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  • 151. Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Peuportier, Bruno
    ARMINES.
    Wetzel, Christian
    CALCON.
    Scarpellini, Sabina
    CIRCE.
    Zabalza, Ignacio
    CIRCE.
    Díaz de Garayo, Sergio
    CIRCE.
    Staller, Heimo
    IFZ.
    Krigsvoll, Guri
    SINTEF.
    Stoykova, Evelina
    SEC.
    Horváth, Sarah
    EMI.
    Zsuzsa Szalay, EMI, Zsuzsa Szalay, EMI
    Zsuzsa Szalay, EMI.
    Degiovanni, Valeria
    ECOFYS.
    Riktlinjer för LCA beräkningar i tidiga byggnadsskeden2010Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 152. Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    Wallhagen, Marita
    Miljöklassning och miljöpåverkan2009Inngår i: Fastighetsnytt, ISSN 1104-8913, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 153.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Selecting environmental assessment tool for buildings2011Inngår i: Proceedings of 6th World Sustainable Building Conference, SB11 Helsinki, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 154.
    Gołombek, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö. Silesian University of Technology.
    Experimental investigation of thermal conversion of solid waste under high temperature agent (steam/air)2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the problems with providing a continuous and sustainable energy supply for the worldwide society are negative consequences to the environment and its living habitants steaming from uses of conventional technologies. Those consequences should be minimized by developing and improving new technologies as well as by utilization of other type of feedstock than fossil fuels, such as biomass, industrial or municipal solid waste. Nowadays, gasification is the main technology for biomass conversion to energy and a great alternative for the thermal treatment of solid waste. The number of various applications for produced gas shows the flexibility of gasification and that is why allows it to be integrated with other industrial processes, as well as power generation systems.

                The main objectives of this thesis were to present behavior of different kind of feedstock undergoing pyrolysis/gasification processes in reactors using highly preheated agents and additionally compare the compositions of produced gases. In this thesis two different systems were presented; the first is lab-scale gasifier for the treatment of biocoal, automotive shredder residue (ASR), refuse derived fuel (RDF), biomass (straw pellets) and plastic waste (polyethylene) and the second one is a large up-draft, fixed bed gasifier used for investigation of biocoal.

    The thesis was divided into four main parts: beginning with theoretical introduction, subsequently showing outcomes from investigations carried out on lab-scale test unit, large HTAG facility and finishing on short conclusions.

  • 155.
    Graneborg, Frida
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Drift och underhåll av konstgräsplaner: Potential för samverkan mellan Solna och Sundbyberg2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 156.
    Granlund, Julia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Qvick, Erika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Markegenskaper och dess lämplighet för odling eller byggnation: En studie om markanvändning samt verktyg och bestämmelser vid regional och kommunal planering i Stockholms län2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1950-talet har åkermarken i Sverige minskat med en miljon hektar. Samtidigt ökar befolkningsmängden stadigt och i Stockholms län beräknas invånarantalet passera tre miljoner till 2040. För att kunna möta behoven av både mat, boende och infrastruktur krävs noggrann planering för att inte förstöra viktiga möjligheter och resurser för framtida generationer. Syftet med rapporten är att med hjälp av en litteraturstudie och en intervju undersöka olika marktypers egenskaper och dess lämplighet inom olika användningsområden i Stockholms län. Vidare undersöks hur olika marktyper, främst åkermark, värderas i kommunernas planeringsprocesser idag. Lämpliga områden för odling respektive byggnation karteras också i ArcGIS och jämförs med regionala planer för länet.

    Resultatet visar att den enskilt viktigaste egenskapen för vilka marker som är bäst lämpade för jordbruk respektive byggnation är den geologiska sammansättningen. För åkermark krävs en lerig jordart, det vill säga en mycket liten kornstorlek, för att exempelvis kunna binda vatten och näringsämnen till växterna. Mycket finkorniga jordarter som lera och silt är däremot mindre lämpliga att bygga ur geoteknisk synpunkt, då främst morän men även berg och sand är att föredra. Idag räknas åkermarken som ett väsentligt samhällsintresse av nationell betydelse men det finns inget som förhindrar kommuner att exploatera dessa områden. Skyddet av åkermark är idag ett mycket omdiskuterat ämne och många aktörer, däribland Jordbruksverket och olika riksdagspartier, har länge argumenterat för att stärka skyddet av detta.

    Mycket av den samhällsplanering som sker idag baseras på den åkermarksgradering som utfördes 1971 baserat på skördestatistik från 1969. Den värdering av åkermark som kommuner och myndigheter har att utgå ifrån vid bland annat översiktsplanering och bedömning av mark är således femtio år gammal. Detta medför en risk att marker prioriteras felaktigt och inte utnyttjas på bästa sätt då dess egenskaper kan ha förändrats under ett halvt sekel. En ny åkermarksgradering är därför en viktig prioritet.

  • 157.
    Grass, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Karlströmer, Jesper
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Materialflödesanalys av kasserade plastförpackningar i Stockholm: Hantering, återvinning, och framtida scenarier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has for a long time worked towards improving its sustainability, and reducing negative climate impact (Naturvårdsverket, 2016). According to research performed by robecosam, Sweden was the most environmentally sustainable country in the world, as of May 2017 (Robecosam, 2017). An important step in the direction of further improving environmental sustainability is reducing the usage of fossil fuels, and in extension plastics. In Europe between 4 to 6 percent of oil or natural gas goes into the production of plastics (PlasticsEurope, 2016). Percentage-wise plastics make up a small part of fossil fuel use, however the production of plastics have continually increased for 50 years (PlasticsEurope, 2015), and with demands for 49 million tonnes of plastics in Europe for the year 2015 it is important that the tools for end of life-cycle management of plastics are handled well.

    Through the method of substance flow analysis (SFA) the report aims to answer the following questions: How large a part of the plastic containers in Stockholm are recycled into usable plastic material, how can that number be improved, and what would those improvements mean in terms of environmental impact?

    The method used in the report is regional substance flow analysis, SFA is a material flow analysis applied to a specific substance, over a specific time period, and generally within a specific region. The method is used to find sources, leaks, sinks, and accumulations of materials within a flow (Moberg, et al, 1999).

    The results as shown in the report are that the effective recycling rate in Stockholm is 38.2%. Determined as the total amount of plastic containers that were recycled into usable plastics, divided by the total amount of plastic containers entering the system the year 2015. Furthermore two leakages were found in the system, the plastic containers that were not entered into the recycling system (discarded plastic not properly sorted for recycling), and the plastic containers that could not be recycled for reasons of quality, mixing of materials, or other contamination.

    Analysis of these leakages showed that vast improvements to Stockholm's environmental impact concerning plastic containers can be made by addressing these leakages. The leakage stemming from the discarded plastics not being properly sorted for recycling being the easiest and most impactful one to remedy, whereas the leakage stemming from materials that cannot currently be recycled was found to be exceedingly difficult to repair.

  • 158.
    Gravert, Emmeli
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Mattsson, Jenny
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Industrial symbiosis Canvas business model between a recysling company, an energy company and a real estate manager2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis involves cooperation by exchanges of resources between companies, and furthermore develops regional competitiveness and increase new business opportunities. To consider the definition of industrial symbiosis within a company, and allow innovations in circular economy and resource usage, creates opportunities for a company to grow businesses by reaching economic development and increased efficiency.

