correct level of representation of the operative environment. The simulation game is tested with managers who have more than 10-years of working experience with patient flow management in pediatric care. Reflections from players indicate that modeling and abstraction using an agent model is an efficient synthesis of complex systems. The theory, methods, and results of this study are expected to contribute to the development of simulation games that can be applied in health service provision, in general, and in patient transportation, in particular.

  • 184.
    Zhang, Chen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Grandits, Thomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Härenstam, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hauge, Jannicke
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    A systematic literature review of simulation models for non-technical skill training in healthcare logistics2018In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource allocation in patient care relies heavily on individual judgements of healthcare professionals. Such professionals perform coordinating functions by managing the timing and execution of a multitude of care processes for multiple patients. Based on advances in simulation, new technologies that could be used for establishing realistic representations have been developed. These simulations can be used to facilitate understanding of various situations, coordination training and education in logistics, decision-making processes, and design aspects of the healthcare system. However, no study in the literature has synthesized the types of simulations models available for non-technical skills training and coordination of care. A systematic literature review, following the PRISMA guidelines, was performed to identify simulation models that could be used for training individuals in operative logistical coordination that occurs on a daily basis. This article reviewed papers of simulation in healthcare logistics presented in the Web of Science Core Collections, ACM digital library, and JSTOR databases. We conducted a screening process to gather relevant papers as the knowledge foundation of our literature study. The screening process involved a query-based identification of papers and an assessment of relevance and quality. Two hundred ninety-four papers met the inclusion criteria. The review showed that different types of simulation models can be used for constructing scenarios for addressing different types of problems, primarily for training and education sessions. The papers identified were classified according to their utilized paradigm and focus areas. (1) Discrete-event simulation in single-category and single-unit scenarios formed the most dominant approach to developing healthcare simulations and dominated all other categories by a large margin. (2) As we approached a systems perspective (cross-departmental and cross-institutional), discrete-event simulation became less popular and is complemented by system dynamics or hybrid modeling. (3) Agent-based simulations and participatory simulations have increased in absolute terms, but the share of these modeling techniques among all simulations in this field remains low. An extensive study analyzing the literature on simulation in healthcare logistics indicates a growth in the number of examples demonstrating how simulation can be used in healthcare settings. Results show that the majority of studies create situations in which non-technical skills of managers, coordinators, and decision makers can be trained. However, more system-level and complex system-based approaches are limited and use methods other than discrete-event simulation.

  • 185.
    Zhang, Chen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Hanchi, Hamza
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Evaluating the effect of centralized administration on health care performances using discrete-event simulation2017In: PICMET 2017 - Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology: Technology Management for the Interconnected World, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2017, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patient flow management is increasingly motivated by the request to improve system performance. The improvements on local departments are expected with minimal negative effects on the upstream and downstream departments which are integral parts of the care pathway. Although it is widely debated that hospital buildings are expensively constructed and operated, we observe a lack of efforts on the logistical efficiency of care provision within facilities in hospitals, especially in developing areas. This askes for more research attentions towards the knowledge gap between health care supply and demand. Our work presented a simulation-based approach to study the impact of centralized administrative works by evaluating waiting times of services and resource utilizations. A discrete-event simulation (DES) model was constructed in reference to a hospital complex in Jiangsu, China. The results showed that the centralized administration benefited patients regarding a reduced total length of stay and waiting times of administration; however, reorganizing administration also influenced waiting times of medical services and resource utilizations of different types of facilities. Neglecting administration in care pathway might yield to unclear knowledge of their impacts. This article can also support the inclusion of simulation in the strategic planning phase of health care projects.

  • 186.
    Zhang, Chen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Härenstam, K. P.
    Nordquist, J.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Structuring Game Design with Active Learning Benefits: Insights from Logistical Skills Training in Managing an Emergency Department2021In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Nature , 2021, p. 35-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competency is central to a sustainable and resilient emergency department. Decision-makers, including clinicians, managers, and developers, would benefit from meaningful simulated scenarios in which their skills are trained. Among the various types of skills, non-technical skills are prioritized because the failure to communicate, coordinate and cooperate effectively are common contributing factors to adverse events and involving patients at the ‘sharp-end’ of the health system. For active learning of non-technical skills, simulation and gaming have been frequently used. From the methodology point of view, there is a need to clarify these two methods in order to improve their value in training and learning. This contribution presents the reflective methodology as an option of structuring game design compared to the mainstream service system modeling. The reflective methodology starts with the underlying assumption that it is still possible to achieve gaming effectiveness, even though the baseline layer is a simulation model instead of the service system. Based on a questionnaire investigating the activation of learning of logistical skills in managing an emergency department, results are illustrative of that active learning is much improved and is moving closer to achieving intended outcomes. Analyzing results from logistical experiments in the form of a statistical summary motivates to explore the middle ground of game design and gamification further, especially when the simulation model is the steering layer in scenario generations and debriefing. This aspect might have been less supervised in the philosophy of game science, let alone the application of simulation game for human resource management in emergency department logistics.

  • 187.
    Zhang, Chen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Härenstam, Karin Pukk
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Pediat Emergency Dept, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Darwich, Adam S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Serious Gaming of Logistics Management in Pediatric Emergency Medicine2020In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERIOUS GAMES, E-ISSN 2384-8766, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 47-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access blocks throughout the entire healthcare system and overcrowding issues are pervasive in many emergency departments where the coordination and strategic management of resources could be supported by serious games and simulations approaches. However, existing studies have not addressed the reciprocal relation between patient inflow and working systems in serious games design in order to reflect the logistical features of an emergency department and to facilitate the players improve the work performance of the system. To address the issue, this paper presents a serious game based on a multi-method simulation approach of complex healthcare processes as well as the game mechanics selected to promote understanding the logistical features of an ED, which points to the next level of conducting simulations or gaming aimed for training decision making skills in operative environments. Results of the experiment confirmed that the serious game encouraged participants to proactively manage the human resources of the emergency department. Certain managerial recommendations can be made: a patient flow multiplier of 120% could lead to a significant erosion of the system's defensive ability; however, proactive anticipation from management is the key for making an emergency organization more resilient.

