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  • 151.
    Edvardsson, Ingi Runar
    et al.
    University of Akureyri.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Heikkilä, Elli
    Institute of Migration.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Johannesson, Hjalti
    University of Akureyri.
    Stamböl, Lasse
    Statistics Norway.
    Dall Schmidt, Torben
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Demographic Change, Labour Migration and EU-Enlargement – Relevance for the Nordic Regions.2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 152.
    Egeld, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Lyckeborg, Malin
    The Use and Impact of Pesticides in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: an interview study and toxicity tests2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En intervjustudie om användandet av bekämpningsmedel på risfält och toxicitetstest av två bekämpningsmedelpå fisk utfördes våren 1999. Intervjustudien utfördes i Mekong Deltat i södra Vietnam. I intervjustudien blev 40bönder intervjuade med frågeformulär. Bönderna var kategoriserade i fyra grupper; ris och ris-fisk bönder somanvände respektive inte använde IPM-programmet (Integrated Pest Management). Tillsammans använde de 40bönderna 39 olika bekämpningsmedel som innehöll 34 olika aktiva ämnen. Icke IPM risbönderna användesignifikant fler olika bekämpningsmedel än de andra grupperna. Under de senaste tre åren hade 80% av IPMböndernaminskat sin användning av bekämpningsmedel och ingen hade ökat sin användning. Av icke IPMböndernahade 10% minskat och 65% ökat sin användning av bekämpningsmedel. Alla IPM-bönder hade lärt sigatt använda bekämpningsmedel från utbildad personal och endast 50% av icke IPM-bönderna hade fått lära sigfrån utbildad personal. Alla bönder, förutom IPM-ris-fisk-bönderna, besprutade mest med pyrethroider. IPM-risfisk-bönderna besprutade mest med karbamater. IPM-bönderna var mer medvetna än icke IPM-bönderna ombekämpningsmedel de använde eftersom de visste att de kan påverka miljön negativt, döda skadedjurensnaturliga fiender, störa den ekologiska balansen och skapa resistenta stammar av skadedjur. Både IPMprogrammetoch fiskodling i risfält leder till mindre användning av bekämpningsmedel och gödning. Detta ledertill bättre miljö och kan kanske utgöra ett hållbart alternativ till intensiv risodling.

    Två olika toxicitetstest genomfördes; ett korttids test (96 h) i akvarium och ett långtidstest (28 dagar) imikrorisfält. Common carp yngel användes som försöksdjur i båda försöken. I korttidstestet användesbekämpningsmedlen Karate och ViBasa med de aktiva ämnen lambda-cyhalotrin respektive fenobucarb. Treolika koncentrationer testades; tillverkarnas rekommenderade koncentration; halv rekommenderad koncentrationoch dubbel rekommenderad koncentration. Korttidstestet visade att Karate var extremt giftigt för fisken eftersomalla fiskarna dog efter 24 timmar. ViBasa dödade inte några fiskar men de fiskar som exponerats för ViBasa varslöare än de i kontrollgruppen. Eftersom ViBasa verkade ha en negativ effekt på fisken, gjordes ett långtidstestmed ViBasa i en mer naturtrogen miljö. Inte heller i långtidstestet dog några fiskar och tillväxten på fiskarnaskilde sig inte signifikant.

  • 153.
    Ejigu, Alazar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Bebyggelseanalys.
    Places on Becoming: An Ethnographic Case Study of a Changing City and its Emerging Residential Environments2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Some places which once were celebrated by many slowly become places of desolation and social problem while others built with similar intentions and forms continue to flourish. This is typically true of a number of large residential neighbourhoods of Post-World War II Europe and many cities of the global South. Large residential environments have been extensively studied since their emergence in the early 20th century, but often from disciplinary perspectives. Moreover, studies have often focused on singular aspects of these environments. Thus, knowledge of how large residential environments develop as places once created, and what the residents’ role in this process is, remains fragmented and hardly usable for effective urban design/planning interventions. Studies, particularly in the last decade, have begun to show the usefulness of the notion of place as an integrative conceptin housing research. This thesis aims to contribute to interdisciplinarydiscussions on large residential environments by drawing upon theories of space and place from vast fields of social and human sciences, and using anthropological and historical research methods. It explores the multiple ways and means that large residential environments gain their material and social identity as places. The main interest is to understand how the residents perceive, receive and appropriate living environment, and how that contributes to the becoming of the places. Based on such a notion of place, the study presents a critical review of the current transformation of Addis Ababa and its ongoing large-scale housing development. Residents’ ways of articulating their needs, desires, and values are investigated ethnographically and in relation to the socio-political, historical and spatial contexts within which they are taking place.The findings of the study are presented in four academic articles, and in an introductory essay. Each article addresses the main research question (i.e. “how residential places become”) from different angles: Article I (History, Modernity and the Making of an African Spatiality) explores place as a construction of historical and socio-political processes; ArticleII (Socio-SpatialTensions and Interactions: An Ethnography of Condominium Housing of Addis Ababa) and Article III (Home-looseness in Large Residential Environments?) explores place as an assemblage of multiple spatial practices and experiences. Article IV (Sustainable Urbanism: Moving Past Neo- Modernist & Neo-Traditionalist Housing Strategies) explores place as a product of particular urban design/planning paradigm.The findings of the thesis show that the key processes that shape spaces into places are highly embedded in the dialectical relationship between larger structures (i.e. social, economic, political and physical) and the everyday practices of people within the built environment. The findings also show that this relationship is highly mediated by local experiences of modernity. Thus, for example, when modernity is sought as an end, as in the case of the condominium housing of Addis Ababa, a fragile and often paradoxical relationship develops between people and their places as could be seen by the weak senses of place or attachment among condominium residents. One implication for urban design/planning practice is the recognition that place (or the home-place) is predominantly a process, and in the context of modernity, placemaking is highly contested because the process is evaded and people’s relationships with place overridden. Based on the findings, the limits and potentials of the urban design or planning are highlighted. It is recommended that theories of place- becoming – implying understanding of a place as an open-ended process and spatial experiences of ordinary people as the fundamental aspect of place – should be the integral basis of placemaking understanding and practice. Design ethnography is suggested as a possible way to promote placemaking practices closer to the multiple experiences of ordinary people / residents.

