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  • 151.
    Gontier, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Biodiversity in environmental assessment: current practice and tools for prediction2006Inngår i: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 268-286Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity. Environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are essential instruments used in physical planning to address such problems. Yet there are no well-developed methods for quantifying and predicting impacts of fragmentation on biodiversity. In this study, a literature review was conducted on GIS-based ecological models that have potential as prediction tools for biodiversity assessment. Further, a review of environmental impact statements for road and railway projects from four European countries was performed, to study how impact prediction concerning biodiversity issues was addressed. The results of the study showed the existing gap between research in GIS-based ecological modelling and current practice in biodiversity assessment within environmental assessment.

  • 152.
    Gontier, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Eggers, Sönke
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Lindström, Åke
    Department of Ecology, Lund University.
    Modelling habitat preferences and differences in two Parus species in an urbanising region2008Inngår i: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 153.
    Gontier, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Comparing GIS-based habitat models for applications in EIA and SEA2010Inngår i: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 8-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use changes. urbanisation and infrastructure developments in particular. cause fragmentation of natural habitats and threaten biodiversity. Tools and measures must be adapted to assess and remedy the potential effects on biodiversity caused by human activities and developments. Within physical planning, environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) play important roles in the prediction and assessment of biodiversity-related impacts from planned developments. However, adapted prediction tools to forecast and quantify potential impacts on biodiversity components are lacking. This study tested and compared four different CIS-based habitat models and assessed their relevance for applications in environmental assessment. The models were implemented in the Stockholm region in central Sweden and applied to data on the crested tit (Parus cristatus), a sedentary bird species of coniferous forest. All four models performed well and allowed the distribution of suitable habitats for the crested tit in the Stockholm region to be predicted. The models were also used to predict and quantify habitat loss for two regional development scenarios. The study highlighted the importance of model selection in impact prediction. Criteria that are relevant for the choice of model for predicting impacts on biodiversity were identified and discussed. Finally, the importance of environmental assessment for the preservation of biodiversity within the general frame of biodiversity conservation is emphasised.

  • 154.
    Gu, Zhenhong
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Approaches to energy efficient building development: studying under Chinese contexts2007Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a general description of approaches to energy efficient building development under Chinese contexts. The purpose of the work is to discuss how Chinese building development can be approved from an energy saving perspective.

    Building development is a complicated process that relates to many stakeholders’ interests. The developed countries have studied in this field extensively for several decades. Generally, the approaches to energy saving can be set at three levels: administration, construction industry and architectural design. More new strict codes for energy efficient buildings are being issued for enforcement. At the same time, many research institutes have developed Building Environmental Assessment (BEA) methods, where energy efficiency is an important factor in the models. Various technical solutions for energy efficiency are developed as well.

    The administrative approaches are not the main objective discussed in the thesis, though the importance of them is undeniable. BEA systems are not only assessment methods, but also market-based stimulating approaches for sustainability of construction market. Technical methods have been developed for a long period. Passive House and Low Exergy (LowEx) Systems are two representative examples in European countries.

    All of these approaches are relatively unfamiliar to Chinese architects and developers, let alone their effect and applicability. The thesis tries to analyse this situation and their applicability within Chinese context.

    In China to a certain project, the importance of technical issues is relatively recognized. However, a few successful individual cases in technique can not change the reality that most of new building development has failed in energy efficiency in China. This is a serious situation when China is in an enormous expansion phase in building new houses. The thesis tries to discuss the reasons for this phenomenon. One reason could be that the stakeholders in the developing process are not aware of the importance of collaboration which is the only method to get “Both Win” according to Game theory. The thesis discusses a paradigm to replace two traditional linear paradigms in building developing process. Architects should act as coordinators of different stakeholders rather than technical supporters.

    The thesis tries to discuss the propositional route of developing energy efficient buildings. Technical approaches are basic research, which presents the concepts that have been proved realizable; BEA encourages developers to develop more energy efficient buildings for economic benefit, which will make good demonstrations for whole market; national laws and policies are final approaches, which ensure that every project will have good performance of energy efficiency. When the old standardization and legislation are finished, a new cycle will begin with more advanced techniques.

    China government has started the progress to enhance energy efficiency. However, this process will be tough and slow. The thesis discusses Chinese special conditions and the problems that cry out for solution in the future.

  • 155.
    Gu, Zhenhong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Sun, Qie
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Impact of urban residences on energy consumption and carbon emissions: An investigation in Nanjing, China2013Inngår i: Sustainable Cities and Society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 7, s. 52-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analysed the energy consumption of urban households in Nanjing and the influencing factors in this energy consumption. The households studied were located in three urban districts of Nanjing: the city centre, a spontaneous residential area around the old city, and a planned satellite town. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on building characteristics, household characteristics, use of domestic appliances, and fuel oil consumption. Energy use was analysed by conversion into CO2 emissions. The study found that household use and transport were the two main contributors to domestic energy consumption. Household electricity consumption showed obvious seasonal characteristics (higher in summer than in other seasons), while transport energy consumption showed geographical characteristics (the old town had lowest transport energy consumption). Highly efficient devices may not render buildings more energy-efficient, so architects should seek to reduce the need for such devices. Energy consumption and income were generally positively correlated. Family structure also influenced energy consumption, with high-income families and small families consuming more energy per capita. Economic and social factors were found to be equally important to technical factors for energy efficiency. Based on the findings, some possible policies are recommended.

  • 156.
    Gu, Zhenhong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Vestbro, Dick Urban
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Bebyggelseanalys.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    A study of Chinese strategies for energy-efficient housing developments from an architect's perspective, combined with Swedish experiences and game theory2009Inngår i: Civil engineering and environmental systems (Print), ISSN 1028-6608, E-ISSN 1029-0249, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 323-338Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy issue is always an important factor in sustainable housing developments. Over the years, a number of energy-saving techniques have been developed to reduce consumption of primary energy and utilise renewable energy in architectural designs. However, the real situation regarding energy-efficient buildings has improved rather slowly during the recent decades, both in the developing and developed countries. Hammarby Sjostad is one of the largest urban housing developments in Europe but is built to standards twice as strict as those currently being applied for new housing, including energy consumption. Eco-villages are small-scale housing developments, usually in the suburbs, where residents also try to create highly specific ecological environments. There are two basic paradigms to solve the current housing problem: top-down (provider paradigm) or bottom-up (support paradigm). This paper analyses the differences between these, especially from an energy efficiency perspective. Housing development is a gaming process between diverse stakeholders. All the stakeholders try to choose different actions in an attempt to maximise their returns. If the proposals made by the architects and engineers are not consistent with the interests of other stakeholders, they have little chance of being applied in actual projects. This paper describes systematic development strategies for the energy-efficient housing project Jun Lin Zijin, a Chinese residential and commercial project furthering the progress of design and construction.

