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  • 151.
    Kilkis, Siir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Rational Exergy Management Model for Sustainable Buildings to Reduce CO2 Emissions2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 40th Congress on HVAC&R, Belgrade: KGH , 2009, , s. 22s. 391-412Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aiming to respond to ever-urgent needs for strategies to curb buildings’ CO2 emissions at large, a new model, namely the Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM), was developed. REMM provides a new analytical perspective on the energy usage and emissions of buildings with an intra-systems scope. It links the initial mismatch in the supply and demand of exergy to broader impacts in the energy system. Particularly, based on a cross-cutting parameter, it formulates the compound CO2 emissions factor, which includes a direct and avoidable CO2 emissions footprint according to the level of exergy mismatch. Presently, base-case buildings have sub-optimal values due to structural exergy overshoots. This paper thus exemplifies an array of strategies developed for exergy-green paradigm shifts. These include supply, demand-driven, and hybrid approaches, and net-zero exergy building targets, which integrate into multi-fold CO2 mitigation strategies for buildings. A new, exergy-mapping technique furthers the demand-driven approach for bundles of renewable energy. Furthermore, an analysis tool based on exergy-centric scenarios formulates the CO2 savings relative to the base-case to expand the horizon of existing CO2 wedges. The paper concludes that REMM identifies key opportunities for sustainable buildings to capture their vast CO2 reduction potential and increase their lead in CO2 mitigation.

  • 152.
    Kilkis, Siir
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Kilkis, Birol
    A Parametric Study for Integrated Design Optimization of Low-Energy Buildings2011Inngår i: ASHRAE: TRANSACTIONS 2011, VOL 117, PT 1, 2011, s. 442-449Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Beyond a low-energy and low-exergy building concept, the mechanical system that converts energy resources to useful mechanical power and HVAC functions need to be optimized for maximum efficiency with minimum energy waste and exergy destruction. This paper provides a new analytical algorithm, which optimizes the CHP, absorption chiller, heat pump, alternative energy and power systems like wind and solar, TES, PES, and HVAC terminal unit combinations and capacities for a given building. A case study is presented for several mechanical system scenarios. Results show that lower CO(2) impact buildings are possible even when fossil fuels are used.

  • 153.
    Kilkiş, Şiir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    A net-zero building application and its role in exergy-aware local energy strategies for sustainability2012Inngår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 63, nr SI, s. 208-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on two case studies, this paper explores the nexus of exergy, net-zero targets, and sustainable cities as a means of analyzing the role of exergy-aware strategies at the building and district level. The first case study is a premier building in Ankara that is ready to meet the net-zero exergy target. It is also the first building in Turkey to receive the highest Platinum rating in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. A net-zero exergy building (NZEXB) is a building that has an annual sum of net-zero exergy transfer across the building-district boundary. This new target is made possible by lowered annual exergy consumption, (AEXC), and increased on-site production from a bundle of sustainable energy technologies. The modeled results of the building indicate that the reduced AEXC of 60 kW h/m 2 yr is met with on-site production of 62 kW h/m 2 yr. On-site production includes PV and building integrated PV, a micro-wind turbine, combined heat and power, GSHP, and solar collectors. Diversified thermal energy storage tanks further facilitate the exergy supply to meet with the exergy demand. The results of this case study provide key lessons to structure an energy value chain that is more aware of exergy, which are up-scalable to the district level when the bundle of sustainable energy technologies is zoomed out across a larger spatial area. These key lessons are then compared with the second case study of two districts in the south heating network of the city of Stockholm, which was the European Green Capital in 2010. The levels of exergy match in these districts of Stockholm, namely the districts of Högdalen and Hammarby, is found to be 0.82 and 0.84, respectively. However, there remain several bottlenecks for these districts to reach net-zero targets at the community level. The paper concludes that the NZEXB case study has much to offer as a "building block" to reform the way energy is converted and managed and in this way, to structure an exergy-aware energy value chain for greater sustainability in green cities of the future.