    The research questions investigate how a business model develops cooperation between a recycling company, an energy company and a real estate manager, in manner of connections between relevant businesses in industrial symbiosis. A case study with the three companies Ragn- Sells, E.ON and Väderholmen AB is accomplished, with divisions of six responsibility roles to maintain cooperation in development of industrial symbiosis between the three companies in Broporten, Upplands-Bro. Broporten is a projected area in Upplands-Bro and this report is made as a step to implement industrial symbiosis in the area. The result shows that cooperation between three main partners; recycling company, energy company and real estate company, leads to an effective implementation of industrial symbiosis since the individual core businesses have useful supplement. The industrial symbiosis in Broporten can be developed and maintained by the three cooperating companies Ragn-Sells, E.ON and Väderholmen AB by using a canvas business model supporting the cooperation. Different scenarios show how responsibility roles can be divided between the three key partners and depends on decision of chosen scenario. The most successful scenario is when Väderholmen AB is Park coordinator, because Park coordinator is close to Väderholmen AB’s core business. Network coordinator is suitable for both Ragn-Sells and E.ON since they already are involved in geopolitical framework. It results in following division;

    • Ragn-Sells as Recycling company, Knowledge company and Network coordinator

    • E.ON as Infrastructure company, Process industry company and Network coordinator

    • Väderholmen AB as Park coordinator

      The role as network coordinator should only correspond to one Key Partner.

      Potential businesses for implementation of industrial symbiosis in Broporten are a cluster with greenhouse, slaughterhouse, dairy, bakery and brewery, beneficently located close to a combined heat and power plant (CHP plant). The total maximum margin of yearly output of district heating from the CHP plant to the five priority industries demand are 3.6%, and 11% for electricity. The total maximum margin of yearly output of organic fertilizer from the biogas plant to the five priority industries demand are 0.4%. The total maximum margin of yearly input of biological waste from the five priority industries to the biogas plant is 4.1%. It leads to questions regarding the relevance of E.ON’s biogas in Broporten. Potential dimensions suitable for Broporten are 5000 m2 for greenhouse, 5000 m2 for slaughterhouse, 40,000 m2 for dairy, 15,000 m2 for bakery and 10,000 m2 for brewery. 

  • 159.
    Gravert, Emmeli
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Persson, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Stockholms trafiksituation: Vilka förändringar bör ske för att minska klimatpåverkan och koldioxidutsläppen?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Att ta tag i problemet angående klimatförändringarna och den förväntade globala temperaturhöjningen går inte längre att skjuta upp utan måste åtgärdas i dagens läge för att jorden slutligen ska nå ett hållbart klimat. Genom att visa omvärlden att det går att ha en fungerande storstad med kraftiga reduceringar i biltrafik och ett stort utbud av kollektivtrafik kan Stockholm visa framfötterna och vara en inspiration till övriga städer. Klimatförändringarna är ett globalt problem och det krävs därför ett agerande på global nivå. Alla länder måste bidra, inte minst Stockholm.

    Stockholm växer och i en allt snabbare takt. De kommande 20 åren förväntas Stockholmsregionen växa med cirka en halv miljon invånare och bilinnehavet förväntas öka med 16 procent fram till år 2020. Detta kommer att leda till ökad mängd koldioxidutsläpp från biltrafiken, stora köer och trängsel samt störningar i kollektivtrafiken. Samtidigt har regeringen satt upp mål om att det inte ska finnas några nettoutsläpp av växthusgaser i Sverige till år 2050 samt att utsläppen ska minska med 40 procent fram till 2020. Det krävs alltså långsiktiga hållbara lösningar för trafiksituationen i Stockholm för att möta denna ökade befolkning och dessa klimatmål. Det måste ske en omprioritering i trafikplaneringen för att nå visionen om ett hållbart Stockholm, där miljön inte hamnar i andrahand.

    Metoderna som använts som underlag i rapporten baseras främst på vetenskapliga och politiska rapporter och dokument. Det har även skett en intervju med Daniel Firth från Trafikkontoret med avseende på differentiering och övriga närliggande ämnen som har använts som underlag i resultatet och diskussionen. Syftet med denna rapport är att analysera och diskutera trafiksituationen i Stockholm utifrån ett klimatperspektiv. Det tas upp vilka förändringar som planeras i dagsläget samt vad som kan förbättras med avseende på klimatet och koldioxidutsläppen. De faktorer som tas upp är trängselskatten, differentiering, kollektivtrafiken och den planerade kringfartsleden Förbifart Stockholm.

    Höjningen av trängselskatten som ska äga rum år 2016 är en bra början på att lösa trafikproblemen i staden. Däremot så räcker inte detta för att minska koldioxidutsläppen i den takt som är nödvändig för att nå de nationella mål som satts upp. Det krävs en satsning på differentiering baserad på koldioxidutsläpp samt att det sker en omprioritering i vad de ökade intäkterna från förhöjd trängselskatt ska finansiera. Då dessa till största del planeras gå till Förbifart Stockholm är förslaget att det enbart bör gå till utbyggnad av kollektivtrafiken i staden. Genom en överföring från biltrafik till kollektiva färdsätt medföljer en koldioxidreduktion och även en minskad trängsel. Därmed fås en hållbar lösning i linje med regeringens mål om en fossilfri fordonsflotta och inga nettoutsläpp av växthusgaser. 

  • 160.
    Gravoille, Pauline
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    CASE STUDY OF ACTIVE FREE COOLING WITH THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    May 25, 2011, Reuters’ headline read: "New York State is prepared for summerelectricity demand". The NY operator forecasts for next summer a peak of 33GW, close to therecord ever reached. With soaring cooling demands, the electricity peak load represents a substantialconcern to the energy system. In the goal of peak shaving, research on alternative solutions based onThermal Energy Storage (TES), for both cooling and heating applications, has been largely performed.This thesis addresses thermal comfort applications with use of active free cooling through implementationof latent heat based TES. Active free cooling is based on the use of the freshness of a source, the outsideair for example, to cool down buildings. This work conceptualizes the implementation of TES basedcooling system with use of Phase Change Material in an in-house-built model. The principle of PhaseChange Material, or Latent Heat TES (LHTES), lies on latent energy which is the energy required for thematerial to change phase. In order to properly size this cooling system, a multi-objective optimization isadopted. This optimization, based on minimization of multi-objective functions, led to optimal designconfigurations. In parallel, the electrical consumption of the system and the volume uptake of the systemwere also considered. Through the obtained optimization studies, we identified non-linearinterdependency between the two objective functions: the cost of the system and the acceptable remainingcooling needs. By remaining cooling needs, we mean the cooling needs that the system cannot meet. As amatter of fact, sizing the system according to these cooling needs would imply a very high cost. It wasfound that for a certain amount of remaining cooling needs, the PCM-based cooling system reveals to bean interesting solution compared to conventional air conditioning in terms of electrical consumption andoverall system cost.

  • 161.
    GUHR, ADRIAN
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    THE POTENTIALS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN STOCKHOLM2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the potential of information and communication technology (ICT) as a means to solve current problems in Stockholm’s waste management. As a basis to develop effective new solutions, this report identifies the issues that need to be resolved in the future to make waste management more efficient. Previous work has failed to provide a comprehensive overview of Stockholm’s waste management system that is well-illustrated and considers the perspectives of various involved stakeholders. A material flow analysis (MFA) was carried out to investigate today’s system performance and additionally the personal views and opinions of stakeholders working in the field were collected. A review of statistics and reports from the city government and other organizations provided quantitative data about waste amounts and helped to identify the key stakeholders, which were then contacted and interviewed personally or via an open questionnaire. The study identified several shortcomings in today’s system and presents an overview over the potentials and limits of ICT to contribute to a sustainable waste management in the future Stockholm Royal Seaport. 

  • 162. Gulbinskas, S.
    et al.
    Mileriene, Rosita
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630). Klaipeda University, Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Lithuania .
    Blazauskas, N.
    Sand sources for beach replenishment2008Inngår i: US/EU-Baltic Int. Symp., Ocean Obs., Ecosyst.-Based Manage. Forecast. - Provisional Symp. Proc., BALTIC, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 163.
    Gullberg, Anders
    et al.
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    Pettersson, Ronny
    Bilder av framtidsstaden: Tid och rum för hållbar utveckling2007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur mycket energi behöver staden i framtiden? Hur skulle ett stadsliv te sig där invånarna inte förbrukar mer naturresurser än vad jorden långsiktigt tål? Kan staden och stadslivet förändras så att denna vision om en hållbar utveckling förverkligas?