  • 157.
    Gu, Zhenhong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Wang, Xiangjun
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Dong, Wei
    Southeast University, Nanjing.
    Sustainability assessment of residential areas and sustainable building design in China2005Inngår i: The 3rd International Conference of the International Society Ecology, 2005, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 158.
    Gu, Zhenhong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Comparison of two methods energy efficient houses: implemental discussion in China2006Inngår i: The 10th International Conference on Passive Houses, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 159.
    Gu, Zhenhong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Analysis of the most widely used building environmental assessment methods2006Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 175-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Environmental Assessment (BEA) is a term used for several methods for environmental assessment of the building environment. Generally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important foundation and part of the BEA method, but current BEA methods form more comprehensive tools than LCA. Indicators and weight assignments are the two most important factors characterizing BEA. From the comparison of the three most widely used BEA methods, EcoHomes (BREEAM for residential buildings), LEED-NC and GBTool, it can be seen that BEA methods are shifting from ecological, indicator-based scientific systems to more integrated systems covering ecological, social and economic categories. Being relatively new methods, current BEA systems are far from perfect and are under continuous development. The further development of BEA methods will focus more on non-ecological indicators and how to promote implementation. Most BEA methods are developed based on regional regulations and LCA methods, but they do not attempt to replace these regulations. On the contrary, they try to extend implementation by incentive programmes. There are several ways to enhance BEA in the future: expand the studied scope from design levels to whole life-cycle levels of constructions, enhance international cooperation, accelerate legislation and standardize and develop user-oriented assessment systems.

  • 160.
    GUERRA DHEMING, DANIEL
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik. Ecole des Mines de Nantes.
    MEXICO AND THE NORTHERN COUNTRIES INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES ON RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    ProMéxico is the Mexican Government institution in charge of strengthening Mexico’s participation in the international economy by supporting trade, direct investment in Mexico and the internationalization of Mexican Companies abroad. Funded by the Mexican Ministry of Economy with direct collaboration with the Mexican Foreign Embassy’s, there are 27 offices around the world. ProMéxico Stockholm oversees both the Nordic Countries and the Baltic Regions. 

    ProMéxico consulting services are mainly focused in promoting benefits and incentives of investment in Mexico, aiding in the decision-making with industry information, business plans, establishing Business-to-Business (B2B) partners, creating joint ventures, assessing in the soft-landing for establishing the company and finally reviewing the satisfaction as a after-care for future re-investments.

    According to the 2013–2027 National Energy Strategy published by the Federal Government Ministry of Energy, renewable energies are going to play a major role to achieve their main objectives: Energetic sustainability, environmental and energetic efficiency and Energy Security.  Additionally national private companies have adopted renewable energy sources for either economic benefits or social-environmental awareness.  For these reasons, ProMéxico Stockholm has developed a strategy to take advantage of the lower manufacturing cost of Mexico, the technological development of Scandinavia and the Mexican demand for Renewable Energies to create investment opportunities.  The basic strategy includes:

    • Review of the current energy sector and their roadmaps.
    • Identify possible renewable energy projects plans both for private and public sectors with the aid of different local and foreign government branches leaders, industry associations, representatives chambers of commerce and clients.
    • Establish B2B partners by promoting, attending or creating renewable energy seminars, conferences, trade fairs or direct contact.
    • Give a consultancy on technology and considerations to achieve project objectives.
    • Follow the development of the opportunity until its formalized.
    • Assess and inform the impediments found to create investment to policy makers for future reviews of incentives.

    The major challenge is to identify and coordinate all the different participants of the sector due to the lack of information of investment opportunities to foreign companies and the lack of communication between different Government Branches with the private sector

  • 161.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Att använda scenarier: förslag till långsiktigt miljömålsarbete2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 162.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Mwamila, Luhuvilo B.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Kergoat, Kevin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    The pH dependence of phosphate sorption and desorption in Swedish agricultural soils2012Inngår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 189, s. 304-311Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of previous studies have reported the existence of a minimum in phosphate solubility between pH 5.5 and 7 in non-calcareous soils. Different hypotheses have been forwarded to explain this phenomenon. In this study, ten soil samples with varying textures and phosphorus status were subjected to batch experiments in which dissolved phosphate was measured as a function of pH and phosphate load. Soil samples with more than 20% clay all had a minimum phosphate solubility between pH 6 and 7, whereas for samples with <10% clay, no such minimum was observed. Further experiments involving additions of phosphate and arsenate showed an increasing adsorption of these anions with decreasing pH also below pH 6 in clay soils, suggesting that the pH dependence on adsorption and desorption in short-term experiments was not the same. Kinetic experiments showed that the increased phosphate desorption at lower pH values in non-calcareous clay soils was a quick process, which is consistent with adsorption/desorption being the most important mechanism governing the retention and release of inorganic P. Moreover, by comparing extraction results with batch experiment results for samples from a long-term fertility experiment, it was concluded that more than 60% of the accumulated phosphate was occluded, i.e. not reactive within 6 days. Additional evidence for an important role of occluded phosphate comes from an analysis of the Freundlich sorption isotherms for the studied soils. It is hypothesized that interlayered hydroxy-Al and hydroxy-Fe polymers in clay minerals may be important for P dynamics in clay soils by trapping some of the P in an occluded form. The results also suggest that improved knowledge on the speciation and dynamics of phosphorus in soils is required for consistent mechanistically based modeling of phosphate sorption/desorption reactions.

  • 163.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Poll, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Phosphate removal by mineral-based sorbents used in filters for small-scale wastewater treatment2008Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 42, nr 1-2, s. 189-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mineral-based sorbents Filtra P, Polonite (R), natural wollastonite and water-cooled blast furnace slag (WCBFS) were studied in terms of their PO4 removal performance. Results from a long-term column experiment showed that both Filtra P and Polonite (R) removed > 95% of PO4 from the applied synthetic solution, and that the used filter materials had accumulated several (1.9-19) g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus was removed also by natural wollastonite and WCBFS, but these materials were less efficient. Batch experiments on the used materials showed that the solubility PO4 was considerably larger than the one expected for crystalline Ca phosphates such as hydroxyapatite, and results from investigations with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) on the Filtra P material showed that the formed P phase was not crystalline. These evidence suggest that a soluble amorphous tricalcium phosphate (ATCP) was formed in the mineral-based sorbents; the apparent solubility constant on dissolution was estimated to log K-s = -27.94 ( 0.31) at 21 degrees C. However, since only up to 18% of the accumulated PO4 was readily dissolved in the experiments, it cannot be excluded that part of the phosphorus had crystallized to slightly less soluble phases. In conclusion, Filtra P and Polonite are two promising mineral-based sorbents for phosphorus removal, and at least part of the accumulated phosphorus is present in a soluble form, readily available to plants.