  • 154.
    Ejigu, Alazar Gedamu
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Bebyggelseanalys.
    Addis Becoming 'Addis': A Hegemonic Making?2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the notion of space and power in thesymbolic and physical making of places. It identifies three forms of power in such making: that which is inscribedin the architecture; that embedded in the social structures and norms; and that which individuals themselvesexert by their everyday uses of spaces and facilities. The paper discusses how dominant discourses resonatethrough architectural forms and influence spatial meaning and use and conversely how space mediates, framesand contests everyday power practices. It uses historical narrative and ethnographic methods to study how anaggressive large-scale condominium housing production in Addis Ababa serves a sociopolitical goal ofconstructing an image of a ‘modern’ city – ‘addis’ Addis. Theories are primarily drawn from works of Bourdiue,Lefebvre, and Dovey. The preliminary finding shows how desire for the ‘modern’ facilitates residents’cooperativeness to adapting to new ways of life inscribed in condominium architecture and their willingness toexercise ‘positive power’ as seen in their ‘constructive’ appropriation of spaces. ‘Modernity’, here, becomes asocial force that coordinates positive power relations. However, this was constantly resisted by power structuresembedded in established social norms and structures. Residents’ ways of negotiating between these contestingpowers through their everyday activities becomes vital in the ‘construction’ of new identity of their place. Theevidence challenges views that see space as fixed, empty, and enclosed container of social practices. Space isinstead shown to be a dynamic medium configured by power, and becomes a resource for power. The studyshows how understanding power struggles can help identify interests articulated by users; and that neglecting toconsider this process in the conception of housing projects could undermine possibilities for practicingconstructive social interactions or on the other hand may encourage power domination.

  • 155.
    Ejigu, Alazar Gedamu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Haas, Tigran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Contextual Modernism and Sustainable Urbanism as New Housing Strategies2011Inngår i: 23rd Conference of the European Network for Housing Research, Toulouse, France 5-8 July 2011, Toulouse: ENHR , 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing alienation of modernist public housing estates and their ethnically and socially excluded people, and the neglected human potential they symbolize, is a grotesque expression of the failure of a system driven by the profit motive and failed planning policy, rather than by the requirement to satisfy sustainable urbanism. The modernist concept of urban planning, which emerged in response to a very particular time and set of regional circumstances, spread throughout the Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The result, where the idea was simplistically accepted was a disaster. Paying particular attention to housing, this paper discusses the contrasting results of modernist planning approaches in housing and the consequences of that- It also looks at Sustainable Urbanism paradigm and the possibility that it might offer an alternative to the failed modernist satellite-suburban-monolith-alienated type of living in most major European cities. Empirical evidences are drawn from observation, introspection , analysis and deduction studies and Futurescape of selected cases in the American Housing Program HOPE VI, and from ethnographic survey of the ongoing Grand Housing Program in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, through an descriptive and explorative qualitative approach.

  • 156.
    Ekbom, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Risk Communication: With reference to SEVESO II Directive2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this master thesis is to sum up the research in the field of riskcommunication and to work out some recommendations for establishments, which are goingto implement risk communication. The report starts with a background part, which gives anintroduction to the field of risk communication. The laws and standards related to the field aresummarised and so are also the research and the literature in the field of risk communication.Afterwards follows some examples of different aim and goals with risk communication thatestablishments might have.

    The next part of the report is supposed to give a view of where the industry stands to day.Four companies from the chemical industry are presented and so is their work with riskcommunication. One of the companies Hydro Agri, took part in a following up study whichevaluated the their risk communication.The most interesting results from the study aresummarised in the report.

    The report ends up with a discussion part, which emphasises the import of translating theresults from the research into practical use for establishments and also the import of settingaims and goals with risk communication. Finally there are some recommendations forestablishments, which are up to implement risk communication.

  • 157.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Social assessment of future scenarios: Developing and testing a new methodology covering consumption-related impacts with a focus on future ICT societies2019Inngår i: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, E-ISSN 1614-2373, Vol. 17, s. 148-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The social perspectives of sustainability have been historically under-addressed in sustainability assessment methodologies of scenarios. A recent research project - "Scenarios and sustainability impacts of future ICT societies" - explored five society-wide scenarios with an ICT focus for Sweden in 2060. A methodology was developed within the research project to assess the scenarios in terms of impacts on the societal level, as well as consumption-related impacts on the global level. This paper develops and tests a methodology that could be employed in wider scenario-based assessments of future societies that include consumption-related impacts. At the core of the new methodology is the categorization of social aspects under five categories for the national assessment and four for the global assessment. A qualitative assessment is performed for each of the following categories on national level: Participation and Influence in Society, Health Conditions, Equity and Justice, Social Cohesion and Learning and Education. For the global assessment the level of trade and the commitment to sustainable development in the different scenarios was considered. The categories assessed globally are Poverty, Health, Employment and Justice for All. The assessments should be made based on expert knowledge. One result of the application of the methodology was among other, that the most environmentally adapted scenario - Valued Environment - was also the best performing scenario from a social sustainability perspective.  