    Bilder av framtidsstaden presenterar sex olika bilder av den framtida staden. Bilderna byggs upp utifrån beskrivningar av hur stadens form och människor tidsanvändning ser ut idag och hur dessa faktorer påverkar användningen av naturresurser – och hur de skulle kunna förändras.

    Bilder av framtidsstaden handlar om staden femtio år framåt i tiden. Det långa tidsperspektivet ställer invanda sanningar om vad som är möjligt mot nya sanningar om vad som kan bli nödvändigt.

    Permanent länk för nedladdning:

    http://digitalastadsmuseet.stockholm.se/fotoweb/Grid.fwx?archiveId=5000&search=(IPTC187%20contains(SSMB_0026279_01_))

  • 164.
    Gustafsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Kenttä, William
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    En väg mot ett smart hållbart Stockholm: Informations- och kommunikationsteknik i den översiktliga planeringen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Stockholms stads översiktsplan ska uppdateras och innehålla informations och kommunikationsteknik, IKT. Syftet med denna rapport är att bidra till arbetet med översiktsplanen genom att uppmärksamma aspekter kring kopplingen mellan IKT och hållbar utveckling. För att uppfylla syftet så gjordes en litteraturstudie gällande Stockholms stads översiktliga planeringsdokument och verktyg för att påverka stadens utveckling. Litteratur om Wiens vision för en smart stad samt kopplingen mellan IKT och hållbarhetsaspekter studerades även. Två framtidsscenarier analyserades i två workshops för att identifiera möjliga utvecklingsaspekter kring IKT i Stockholm. Resultatet indikerar att IKT har stor potential att påverka den sociala och den ekologiska hållbarheten, både positivt och negativt, varför det är viktigt att IKT används som ett verktyg för att uppnå hållbarhetsmål. Fyra planeringsinriktningar och fokusområden identifierades som utgångspunkterna till en stadsbyggnadsstrategi för hur IKT kan användas i Stockholm. 

  • 165.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Soil & Environm, Box 7014, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vanadium geochemistry in the biogeosphere -speciation, solid-solution interactions, and ecotoxicity2019Inngår i: APPLIED GEOCHEMISTRY, Vol. 102, s. 1-25Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium is a metal that receives increasing attention due to its possible toxicity and its increased use in society, i.e. in high-grade steel and in vanadium redox-flow batteries. Already today, the global biogeochemical cycle of vanadium is heavily impacted by human activities, and these impacts will probably increase. The total V concentration in the upper part of the Earth's crust, and in soils, is near 100 mg V kg(-1). Usually, the dissolved V concentration is low. In seawater the mean dissolved V concentration is 1.8 mu g L-1, and in freshwaters the concentration is commonly below 1 mu g L-1 although in areas with volcanic and sedimentary rocks it may be much higher, i.e. at the slopes of Mt. Etna, Italy, concentrations of up to 180 mu g V L-1 have been recorded. Vanadium is a redox-sensitive element, which occurs in three oxidation states (+III, +IV and +V) in the environment. Whereas vanadium(V) usually occurs as the oxyanion vanadate(V) under most environmental conditions, vanadyl(IV) is an oxocation that is stable at low pH and/or mildly reducing conditions, particularly when the organic matter concentration is high. Vanadium(III), which is the least studied form of vanadium, occurs under strongly reducing conditions. All vanadium forms are strongly bound to environmental sorbents: vanadate(V) is bound as a bidentate complex to iron, aluminium, and titanium (hydr)oxides, and with a stronger affinity than that of orthophosphate (o-phosphate). Vanadyl(IV) is strongly complexed to natural organic matter, while vanadium(III) may substitute for other trivalent ions in mineral structures. Despite this, vanadium may be mobilized to the aqueous phase, for example under high-pH conditions. Studies with V K-edge XANES spectroscopy have shown that most oxic soils usually contain a mixture of vanadium(IV) that is octahedrally coordinated in primary minerals, and surface-bound vanadate(V) on iron and aluminium (hydr) oxides, although acid organic soils are dominated by organically complexed vanadyl(IV). In reduced environments, such as in sediments and black shales, available evidence suggests that the V consists of a mixture of organically complexed vanadyl(IV) and unknown vanadium(III) species. However, considerable uncertainty exists on the V speciation under reducing conditions, and additional research is recommended. Vanadium is essential for some species of cyanolichens and algae due to its presence in vanadium nitrogenase, which can be important for N fixation in boreal ecosystems, and in vanadium haloperoxidases, which mediate the oxidation of halides, particularly iodine and bromine. In certain organisms vanadium is accumulated for unknown reasons, e.g. in ascidians, where V accumulates as a vanadium(III) complex with organic S, and in Amanita mushrooms, in which amavadin, a stable vanadium(IV)-organic complex, is accumulated. However, at high concentrations vanadium is toxic to many organisms. This is mostly due to its interference with o-phosphate in a number of biomolecules. Available evidence shows that toxic effects appear in the mg V L-1 range for most studied species. However, some organisms, i.e. algae and possibly some soil bacteria, are more sensitive. In soils, the toxic response is related to the soil solution V concentration, rather than to the solid-phase concentration. The o-phosphate concentration has been identified as a parameter that influences toxicity, but the relationship between the P status and the environmental risk of V toxicity is not yet well determined - as a result risk-based guidelines remain uncertain. There is urgent need for more research on this topic. Vanadium, being a redox-sensitive element, responds to sudden environmental change such as flooding that leads to decreased redox potential. In most, but not all, cases, an increased solubilisation of vanadium is observed after flooding, which can be attributed to reductive dissolution of vanadate(V)-sorbing iron (hydr)oxides and to vanadate(V) reduction to vanadyl(IV) that forms stable complexes with dissolved organic matter. The vanadium redox conversions are carried out by a large number of genera of bacteria. Bioremediation methods are being developed that may reduce vanadate(V) to vanadyl(IV), which may reduce the bioavailability of vanadium in many soils.

  • 166.
    Gürsoy, Nevin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Khudur, Ivan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Hållbara alternativ inom sjöfarten: En utvärdering av metanol och vågkraft som marina drivmedel2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Förbränning av traditionellt fartygsbränsle medför utsläpp av ämnen som har negativa effekter på miljön. Uppkomsten av strängare internationella regler gällande utsläpp från sjöfartstrafiken kräver ett skifte från det konventionella marina bränslet tjockolja till alternativ med lägre utsläpp. Vågkraft och metanol är två möjliga alternativ inom sjöfarten som kan uppfylla de internationella regleringarna för utsläpp, och har i denna studie jämförts med tjockolja. Beräkningar av emissioner, kostnad och den möjliga producerade effekten utfördes med hjälp av referensfartyget M/V Fidelio som underlag. Studien visar att metanol och vågkraft bidrar med signifikant lägre utsläpp, vilket tyder på stora möjligheter att uppfylla de uppsatta internationella utsläppskraven. Däremot uppfyller de inte referensfartygets effektbehov och är kostsamma i relation till deras möjliga effektuttag. För att minska fartygens miljöpåverkan, lämpar det sig i dagsläget bättre att använda metanol och vågkraft som komplement till andra drivmedel. 