  • 154.
    Kindahl, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Johansson, Victor
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Passivhus och solenergi2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 155.
    Kjellander, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Oscarsson, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    En vidareutvecklad modell för bedömning av energiprestanda hos fastigheter2005Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 156. Koniorczyk, Marcin
    et al.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Johannesson, Gudni
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Sampling and Analysis of Natural Isotopes in Moisture Transport from Porous Materials: Applications to Capillary Suction2009Inngår i: Journal of Building Physics, ISSN 1744-2591, E-ISSN 1744-2583, ISSN 1744-2591, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 83-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Apart from the most common H-1 and O-16 we have the sister isotopes: deuterium D and O-18 in water. Isotope fractionation (the change in its concentration) occurs in any thermodynamic reaction. The isotopic composition serves as a distinct mark for each water sample. To carry out the isotope analysis of pore water, which may be used to reveal the source of excessive water in building elements, firstly one has to extrude water from voids. For this we tested three different methods of retrieving water from the porous material: squeezing and evaporation - the direct methods, dilution - the indirect method. The influence of capillary suction on the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes abundance ratio was also analysed. Materials whose substantial part of voids are gel pores (cementitious materials) act as a membrane during isotope transport separating lighter from heavier isotopes and therefore cause the fractionation of isotopes. The results of performed experiments indicate that moisture transport (capillary suction) has an influence on the isotopic composition of water. Therefore the isotope analysis can be useful in the investigation of moisture behaviour of porous building materials.

  • 157.
    Kucharczyk, Lukasz
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    EVALUATION OF THE MOISTURE APPEARENCE IN THE ICE RINK FACILITIES BASED ON OBSERVATION STUDIES AND PERFORMED SIMULATIONS IN HYGROTHERMAL SOFTWARE2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the paper, there are presented issues related to the ice rink venues. These widely known objects,all around the world,are one of the most complex types of the public buildings. It is caused mainly by the thermal conditions, which prevails in such objects but also energy demand needed for operational processes. Range of indoor temperatures may vary from -5oC in place of ice pad and close to it, up to +20oC in dressing rooms, offices or tribunes for the spectators. Like any other buildings, the same ice rink venues should meet the conditions and provide proper indoor environmental quality (IEQ) for every user of the object. It is mainly performed by the appliance of the newest technology, which is taking care and control aspects like: temperature, relative humidity, energy usage, lighting etc. In this document, there are presented 5 ice rink facilities,which were taken into account, in order to check if there are providing comfortable and proper conditions indoors. All the investigated halls were in the City of Stockholm. In order to obtain require data, some professional tools were used including infrared camera and moisture meter. The registered data was including the average temperature of the indoor air and level of relative humidity. Based on this data, the dew point temperature has been calculated. Another aspect of the work was carrying out simulations of the typical ice rink wall construction and finding the best possible placement for the vapour barrier. In these case, the simulation had been performed in the different cities located in Sweden. Function of this layer is mainly to inhibit the migration of the water vapor and to protect the thermal insulation layer from dampness. However, installed in wrong place in the wall composition may give rise to serious problems related to moisture and humidity. By using WUFI software, it was possible to present hygrothermal conditions like: relative humidity, dew point temperature and water content of the individual component of designed wallin relation to different placement of damp proofing material.

  • 158.
    Larsson, Anton
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Rainio Reivilä, Johannes
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Fuktproblem i uteluftsventilerade kallvindar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har genomförts med målet att undersöka om flerbostadshus som byggs enligt NCC:s tekniska plattform har kallvindar som är utsatta för eller riskerar att bli utsatta för fuktskador. En undersökning har gjort gällande hur det kommer sig att vissa konstruktioner klarar sig bättre än andra och vilka alternativa lösningar som finns på detta.

     

    Tio objekt valdes ut, alla konstruerade av NCC, alla med vindsbjälklag av betong, ventilerade med uteluft, med underlagstak av råspont och trätakstolar. De ligger alla i Stockholmsområdet och de är färdigställda mellan åren 2004 och 2016.

     

    För att göra dessa undersökningar, genomfördes mätningar på tio olika kallvindar. Relativ fuktighet och temperatur mättes med hjälp av klimatloggers som mätte inomhus och utomhus på varje objekt, en gång i timmen under mätperioden från den 13 februari till den 9 april. Fuktkvoten i trä mättes på alla kallvindar, där mätningar gjordes i råspont och takstol i varje väderstreck. Mätningarna gjordes vid tre tillfällen under perioden i varje kallvind.