  • 158.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Höglund, Jonas
    IVL - Swedish Environmental Research Institut.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Social and Socioeconomic Impacts from Vehicle Fuels2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 159.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    Ömsesidiga beroende mellan hållbarhetsdimensionerna. En kunskapsöversikt.2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 160.
    Ekener-Petersen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hansson, Julia
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Gustavsson, Mathias
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Peck, Philip
    Lunds universitet, IIIEE.
    Integrated assessment of vehicle fuels with Lifecycle Sustainability Assessment – tested for two petrol and two biofuel value chains.2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and use of vehicle fuels results in both environmental and socio-economic impacts.In the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) the European Union (EU) implemented mandatory sustainabilitycriteria for biofuels for transport and liquid biofuels. These include demand for reductionsin greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and restrictions related to land with high biodiversityvalue. This directive and the vast majority of the available studies enfolding vehicle fuels, focus onenvironmental impacts, and in many cases primarily on GHG emissions. To move towards sustainabledevelopment, a broader scope of sustainability issues needs to be taken into account in futureassessment efforts and policy.In order to address a broad range of sustainability aspects a method labelled Life Cycle SustainabilityAssessment (LCSA) can be employed. It combines three different lifecycle methods, correspondingto the three pillars of sustainable development; environmental-LCA (E-LCA), socialLCA(S-LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC).In recognition of these knowledge gaps, the overall aim of this project is to examine the use ofLCSA to assess the sustainability performance of transportation fuels. This is achieved by applyingit to four selected fossil and renewable vehicle fuel value chains. The principal aim of this work isto develop the methodology of LCSA with focus on a full integration step in the assessment. Theintegration of different sustainability perspectives is a challenge, as it is inevitably based on valuejudgements. In this analysis we apply the Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodologyusing different stakeholder profiles for the integration. This approach has the advantage that it increasestransparency on these value judgements. Further, as a part of this work, the policy relevanceof LCSA results is discussed briefly.The analysis considers four vehicle fuel value chains: Petrol based on crude oil from Nigeria ; petrolbased on crud from Russia; Ethanol based on sugarcane grown in Brazil, and ethanol based oncorn (maize) grown in the USA. Both biofuels represent first generation biofuels. These vehiclefuels were selected so as to build on an earlier study where an S-LCA was conducted for nine vehiclefuel chains.1 They were also attractive as they have relatively high data availability. These fourfuels were also found to have relatively high potential risks of negative social impacts in the previousstudy.The LCSA conducted in this study is done by integrating S-LCA results with results from E-LCAand LCC. In addition to the compilation of comparable E-LCA and LCC results we seek to detailthe S-LCA results in the previous study as well as complementing them with positive social impactsin order to provide a more detailed analysis.The main contribution of this project is related to the steps taken towards aggregating the differentsustainability perspectives into one holistic outcome for sustainability. This is done using three differentstakeholder profiles. These represent different worldviews and value judgments when prioritizingbetween the different sustainability perspectives. The result shows that the ranking order ofthe different vehicle fuels chains are quite different for the different stakeholder profiles. This shows that there is not always one single answer for the most sustainable choice between differentalternatives. Rather this is dependent on different priorities held by different stakeholders, or thepopulation they represent.All three underlying lifecycle methods– E-LCA, S-LCA and LCC - have different methodologicallimitations. Further, they are to various extents relatively new and still under development. One issueidentified for all three methods is the lack of robust and updated databases for data collection.This causes problems as the data requirements for assessments are considerable. Thus the importanceof data quality is emphasized. The MCDA method offers, however, a possibility to addressuncertainties based on variable data quality. In general, the MCDA methodology seems to offermany useful features to ameliorate the effects of a number of data-related complications. Assuch, it seems to offer a good tool for the aggregation step in LCSA. This stated, the lack of robustand updated databases imply that the actual LCSA-results for the included vehicle fuels may not berepresentative of the current situation regarding sustainability performance.In this project, positive social impacts were handled and integrated separately. By considering thepositive social impacts separately, the influence of the positive impacts on the end result of anS-LCA becomes visible. Although this was done in a limited way in this analysis, it is important toinclude positive impacts separately in future S-LCA efforts, to be able to distinguish the contributionfrom positive impacts to the total social impact. This may inform future action to enhancethese positive contributions. Yet, the lack of data makes this a difficult task, needing further work.Another important contribution, we believe, is the attempt to assess both fossil and renewable vehiclefuel chains with the same assessment tool. In the future, all vehicle fuels should be evaluated ontheir total sustainability performance at the same level of detail.Finally, we believe that the methodology approach examined in this work may be useful for effortsto leave the 'silo'-thinking that can be found in sustainability discourse behind. Instead of this, actorscan be motivated to focus on broad, comprehensive sustainability implications of various productlife cycles. Once the underlying data and methodology-related limitations have been improved,we believe that LCSA in combination with MCDA has true potential to provide a useful tool forsustainability assessment in a life cycle perspective.LCSA could be used as an information tool to guide the formulation of policy, and as an assessmenttool providing information to assess overall success (or failure) of policy interventions. Inconclusion however, we stress that it is important that communication with stakeholders and decisionmakers should be clear in terms of data quality and of the assumptions and complex assessmentsrequired for this assessment method. This is vital if it is to be useful in policy-making anddevelopment of specific policy instruments.

  • 161.
    Ekman, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap (stängd 20130101).
    Gustavsen, BjörnAsheim, Björn TPålshaugen, Öyvind
    Learning Regional Innovation: Scandinavian Models2011Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While the distinction between science driven and experience driven innovation is well known and much commented on, the point that experience driven innovation demands broad participation, not only within the individual enterprise but across the whole labour market, is less well recognized. When innovation first started to attract attention, the focus was on how to create innovation. In the light of the current crisis, a new question has entered the agenda: how to create socially responsible innovation?Participation and social responsibility in innovation are the core themes of this book. The main argument is that both are issues of organization and not of, say, ethics, or the enforcement of other forms of obligations on individual actors. The need is for a democratization of innovation that can make innovation open to broad participation, scrutiny from many positions, and influence from different interest groups without, however, losing the forward momentum.The organization of processes that can carry forward socially responsible innovation is, in turn, dependent upon public-private co-operation. This needs, however, to be a co-operation that expresses itself in terms of joint development processes, not traditional regulation.Combining experience driven innovation, broad participation and development oriented public-private co-operation, this book demonstrates that Scandinavia offers a unique arena of experience. It is a further argument that insofar as there is a 'systems response' to the present crisis, it lies in the direction of broader diffusion of this kind of pattern.Since the arguments of this book are built on practical experience, it does not seek to establish a set of abstract 'musts' without views on implementation, but rather points at the processes that can be initiated to create movement in the right direction.

  • 162.
    Ekström, Sanna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Zinkutsläpp från biltvättar2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet behandlar ämnet zinkutsläpp från biltvättar där arbetet inkluderar redogörelseför problematiken med zink i naturen samt en utarbetning av en praktiskt och ekonomisktgenomförbar metod att reducera zinkhalten i avloppsvattnet från biltvättarnas biologiskareningsverk Alaska Bio genom undersökningar och experiment med olika metoder.

    Litteraturstudier har gjorts för att ta reda på hur zinken rör sig och interagerar med dess miljöför att dra en slutsats om hur viktigt det är att prioritera åtgärder för problemet. Dessutom har litterära förarbeten gjorts för att ta reda på hur en pH-justering kan påverka halterna av löstzink och huruvida den komplexbildare som finns i vattnet kan påverka zinkutfällningen.Utvärdering har även gjorts av olika reningsmetoder som kan vara lämpliga att komplettera debiologiska reningsverken med och här ingår sandfilter, torvfilter, jonbytare, membranfilteroch indunstare.

    Arbetet kartlägger och beskriver även driften av biltvättanläggningar och deras reningsverk iSverige. Här ingår vilka olika tekniker som används, hur dessa påverkar miljön rent allmäntoch hur de kan komma att se ut i framtiden. Djupare arbete has gjorts med att beskriva denbiologiska vattenreningsanläggningen Alaska Bio och dess kemikalieanvändning.

    Experimentella försök har gjorts för att bestämma hur utfällningen av zink förändras medvarierande pH i tvättvattnet och slutsatsen drogs att halterna zink i jonform, som därmed ärlöst, är minimala i pH-området 8,6-9,2 och maximala vid låga pH-värden. Redan vid pH 6 varbefann sig större delen av zinken i jonform. Halterna från vatten med normalt pH till optimaltpH minskade med uppåt 60 %. Analyserna visade även att andelen zink i löst form var mellan68-90 % i vattnet vid normala pH-värden. Det innebär alltså att en del av zinken befinner sig ifast form och borde kunna sedimenteras bort.

    Experiment gjordes även på tvättvatten efter användning av tvättkemikalier som inteinnehåller komplexbildaren NTA, vilken man misstänkte kunde påverka zinkutfällningen, ochdessa antydde att den inte har någon större effekt på andelen zink som fälls ut.