  • 167.
    Hagstroem, Agnes
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Prospects for continued use and production of Swedish biogas in relation to current market transformations in public transport2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is largely utilised as vehicle fuel in public bus transport in Sweden today. This study investigates opportunities and barriers for continued domestic use and production of biogas, in relation to the ongoing electrification of public bus transport. The analysis is based on interviews with actors in public transport and the biogas sector, experts on biogas systems, and representatives for alternative user segments. Three regions were chosen as case-studies for investigations of prospects in public transport, i.e. Stockholm, Västra Götaland and Skåne, though alternative uses were studied from a national perspective. In addition to public transport, considered uses include road transport, sea transport, industries, and electricity and heat production. The study identifies a broad agreement among stakeholders that renewable resources should be implemented where they provide most benefits from a system perspective. Therefore, electric public buses are valued in urban environments, while biogas solutions are found suitable for regional routes. Biogas is further viewed as environmentally beneficial in all user segments except continuous electricity and heat production, where it largely would replace renewable rather than fossil sources. Regarding costs and competitiveness, probable future uses are identified within light and heavy-duty road transport, and in consumer-oriented industries, i.e. the food industry. Economic support in policy instruments is further considered essential for continuous development of the Swedish biogas sector, though current influential instruments, e.g. the tax exemption, are described as short-term and unpredictable. The willingness to pay for the collected societal benefits of biogas further decrease in transitions from public to private consumers, and as biogas solutions simultaneously are linked with limited or uncertain competitiveness in these sectors, risks prevail that such transitions could imply stagnations and declines in biogas use and production, given today’s situation.

  • 168. Hagström, L.
    et al.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Integration of environmental assessment functions in design and product development tools2004Inngår i: Computer-Aided Design and Applications, ISSN 1686-4360, Vol. 1, nr 1-4, s. 33-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a computer-based environmental tool that will make it possible for product designers to integrate environmental assessments into their work. The environmental tool described in this paper is a concept for integrated environmental assessment functions in design and product development tools. The concept presents a way of reducing modelling time by making simplified assessments. The concept, and finally the environmental tool, is based upon companies' demands and wishes regarding how a tool for making environmental assessments during the product development process might be useful for them. The intended user is the company product designer.

  • 169.
    Hakansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Indirect Rebound and Reverse Rebound Effects in the ICT-sector and Emissions of CO22015Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIROINFO AND ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2015, 2015, s. 66-73Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the ICT sector has a large potential of reducing environmental impacts in society through enabling smarter and more efficient solutions. Some of this potential may however be offset by different types of rebound and other indirect effects. There are a number of different types of rebound and other indirect effects that can be relevant. Some of them may lead to positive environmental impacts; others may lead to negative impacts. In this paper we have analysed the indirect rebound effects for the ICT-sector and also what we here call the reverse rebound effect. We have used Environmentally Extended Input-Output Analysis with data for Sweden. The results in this paper indicate that rebound effects can be significant. If efficiency improvements occur in the production of the ICT equipment, there could be a strong rebound effect which would reduce the potential decrease of emissions that could occur without the rebound effect. If on the other hand, efficiency improvements concern the electricity used by the ICT equipment, the rebound effect is expected to be smaller, and real emission reductions could be expected. The total spending on ICT products have increased and this could lead to a reversed rebound effect when less is consumed of other products and services. The results here suggest that this reversed rebound effect could be significant and lead to overall reduced emissions.

  • 170.
    Hallberg, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Suspended solids concentration in highway runoff during summer conditions2008Inngår i: Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, ISSN 1230-1485, E-ISSN 2083-5906, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 237-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One treatment practice for storm water is detention of the initial part of the runoff that is considered to contain the highest concentration of pollutants. This study has evaluated the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) in 44 consecutive runoff events from a highway watershed. The effluent TSS standard for wastewater of 60 mg/l applied in the EU was used to assess the required treatment. In 35 of the runoff events the TSS partial event mean concentration exceeded 60 mg/l for the duration of the runoff event. Thus, a partial capture of the runoff volume should not be used as a treatment option in similar conditions that prevailed in this study.

  • 171.
    Hallberg, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Hallme, Elin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Energy demand in different topographical zones: A field study about the domestic energy demand in the rural areas of Bolivia2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 172.
    Hansson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Heiskala, Linnea
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    INVESTIGATION OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION AND HEALTH RISKS DUE TO FARMING ACTIVITIES ON A FORMER DUMPSITE IN DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The heavy metal pollution from a former solid waste disposal site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, that is currently used for urban farming was investigated. The pollution was assessed by measuring the content of copper, lead, zinc and chromium in soil, plants and leachate from the site as well as in the adjacent river. The safe daily intake of onsite cultivated vegetables, in regard to the heavy metal content, was calculated. The analysis showed that there is a health risk connected to consuming vegetables in volumes greater than 100 g cowpea leaves, 70 g pumpkin leaves or 1700 g maize grains for someone with a body weight of 80 kg due to the concentration of Pb. The heavy metal content in leachate exceeded the Swedish limits for leachate discharge to water recipient. The river water contained too high levels of Cr to be within the FAO standards set for irrigation water. Measures are urgently needed to cover the site with a final layer and collecting the leachate for purification. To stop further contamination from the Vingunguti dumpsite the bottom and sides of the dump need to be covered to ensure a fully enclosed site. The local community also needs to be informed of the risks connected to urban farming in the area. 

  • 173.
    Hartman, Astrid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Lovén, Ella
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Plastic as marine debris and its potential for economic value: A practical and analytical estimation of the marine debris characteristics and a comparative evaluation of possible treatment procedures2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Every year around 270 million tonnes of plastic are produced worldwide. As a result of poor waste management in many countries, a large amount of it ends up in the world’s oceans where it degrades into micro particles. The degrading plastic particles release toxic chemicals, which can bioaccumulate in bodies of oceanic life and subsequently travel through the nutrition chain. Hence it is of great importance to find solutions to this problem. In this report, the composition and scale of plastic marine debris is investigated using data collected from fieldwork performed by the authors in a number of countries around the world, as well as through examining and combining reports from the International Coastal Cleanups organized by Ocean Conservancy. The combined data is used to create a top ten ranking of the most common plastic marine debris and its corresponding plastic type. The most common items were determined to be e.g. beverage bottles and plastic bags and the most common plastic type was estimated to be PP, LDPE and PET. According to the data collected through the fieldwork, the total plastic share of the marine debris was estimated to range between 67.4% and 86.3%. Further, the possible economic gains of conventional material recycling, incineration for energy recovery and microwave pyrolysis as a material recovery process are investigated. The study is executed partly by reviewing several scientific articles on the subject as well as by practical laboratory work with microwave pyrolysis of polystyrene. The study shows that conventional recycling is not a sufficient treatment, due to the photo degradation of the polymers in the oceans. Furthermore, end products from incineration give a greater economical gain and provide for a less complicated and time-consuming procedure than microwave pyrolysis when considering the composition of plastic marine debris. However, microwave pyrolysis is a more environmentally friendly option than incineration due to the greenhouse gas emissions caused by incineration. 

  • 174.
    Hasselström, Linus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Anthesis Enveco AB, Barnhusgatan 4, bv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Visch, W.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Nylund, G. M.
    Pavia, H.
    The impact of seaweed cultivation on ecosystem services - a case study from the west coast of Sweden2018Inngår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 133, s. 53-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seaweed cultivation attracts growing interest and sustainability assessments from various perspectives are needed. The paper presents a holistic qualitative assessment of ecosystem services affected by seaweed cultivation on the Swedish west coast. Results suggest that supporting, regulating and provisioning services are mainly positively or non-affected while some of the cultural services are likely negatively affected. The analysis opens for a discussion on the framing of seaweed cultivation – is it a way of supplying ecosystem services and/or a way of generating valuable biomass? Exploring these framings further in local contexts may be valuable for identifying trade-offs and designing appropriate policies and development strategies. Many of the found impacts are likely generalizable in their character across sites and scales of cultivation, but for some services, including most of the supporting services, the character of impacts is likely to be site-specific and not generalizable.

  • 175.
    Hedman, Emma Åslund
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Wennberg, Anton Jensen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Energieffektivisering av flerbostadshus: En studie av det befintliga bostadsbeståndet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete behandlar ombyggnation av flerbostadshus i Sverige med fokus på energieffektivisering. Bostads- och servicesektorn använder årligen 148 TWh per år och hela 40 procent av Sveriges totala energianvändning varav många av de hus som finns i landet är långt ifrån så effektiva som de skulle kunna bli med bara några få tekniska åtgärder.