     

    Under besöken genomfördes okulärbesiktningar på alla kallvindar där mögelpåväxt och konstruktionsdetaljer undersöktes.

     

    Historiskt sett är fuktproblem på kallvindar vanligt förekommande. Genom att kallvindar har ett välisolerat vindsbjälklag hålls temperaturerna allt som oftast låga i kallvindsutrymmet. Detta kan leda till att utrymmena får en hög relativ fuktighet och är därför utsatta för en ökad risk för fuktproblem. Genom nattutstrålning kan takytan få en lägre temperatur än kallvindsluften, vilket i sin tur kan leda till kondens på råsponten.

     

    Fuktkvoterna sjönk i snitt ungefär 4 procentenheter under mätperioden från 12% till 8%, vilket innebär att riskerna för röta eller mögelpåväxt är nästintill obefintlig, då riskerna för mögel och röta kräver fuktkvoter över 16% för att finnas.

     

    Den relativa fuktigheten ligger vid ett antal tillfällen över 75% i de olika kallvindarna, vilket är över BBR-kravet. Detta sker dock under perioder när temperaturerna är så låga att risker för fuktskador inte är aktuella. Under mätperioden har snittemperaturen gått upp, vilket har lett till att den relativa fuktigheten har minskat. Risken för mögelpåväxt har även bedömts med hjälp av diagram baserat på data från Smith och Hill samt Viitanen. Enligt dessa finns heller ingen risk för mögelpåväxt i någon av de tio kallvindarna.

     

    Enligt den okulära besiktningen kunde inga synliga fuktskador hittas i någon av de tio olika objekten. De fel som hittades var skillnader mellan objektens konstruktionsritningar och dess reella utförande. Objekt 3, 7 och 8 saknade ångspärr, vilket påstods finnas i ritningarna. Objekt 4 saknade luftning i nock som var utritad på ritningarna.

     

    Slutsatsen är att NCC:s konstruktioner för kallvindar på flerbostadshus är säkra gällande fuktskador.

  • 159.
    Lazzarotto, Alberto
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    A methodology for the calculation of response functions for geothermal fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes: Part 12016Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 86, s. 1380-1393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is part of a two paper series presenting a development in the methodology for the calculation of response functions for geothermal fields with arbitrarly oriented boreholes. In the method utilized, boreholes are represented as sets of stacked line sources and the borehole temperatures are calculated by means of a superposition procedure. This particular paper is focused on the efficient computation of the building block of this approach, which is the non dimensional mean temperature response g~(t) along a finite line due to a step heat injection along a second finite line, where the lines are arbitrarily oriented. The speed in computing this function is critical for the applicability of the method. The solution proposed to achieve the required performance is a hybrid approach involving analytical, numerical and implementation aspects: an analytical procedure to simplify the expression of g~(t) was developed, the resulting problem was solved with a tailored numerical method, and the algorithm was implemented using a high-performing programming language. Each of these aspects showed to have a great impact from a performance perspective. The performance achieved in the calculation of g~(t) enables the integration of this method within the scheme utilized for g-functions calculation.

  • 160.
    Lazzarotto, Alberto
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    A network-based methodology for the simulation of borehole heat storage systems2014Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 62, s. 265-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimization of strategies to operate borehole thermal energy storage systems can play an important role for the exploitation of this technology. Available tools utilized for the design of borehole fields don't consider these aspects in the calculation. For this reason a network-based methodology which gives a sufficient level of detail to describe different system operation strategies has been developed. In particular, the method allows to calculate how the heat is distributed among the borehole heat exchangers in the field according to the way the brine is supplied to the borehole heat storage system. This enables to test the same borehole field configuration pattern for different piping arrangement. An example of application where a simultaneous need of heating and cooling is met by extracting and injecting heat in different region of the ground storage is considered to illustrate the potential of the method.

  • 161.
    Lazzarotto, Alberto
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    An innovative ground storage2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 162.
    Lazzarotto, Alberto
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Developments in Ground Heat Storage Modeling2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground heat storage systems can play an important role for the reduction of green house gases emissions by increasing the exploitation of renewable energy sources and “waste heat” with a consequent diminution of the use of fossil fuels.