  • 164.
    Gustafsson, Jon-Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Modelling metal sorption in soil2009Inngår i: Modelling of pollutants in complex environmental systems / [ed] Grady Hanrahan, St Albans: ILM Publications , 2009, 1, , s. 145-176Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 165.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, SE 581 95, Sweden.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, SE 581 95, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University, SE 221 00, Lund, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, SE 581 95, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christian
    Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, SE 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norman, Micheal
    Stockholm Environment and Health Administration, SLB-analys, SE 104 20, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Sjövall, Bill
    Stockholm Environment and Health Administration, SLB-analys, SE 104 20, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wilhelmsson, H
    VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, SE 581 95, Sweden.
    Particles in road and railroad tunnel air: properties, sources and abatement possibilities2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 166.
    Gårdestedt, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Plea, Mama
    Nilsson, Gertrud
    Jacks, Birgitta
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Zinc in Soils, Crops, and Meals in the Niger Inland Delta, Mali2009Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 334-338Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc deficiency is a problem in developing countries and not least so in Africa. This concerns both agriculture and human food provision. Zinc deficiency in soils may severely decrease yields, whereas insufficient zinc in food intake primarily affects the immune defense, notably in children. The present investigation concerned zinc availability in soils, crops, and food in the Niger inland delta in Mali. Agricultural soils are largely deficient in plant-available zinc, however, soils in close vicinity to habitation show elevated zinc concentrations. The zinc concentrations in crops are low; in rice, they are about half of reference ranges. Zinc intake assessed from a number of sampled meals was about half the recommended requirement. When zinc concentration is higher phytate was also high, which made the zinc less available. In spite of a recorded sufficient intake of iron, anemia is common and is most likely because of the high phytate concentration in the cereal-dominated diet. Increasing zinc and iron availability would be possible through the use of malting, fermentation, and soaking in food preparation. Finally, in the long run, any trace element deficiency, especially that of zinc in agricultural soils needs to be amended by addition of appropriate amounts in commercial fertilizers.

  • 167.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Remote sensing of bidecadal urbanization and its impact on ecosystem service in the yangtze river delta2013Inngår i: Proceedings of Dragon 2 Final Results & Dragon 3 Kick-Off Symposium: 25-29 June 2012, Beijing, P.R. China, ESA Communications , 2013, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The degree of urbanization and resulting effects on Ecosystem Services is investigated in the Yangtze River Delta in China within a 20 year time frame from 1990 to 2010. A Random forest classifier is used to classify the Landsat mosaic from 1990 and the HJ-1A/B mosaic dating from 2010. Urban Land Index (UI) and Urban Expansion Index (UX) are used to represent the intensity and rapidity of urbanization. Post-Classification Change Detection is then performed and Ecosystem Service value losses for the land-cover classes water, wetland, forest and cropland that transitioned to urban areas are calculated according to a valuation scheme adapted to the Chinese market. The results showed that Yangtze River Delta experienced significant urbanization during 1990 to 2010. Urban areas increased alongside a major decrease in cropland resulting in a substantial loss of 4.2 billion CNY in Ecosystem Services.

  • 168.
    Hallberg, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Suspended solids and metals in highway runoff: implications for treatment systems2006Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that traffic is a source of pollutants and that pollutant loads increase with elevated traffic densities. Studies executed in Stockholm, Sweden advocate that highway runoff from roads with an annual average daily traffic (AADT) exceeding 30,000 vehicles need treatment before discharge to the receiving water. It is common knowledge that sedimentation is the most expedient method for stormwater treatment. However, sedimentation units are area demanding and in highly urbanised watersheds the land use is often restricted. Studies have implied the occurrence of first flush, i.e. an initially higher pollutant load in the beginning of the runoff event, in highway watersheds. With an emphasized first flush it would be possible to treat only a part of the total runoff volume reducing the area needed for a sedimentation basin. In general two methods are used to design stormwater treatment ponds. One method is based on the reduced catchment area and pond surface and the other is based on an average runoff volume and a permanent pond volume. The methods are relaying on data from routine monitoring of various treatment systems and suggest removal efficiencies for pollutants. Applying general removal efficiencies for design it can be intricate to estimate an outlet concentration when the specific removal efficiency may be dependent on the initial concentration of the pollutant. Consequently, knowledge of the removal efficiencies dependence on initial concentration would be helpful to optimise stormwater treatment systems. This research has studied runoff from highly trafficated watersheds. The aim has been to evaluate the mass transport, stormwater quality and sedimentation behaviour and their implications for stormwater treatment. The study sites, Eugenia and Fredhäll, are located along the six-lane highway E4 through Stockholm that has an AADT load of 120,000 vehicles and a speed limit of 70 km/h. In lack of a unified definition of first flush the mass transport was studied using the EU directive 1991/271/EEC discharge demand for TSS of 60 mg/l. It was found that for the majority of the runoff events during winter the event mean concentration exceeded 60 mg/l suggesting that the complete runoff volume should be captured during winter. The dissolved concentration of metals showed significant variations between winter and summer, as did the concentration in the particulate matter (mg/kg). It was possible to correlate total metal concentration to total suspended solids with good correlation (r2 >0.90) for the majority of studied metals in winter and summer. The findings would imply that a successful treatment of the studied metal pollutants could be carried out by sedimentation. However, depending on discharge criteria, the elevated levels of dissolved matter, especially during winter, have to be considered with regards to the selection of the appropriate water treatment process. The sedimentation process could be described by a logarithmical function and initial turbidity. Good correlation (r2 >0.90) was indicated between turbidity and TSS. The sedimentation process of the studied highway runoff varied significantly (p<0.05) when elevated levels of NaCl could be found in the runoff. A significant difference (p<0.05) was shown for turbidity and TSS between summer and winter, which was assumed to be related to the use of studded tires. This study implies that the entire runoff volume must be treated and that the use of first flush as a design criterion is less applicable for the winter period. The study implies good correlation between total metal concentration and TSS. In addition the indicated correlation between turbidity and TSS would point to the possibility to use turbidity as a surrogate measurement for TSS and the studied metals. Moreover, the possibility to describe the sedimentation process by the initial concentration of turbidity would infer the utilisation of turbidity as a tool for process control for stormwater treatment systems. In addition, the novel results for the dependence on the sedimentation process could be incorporated in existing models for design of stormwater treatment systems in similar watersheds.