    Arbetets syfte var att studera om Sverige med dagens teknik kan uppnå de uppsatta målen för hållbar utveckling som gäller för bostads- och servicesektorn och huruvida detta är ekonomiskt hållbart eller ej. Under arbetets gång har flerbostadshus valts som fokus för studien eftersom energiminskningen per person ger ett bättre resultat i en energiminskning av flerbostadshus. Det bör även vara mer kostnadseffektivt att renovera flerbostadshus eftersom energiminskningen per person och investerad krona bör bli mindre än att investera i endast ett enbostadshus.

    En litteraturstudie, policyanalys, en teknisk bakgrund samt en fallstudie över tre genomförda renoveringsprojekt med fokus på energieffektivisering har genomförts. Litteraturstudien består av en översiktlig studie av renovering med energifokus, vilka för- och nackdelar som finns idag samt vilka hinder som existerar. För policyanalysen har målsättningar och riktlinjer som finns både på EU- nivå och för Sverige studerats. Den tekniska bakgrunden beskriver ingående de renoveringsåtgärder som är möjliga och bakgrunden till dessa. När fallstudien genomfördes studerades genomförda energieffektiviseringsåtgärder, kostnader, energiresultat m.m.

    Utifrån resultaten från fallstudien och de uppsatta målen från policyanalysen kunde slutsatsen dras att en minskning i energianvändningen på ca 40 procent i endast de befintliga flerbostadshusen är både tekniskt möjligt och ekonomiskt hållbart. Med striktare reglering om krav på energianvändning i flerbostadshus vid renovering och nybyggnation kommer således en minskning på 50 procent i energianvändningen i det befintliga beståndet inte bara vara möjlig i teorin utan även i praktiken. Dock kommer minskningen kräva en stor förändring i renoveringsprocesserna. Bland annat tydligare systemgränser och schablonmodeller för energieffektivisering skulle minska hindren till att nå målen, vilket skulle behövas för att dra igång den nödvändiga förändringen. 

  • 176.
    Heiskala, Linnea
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Det bästa av två världar?: En utredning av praktisk tillämpning och användbarhet av hybrid-LCA för att inventera klimatpåverkan från konsumtion i kommuner och landsting2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt fler kommuner och landsting inkluderar den indirekta klimatpåverkan från konsumtion i klimatarbetet. Livscykelanalys (LCA) är ett vedertaget verktyg för att inventera såväl direkt som indirekt påverkan från en produkt, men när klimatpåverkan från en hel organisations produktportfölj är av intresse riskerar steget för datainventering bli alltför omfattande. Genom åren har olika metoder för att möjliggöra livscykelinventering på verksamhetsnivå utvecklats; hybrid-LCA är en av dem där beteckningen "hybrid" kommer av att metoden kombinerar ett så kallat bottom up- med ett top down-perspektiv i datainventeringen. Den praktiska tillämpningen av hybrid-LCA och resultatets användbarhet för kommuner och landsting är dock inte självklar. Den här studien har som syfte att utreda praktisk tillämpning och användbarhet av hybrid-LCA som verktyg för att inventera klimatpåverkan för kommuners och landstings konsumtion. Syftet inkluderar att identifiera utmaningar förknippade med det praktiska genomförandet av hybrid-LCA samt utvärdera inventeringsresultatetens användbarhet i kommuner och landstings klimatarbete. Studiens resultat baseras på semistrukturerade intervjuer, en metodprövning där hybrid-LCA tillämpas samt en workshop där metodprövningens resultat utvärderas. Studiens resultat visar att hybrid-LCA möjliggör både ett helhetsgrepp kring verksamhetens klimatpåverkan och en detaljnivå för utvalda områden, vilket gör det möjligt att prioritera områden och identifiera åtgärder för att minska klimatpåverkan. De främsta utmaningarna som uppstår vid det praktiska genomförandet av hybrid-LCA är förknippade med inventering och verifiering av förgrundsdata och matchning av produktgrupper från inköpsstatistiken till standardiserade klassifikationer. För att förenkla utförandet, öka transparens och möjliggöra uppföljning rekommenderas kommuner och landsting att utreda möjligheten att samordna inköpssystem och märka produktgrupper i enlighet med standardiserade klassifikationer. Vidare rekommenderas att begära in uppgifter om produkters vikt och materialinnehåll från leverantörer och även länka dessa uppgifter till artikelnummer i inköpssystemet. Osäkerheterna förknippade med resultatet från en hybrid-LCA är och förblir dock stora, det är därför viktigt att resultaten kommuniceras i termer av potentiell miljöpåverkan och inte används för att jämföra prestation mellan verksamheter.

  • 177.
    Heiskala, Linnea
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Det bästa av två världar?: En utredning av praktisk tillämpning och användbarhet av hybrid-LCA för att inventera klimatpåverkan från konsumtion i kommuner och landsting2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    More and more local governments (municipalities and county councils) include the indirect climate impacts of consumption in their environmental work. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an established tool for inventorying both direct and indirect impacts of a product or service, but when the climate impact of an entire organization's consumption of products and services is of interest, the inventory of data can easily become excessive. Through the years, various methods for enabling life cycle inventory on the organizational level have been developed. Hybrid-LCA is one of them where the term "hybrid" comes from that the method combines a so-called bottom up with a top down approach of the data inventory. The practical application of hybrid-LCA and the usefulness of the assessment results for local governments are not self-evident. This study aims to investigate the practical application of hybrid-LCA as a tool for inventorying climate impact for municipalities’ and county councils’ consumption. The purpose includes identifying the challenges associated with the practical procedure when conducting a hybrid-LCA and evaluating the inventory results’ usefulness in municipalities and county councils’ climate work. The results of the study are based on semi-structured interviews, a case study in which hybrid LCA is applied and a workshop where the case study is evaluated. The results show that the hybrid-LCA enables both a holistic approach to the climate impact and a level of detail for selected areas, making it possible to prioritize areas and identify measures to reduce the climate impact from consumption. The main challenges that arise in the practical procedure of the hybrid-LCA are associated with inventory and verification of foreground data and matching purchases of product groups to standardized classifications. To simplify the execution, increase transparency and facilitate monitoring, local governments are recommended to investigate the possibility of coordinating purchasing system and labeling product groups, in accordance with standardized classifications. It is also recommended to request information about a products weight and material content from suppliers. The uncertainties associated with the outcome of a hybrid-LCA are and remain large, therefore it is important that the results are communicated in terms of potential environmental impacts.

  • 178.
    Hemmer, Florian
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    An Adapted Approach to Industrial Symbiosis: With a case study on the northern Stockholm region2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous attempts have been made to create or facilitate Industrial Symbiosis networks and self-organized networks have been uncovered. Existing networks have been studied to identify its success or failure and its context. This thesis tries to suggest and assess an adapted approach to establish successful industrial symbiosis, with a case study on the northern Stockholm region. An extensive literature review, meetings with experts and stakeholder interaction by questionnaires, interviews and a workshop were used. Potential obstructions were identified, possibilities of self-organizations and planning explored and solutions suggested. Combined with the feedback from 25 questionnaires and a workshop with local stakeholders an approach to establishing industrial symbiosis in northern Stockholm was suggested and assessed. A neutral coordinator or waste companies were concluded to have a good chance of establishing an industrial symbiosis network in the region. Using existing networks, creating awareness and providing knowledge and examples are important factors for establishing an industrial symbiosis network.