    Småskaliga försök gjordes även med de två lovande polermetoderna för att rena vattnet frånzink, torvfilter och sandfilter. För sandfiltret minskade zinkhalterna med 51 % för vattnet sominte pH-justerades och 68 % för det med optimalt pH. Analysresultaten för torvfiltret visadeatt zinkhalterna sjönk med runt 85 % för alla vattenprover som pumpades genom torvfiltret.

    Relevanta för- och nackdelar har vägts mellan de olika alternativen av polermetoder såsomkostnader, drift och andra praktiska aspekter och slutsatsen drogs att sandfiltret är det bästaalternativet. Till sist följdes sandfiltertekniken för rening av vattnet upp ytterligare och genomstudier och experiment av buffertkemikalierna baserade på fosfater och karbonater arbetadesett komplett koncept som kan testas fullskaligt fram.

  • 163.
    Eldh, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    ECOTAX02: An update of a Life Cycle Assessment weighting method with a case study on waste management2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study is primary divided into two parts; updating the existing Exotax98 (monetaryvaluation method) including the characterisation methods to an update named Ecotax02, andapplying it on a case study. Updating Ecotax98 to Ecotax02 includes a revision of the taxesfrom which Ecotax98 is based on, and recalculation of the weighting factors and the weight ofreference values. Among the advantages of using weighting methods in general is the abilityto aggregate impact categories and to compare them individually. This is done in the casestudy part.

    The case study also shows that this ability is important and that leads us to see what kind ofinterventions that matters the most with different weighting methods and that Ecotax02 didput some substances in focus that was less prioritised in the other methods and vice versa.

  • 164.
    El-Dorghamy, Ahmed
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Energy and Environmental Management in Egypt: Bioenergy CDM projects for Sustainable Development2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the rapidly developing economy of Egypt with the increasing population density and depleting natural resources, the management of energy and environment has become of utmost importance to the sustainability of our development. A clear example is the severe air pollution, which is causing the most environmental damage, being mostly attributed to the energy sector, and largely attributed to uncontrolled burning of solid waste and agriculture residue. It mainly affects Greater Cairo, which hosts 20% of the nation’s population. This comes at a time where Egypt is rapidly approaching energy dependency. Utilizing this “waste” as a resource, or fuel, for bioenergy systems would entail many environmental and developmental benefits. This research has aimed to investigate the status and prospects of developing this bioenergy industry, and to discuss the approach to assess its sustainable development impacts as Clean Development Mechanism Projects (CDM) encompassing the environmental, social, and economic aspects in the context of the related legal and institutional framework existing today, and stakeholders’ activities. The findings of the research are later elaborated in the context of a case study of biogasification demonstrational plants established in Egypt delivering town gas from rice straw, while discussing the positive and negative sustainable development impacts. The research findings showed promising prospects for a growing bioenergy industry in Egypt and thereby emphasized the importance of identifying such synergies in environmental planning and management such as in addressing air pollution and promoting rural development, and it also emphasized the importance of practicing a holistic approach for assessing projects, policies and programs related to energy and environment. Findings also revealed a lack of proactive hosting of CDM projects in practice to direct activities toward national development priorities and finding synergies given that the CDM has come to be the driving force for bioenergy projects in Egypt. From the international perspective, a stricter and regular monitoring of SDA practices in the host country is recommended.

  • 165.
    Elgstrand, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    BEGREPPET FÖRETAGSHÄLSOVÅRD: Promemoria till Delegationen för kunskapsområdet företagshälsovård2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 166.
    Elgstrand, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Current Occupational Safety and Health needs in Developing Countries2010Inngår i: In Proceedings from NOSHCON 2010.: Drakensberg, South Africa., 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 167.
    Elgstrand, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Lessons Learnt from SALTRA & WAHSA2008Inngår i: Basic Occupational Health Services (BOSH) – Current Status and future challenges: SCOHDev workshop, ICOHs committee on Occupational Health and Development, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 168.
    Elgstrand, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    OSH & Development, October 20082008Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 169.
    Elgstrand, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    The Rise and Fall of NIWL2008Inngår i: OSH & Development, ISSN 1653-5766, nr 9, s. 63-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 170.
    Elgstrand, Kaj
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Petersson, Nils F
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    What Happens after NIWL?2008Inngår i: OSH & Development, ISSN 1653-5766, nr 9, s. 79-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 171.
    Eljesa, Kasa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Ett byggplank: Om barns upplevelser av delaktighet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 172.
    Ellis, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Leverantörsinventeringsmodell och Kommunikationssystem: Inklusive studie av alternativa leverantörsländer och beskrivning av stålets miljöpåverkan2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 173. Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Barthel, Stephan
    Borgström, Sara
    Duit, Andreas
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Andersson, Erik
    Ahrné, Karin
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Folke, Carl
    Bengtsson, Janne
    The Dynamics of Social-Ecological Systems in Urban Landscapes2004Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1023, s. 308-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses social-ecological dynamics in the greater metropolitan area of Stockholm County, Sweden, with special focus on the National Urban Park (NUP). It is part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and has the following specific objectives: (1) to provide scientific information on biodiversity patterns, ecosystem dynamics, and ecosystem services generated; (2) to map interplay between actors and institutions involved in management of ecosystem services; and (3) to identify strategies for strengthening social-ecological resilience. The green areas in Stockholm County deliver numerous ecosystem services, for example, air filtration, regulation of microclimate, noise reduction, surface water drainage, recreational and cultural values, nutrient retention, and pollination and seed dispersal. Recreation is among the most important services and NUP, for example, has more than 15 million visitors per year. More than 65 organizations representing 175,000 members are involved in management of ecosystem services. However, because of population increase and urban growth during the last three decades, the region displays a quite dramatic loss of green areas and biodiversity. An important future focus is how management may reduce increasing isolation of urban green areas and enhance connectivity. Comanagement should be considered where locally managed green space may function as buffer zones and for management of weak links that connect larger green areas; for example, there are three such areas around NUP identified. Preliminary results indicate that areas of informal management represent centers on which to base adaptive comanagement, with the potential to strengthen biodiversity management and resilience in the landscape.

  • 174.
    Eneroth, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Evaluation of Environmental Impacts of the Current and Proposed Municipal Solid Waste Management System in the Districts of Bethlehem and Al Khalil, Palestine, Using Cost/Benefit-Analysis Methodology.2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Improper waste management can have large impacts on the environment and thepopulation. Spreading of deceases, degradation of groundwater and air pollution maycause major problems and give rise to a number of different secondary problems suchas economic losses and loss of aesthetic values. In Palestine these problems have beenacknowledged in the Palestinian Environmental Strategy, and the work for developingwaste management systems have been initialized.

    When deciding upon new policies regarding waste management (or any other policyfor that matter), the most reasonable way of doing this should be to compare differentalternatives on a scientific basis using transparent methods. If the alternatives areevaluated using “gut feeling” or if different methods are employed for differentalternatives, how can the comparison be considered fair? Therefore a number ofanalysis tools have been developed. Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA) is one of them.