  • 169.
    Hallberg, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Treatment conditions for the removal of contaminants from road runoff2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The pollutant load in road runoff is related to traffic densities and road maintenance activities. Inurbanised areas treatment of road runoff is common and often considered necessary. The pollutantsare partitioned between the particulate and dissolved matter. However, the contaminantstend to have an affinity to the particulate material. Sedimentation, the predominant treatmentmethod for road runoff uses various types of ponds. Design tools used for stormwater treatmentsystems are based on extensive data from existing treatment systems. The variations in the empiricaldata make it difficult when attempting to evaluate precise conditions for pollutant removaland thereby minimising the land use for a treatment facility. This is a concern in highly urbanisedareas where land use often is restricted.In this work, field studies were conducted in three separate watersheds along the same motorwaywith an annual average daily traffic exceeding 120,000 vehicles. The aim was to assess treatmentconditions for the removal of contaminants from road runoff.The study of mass transport of total suspended solids used the EU Directive (1991/271/EEC)discharge requirement for urban wastewater treatment: 60 mg/l during winter and summer. Theresults showed that a capture of the total runoff volume was necessary during both seasons. Tenmetals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), as dissolved and particulate bound, werestudied in the road runoff during a winter season and the following summer period. The dissolvedpart of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni was significantly higher in winter. The mass concentration(mg/kg) for all metals was significantly higher over the summer except for Al and Co, whichshowed a higher mass concentration during the winter. The total metal concentration showed agood correlation to total suspended solids (TSS) during winter with exception for Cd. Good correlationto TSS was also found for the summer period for Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn. A simplemodel could describe sedimentation by the initial concentration of TSS, albeit road salt (NaCl)had a significant impact on the sedimentation process during winter. Removal of dissolved metalswas studied by column experiments using water granulated blast furnace slag. The result showedgood removal for Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn independent of NaCl concentrations. Sediment accumulation(mg sediment/mm precipitation) was relatively consistent for the studied summer seasons asopposed to winter. The sediment differed in metal mass concentrations (mg/kg) between theseasons. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were high in regard to the guidelines for sensitivity ofsediment dwelling organisms and Swedish guidelines for contaminated soils.The findings suggest that the entire runoff volume must be captured for treatment. The reductionof TSS concentration could be estimated for a specific surface load (m/h). This would alsoapply for majority of the studied metals that correlated well to the particulate material. Reactivefilter technology using water granulated blast furnace slag could be applied for treatment of runofffor the reduction of dissolved metals. However, long-term studies are necessary for its practicalimplementation. Furthermore; the work shows that on-line turbidity measurements could beused for expedient process control for treatment facilities in similar watersheds dominated byroads. The work could be used together with existing design methods and models to evaluate andoptimise road runoff treatment.

  • 170.
    Hallberg, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Reman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Treatment of road runoff with sedimentation: estimation of total suspended solids removal and the effect of seasonal conditionsManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 171.
    Hallberg, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Assessment of solid matter removal by sedimentation in highway runoffManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 172.
    Hallberg, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Assessment of suspended solids concentration in highway runoff and its treatment implication2006Inngår i: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 27, nr 9, s. 945-950Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is understood that the major pollution from storm water is related to the content of particulate matter. One treatment practice is based on the first flush, i.e. detention of the initial part of the runoff that is considered to contain the highest concentrations of pollutants, This study has evaluated the concentration of total suspended solids in 30 consecutive runoff events during the winter season for an area of 6.7 hectares. A six-lane highway (E4) that has an annual average daily traffic load of 120,000 dominates the area and road de-icing salt (NaCl) and studded tires were in regular use during the studied period. The effluent standard for wastewater of 60 mg TSS per litre applied in EU was used to assess the treatment requirement of storm water. In only two of the events the event mean concentration was below 60 mg V. In four runoff events a partial event mean concentration below 60 mg l(-1) was found, in 26 %, 12 %, 11 %, and 2 % respectively of the runoff volume. This would suggest that a capture of the initial part of the runoff for subsequent treatment is less applicable in this type of urban watershed.

  • 173.
    Hallberg, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Removal of heavy metals from road runoff by filtration in granular slag columnsManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 174.
    Hallberg, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Seasonal generation and characteristics of sediment in a stormwater pondManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 175.
    Hallberg, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Treatment of polluted road run-off water: Problems and possibilities2004Inngår i: Annals of Warsaw Agricultural University / Land Reclamation, ISSN 0208-5771, nr 35, s. 55-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal aspects for conventional water production and treatment are clearly defined and not ambiguous. This is not the case for handling and treatment of run-off water. In the EU directive 1991/271/EEC run-off water is defined as sewage water. The EU Water Directive refers to 1991/271/EEC and points to run-off water as a pollutant source for ground water. Elevated levels of pollutant can be found in run-off water from catchment areas with dense traffic loads. Depending on road maintenance, use of studded tires, type of pavement, traffic flow, velocity, type of vehicle, residential and industrial areas, tunnels the degree of mobility of the pollutants will vary in the ambient air and the run-off water. An aspect that only to some extent has been elaborated on is the influence of pavement types and its wear with regard to the mobility of the pollutants. A treatment technique commonly used in many countries is storm water ponds. The pollutant removal efficiency varies for different ponds, due to different specific pond areas, i.e. pond area in relation to catchment area. Ponds act as sedimentation basins, collecting particles and bounded pollutants. However, the solute transport of e.g. heavy metals should be trapped by other means. For that purpose a filtration unit has been developed and tested in Sweden.

  • 176.
    Hallberg, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Lundbom, T
    Vägverket.
    Seasonal variations of ten metals in highway runoff and their partition between dissolved and particulate matter2007Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 181, nr 1-4, s. 183-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of differentiation of pollutants in urban runoff between dissolved and particulate matter is of great concern for a successful design of a water treatment process. Seasonal variations in pollutant load are of equal importance. Ten metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), as dissolved and particulate bound, was studied in the runoff from a major urban highway during a winter season and its following summer. Studded tyres and winter salting were expected to have an impact on the runoff water quality. The dissolved part of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn and Ni was significantly higher in winter in comparison with summer (p < 0.01). For Fe, however, the dissolved part was lower during winter. No significant difference was found for Cu, Pb and Zn between the two seasons. The mass concentration (mg kg(-1)) for all metals was significantly higher over the summer except for Al and Co, which showed a higher mass concentration during the winter. The concentration of selected metals vs. total suspended solids (TSS) showed a linear relationship (r(2)> 0.95) during winter runoff events except for Cd. A good correlation (r (2)> 0.90) was also found for the summer period for Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn. It is suggested that the metal pollutant load during winter could be assessed indirectly by measurement of TSS.