  • 179.
    Henriksson, Greger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Kupersmidt, Judith
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Räsänen, Minna
    Södertörn University / School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    A Day at the School of Opera: Less Travel throug Distance Education2013Inngår i: Nachhaltigkeit in der Wirtschaftskommunikation / [ed] Martin Nielsen, Iris Rittenhofer, Marianne Grove Ditlevsen, Sophie Esmann Andersen, Irene Pollach, Wiesbaden: Springer VS, Springer Fachmedien , 2013, s. 191-214Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    .

  • 180.
    Henriksson, Patrick
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Sludge Treatment Systems: Is recycling aluminium based coagulant from chemical sludge the way of the future?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical coagulation is a widely used wastewater treatment method around the world to reduce impurities from the process water in various industries. However, the large amounts of coagulation chemicals that are required for the removal of dissolved particles create a chemical sludge which poses a great environmental problem. Purac AB, a Swedish wastewater treatment company attempts to solve this problem with a new technology called the ReAl process. The ReAl process can recycle the aluminium ions from the commonly used coagulant aluminium sulfate, which reduces the amount of chemical sludge and the amount of aluminium sulfate needed in the coagulation process. In this study, a comparative life cycle assessment was conducted with a cradle-to-grave approach and mostly in accordance with the ISO-14040 series with the only deviation of not including resource-based impact categories. The goal was to evaluate the environmental impact of two sludge treatment systems – a conventional system (system 1) and a system which includes the ReAl process (system 2). Furthermore, the environmental performance of two dewatering equipment’s, a decanter centrifuge and a filter press, were examined in system 1, while in system 2, the exclusion of sludge drying was investigated.

    The scope of the study did not include the infrastructure of the sludge treatment systems and the ReAl process since previous studies have shown that, the environmental impact from the infrastructure in the wastewater treatment industry is relatively small compared to other factors, such as the energy and coagulation chemical used in these systems.

    The characterization results showed that system 2 had the lowest environmental impact on all the evaluated impact categories. The results also revealed that system 1 would have a slightly lower environmental impact if the chemical sludge was dewatered with a decanter centrifuge instead of a filter press. Similarly, system 2 would have a slightly lower environmental impact if sludge drying was excluded from the system. However, the environmental performance gain from selecting the best dewatering and drying equipment is limited and considered within the margin of error. Thus, this thesis suggests selecting the sludge treatment equipment based on their economic and technical factors before their environmental performance.

    The largest environmental impact in system 1 derived from the use of the coagulation chemical aluminium sulfate, while in system 2, sulfuric acid used in the ReAl process contributed the most to its environmental impact. The sensitivity analysis showed that a “clean” electricity mix is essential for system 2 and the ReAl process overall impact on the environment compared to system 1.

  • 181.
    Henriksson, Patrick
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Egeskog, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Ecosystem services deriving from sugar kelp cultivation in Skagerrak2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    This Paper will focus on identifying, and look at potential ways of quantifying and valuing ecosystem services surrounding the cultivation of macroalgae. More specifically, the kelp species Saccharina latissima in the sea of Skagerrak at the Seafarm project. This paper is based on a literature review and case studies. Many ecosystem services have been identified and they were divided into the same four categories as in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment report: provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services. To maintain a reasonable scope of this paper the most important ecosystem services were chosen. These ecosystem services were: All the provisioning services, climate and atmospheric regulation, regulation and mitigation of eutrophication and recreation and tourism. All the provisioning services, except reproduction of fish, are related to the amount of harvested kelp. The biomass can be quantified as dry weight (DW) with a relationship between DW and wet weight (WW). The method of quantifying climate and atmospheric regulation is in direct relation to the DW of the biomass. The study shows that the carbon sequestration on a cultivation site can be neglected and carbon stored in kelp used as food, fodder and fertilizer is released back into the atmosphere. Biomass used as biofuel prevents fossil fuel usage and should therefore be quantified. Provisioning ecosystem services are best valuated with the onsite valuation method. The carbon fixation value in climate and atmospheric regulation can be estimated with carbon credits and the oxygen production value can be estimated either with the assumption that it equals the carbon fixation value or with the replacement cost method. The value of mitigation of eutrophication can be estimated with CV and the value of recreation and tourism can also be estimated with CV but also with travel cost. 

  • 182.
    Hermansson, Hélène
    et al.
    KTH.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Schneider, André
    Sustainable development in higher education - what sustainability skills do industry need.2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 183.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Infrastruktur.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Infrastruktur.
    Environmental life cycle methods in the acquisition of defence materiel2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 184.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Hägvall, Joakim
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency. .
    Roth, Liselott
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Tryman, Rolf
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency. .
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Reference report on the use of environmental life cycle methodologies in procurement in the Swedish defence2006Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 185.
    Holmstedt, Louise
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Robert, Karl-Henrik
    Can Stockholm Royal Seaport be part of the puzzle towards global sustainability?: - From local to global sustainability using the same set of criteria2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, s. 72-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sustainable development is today seen as one of the keys towards unlocking the quest for a sustainable world. One feature of urban sustainability is the increased interest in developing sustainable urban districts. For many of these developments, guiding sustainability documents are developed to frame future goals. However, few of these documents specify on which grounds they determine the sustainability of goals and they are largely developed as independent islands of local sustainability. This is unfortunate as cities and their districts are fully dependent on surrounding environments. Failing to include a holistic approach into,the local planning increases the risk of sub-optimisation, future lock-ins and missed targets on a higher level. The aim of this study is to analyse whether the environmental and sustainability programme for Stockholm Royal Seaport, a new urban district in Stockholm, Sweden, can guide development of the district towards holistic ecological sustainability. By using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development a holistic template for an ecologically sustainable planet has been described, important sectors for the built environment have been identified and the environmental and sustainability programme for the district has been analysed. This study showed that the vision and operational goals put forward in the Stockholm Royal Seaport programme complies relatively well with the designed template. However, important deviations in all sectors but land use have been identified. These deviations arise in the translation process between theory and practice. The vision for the district and the implementation phase are not aligned due to too narrow a perspective of a sustainable urban district, lack of robust sustainability principles including use of such to identify key strategic questions. In addition to the lack of an all-embracing conceptual framework, there is also a lack of structures for cooperation between stakeholders and conflicts between local and regional agendas. Use of a unifying framework can describe desirable future scenarios where the local level does not contribute to violation of the universal sustainability principles and identify step-wise routes towards such scenarios.

  • 186.
    Huang, Chengyang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Conflict Resolution for Environmental Technology Transfer for SMEs from Sweden to China2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    China is a country faced by deteriorating environment and severe pollution; therefore, technology transfer from Sweden has been one of the best choices for Chinese authorities and clean technology companies. The huge Chinese market also seems to be an alluring market for Swedish clean technology SMEs. However, conflicts often occur during technology transfer (TT) process. Theoretically, the TT process mainly involves the stages of assessment, agreement, implementation, evaluation and adjustment and repetition. Based on these stages, cases are chosen, interviews are carried out and results are analyzed in details with SWOT method. The new TT solution is proposed as recommendation. The conclusion shows in order to achieve a successful TT; each stage in the process should be carefully controlled. Hence, not only the technology donor s (Swedish SMEs) and receivers (Chinese buyers) should devote their efforts, all the other stakeholders such as technology consulting companies and government institutions should cooperate together, whichever fits their mutual interests. 

  • 187.
    Hugosson, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Schön, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Effektivare energianvändning i växthus: Förslag till miljöförbättrande åtgärder för ett hållbart odlande2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Världen står inför en av de kanske största utmaningarna någonsin, att begränsa mängden växthusgaser i atmosfären till hållbara nivåer. För att uppnå detta måste alla delar av samhället effektivisera och begränsa sin energi och resursanvändning.

    I detta kandidatexamensarbete har ett av Åsbacka Trädgårds växthus i Söderhamn studerats för att undersöka möjliga investeringar till reduktion av den energianvändning som idag råder. De energireducerande åtgärderna har simulerats med programvaran IDA ICE 4.6 och därefter analyserats och jämförts med varandra. Då anläggningen idag värms med olja är det intressant att ersätta denna med en förnybar energiresurs.