    A ground heat storage consists in an array of vertical boreholes placed in such a way that promotes the mutual thermal interaction between the ground heat exchangers creating the necessary conditions required to effectively store and retrieve heat. Suitable modeling tools for the estimation of the thermal behavior of these systems are very important to build installations yielding economical performance compatible with what expected during the design phase.

    This thesis aims at giving a contribution in the development of the thermal modeling of borehole heat storage systems. The main objective is introducing in the modeling process a few features that are not usually considered in state of the art models, with the goal of improving the representation of the physical phenomena. These features are the mathematical description of the topology of the borehole heat exchangers network, and the modeling of borehole fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes.

    The detailed modeling of the topology of the borehole heat exchangers is approached with a network model. The overall geothermal system is discretized into smaller systems called components. These are linked between each other in a network fashion to establish the logical relations required to describe a given boreholes connections arrangement. The method showed that the combination of a sufficient level of discretization of the system and of a network representation yields respectively the granularity and the flexibility required to describe any borehole field connections configuration.

    The modeling of non-vertical borehole fields is approached by developing a method for the calculation of g-functions for these configurations. The method is an extension of a recent work done by Cimmino on the computation of g-functions for vertical borehole fields. This modeling technique is based on describing boreholes as sets of stacked finite line sources and on the superposition principle. This approach requires the computation of response factors relative to couples of finite lines. A procedure for the fast computation of these response factors for the case of arbitrarily oriented lines is given. This yields computational performance that guarantees the practical feasibility of the methodology.

    The last part of the thesis deals with the modeling of the storage system from a broader perspective. The borehole field is considered as part of a larger system constituted by several interacting components (i.e. heat pump, building, etc.). Interactions play a key role in the resulting overall performance of these systems. The analysis of the mutual relations between building envelope and borehole field design is utilized as an example to highlight advantages and challenges of strategies yielding a more integrated design.

  • 163.
    Lazzarotto, Alberto
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Relevance of modelling insulation layer in ground storage system design2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Symposium och Building Physics, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 164.
    Lazzarotto, Alberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    A methodology for the calculation of response functions for geothermal fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes: Part 22016Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 86, nr 01, s. 1353-1361Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the modeling of shallow geothermal systems, the accurate representation of the borehole field configuration is important for a proper estimation of the long term thermal behavior of borehole field systems. Modeling tools based on the so-called g-functions method, utilized for the design of borehole fields, assume that boreholes are vertical. This is a limitation since this condition might not apply in a real installation. This paper is focused on the calculation of g-functions of borehole fields featuring non-vertical boreholes. The strategy utilized consists in representing the boreholes as stacked finite line sources. The temperature along these finite lines, can be calculated by superposition of the effects of each linear heat source in the field. This modeling technique allows to approximate uneven heat distribution among the boreholes and along the axis of each individual borehole. This is a required feature for the calculation of g-functions according to Eskilson's boundary conditions. The test cases presented show that the method yields results that are compatible with the expected physical behavior of the system, and similar to previous results by Eskilson. The computational performance achieved indicates that the method proposed could be potentially utilized during the design phase of these systems.

  • 165.
    Leback, Johanna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Hur grundkonstruktionen påverkar transport av flyktiga föroreningar från marken och in i en byggnad2002Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 166.
    Levante, Riccardo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Data Management and Virtual Reality Applications of BIM models2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays new digital technologies play an important role in the AEC sector, which are goingthrough a significantly changing period. In this process BIM represent the main character,revolutionizing the traditional way of working in the main operative phases: Design,Construction and Maintenance. However, having all these aspects under a uniquemethodology can brings several problems without a strong framework to regulate the wholeprocedure. The huge quantity of information, as well as the high number of involved people,are the main weak points, that can become the main strong points when Facility Managementis involved in the process. In this scenario this work will analyse a real project located inGenova (Italy), seeing as a complex structure as an hospital can be regulated through the BIMmethodology.The thesis will focus on two fundamental aspects of the new construction methodology: DataManagement and Virtual Reality. The first part aims to analyse correlation between BIM andits information, focusing also on the study case, proposing operative solution through the BIMsoftware Revit and the visual programming toll Dynamo. The second part will showadvantage integrating virtual reality technologies in the AEC sector, showing how build aninteractive virtual simulation using the game engine software Unity based on our study case.Through this work we have seen the importance of new technologies for the future ofConstruction Industry, showing how important is the sharing information involving alwaysmore people into the process, particularly for complex structures.