  • 177.
    Hamisi, Rajabu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Performance of an On-Site Wastewater Treatment System Using Reactive Filter Media and a Sequencing Batch Constructed Wetland2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 11, artikkel-id UNSP 3172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many on-site wastewater treatment systems, such as soil treatment systems, are not sustainable in terms of purification efficiency, nutrient recycling potential, and economics. In this case study, a sequencing batch constructed wetland (SBCW) was designed and added after a package treatment plant (PTP) using reactive filter media for phosphorus (P) removal and recycling. The treatment performance of the entire system in the start-up phase and its possible applicability in rural areas were investigated. Raw and treated effluents were sampled during a period of 25 weeks and analyzed for nitrogen, phosphorus, BOD7, and bacteria. Field measurements were made of wastewater flow, electrical conductivity, oxygen, and temperature. The entire system removed total-P and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) by 83% and 22%, respectively. High salt concentration and very low wastewater temperature were possible reasons for these unexpectedly low P and TIN removal efficiencies. In contrast, removal rates of bacteria (Escherichia coli, enterococci) and organic matter (as BOD) were high, due to filtration in the alkaline medium Polonite((R)) (Ecofiltration Nordic AB, Stockholm, Sweden) and the fine sand used as SBCW substrate. High pH in effluent from the PTP was efficiently reduced to below pH 9 in the SBCW, meeting recommendations by environmental authorities in Sweden. We concluded that treating cold on-site wastewater can impair treatment performance and that technical measures are needed to improve SBCW performance.

  • 178. Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Petersson, Mona
    Quin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Governance of Water Resources in the Phase of Change: A Case Study of the Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden2011Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 210-220Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, focusing on the ongoing implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, we analyze some of the opportunities and challenges for a sustainable governance of water resources from an ecosystem management perspective. In the face of uncertainty and change, the ecosystem approach as a holistic and integrated management framework is increasingly recognized. The ongoing implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) could be viewed as a reorganization phase in the process of change in institutional arrangements and ecosystems. In this case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District, Sweden, we focus in particular on data and information management from a multi-level governance perspective from the local stakeholder to the River Basin level. We apply a document analysis, hydrological mapping, and GIS models to analyze some of the institutional framework created for the implementation of the WFD. The study underlines the importance of institutional arrangements that can handle variability of local situations and trade-offs between solutions and priorities on different hierarchical levels.

  • 179. Hang, Jian
    et al.
    Sandberg, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Li, Yuguo
    Effect of urban morphology on wind condition in idealized city models2009Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 869-878Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind conditions in urban environments are important for a number Of reasons. They can serve to out of the urban environment and to moderate urban microclimatic conditions if transport air Pollutants satisfactory, yet can compromise pedestrian comfort and safety if not. We aim to study experimentally and numerically the effects of urban morphology (e.g., overall city form (skyline), street orientation, and street configuration) on wind conditions in cities. This report considers our initial investigations of two idealized city forms that are coincidentally similar to ancient Roman cities that were organized On One OF two primary streets - a main north-south street, the cardus maximus, and a secondary east-west street, the decumanus maximus - and contained within a well-defined perimeter. We first consider round and square city models with one main street set parallel to the approaching wind and a secondary street producing an intersection at city centre. Not Surprisingly, wind conditions in the two city models are dissimilar due to their shape differences. We then consider a long rectangular city model with a fully developed steady flow region along the main street. If the main street of the round city model is narrow, the parallel approaching wind cannot blow through the entire street and a penetrating inflow exists at the leeward opening. For the Found city model with two crossing streets, a slightly non-parallel wind to the main Street generates a stronger wind level in the entire street volume, Crown.

  • 180. Hang, Jian
    et al.
    Sandberg, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Li, Yuguo
    Claesson, Leif
    Pollutant dispersion in idealized city models with different urban morphologies2009Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, nr 38, s. 6011-6025Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism of pollutant dispersion in idealized city models is investigated numerically by the introduction of a uniformly distributed pollutant source at street pedestrian level. We first study three short city forms with a single main street or two crossing streets, characterized by street length/street height ratios of L/H = 6 or 7 and a street height/street width ratio of H/W = 1, including a sharp-edged round city model, a smooth-edged round city model, and a sharp-edged square city model. For short city models with a single street and a parallel approaching wind, pollutant dilution mainly depends on the horizontal flow rate which decreases along the street. This decreasing rate is smallest for the smooth-edged round city model, which results in the lowest street concentrations. For city models with two crossing streets and the approaching wind parallel to the main street. the differences in overall city form result in different dispersion processes. For a sharp-edged round city model with two crossing streets, an approaching wind slightly non-parallel to the main street generates a lower pollutant concentration in the entire street volume. We also studied a sharp-edged round city model with one narrow street (L/H = 6: H/W = 6.7), finding that the uniformly distributed pollutants are transported from two street entries to the city centre, and are then removed out across the street roof. In contrast to the short city models we studied a single-street sharp-edged long rectangular city model (L/H = 21.7; H/W = 1) in which the horizontal flow rate remained nearly constant in a region far from the two entries. Within this region the turbulence across the street roof contributed more to the pollutant removal than vertical mean flows.

  • 181.
    Hansson, Julia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Climate & Sustainable Cities, Energy, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Mech & Maritime Sci, Maritime Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Berndes, Goran
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mazzaro de Freitas, Flavio Luiz
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Soil Sci, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil..
    How is biodiversity protection influencing the potential for bioenergy feedstock production on grasslands?2019Inngår i: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 517-538Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable feedstock supply is a critical issue for the bioenergy sector. One concern is that feedstock production will impact biodiversity. We analyze how this concern is addressed in assessments of biomass supply potentials and in selected governance systems in the EU and Brazil, including the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED), the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and the Brazilian Forest Act. The analysis focuses on grasslands and includes estimates of the amount of grassland area (and corresponding biomass production volume) that would be excluded from cultivation in specific biodiversity protection scenarios. The reviewed assessments used a variety of approaches to identify and exclude biodiverse grasslands as unavailable for bioenergy. Because exclusion was integrated with other nature protection considerations, quantification of excluded grassland areas was often not possible. The RED complements and strengthens the CAP in terms of biodiversity protection. Following the RED, an estimated 39%-48% (about 9-11 Mha) and 15%-54% (about 10-38 Mha) of natural and non-natural grassland, respectively, may be considered highly biodiverse in EU-28. The estimated biomass production potential on these areas corresponds to some 1-3 and 1.5-10 EJ/year for natural and non-natural grassland, respectively (depending on area availability and management intensity). However, the RED lacks clear definitions and guidance, creating uncertainty about its influence on grassland availability for bioenergy feedstock production. For Brazil, an estimated 16%-77% (about 16-76 Mha) and 1%-32% (about 7-24 Mha) of natural and non-natural grassland, respectively, may be considered highly biodiverse. In Brazil, ecological-economic zoning was found potentially important for grassland protection. Further clarification of grassland definitions and delineation in regulations will facilitate a better understanding of the prospects for bioenergy feedstock production on grasslands, and the impacts of bioenergy deployment on biodiversity.