    CBA can be summarized as a method where the impacts of a system are somehowquantified, and those quantities are monetarized, i.e. a price is put on them per unit.This method has a number of difficulties and questionable aspects to it, but at least itis based on transparent information. The aim of this work is to quantify and, wherepossible, monetarize the impacts of the current waste management system and the oneproposed in the Palestinian Environmental Strategy. Four environmental indicatorshave been identified and quantified; Water Pollution, Air Pollution, Loss ofRecreational and Aesthetic Values and Landscape degradation. Only one of theseindicators have been monetarized though - Air Pollution. The results somewhat showsthe difference between a centralized and a decentralized system; a large difference inair pollution due to increased transports for the centralized scenario and a largedifference in local impacts such as loss of recreational and aesthetic values for thedecentralized scenario. When put in a context of impacts in other areas, such aseconomical, health and social impacts, the results may very well contribute to thedecision making process.

  • 175.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Food, energy and the environment from a Swedish perspective2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det särskilda sektorsansvaret är en ordning inom miljöpolitiken som innebär att varje sektor har ansvar för att hantera de miljöproblem som orsakas inom sektorn. På grund av detta ansvar finns ett behov av att kartlägga miljöproblem från sektorer, att identifiera de viktigaste problemen och att hitta strategier för att minska miljöpåverkan. Jordbrukssektorn och energisektorn är två sektorer som orsakar stor miljöpåverkan, vilket gör dem intressanta som fallstudier.

    För att undersöka miljöpåverkan och möjligheten att minska denna i de båda sektorerna används ett systemanalytiskt perspektiv. Ett sådant angreppssätt ger möjlighet att analysera frågorna på ett mer genomgripande sätt, så att problemen inte endast förflyttas och istället skapar problem på andra håll i världen eller för framtida generationer, eller att ett problem reduceras medan ett annat istället ökar. Med ett systemperspektiv kan även indirekta effekter inkluderas när strategier för minskad miljöpåverkan i sektorn analyseras. De indirekta effekterna omfattar påverkan som sker uppströms och nedströms produktionskedjan, liksom påverkan från konsumenter.

    En metod för att bedöma miljöpåverkan från en sektor har utarbetats och testats på jordbruks- och energisektorn (Artikel I och II). Metoden är en hybridmetod baserad på miljöexpanderad input-output analys (IOA) och livscykelanalys (LCA). IOA-data från Miljöräkenskaperna används som utgångspunkt för inventeringen. Dessa data ger information om både direkt och indirekt miljöpåverkan från sektorn. För att fånga även sådana miljöaspekter som inte omfattas av miljöräkenskaperna används sedan de svenska miljökvalitetsmålen som en checklista, och information om den miljöpåverkan som inte finns med i IOA hämtas från litteraturen. För vidare hantering av den insamlade informationen om utsläpp och resursanvändning används karaktäriserings- och värderingsmetoder från LCA-metodologin. Därigenom kan s.k. hotspots, dvs de viktigaste problemen, identifieras.

    Baserat på denna hybridmetod blev resultatet att i jordbrukssektorn är de viktigaste frågorna biologisk mångfald, växthuseffekt, övergödning, användning av icke-förnybara resurser och troligen även toxicitet genom användningen av bekämpningsmedel. I energisektorn är de viktigaste problemen luftkvalitet, växthuseffekt, användning av icke-förnybara resurser och toxicitet.

    En analys av policies inom sektorerna (Artikel III) visar att både jordbruks- och energisektorn fokuserar delvis på de problem som identifierats som hotspots i sektorsanalyserna, men att vissa av de viktiga problemen inte ägnas så stor uppmärksamhet. I jordbrukssektorn är fokus huvudsakligen riktat mot biologisk mångfald och toxicitet, medan energisektorn framför allt fokuserar på växthuseffekt och användning av icke-förnybara resurser.

    En andra IOA-LCA hybridmetod, Energy Analysis Programme, har använts för att studera hushållens direkta och indirekta energianvändning (Artikel IV och V). Genom en kombination av IOA och processdata kan energiintensiteten (dvs. energi per monetär enhet, MJ/SEK) beräknas av ett stort antal varor och tjänster. När dessa beräkningar kombineras med information om hur ett hushåll spenderar sin inkomst kan hushållens totala energianvändning beräknas. Beräkningarna ger också information om hur inkomsten kan spenderas på mer energisnåla sätt. En ytterligare studie gjordes för att visa på betydelsen av minskat livsmedelssvinn som strategi för minskad miljöpåverkan inom livsmedelssektorn (Artikel VI). Resultaten från studierna med konsumentperspektiv kan användas för att identifiera strategier för hur konsumenterna kan bidra till minskad miljöpåverkan i de båda fallsektorerna. För jordbrukssektorns del kan konsumenterna bidra till minskad miljöpåverkan framför allt genom en minskad konsumtion av animalier. När det gäller energisektorn är minskad energianvändning en viktig strategi, liksom att fortsatt sträva efter att ersätta fossila bränslen och uran med förnybara bränslen.

  • 176.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Infrastruktur.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Food losses in food service institutions: Examples from Sweden2004Inngår i: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 203-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     Lowering food losses is a potential measure to overcome hunger and reduce the ecological side effects from the food system. However, few observations of food losses have been reported in the literature during recent years. We studied food losses in four food service institutions in Stockholm, Sweden. The results show that about one-fifth of the food is lost. Plate waste is the single largest source of loss, at 11-13% of the amount of food served. Losses in food service institutions can be of significant economic value, and arable land equivalent to 1.5% of the area under cultivation in Sweden may be used to produce food eventually lost in food service institutions. The results indicate that the economic and environmental consequences of current levels of food losses may be substantial. More research is needed in order to better estimate levels, devise prevention strategies and identify policy implications.

  • 177.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Which environmental problems get policy attention? Examining energy and agricultural sector policies in Sweden2008Inngår i: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 8, nr 4-5, s. 241-255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Not all environmental problems get the same level of policy attention. An interesting question is thus why certain aspects receive attention and others do not. This paper studies the level of policy attention given to different environmental aspects in agriculture and energy policy in Sweden and explores empirically some factors that can explain the level of attention. The first step was to explore the link between environmental issue characteristics and the level of policy attention. The level of policy attention was measured through a content analysis of Swedish government bills. The results from the content analysis are clear and stable over the studied time period. In the agriculture sector biodiversity and toxicity are in focus whereas in the energy sector climate change and resources are given the attention. Besides these aspects, the attention is limited. These results were compared with the results from sector-wide environmental assessments of the same sectors. These assessments were based on hybrid input-output analysis and life cycle assessment methodologies. A main finding from the study is that issue importance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for policy attention. Other explanations are needed to understand which environmental issues get attention in sectoral policy. Our assessment showed that while the level of knowledge does not provide an explanation, the presence of strong and well-organised stakeholders within the sector, with an interest in having a certain issue on the agenda, might be decisive for issue attention. Path dependency and limited attention capacity are other important factors.