  • 167.
    Levin, John
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Kommunicerbara Informationssystem2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
  • 168.
    Lewald, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Relining ur ett beställarperspektiv2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report is focusing upon relining from a client’s point of view. Potential buyers are given a presentation of the different methods available today together with a general briefing describing the process. An important part of this report are the interviews that took place with already established customers. Property owners, managers, pipe cleaners, and project managers whom all been in contact with relining have answered the questions given along with their own thoughts and have also given recommendations of other persons to talk to. Information has also been given the report through literature studies, fieldtrips, and meetings with some relining companies. The results presented in this report shows the relining industry to have satisfied customers, companies being very service minded, and that relining is a method worth considering if you´re in the need of taking care of old pipes. Relining your pipes is shown to be a very good environmental choice even though choosing a method containing epoxy with Bisphenol A. As a conclusion this report describes how relining can benefit to great savings, is an environmental good choice, and many times a quick and easy alternative to a traditional change of pipes.

    Overall there are three cases where relining is a good choice. 1. If there is an acute leakage on the pipes that can’t be solved quickly in any other way. 2. If the apartment already has a recently renovated bathroom and the floor drain and sealing layer is in good shape. 3. In places where it would be very expensive or almost impossible to change pipes or if the building contains businesses vulnerable to disturbance.

  • 169.
    Lilliesköld, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Lindahl, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Uttorkning på byggarbetsplatsen - klimat och uttorkningsprocesser2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 170.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Annadotter, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Af Klintberg, Tord
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Sustainable Renovation Strategy in the Swedish Million Homes Programme: A Case Study2016Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, nr 4, artikkel-id 388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a large multifamily housing stock that was built between 1960 and 1975. An important current issue is how this stock can be renovated in a sustainable way. The article analyses a strategy used by a suburban municipal housing company that had clear social ambitions and offered the tenants three options of renovation: Mini, Midi and Maxi. Most tenants chose the Mini alternative which meant that they could afford to stay and that there was no increase in costs for the social authorities. An investment analysis showed that the Mini alternative had a positive net present value, but that the Midi and Maxi alternatives were more profitable. Even though there was no clear environmental focus in the renovation, energy use was reduced by 8%. As a conclusion, the study shows that a sustainable renovation is possible but that there are a number of conflicts between the different dimensions of sustainability.

  • 171.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Annadotter, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Sustainable renovation strategy in the Swedish Million HomesProgramme: A case study2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 172.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Nikolaev, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Allergifritt hus2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report consists of two parts, out of which the first deals with the planning and designing of

    a small house in the Swedish city of Huddinge, using the weather conditions of the Swedish city

    of Malmö. The house has to be in accordance with the Swedish building- and construction

    regulations, as well as with the limitations in energy consumption given.

    The house itself has to consist of at least two bedrooms, and blueprints of the house, various

    constructional elements, ventilation, sanitation and electricity have to be drawn. Calculations of

    these aspects also have to be made, to ascertain that the different parts function as they should,

    and that the dimensions are sufficient.

    The second part is called “Allergy free home”, and investigates how indoor climate affects us,

    and whether it has changed during the last few decades. It also makes an effort to see whether

    the increase of allergies and asthma is correlated with possible changes in indoor climate, and

    whether technical solutions might help to handle or even decrease the issues arisen. The main

    focus will be on dust mites and the effect they have on people with asthma, given that dust mites

    is the biggest factor regarding indoor climate and allergies.

  • 173.
    Maliqi, Fitore
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Syk, Annelie
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Solenergins möjligheter i ett svenskt klimat2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 174.
    Martinell, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Snöskydd för luftspalter och ventilerande vindsutrymmen2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 175.
    Mattson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Lövgren, Julia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Design av fönsterinfästning i väggar med tjock värmeisolering: För god funktion med avseende på fukt, värmeisolering och estetik2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 176.
    Medineckiene, Milena
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Integrated decision making in civil engineering, based on multi-criteria assessment and buildings’ certification2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant investments are being made in the construction sector in order to raise the quality of the buildings and make them more sustainable and energy-efficient. The key aspect of these investments should be the purposeful optimization of the possible renovation and construction measures. However, this important matter usually is being pushed aside in favor of construction price and/or quality. Nevertheless, there are plenty of criteria that play a major role in building sustainable development.