  • 182.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Data- och systemvetenskap, DSV.
    Danielson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Data- och systemvetenskap, DSV.
    Ekenberg, Love
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Data- och systemvetenskap, DSV.
    A framework for evaluation of flood management strategies2008Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 86, nr 3, s. 465-480Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The resulting impact of disasters on society depends on the affected country's economic strength prior to the disaster. The larger the disaster and the smaller the economy, the more significant is the impact. This is clearest seen in developing countries, where weak economics become even weaker afterwards. Deliberate strategies for the sharing of losses from hazardous events may aid a country or a community in efficiently using scarce prevention and mitigation resources, thus being better prepared for the effects of a disaster. Nevertheless, many governments lack an adequate institutional system for applying cost effective and reliable technologies for disaster prevention, early warnings, and mitigation. Modelling by event analyses and strategy models is one way of planning ahead, but these models have so far not been linked together. An approach to this problem was taken during a large study in Hungary, the Tisza case study, where a number of policy strategies for spreading of flood loss were formulated. In these strategies, a set of parameters of particular interest were extracted from interviews with stakeholders in the region. However, the study was focused on emerging economies, and, in particular, on insurance strategies. The scope is now extended to become a functional framework also for developing countries. In general, they have a higher degree of vulnerability. The paper takes northern Vietnam as an example of a developing region. We identify important parameters and discuss their importance for flood strategy formulations. Based on the policy strategies in the Tisza case, we extract data from the strategies and propose a framework for loss spread in developing and emerging economics. The parameter set can straightforwardly be included in a simulation and decision model for policy formulation and evaluation, taking multiple stakeholders into account.

  • 183.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Model for End of Life Treatment of Polymer Composite Materials2005Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of increasing environmental demands, especially on dealing with products end of life phase, product manufacturers and designers must consider the future disposal of their products. For conventional materials like steel and aluminium well-functioning recycling methods exists. This is not the case for structures of polymer composites, which are used more extensively, especially for structures like vehicles and vessels. Several techniques do exist but they are not yet commercially available. The current disposal methods of polymer composites are landfill and incineration.

    Polymer composites are materials, which consist of several materials like fibre, matrix, and additives. In the form of sandwich constructions also foam core material is added. This circumstance complicates the waste treatment of composite materials. In this thesis a model for assessing possible future waste treatment techniques for polymer composites including sandwich structures is presented. The model is meant to be used as an aid for preparing future disposal for end of life products for planning waste treatment and for facilitating communication in contacts with waste receivers.

    Recommendations for waste treatment have been formed for a number of polymer composites. These recommendations are based on the analysis of costs and environmental effects and they compare different scenarios for mechanical material recycling and energy recovery by waste incineration. The result of this study points out material recycling as the preferable method for the main part of the studied materials. But this recommendation is strongly dependent on type of virgin material replaced by the recycled material. Energy recovery can also be considered if the polymer composite waste replaces coal, which is non renewable. Though incineration will always result in a cost for the waste producer.

    In the recommendations mentioned above no information concerning implementation of the different waste disposal techniques is included. Therefore, in this study a model for assessing possible waste disposal techniques for polymer composites is presented. The model is based on internal factors, which are related to the waste and to the processes. To implement the model relevant waste properties must be identified in order to fulfil the conditions set by the required processes involved.

    A case study was carried out using the proposed model for assessing different waste disposal techniques for the hull of the Visby Class Corvette in the Royal Swedish Navy. Six different techniques were studied for the hull structure. Since almost all the important waste properties were known and the waste was assessed to be treatable all the included techniques except one are shown to be usable in the future.

    Many investigations have pointed out material recycling as the best alternative considering environmental effects. This is also valid for polymer composite materials. Since recycling polymer composites is a complicated process, especially recycling thermoset composite it is important to aquire comprehensive information about the constituents of these materials.

  • 184.
    Hilty, Lorenz M
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Aebischer, Bernard
    ICT Innovations for Sustainability2015Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 185.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    et al.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Aebischer, Bernard
    Rizzoli, Andrea E.
    Modeling and evaluating the sustainability of smart solutions2014Inngår i: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, s. 1-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart technologies provide diverse and promising opportunities to reduce energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions; they are increasingly expected to shift modern societies' patterns of production and consumption towards sustainability. However, the existence of a theoretical potential does not imply that every smart solution (application of a smart technology) will contribute to sustainability. Policy-makers are therefore in need of methodologies to evaluate the sustainability of smart solutions. This paper gives an overview of the current discussion in the field and the emerging methodological challenges. The challenges of assessing the direct impact of the ICT components and infrastructures are special cases of known issues in life cycle assessment methodology. The challenges of assessing indirect impacts are inherently interdisciplinary and call for integrated modelling approaches. The last two sections provide an overview of the papers assembled in this thematic issue that treat specific cases and general principles of modeling and evaluating the sustainability of smart solutions.

  • 186.
    Hischier, Roland
    et al.
    Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland).
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland).
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); University of Zürich, Department of Informatics, Zürich (Switzerland).
    Evaluating the sustainability of electronic media: Strategies for life cycle inventory data collection and their implications for LCA results2014Inngår i: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, s. 27-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares two Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies independently carried out to assess the environmental impacts of electronic versus print media. Although the two studies lead to the same overall conclusion for the case of a news magazine namely that the tablet version of the magazine has environmental advantages over the print version there are significant differences in the details of the LCA results. We show how these differences can be explained by differences in the methodological approaches used for life cycle inventory (LCI) modelling, in particular the use of rough average data versus the attempt to use the most specific and detailed data as possible. We conclude that there are several issues in LCA practice (at least when applied in the domain of media) that can significantly influence the results already at the LCI level: The data collection strategy used (e.g. relying on desk-based research or dismantling a given device) and the decisions made at inventory level with regard to parameters with significant geographic variability, such as the electricity mix or recycling quotas.