  • 178.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Wadeskog, Anders
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture2007Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 60, nr 3, s. 550-563Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes an environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture, including upstream and downstream effects. The analysis is based on environmentally extended input-output analysis, but it is also supplemented with data from other sources. The analysis shows that direct effects by the Swedish agriculture are the most important, while indirect effects from other sources including mobile and impacts abroad are also considerable. The most important impacts from Swedish agriculture according to the analysis are eutrophication, global warming and resource use. The agricultural sector produces a large share of the Swedish emissions causing both global warming and eutrophication. In addition, current agricultural practice causes problems with loss of biodiversity. The most important actors in the sector are agriculture itself, but also all actors using fossil fuels: primarily the transport sector and the energy sector. In addition, consumers are important since they can influence the composition of agricultural production. The analysis shows the importance of including upstream and downstream effects when analysing the environmental impacts from a sector.

  • 179.
    Erdeniz, Robert
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi. Department of War Studies, SEDU Swedish Defence University.
    Operations planning revisited: theoretical and practical implications of methodology2016Inngår i: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 248-269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Parts of NATO’s contemporary planning framework called the comprehensive operations planning directive (COPD), and parts of the operation-level planning process should be revised since they suffer from methodological inconsistency. This claim is defended by discussing contradicting methodological properties and heuristics applied when framing and managing a military problem in accordance with the COPD. The methodological inconsistency within the COPD; in other words, simultaneously applying contradictory methodological properties, implies one theoretical and three practical implications. The theoretical implication is summarised in a meta-theoretical framework and explained by discussing five methodological properties: non-linearity, emergence, independently changeable generalisations, invariance and boundaries. The three practical implications of methodology imply that methodology is guiding: the problem-frame, conceptual development and action. To improve military planners’ understanding and management of these four identified implications, NATO is recommended to develop a “handbook of methodology.” The purpose of such a handbook should be to emphasise the utility of methodology when planning military operations.

  • 180.
    Eriksson, Malin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    MILJÖRISKINVENTERING AV KOLKRAFT2000Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Vattenfall group is a major power producer in Europe. The companygenerates its electricity mainly through nuclear and hydro power plants, withsupplementary production using wind power, natural gas, bio fuel, and coal fuel.It is expected that these supplements will get a more important role in the Swedishfuture concerning the planned closure of nuclear power.

    All fuel chains for electricity generation contribute to certain environmentalimpacts. One of Vattenfall’s primary goals is to continuously develop andimprove the production process with the aim to reduce the negative effects on theenvironment. A very important part in the environmental work is to perform lifecycle analysis as well as environmental risk assessments.

    This thesis is an environmental risk assessment on electricity generation fromcoal. The main objective is to identify and quantify potentially harmful releases,which may occur in relation to abnormal events in the electricity productionchain. These are accidents or unexpected events that are very rare and occur lessthan once a year. The chain roughly includes all activities regarding theproduction such as coal extraction, transports, operation and maintenance of thepower station, and landfill. However, the focus is on the power station. A powerplant in Poland is studied, which since the beginning of year 2000 is a part of theVattenfall group.

    The report presents 1) plausible accidents that may cause releases that has thepotential to harm the environment, 2) the estimated size of the release and 3) howoften it might occur. The probability of the accidents is primary based onavailable statistics from companies, organisations and public authorities. Thereleases are estimations based on storage volumes. The quantitative environmentalrisk is here assessed by the probability of the accident and the released amount.

    There are major data and information gaps concerning the coal production phase.This, together with the nature of the accidents that has been identified, contributesto that the environmental risk is not quantified for this part. However, accidentsand releases are comprehensively discussed. History indicates that seriousaccidents in mines can have severe consequences, especially concerning the safetyof workers. The environment can also be substantially damaged however probablynot so much related to harmful releases.

    The result point out that the environmental risk connected to the power station isbigger relative the transport of materials. Furthermore, in comparison with the lifecycle analysis on electricity production using coal, the emission to air fromabnormal accidents is noticeable smaller during a long time period. On the otherhand, local releases to land seem to be bigger for abnormal accidents than fornormal operation. This may be due to that smaller releases is overlooked in thelife cycle analysis.

    The result is connected with considerable uncertainties and there are a number offactors that contribute to this. The model may be wrong, scenarios may beoverlooked, and used values might be incorrect. It is therefore very important thatthe values are interpreted only as an indicator of the size of the release, and notexact.

  • 181.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    In Rhizomia: Actors, Networks and Resilience in Urban Landscapes2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 182.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. University of Cape Town.
    Social Network Analysis (SNA)2012Inngår i: The Encyclopedia of Sustainability: Vol. 6. Measurements, Indicators, and Research Methods for Sustainability / [ed] Fogel, D.; Fredericks, S.; Harrington, L.; Spellerberg, I., Berkshire Publishing , 2012, Vol. 6, s. 322-325Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 183.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University.
    The Drama of Urban Greens and Regimes: Social Movements and Ecosystem Services in Stockholm National Urban Park2007Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 184.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. University of Cape Town.
    The political nature of urban wetlands: Speaking from Princess Vlei Wetland, Cape Town2014Inngår i: Urban wetlands: South Asia, nr 2, s. 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 185.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. University of Cape Town.
    Transformative collective action: A network approach to transformative change in ecosystem-based management2011Inngår i: Social Networks and Natural Resource Management: Uncovering the Social Fabric in Environmental Governance / [ed] Bodin, Örjan; Prell, Christina, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, s. 255-287Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [From Introduction] This chapter will strive to add to contributions made by other authors in describing and explaining transformative change. Special attention will be paid to elucidate the collective nature of these transformations, hence the title of transformative collective action. The analysis will show that in order to bring about radical institutional change of natural resource management, a whole network of individuals and organizations are needed that through time can sustain pressure for change. These actors furthermore need to relate to each other through information exchange and repeated collaborations in order to coordinate their collective action, to learn as they go along of what works and what does not work, and to negotiate their vision of change to reach some common ground that can unite their collective effort. This type of sustained collective action furthermore needs to operate through, and challenge, already established institutions, modes of thought and ways of doing things. As such we can talk about collective action as a ‘collective actor’ – the network of actors – that over time builds enough agency to generate institutional change.