    Resultatet visar att vid installation av energiväv kan en reduktion av energibehovet göras med upp till 20 procent. Betydande besparingar i uppvärmningskostnad kan ske om energiväven kombineras med uppvärmning från träpellets eller bergvärme, där besparingar mellan 70 000 och 85 000 kronor årligen kan uppnås för den aktuella perioden Åsbacka Trädgård bedriver verksamhet i växthuset. Detta kan jämföras med de 100 000 kronor som driften kostar idag. Av denna anledning rekommenderas installation av energiväv och ett utbyte till förnybar energiresurs.

    De presenterade investeringarna har valts utifrån produkter som finns tillgängliga på marknaden. Investeringskostnader för de presenterade alternativen har inte beaktats, endast den årliga driftskostnaden för uppvärmning har tagits hänsyn till. 

  • 188.
    Hurry, Jovin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Strategic negotiations towards sustainabilityfor entrepreneurs2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out what it takes for entrepreneurs to negotiate strategically in order to ultimately influence systemic change towards sustainability. It focuses on the challenges sustainability entrepreneurs face as they negotiate their twin objectives of social mission and positive cashflow during their collaborative processes. To answer this purpose, I conducted a participatory action research with the entrepreneurs at Hubs Westminster, King’s Cross and Islington in London. The Hub is a global community of people from every profession, background and culture working to tackle the world's most pressing social, cultural and environmental challenges. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) was used as a lens for the overall research while the Seven Elements Theory of Negotiation targeted the negotiation process. The thesis demonstrates that some core challenges need to be addressed in the entrepreneur’s preparation for their negotiation; and that entrepreneurs can intentionally favourably position themselves through their strategic actions in their attempt to meet the need to combine economic objectives with concerns about social responsibility and environmentalism. The implication of the thesis lies in better awareness on how to aim at creative outcomes during collaborations. Its originality lies in shedding light in this niche and rarely touched combination of sustainability, entrepreneurship and negotiation.

  • 189.
    Hägvall, Joakim
    et al.
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency..
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Infrastruktur.
    Finnveden G, Göran
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Infrastruktur.
    Overcash, Michael
    Dep of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State Univeristy, USA.
    Griffing, Evan
    Dep of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State Univeristy, USA.
    Life Cycle Assessment of a PFHE Shell Grenade2004Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 190.
    Hållstedt, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Inter-organizational Symbiotic Relationships: Key Factors for Success2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report focuses on governance mechanisms for industrial symbiosis (IS). The study takes an organizational approach on material and energy exchanges between different organizations (or different parts in the same organization) leading to increased regional resource efficiency. This project explores different strategies for governance mechanisms and analyzes how these affect trust. Significant factors for initiating and keeping a collaboration successful are also analyzed.

    Representatives from 24 Swedish cases of symbiotic arrangements are interviewed and ten themes affecting IS collaborations are identified. The themes are governance structure, shared vision, previous collaboration, local conditions, initiating a collaboration, activities to build trust, conflicts, transaction-based or goal-oriented approach, indicators and distribution of costs and benefits. Among the governance structures used are hierarchy (collaboration between different parts of the same organization), joint venture, strategic alliance and different types of agreements. Common is a 10-15 years agreement, sometimes combined with a strategic discussion about the development of the collaboration.

    Three factors particularly affecting collaborations are identified: strategic meetings, indicators related to the collaboration and fair profit distribution. The factor strategic meetings is about combining long term agreements with innovation. Long term agreements might be necessary when a project requires investments. Meanwhile, this can suppress innovation by supporting outdated solutions. The paradox of needing both long term agreements and continued innovation may be solved by the practice of having strategic meetings and contract surveillance. Another significant factor for successful collaborations is the use of jointly evaluated indicators. To jointly evaluate a project according to predetermined indicators gives all parties the opportunity to know when a collaboration is successful. The third significant factor is fair profit distribution. Unfair profit distribution may delay or stop a project. It may also decrease trust in an ongoing project. A fair profit distribution is a key factor for enabling long term relationships. 

  • 191.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Options for transport telematics1999Inngår i: New contributions to transportation analysis in Europe / [ed] Beuthe, M; Nijkamp, P, Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999, s. 297-316Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 192.
    Höjer, Mattias
    et al.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    Hjelm, Olof
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Palm, Viveka
    Scenarios in selected tools for environmental systems analysis2008Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, nr 18, s. 1958-1970Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of different tools for analysing environmental impacts of different systems have been developed. These include procedural tools such as strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and environmental management systems (EMS) as well as analytical ones such as life cycle assessment (LCA), life cycle costing (LCC), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the system of economic and environmental accounts (SEEA) including input-output analysis (IOA). Descriptions or scenarios of the future are typically relevant elements in these tools, since they are often used to describe impacts in the future. For futures studies a number of different approaches and techniques have been developed. In an earlier paper we have presented a typology of different types of scenarios that respond to different types of questions. These include predictive scenarios, explorative scenarios and normative scenarios. The aim of this paper is to explore connections between selected tools for environmental systems analysis and different scenario types. Although there is a clear need for futures studies in several tools for environmental systems analysis, it is interesting to note that the literature on methodologies for and case studies of combinations of futures studies and environmental systems analysis tools is rather limited. This suggests that there is a need for further research in this area including both methodoloy and practical case studies.

  • 193.
    Isaksson, Gustav
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Andersson, Niklas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    WATER RESOURCES IN NAKAMTENGA, BURKINA FASO: QUALITY, QUANTITY AND RISKS2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Nakamtenga is situated in Burkina Faso, one of the poorest countries in the world suffering from lack of potable water and food security, leading to starvation and illnesses such as diarrhea. The purpose and goal of the field study was consequently to analyze the water situation in Nakamtenga so that the results and conclusions drawn from it could help to improve the water situation. It was done by investigating the water quality, quantity, risks of contamination and how the water is handled. At the time of observation Nakamtenga had seven functioning wells; two open dug wells and five closed pumps. The water quality analyses indicate that the quality is generally good, with exception of the open wells, of which the water has significant amounts of coliforms. The phosphate levels are above 0.6 mg/l in six of the wells, which indicate that the water may be affected by human activities.

    The most significant threat to the water quality is the handling of the water, which is inappropriate in many ways. Placing of funnels in spill water from the wells, not covering the containers used to store water and placing fetching materials in the dirt are examples of improper handling. Other risks of contamination are lacks in the construction of the wells, latrines placed near the wells and use of pesticides/herbicides. Another major problem is that the pumps break too often; there is water but the inhabitants cannot reach it. It is important to take in consideration that the mapping was made during the dry season. Since conditions are very different during the rainy season it is recommended to do further studies during this period, or at least, being attentive to indications of changes in water quality and supply.

    To improve the water situation several measures can be taken. Education concerning the handling of the water (hygiene and sanitation) is one of the most important. Actions should also be taken to improve the water quality in the open wells. Reducing contamination risks is possible at all wells since deficiencies and flaws occur everywhere. Moreover the documentation and organization of water related issues is insufficient. Improving this work could significantly improve the water situation in the village. 

  • 194.
    Ismoilov, Abbos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Löfgren, Björn
    A comparison of novel chassis suspended machines for sustainable forestry2015Inngår i: Journal of terramechanics, ISSN 0022-4898, E-ISSN 1879-1204, Vol. 58, s. 59-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cut-to-length logging (CTL) is a mechanized harvesting process where trees are delimbed and cut to length directly at the stump. The main challenges for the manufacturers of forestry machines for CTL logging are to address new customer demands and tougher health and environmental legislations by finding means that: (1) further increase the harvesting and log transportation productivity, e.g. by enabling operation on eco-soils, (2) reduce the damage to the soil, e.g. by controlling the ruts depth and preserving the root layer, (3) reduce exhaust emissions, e.g. by reducing the rolling resistance, and (4) reducing the daily vibration dosage for the machine operators, e.g. by active chassis and cabin damping. This paper presents of a number of passive forwarder chassis suspension concepts and compares their performance from three perspectives: their gentleness to terrain and operator, as well as their potential for improved fuel efficiency. Based on multi-body dynamics simulations, it is shown that a passive pendulum arm suspension can reduce the lateral accelerations in a passively suspended cabin with 50% compared to traditional bogie machines when travelling in rough hard terrain.