  • 187.
    Hischier, Roland
    et al.
    Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Coroama, Vlad C.
    Measure-IT Research, Bucharest, Romania.
    Schien, Daniel
    Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, UK.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Grey Energy and Environmental Impacts of ICT Hardware2015Inngår i: ICT Innovations for Sustainability / [ed] Lorenz M. Hilty, Bernard Aebischer, Switzerland: Springer, 2015, s. 171-189Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct energy consumption of ICT hardware is only “half the story.” In order to get the “whole story,” energy consumption during the entire life cycle has to be taken into account. This chapter is a first step toward a more comprehensive picture, showing the “grey energy” (i.e., the overall energy requirements) as well as the releases (into air, water, and soil) during the entire life cycle of exemplary ICT hardware devices by applying the life cycle assessment method. The examples calculated show that a focus on direct energy consumption alone fails to take account of relevant parts of the total energy consumption of ICT hardware as well as the relevance of the production phase. As a general tendency, the production phase is more and more important the smaller (and the more energy-efficient) the devices are. When in use, a tablet computer is much more energy-efficient than a desktop computer system with its various components, so its production phase has a much greater relative importance. Accordingly, the impacts due to data transfer when using Internet services are also increasingly relevant the smaller the end-user device is, reaching up to more than 90 % of the overall impact when using a tablet computer.

  • 188.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ovaskainen, Mari
    Nors, Minna
    Koskimäki, Asko
    Environmental performance of Alma Media's online and print products2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Alma media ordered a research study from VTT and Centre for Sustainable Communications (CESC) at KTH, in order to evaluate the environmental performance of specific Alma Media products. The report covers the results of the life cycle assessments for printed newspapers; Aamulehti, Iltalehti and Kauppalehti as well as online newspapers; Aamulehti.fi, Iltalehti.fi and Kauppalehti.fi. With the help of a life cycle assessment the potential environmental impacts related to a defined product life cycle is evaluated, taking into account raw material acquisition, production, use, and endof-life treatment. Thus, various kinds of environmental impacts were considered.The results indicate that the environmental performance of printed and online versions of Alma Media’s newspapers includes different types of environmental impacts, and that these are distributed differently in the value chain and geographically. The majority of the impacts of printed newspapers occur from paper and printing manufacturing, which are located in Finland. On the other hand, environmental impacts related to online newspapers are to a large extent dependent on the manufacturing of electronic devices used for reading the online content. These impacts occur in other countries and at the suppliers not directly related to Alma Media. With few readers of the online versions the content production may also be a considerable part of the overall potential environmental impact. The actions to take towards improvements will need to be different related to the value chain. Furthermore, Alma Media as a media company can have a key role in sharing environmental information in order to improve user practices and stakeholder practices along the value chain. The study covered a number of environmental impacts, which was important because the environmental impacts for online and printed newspapers were clearly different. The study also pointed out the importance in being careful when assessing impact categories where there may be substantial data gaps and where there are greater uncertainties related to the assessment of impacts, e.g. toxicity impact categories. Comparisons between print and online versions are not simple, as print and online versions provide different types of information and the readers use them in different ways. Furthermore, the printed and online newspapers from Alma Media may not replace each other, but rather complement each other which can mean adding up environmental impacts from printed and online versions. The functional unit chosen is very decisive regarding the environmental performance of printed and online media, if they are to be related to each other. Using different kinds of perspectives through functional units gives more information and increased knowledge.

  • 189.
    Hultkrantz, Martina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    An overview on the environmental impacts of synthetic leather made of hemp fiber with preliminary lifecycle assessment2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers a preliminary life cycle assessment (LCA) on imitation leather made from hemp fiber (hemp leather) and a comparison to bovine leather, to examine whether hemp leather is an environmentally sustainable alternative. The bovine leather industry is responsible for heavy chemical use and emissions, detrimental effects to the environment as well as to human health. The United Nations (UN) and other organizations call for immediate action against the animal product industry sector to greatly reduce emissions and protect the environment. Hemp is a versatile plant that can be used for many things, including paper, composites, textiles, food and medicine, and is probably a suitable material for imitation leather. The hemp plant requires little inputs, grows fast and without pesticides, has positive effects on the environment and can be cultivated on every inhabited continent. The preliminary LCA was based on a patent describing the manufacturing process of hemp leather completed with data from literature and a few assumptions made. LCA-results for bovine leather were collected from literature and the two leather fabrics were then compared. The comparison showed that hemp leather is superior to bovine leather in all compared categories except for water consumption and hazardous waste. Bovine leather had 99% more energy use, 78% higher acidification potential (AP), 99,9% higher eutrophication potential (EP) and 83% higher global warming potential (GWP) than hemp leather. The large water consumption in the manufacturing phase of hemp leather is possible to be explained by over dimensioning of inputs. The report concludes that hemp leather would be the environmentally and ethically admirable choice between the two leathers and that more research on more modern methods of manufacturing it should be performed.

  • 190.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Kietlinska, Agnieszka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Simán, Gyula
    Division of Plant Nutrition, Department of Soil Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Phosphorus retention in filter materials for wastewater treatment and its subsequent suitability for plant production2006Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 97, nr 7, s. 914-921Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed sand filter beds are advantageous for the treatment of wastewater in areas with a low population density. Phosphorus-sorbing materials with additional beneficial characteristics may be used instead of sand. This study aimed at determining and comparing phosphorus (P) retention capacities of amorphous and crystalline blast furnace slags, limestone, opoka, Polonite (R) and sand, for filtering domestic wastewater through columns over a period of 67 weeks. The P-enriched filter materials were subsequently tested for their fertilizer effectiveness in a pot experiment where barley was cultivated. Polonite (R), i.e. calcinated bedrock opoka, was most effective in removing P. This Occurred at a relatively high hydraulic conductivity that reduced the risk of clogging. Barley grown in two types of slag, with a grain size of 0.25-4, mm. was most effective in dry matter production followed by Polonite (R). Fine-grained slags and Polonite (R) were suggested its most suited of the investigated materials to recycle P back to agriculture.

  • 191.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Höjer, MattiasKTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.Howlett, Robert JBournemouth University.Jain, Lakhmi CUniversity of South Australia.
    Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference in Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB´12)2013Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 192. Håkansson, Anne Kristin
    et al.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Howlett, R.J
    Preface2013Inngår i: Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, ISSN 2190-3018, E-ISSN 2190-3026, Vol. 22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 193.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Bostedt, Goran
    Ericsson, Goran
    Exploring distributional determinants of large carnivore conservation in Sweden2011Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 577-595Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to fill the gap in the literature about distributional impacts (who wins and who loses) of implementing new management plans for non-market priced environmental goods and services. The focus is on whether and to what extent, age, gender, presence of large carnivores and income affect willingness-to-pay (WTP) for increasing large carnivore stocks in Sweden. Our results contradict findings from previous studies on large carnivores in the sense that patterns change when different distributional dimensions are analysed together. The results indicate that WTP is independent of the presence of large carnivores, except for the group 'young men'. In general, young men are found to be a disparate group.