  • 186.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Andersson, Erik
    Borgström, Sara T.
    Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm2010Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 28-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden-allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas-and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1) assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2) develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas) is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning) and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales). Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  • 187.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    van der Leeuw, S E
    Redman, C L
    Meffert, D J
    Davis, G
    Alfsen, C
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Urban Transitions: On Urban Resilience and Human-Dominated Ecosystems2010Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, nr 8, s. 531-545Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is a global multidimensional process paired with increasing uncertainty due to climate change, migration of people, and changes in the capacity to sustain ecosystem services. This article lays a foundation for discussing transitions in urban governance, which enable cities to navigate change, build capacity to withstand shocks, and use experimentation and innovation in face of uncertainty. Using the three concrete case cities-New Orleans, Cape Town, and Phoenix-the article analyzes thresholds and cross-scale interactions, and expands the scale at which urban resilience has been discussed by integrating the idea from geography that cities form part of "system of cities" (i.e., they cannot be seen as single entities). Based on this, the article argues that urban governance need to harness social networks of urban innovation to sustain ecosystem services, while nurturing discourses that situate the city as part of regional ecosystems. The article broadens the discussion on urban resilience while challenging resilience theory when addressing human-dominated ecosystems. Practical examples of harnessing urban innovation are presented, paired with an agenda for research and policy.

  • 188.
    Eshchanov, Bahtiyor
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    How to meet the future energy needs of Uzbekistan2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work considers the perspective of Uzbekistan energy system. Current data of Uzbekenergy system is very complex because of some consider energy as only electricity generationwhile others add transportation, resources used in household, district heating, and energyresources spend to transport these materials.

    Another obstacle in researching the Uzbek energy system is always-positive approach ofprevious provided researches. Neither decision makers of the system, nor scientists approachcurrent conditions from criticism point of view. Indicators are swelled to planned-by-stateextent and events are explained only from positive point of view, however, there is extremely small room for positive aspects compared with negatives.

    Uzbekistan is energy self-sufficient country with positive energy balance in total. Uzbekistan is the only country to enlarge the natural gas production to 35% after the collapse of SovietUnion. There are different estimations of proven reserves’ time span: from 35 years to 55 yearsin most optimistic calculation.

    Other fossil fuels have smaller share of 7 and 8% for oil and coal correspondently. Insignificant decline in oil and minor increase in coal production is predicted. Hydropower generation hasreached its upper limits and not a subject for large increase.

    Nuclear energy is not implemented in Uzbekistan. It is predicted to be the main source ofenergy in the close fifty years for Uzbekistan. Due to rapid increases in production and netexports, fossil fuels do not have more than fifty years to exhaust. Nuclear energy needs longterm preparation, basic and fundamental conditions.

    Total primary energy consumption increase by World Energy Outlook 2005 is 50% for the year2025. Uzbekistan is unlikely to meet these growing needs without introducing nuclear energy.

  • 189.
    Evans, James
    et al.
    Univ Manchester, Sch Environm Educ & Dev, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier. Univ Manchester, Sch Environm Educ & Dev, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    'Give Me a Laboratory and I Will Lower Your Carbon Footprint!': Urban Laboratories and the Governance of Low-Carbon Futures2014Inngår i: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, ISSN 0309-1317, E-ISSN 1468-2427, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 413-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing threat of climate change has created a pressing need for cities to lower their carbon footprints. Urban laboratories are emerging in numerous cities around the world as a strategy for local governments to partner with public and private property owners to reduce carbon emissions, while simultaneously stimulating economic growth. In this article, we use insights from laboratory studies to analyse the notion of urban laboratories as they relate to experimental governance, the carbonization agenda and the transition to low-carbon economies. We present a case study of the Oxford Road corridor in Manchester in the UK that is emerging as a low-carbon urban laboratory, with important policy implications for the city's future. The corridor is a bounded space where a public-private partnership comprised of the City Council, two universities and other large property owners is redeveloping the physical infrastructure and installing monitoring equipment to create a recursive feedback loop intended to facilitate adaptive learning. This low-carbon urban laboratory represents a classic sustainable development formula for coupling environmental protection with economic growth, using innovation and partnership as principal drivers. However, it also has significant implications in reworking the interplay of knowledge production and local governance, while reinforcing spatial differentiation and uneven participation in urban development.

  • 190. Evans, James
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    Living laboratories for sustainability: exploring the politics and epistemology of urban transition2011Inngår i: Cities and Low Carbon Transitions / [ed] Harriet Bulkeley, Vanesa Castán Broto, Mike Hodson, and Simon Marvin, London: Routledge , 2011, Vol. 35, s. 130-140Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 191. Evans, James
    et al.
    Karvonen, AndrewRaven, Rob
    The Experimental City2016Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 192. Evans, James
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    Raven, Rob
    The experimental city: new modes and prospects of urban transformation2016Inngår i: The Experimental City / [ed] James Evans, Andrew Karvonen, Rob Raven, London: Routledge , 2016, s. 1-12Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 193.
    Fahlstedt, Charlotta
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Samproduktion av el, värme och kyla vid termisk behandling av avfall: En systemanalytisk teknikbedömning av energi, miljö och ekonomi2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tillgången på avfall som går till förbränning förväntas öka under de närmaste åren på grundav ny lagstiftning som förbjuder deponering av utsorterat brännbart material. Till följd avdetta kan större mängd spillvärme bli tillgänglig för fjärrkylaproduktion under sommaren.

    I detta arbete har en systemanalys med teknikbedömning utförts vid samproduktion av el,värme och kyla (så kallad trigeneration) för termisk behandling på hushållsavfall. Fyratrigenerationssystem har studerats, varav två system baseras på två olikaförbränningsmetoder; rosterugn och fluidiserande bädd med ångturbin som kraftcykel. Deandra två systemen är baserade på TPS förgasningsteknik med två olika kraftcykler;kombicykel och gasturbin. I alla fyra system generas fjärrkylan med fjärrvärmedrivenabsorptionskylmaskin.

    Målet med arbetet var att få ökad förståelse för systemen och deras miljömässiga ochenergimässiga beteenden samt deras ekonomiska påverkan. Syftet var att utvärdera dessa fyratrigenerationssystem mot varandra. Systemanalysen har utförts med hjälp av ORWARE –modellen som är en datorbaserad modell avsedd för att simulera olika scenarier, där blandannat hantering och behandling av avfall skiljer sig åt.

    Arbetet inleddes med inventering och uppdatering av data för förbränningsmodellen iORWARE-modellen. Data baserades på Birka Energis förbränningsanläggning i Högdalen.Även nya modeller har utvecklats i form av absorptionskylmaskin och gasturbin.

    Följande slutsatser är dragna efter de resultat som fåtts från simuleringarna:

    - Hög generering av fjärrvärme och låg generering av elektricitet fråntrigenerationssystemet ger påverkan på växthuseffekten, det leder även till att behovetav ej förnyelsebara primära energibärare (i form av naturgas) ökar.

    - Låg generering av fjärrvärme och hög generering av elektricitet från trigenerationssystemetger påverkan på övergödning och fotooxidantbildning (NOx). Samtidigt sombehovet av primära energibärare (i form av biobränsle) ökar.