  • 195.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik. Department of Geology and Mineralogy, Åbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Drainage in Sweden -the past and new developments2019Inngår i: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913, Vol. 69, nr 5, s. 405-410Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Land drainage in Sweden has been regulated in various laws since the Middle Ages. The lowering of lake surfaces and the ditching of wetlands has been considered a valuable task to gain cultivable land, and more recently, to promote forest growth. However, in recent years the debate surrounding drainage in forests has been a matter of considerable discussion. The dry and hot summer of 2018 has awakened new views on the subject. Monitoring has shown an exceptionally low groundwater levels countrywide. Especially the islands of Öland and Gotland have faced groundwater shortages and the groundwater levels are still low in both small and large aquifers. Drainage within forest land has lacked any scientific basis until rather recently. Still, it has been a supported activity during the twentieth century. However, this has gradually as knowledge on the activity has increased and the ecology of downstream water bodies has been considered. Today, only the rinsing of existing drainage is actively practised, and it is surrounded by a number of recommendations which are still under discussion.

  • 196. Jakariya, Md.
    et al.
    Rahman, Mizanur
    Chowdhury, A. M. R.
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Yunus, Md.
    Bhiuya, Abbas
    Wahed, M. A.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Vahter, Marie
    Persson, Lars-Ake
    Sustainable safe water options in Bangladesh: experiences from the Arsenic Project at Matlab (AsMat)2005Inngår i: Natural Arsenic in Groundwater: Occurrence, Remediation and Management, LEIDEN: A A BALKEMA PUBLISHERS , 2005, s. 319-330Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of elevated levels of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater of Bangladesh, has severely impaired the decade long effort of providing safe water to nearly 98% of its population and putting an estimated 3 5 million people-nearly one fourth of the total population at risk. In order to address this problem, a project titled "Arsenic in tubewell (TW) water and health consequences in Matlab Upazila of Chandpur district (AsMat)" is being implemented jointly by ICDDR,B and BRAC. During this study. all the TWs in Matlab have been assigned unique identification numbers, with marked GPS coordinates, depth, and age. It is estimated that nearly 65% of the about 13,000 TWs in Matlab have As concentrations above the Bangladesh drinking water standard (50 mu g/L). In order to minimize arsenic exposure, a work to provide various alternate safe drinking water options to the exposed population has been initiated. As of March 2004, about 1047 different alternate safe water options, such as Pond Sand Filter (PSF), Rainwater Harvester (RWH) and different filters to remove arsenic as well as pathogenic bacteria, were distributed among the targeted exposed population in Matlab. To ensure sustainable use, the provided options were assessed based on community acceptability, technical viability, and financial viability.

  • 197.
    Jarmander, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Sjöberg, Isabelle
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Ny utformning för gårdsbaserad biogasproduktion: En utvärdering ur material- och energisynpunkt2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energy and sustainable use of natural resources are two important aspects of sustainable development. Biogas production contributes to this since the gas is considered to be a renewable and non-fossil fuel. In addition, the production of biogas results in a nutrient- rich substance, called digestate. Biogas is produced at large-scale or at farm-level. However, large-scale production is the predominant approach, which means that most biogas techniques available are adapted to large biogas plants. For that reason, there is potential for development of farm-level biogas plants. On behalf of Gunnar Bech, chairman of the innovation group Innovationsverket in Gamleby, a new design of farm-based biogas plants has been studied. The purpose was to examine whether the design has potential to be more optimal than existing farm-based biogas plants with comparable size and capacity. The study was focusing on material consumption and energy efficiency.

    Initially, an extensive literature review was carried out. The biology of the biogas process and important components of existing farm-based biogas plants are described in the review. Moreover, a model of the new design was constructed. This model comprised of six small digesters, each with a volume of 200 m3, which were placed in a building. The roof of the building was used for a solar power system with the aim to contribute to the heating requirement of the biogas plant. An external heat source in form of a pellets boiler covered the remaining heat demand. Based on this model, the thickness of insulation and the solar power system were dimensioned. Besides, the annual heating demand was calculated. All calculations were performed using the program Matlab and they were based on assumptions and simplifications. In order to evaluate the potential of the new design, similar calculations were made for a reference model, which represented an existing farm-based biogas plant with the same size and capacity.

    The results showed that the new design required more material compared to the reference model. Depending on the circumstances inside the digesters and the building, the new design required between 170-300 m3 more insulation than the reference model. Furthermore, the results indicated that it is advantageous from an energy point of view to place several small digesters inside an insulated building, provided that solar panels are installed on the roof. This was because the annual contribution from the external heat source decreased due to the solar panels. The results showed that the annual heat generated from the external heat source was 50-70 MWh lower compared to the reference model. However, the study showed that it was not optimal from an energy perspective to mount solar panels on the whole roof surface if the excess heat could not be utilized.

    On the basis of the results, the conclusion of the study was that the new design has potential to be a sustainable solution for farm-scale biogas production. The results indicated that the emissions of greenhouse gases were greater for the new design during the first years of operation compared to the reference model. On the other hand, the total amount of emissions was lower in a long-term perspective. After about 7 years, the new formation was better from an emission point of view compared to existing farm-based biogas plants. However, more studies are required to determine whether the design can be implemented or not. 

  • 198.
    Jarnehammar, Filip
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Development of an Energy Management System for HVDC Grids2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As demand for renewable energy sources increases so does the pressure exerted on the transmission grid. Variable sources strain the existing power lines and the control system needs to incorporate faster response times when redirecting power flow. Using HVDC grid technology multiple AC networks can be concatenated across longer distances. This creates op- portunity for solar- or wind power plants to be constructed further away from consumers. However this technology calls for a SCADA system being developed to bridge the gap between fast changing voltages throughout an HVDC grid and less frequent control rate of the underlying AC networks. This paper suggest an architecture where a centralised control system receives data from substation measurement units localised throughout the grid. A database and a GUI, created in Microsoft SQL Server and Zenon respectively, are developed in order to store, process and display the communicated information, such as voltages, currents and power flows. The control center would work on an update frequency of about one second up to a minute, thus being able to implement directions given by the AC grid control systems on the faster changing HVDC grid. The proposed architecture is applied to a real time simulation of an HVDC grid connected to multiple wind parks and AC networks where events were displayed as expected. 

  • 199.
    Jarrige, Laure
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    What is the contribution of forecasts in the process of urban development and planning ?: Based on the case study of Montpellier urban area, France2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of three majors energetic and environmental issues enable a discussion on the decision and planning processes in Montpellier. This study has been realized within an engineering and consulting firm. A study project aiming at estimating the position of Montpellier in 2040 is the starting point.The first issue considers climate change forecasts. Close to the Mediterranean Sea, Montpellier may suffer from drought and flooding. The second issue deals with the political vision of Montpellier, both its identity and projects. The third one assesses local energetic potential which is found to be significant.In the discussion the first reflexion proposes a diagram of environmental data, from scientists to politicians and practical urban projects. The multiplicity of actors may threaten consistency. The second reflexion deals with the mutual influence between forecasts and practice. Regulations appear as a strong frame for both, but public participation may gain influence and change current practice.Comparisons with other countries and governance infrastructure would bring interesting reflexions.

  • 200.
    Jennifer, Engström
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Att inkludera klimatpåverkan som miljö aspekt i MKB med ett livscykelperspektiv2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
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