  • 188.
    Zomer, Lara-Britt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Daamen, Winnie
    TU Delft.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Hoogendoorn, Serge
    TU Delft.
    Managing Crowds: The Possibilities and Limitations of Crowd Information During Urban Mass Events2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thischapter,basedonamixedmethodresearchapproach,offersinsights into possibilities and limitations of using ICT measures for crowd management and distribution during urban mass events (UMEs). Based on literature, practical applications and analyses of research results, we propose crowd management should consider characteristics of both crowds and UMEs to increase information effectiveness. In relation to urban planning, results show that possibilities to influence a crowd’s behavior depend on available (and known) choice sets offered in various locations, while distances towards locations across city centers appear less important. Limitations appear to be related to scarce knowledge on what drives crowd members to adapt or adhere to their activity choice behavior. Such insights are essential for smart cities striving for an optimal use of infrastructural capacity, as both the ambiguous effects of ICT measures, as well as a crowd’s self-organizing capacity should be taken into account for delaying, solving and preventing dis- ruptions of pedestrian flows in city centers. 

  • 189. Zomer, Lara-Britt
    et al.
    Moustaid, Elhabib
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    A Meta-Model for Including Social Behavior and Data into Simulation in the Smart City Context2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal, and M. D. Rossetti, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2015, p. 1705-1716Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    mart city management can be regarded to bridge different realms of thinking about cities, i.e., 1) the city as complex-adaptive system, 2) socio-technical operational control center and 3) multi-actor policy-making. Underpinned by different world views and theoretical bodies, integration of the three realms puts forward new demands on simulation approaches and challenges current knowledge and available technology regarding integration of sub-models across different systems. In order to support urban transportation management, a holistic approach is needed that semantically connects the three realms by incorporation of human behavior and knowledge. Combining research on knowledge management and computer science, this paper presents a novel meta-framework as socio-technical hybrid simulation language to generalize integration of simulations, gaming and data for modeling urban transportation.

  • 190.
    Zuniga-Arias, Guillermo
    et al.
    Wageningen University.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    Wageningen University.
    Hofstede, Gert Jan
    Wageningen University.
    Ruben, Ruerd
    Wageningen University.
    Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain: a gaming simulation approach with local producers2007In: Journal on Chain and Network Science, ISSN 1569-1829, E-ISSN 1875-0931, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 143-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue distribution. It examines data derived using a specially developed research tool: the Mango Chain Game (MCG), a gaming simulation that mimics the negotiation conditions in the Costa Rican mango supply chain. The MCG defines roles for all agents in the chain and records transaction attributes. Five sessions with the MCG were played with different groups of mango producers, resulting in a data set of 82 transactions and 43 bargaining power positions. Bargaining power was assessed at a 10-point Likert scale. Revenue distribution was measured in terms of value added. The results show that self-perceived bargaining power was dependent on negotiation skills, wealth and good partnership of the negotiators, but independent of market imperfections. Revenue distribution was related to the bargaining power of the trading partner, risk perception and the duration of the contract. Conclusions include that using a gaming simulation as data source can help identify less tangible issues in supply chain research, which is a new field of application for gaming simulations. Agency cooperation, skills and being able to bear risks play a role for improving the efficiency of the mango supply chain in Costa Rica as seen from a producers' perspective. The gaming results indicate that initiatives for improving the bargaining power of producers are more promising if they focus on improving skills and relations in trade rather than on solving market imperfections.

  • 191.
    Zuniga-Arias, Guillermo
    et al.
    Wageningen University.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    Wageningen University.
    Ruben, Ruerd
    Wageningen University.
    Hofstede, Gert Jan
    Wageningen University.
    Bargaining power in mango supply chains: An experimental gaming approach2006In: International Agri-Food Chains and Networks: Management and Organization / [ed] J. Bijman, S.W.F. Omta,,, J.H.M. Wijnands & E.M.F. Wubben, Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2006, p. 231-255Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers in the mango supply chain are characterised by contractual arrangements concerning outlet choice, price, volume, quality and frequency. We used a gaming simulation approach to identify the intrinsic agency characteristics that typically result in specific contracts and assess the underlying differences in perceived bargaining power and that are conducive for reaching these arrangements. A stylised mango chain game is developed that permits the appraisal of different sets of delivery transactions. Agency roles are defined for all participants in the mango supply chain. Attributes of all transactions are recorded, also permitting contract breach, hold-up and repeated contracts. Bargaining power is assessed at a 10-point Likert scale and revenue distribution is measured in terms of money. The game has been played five times with different groups of mango producers, resulting in a data set of 82 transactions and 43 bargaining power positions. The game design closely mimics the negotiation conditions in the Costa Rican mango supply chain. The game results confirm the important role of trust and information exchange for reaching mutually acceptable contracts. Bargaining power is strongly related to the negotiation skills, wealth and partnerships of the negotiator. Revenue distribution is related to the bargaining power of the trade partner, risk and the length of the contract. Transparency and agency cooperation thus play important roles for improving the efficiency of mango supply chains in Costa Rica.

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