  • 194.
    Högselius, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    The politics of electricity deregulation in Sweden: the art of acting on multiple arenas2010Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 2245-2254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the deregulation of the Swedish electricity industry as a political process. Discussions about deregulation started in the late 1980s. A first step in the process was the corporatization of the Swedish state-owned utility Vattenfall in 1992. The deregulatory process culminated with the new Electricity Law, which entered into force in 1996. We investigate in historical depth how a diverse range of actors contributed to shaping both the new institutional environment and the political discourse. The article scrutinizes not only the formal political decision-making process and the activities of a variety of ministries, boards and agencies, but also the processes by which energy companies and other relevant industrial actors influenced the outcome of the regulatory reforms. We explicitly focus on activities taking place on both political and business arenas, showing that major stakeholders acted on several arenas simultaneously to influence the deregulatory process and that the large power companies were most skilful in doing so. We also show that activities on the political and business arenas mutually reinforced each other in shaping the new regulatory framework.

  • 195.
    Höjer, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Dreborg, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Experiences of the development and use of scenarios for evaluating Swedish national environmental objectives (vol 43, pg 1, 2011)2011Inngår i: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 497-512Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and evaluates a method for encouraging long-term thinking and for considering a variety of scenarios in environmental policy processes. The Swedish environmental policy is based on 16 environmental quality objectives (EQOs) that national authorities are obliged to observe. These objectives are reviewed annually and evaluated in depth every four years. Here we describe and explore a futures study project for introducing more long-term thinking into work on the EQOs, which we tested in the in-depth evaluation in 2008. We found it difficult to design a collective scenario for a case with a wide variety of objectives and individuals with different backgrounds. However, this difficulty makes it even more important to incorporate futures studies into the work of the relevant authorities. Scenario work is often subcontracted, leading to a constant lack of futures studies expertise and thinking within authorities. Despite the difficulties, we found that experts within the authorities did begin to recognise the opportunities provided by futures studies. The project revealed an interest and need for futures studies within the authorities in charge of Swedish environmental quality objectives and our findings show that the authorities need to build up their own skills in futures studies.

  • 196.
    Höjer, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Gunnarsson Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Experiences of the development and use of scenarios for evaluating Swedish national environmental objectives2011Inngår i: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 1-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present paper is to present and evaluate a method for encouraging long-term thinking and considerations of a variety of scenarios in environmental policy processes. The Swedish environmental policy is based on 16 environmental objectives that national authorities are responsible for. They are evaluated annually and also in-depth every fourth year. Here we describe and explore a futures study project for introducing a more long-term thinking in the work with the environmental objectives, tested in the in-depth evaluation 2008. An experience was that it is difficult to design a collective scenario work in a case with a wide variety of objectives and with individuals with different backgrounds. However, this difficulty makes it even more important to incorporate futures studies in authorities work. Scenario work is often subcontracted, leading to a constant lack of futures studies competence and thinking at the authorities. Another experience is that despite the difficulties, experts at the authorities did start thinking more in terms of opportunities with futures studies. A general conclusion from the work was that there is an interest and need for futures studies at the authorities in charge of the environmental objectives. The possibly most important conclusion from this project was that the authorities need to build up their own competences in futures studies.

  • 197.
    Höjer, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lago, PatriciaVU University Amsterdam.Wangel, JosefinKTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Proceedings of the 2014 conference ICT for Sustainability2014Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 198.
    Höjer, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Smart sustainable cities: definition and challenges2015Inngår i: ICT Innovations for Sustainability, Springer, 2015, s. 333-349Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we investigate the concept of Smart Sustainable Cities. We begin with five major developments of the last decades and show how they can be said to build a basis for the Smart Sustainable Cities concept. We argue that for the concept to have any useful meaning, it needs to be more strictly defined than it has previously been. We suggest such a definition and bring up some of the concept’s more crucial challenges.

  • 199.
    Jagodzińska, Katarzyna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik. Silesian Tech Univ, Inst Power Engn & Turbomachinery, Konarskiego 20, Gliwice, Poland.
    Czerep, Michał
    Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Kudlek, Edyta
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Wnukowski, Mateusz
    Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik.
    Torrefaction of wheat-barley straw: Composition and toxicity of torrefaction condensates2019Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, nr 129, artikkel-id 105335Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Until now, few studies on the valorisation of torrefaction condensable volatiles (condensates) have been performed. The composition and toxicity of torrefaction condensable volatiles determine their possible applications. Therefore, a study on the composition of wheat-barley straw torrefaction condensates, combined with toxicity tests, was performed. This analysis was mainly aimed at the utilisation of these condensates as an anaerobic digestion substrate. The torrefaction process was performed in a batch-scale reactor at temperatures from 240 °C to 320 °C. The condensates were analysed using GC/MS, and quantitative analysis was based on the calibration curves (external standard method). Toxicity tests were performed for vascular plants (Lemna sp. Growth Inhibition Test), saltwater bacteria (Microtox® bioassay) and freshwater crustaceans (Daphtoxkit F magna® survival bioassay). The condensates were classified as highly toxic for the tested organisms. Compounds that are inhibitory and/or toxic to anaerobic bacteria were detected in the samples, e.g. furfural, guaiacol, palmitic acid and oleic acid. Taking into account the condensates’ high toxicity for the tested organisms and the presence of anaerobic digestion process inhibitors, there is a significant likelihood that prior detoxification of the condensates is necessary before they can be utilised as anaerobic digestion substrates.

  • 200.
    Jagodzińska, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery.
    Mroczek, Kazimierz
    Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery.
    Nowińska, Katarzyna
    Silesian University of Technology, Department of Applied Geology.
    Gołombek, Klaudiusz
    Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials.
    Kalisz, Sylwester
    Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery.
    The impact of additives on the retention of heavy metals in the bottom ash during RDF incineration2019Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 183, s. 854-868Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Up to now, a few studies on the efficiency of heavy metal(-oid)s capture by a sorbent directly mixed with fuel, have been performed. For this reason, the main objective of the study is to determine whether or not such a solution is effective when RDF is incinerated. The paper presents a two-step analysis of the impact of three sorbents (ammonium sulphate, kaolinite and halloysite) in three dosages (2, 4 and 8 wt%) on heavy metal(-oid)s retention in the bottom ash. 12 heavy metal(-oid)s were taken into consideration - As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn. Samples were incinerated in a lab-scale tubular reactor at two temperatures - 900 °C and 1100 °C. The first step of investigation constitutes ICP analysis of heavy metal(-oid)s content in the bottom ash, coupled with SEM/EDS analysis. Afterwards, the second step was to determine the stability of formed additive-heavy metal(-oid)s complexes via leachability tests in neutral and acid environments. The performed research has shown that ammonium sulphate is effective in Cr, Cu and Hg capture, halloysite – in Cd, Co, V and Mn capture, whereas kaolinite – in Pb capture.

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