    Mängden fjärrkyla som genereras i systemen är så pass låg att den ej medför någon påverkanvare sig miljömässigt eller energimässigt.

    Det är svårt att dra några entydiga slutsatser, om de olika trigenerationssystemen, utifrånstudien. Miljömässigt och energimässigt finns det både för- och nackdelar förknippade medde undersökta trigenerationssystemen. Vilket system som har den största systemvinst ärberoende på dels hur värderingen av de olika miljöpåverkans kategoriernagörs sinsemellanoch dels på hur värderingen av miljö, energi och ekonomi sker.

  • 194.
    Fan, Yin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Experiences of European Union Countries in Water Pollution Control System and Their Inspirations to China2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Along with the rapid development of industry and agriculture, growth of population, improvement of urbanization level, China has been confronted with increasingly serious deficiency and pollution of water resource. In order to deal with the challenge as well as reduce waste discharge, it is necessary to strengthen all the possible efforts in controlling water pollution. Therefore, the control and management of water pollution is of vital significance to the development of national economy and social society, which is worth doing research on academically and practically.

    Water pollution management, in a sense, results from the urbanization and cosmopolitanization process. In this aspect, the European countries have acquired a lot of successful experience in water pollution control, which provides plenty of useful knowledge and reference for China’s ongoing efforts in water pollution control. This thesis, by taking a comparative analysis approach, looks into the European countries’ experience of water pollution control, makes evaluations on their managerial strategies, system and methods. Then it reviews China’s efforts on water pollution control, and analyzes the current situation of China’s water management, especially the water pollution control system of Huaihe River Basin, and as a result puts forward suggestions to improve China’s water pollution control system such as verification of property rights of water resources, enhancement of legal framework, investment and taxation policy preference, technological improvements, public participation and prevention measures.

  • 195.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Hornborg, Alf
    Four sustainability goals in a Swedish low-growth/degrowth contextManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Continual environmental degradation and an unfair distribution of environmental burdens and benefits are two great challenges for humanity.

    Economic growth is often taken for granted when planning for the future.  However, it is often argued that maintaining economic growth is in conflict with keeping human activities adjusted to ecological boundaries and finite resources, at least for the more-developed countries.  With this paper we present sustainability goals for building and planning in Sweden 2050 in a context of limited or even negative economic growth. The sustainability goals should ensure that all groups in society have sufficient resources and a good life within planetary boundaries. The goals are set at a national level but in a global context. We select four goals, two environmental goals related to climate change and land use and two social goals, related to welfare and participation. Our results show that achieving the sustainability goals, especially for land use and climate, will require significant reductions of Sweden's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and land use compared to today's level. Regarding the social goals, these are in many aspects reasonably well fulfilled in Sweden today although many challenges remain in order to ensure similar opportunities for all Swedish residents. The main challenge, however, is to ensure that these goals are fulfilled even within environmental limits and if economic growth should halt or become negative.

     

     

    Key words: Sustainability goals; Degrowth; Environmental Justice; Futures studies.

  • 196.
    Faustine, Claire
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Environmental Review of Petroleum Industry Effluent Analysis2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present report deals with environmental issues in refineries and petrochemical processes.More precisely gaseous, liquid and solid effluents from processes are analysed qualitativelyand quantitatively when possible. Techniques to treat these effluents are reviewed or proposedwhen lacking and methods to do not produce these effluents are envisaged.In the part A of the report general effluents that are released from all types of processes arestudied. These effluents include fugitive emissions, flue gases from process heaters,blowdown systems emissions and wastewaters. Fugitive emissions, one of the greatestsources of VOCs can be qualified and quantified by the average emission factor approach andreduced thanks to the implementation of an LDAR program. Flue gases from process heaters,which are a major source of NOx, SOx and particulate matters can be characterized withemission factors and several techniques exist to treat or prevent these emissions. Concerningblowdown systems emissions, which are difficult to quantify, methods to minimize theseemissions are given. Finally, wastewaters treatment in petroleum industry is shortly describedbefore best management practices and pollution prevention methods are enounced.In the part B of the report four families of processes are studied: naphtha hydrotreatment,naphtha isomerization, catalytic reforming and hydrogenation in olefin plants. Each of theseprocesses is firstly described, the process flow diagram is explained and continuous andintermittent effluents are characterized. In addition to general effluents dealt with in part A, ithas been found that processes can produce other effluents such as dioxins in isomerization orcatalytic reforming units or green oils during catalyst regeneration operations.

  • 197.
    Ferrero, Florence
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Implementation of a PAYT systemin a touristic region of France: parameters and viability of the project2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Waste generation is a worrying topic nowadays. Basically, it is increasing year after year in most countries, making its burden on the environment expanding. Thus, European legislation sets guidelines and recommendations so that waste production decreases. One of them is based on the “polluter-payer” principle, where the responsibility for waste generation is directly given to the producer, whether they are industrial or household.

    The Pay As You Throw scheme, also called Weight (or Volume) Billing Pricing, Unit Pricing,or Variable Rate, is based on that principle. Basically, it is a new type of waste management where people are charged for the waste their produce: it links the provided service for collection and treatment to the real use of it. It is an economic incentive that aims at making people more conscious of their load on the environment, unlike most of waste management plans, based on a tax.

    In this report, this concept has been identified and explained, and some application examples have been taken from European countries, where this is already in use. However, the main focus of the thesis has been to consider the possible implementation of such a scheme in asemi-rural region of France, where nothing similar has been tested yet. Several factors were investigated: technical equipment to be used, social considerations, and economic characteristics. These three key directions gave the framework for the assessment of the viability of the project, and the probable actions to plan for its success.

    Nevertheless, the provided results showed that it was quite difficult to say if the project would be worthwhile or not. The lack of significant data for the parameters, and the mitigated results do not give a clear answer to the question. It would be relevant, for that purpose, to make further studies, or to test the project during a short period of time. However, the Union incharge of municipal waste plans to do such a thing, which might allow them to state finally on the viability of the plan.

  • 198.
    Fidler, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Larsson, Å
    Sustainable Infrastructure Planning in Stockholm's Region: the Loudden case: gathering information from stakeholders and developing indicators and criteria2008Inngår i: Integrated Management, Sustainable Development Indicators, Spatial Planning and Monitoring of the South-Eastern Baltic Coastal Regions Conference., 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 199.
    Fidler, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Larsson, Å.
    The Swedish Case Study Loudden: A Controversial Harbour for Oil Products in Stockholm2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5th Study Conference on BALTEX / [ed] Hans-Jörg Isemer, International BALTEX Secretariat , 2007, s. 193-194Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 200.
    Fidler, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Risk Assessment in the Framework of Sustainable Development: the Necessity of Considering Worst Case Scenarios2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Society for Industrial Ecology Conference: June 17-20, 2007, Toronto, Canada, 2007, s. 202-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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