    The main purpose of this study is to present a tool that combines multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods and building certification systems in order to make weighted decisions in complicated construction tasks. For this, a decision making model was developed with a focus on sustainability, buildings’ life cycle, MCDM methods, and building certification.

    The first section of this thesis, the introduction, discusses the importance of the investigated area, and the main objectives, tasks, and structure of the thesis.

    A literature review is presented in Section 2 – Theory. The main works in the area of sustainability, LCA, building certification, and MCDM are collected to show their role and importance and how they interact in the construction industry.

    Section 3 presents and discusses the main ideas and instructions of the proposed decision making model.

    Section 4 (Methodology) introduces the main existing and proposed techniques that I have used to implement the study.

    Sections 5 and 6 are the case studies, which demonstrate how the proposed methods can be used in practice.

    Final conclusions and recommendations are presented in Section 7.

  • 177. Medineckiene, Milena
    et al.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    OWNER PREFERENCES REGARDING RENOVATION MEASURES - THE DEMONSTRATION OF USING MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING2011Inngår i: JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT, ISSN 1392-3730, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 284-295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes typical apartment buildings built in Swedish residential areas in the '50s, '60s and 70's. Each of these buildings included calculations on the effects and investment cost of a number of renovation measures aimed at improving energy efficiency. By applying multi-criteria decision making methods Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), Multiplicative Exponential Weighting (MEW) and Complex Proportion Assessment (COPRAS), the preferences of building owners regarding renovation measures were studied. The study highlighted four important criteria, including the use of energy from district heating and electricity, investment cost and payback period. The owner preferences were found to have a major impact on the outcome of the study. These owners gave sufficient weight to renovation measures within a short payback period. Renovation actions falling out to be quite attractive are additional thermal insulation in the attic and heat recovery from exhaust air.

  • 178.
    Medineckiene, Milena
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Zavadskas, E. K.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Turskis, Z.
    Multi-criteria decision-making system for sustainable building assessment/certification2015Inngår i: ARCHIVES OF CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN 1644-9665, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 11-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a new multi-criteria decision-making technique to select criteria for building sustainability assessment. The methodology of building certification system is integrated with the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods. The criteria set for assessment is determined based on Swedish certification system Miljobyggnad. Criteria weights are determined by applying Analytic Hierarchic Process (AHP) method. Weights of criteria are calculated based on Saaty's judgement scale and new original scale, presented by the authors. ARAS (Additive Ratio Assessment) method (MCDM method) is applied to solve problem under investigation. The developed assessment method involves LEED system's criteria.

  • 179.
    Mellstrand, Caroline
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Rationell produktion av platsgjutna stommar för flerbostadshus2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 180.
    Mellstrand, Caroline
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Rationell produktion av platsgjutna stommar för flerbostadshus2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 181.
    Molinari, Marco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Exergy and Parametric Analysis: Methods and Concepts for a Sustainable Built Environment2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use in the world is continuously increasing. In the last 30 years the use of primary energy worldwide has more than doubled and it is mainly supplied with fossil fuels. A more efficient use of energy in the built environment has to be pursued if a more sustainable development is to be attained.

    The housing sector accounts for a major share of the energy use. Both in residential and commercial buildings, energy is mainly used for heating. Heat is energy with low quality. Traditional energy analysis methods, by failing to consider the energy quality, cannot give a holistic insight of the potential for reducing the energy used in the built environment. Exergy, instead, provides a tool to quantify the energy quality based on thermodynamic grounds.

    In this thesis a methodology based on both the reduction of the energy demand and exergy demand in buildings is proposed to mitigate the problems related to the energy use in buildings through a reduced and more efficient use of energy.

    The complex relations between building parameters to reduce the energy demand are managed with parametric analysis tools. The potential for energy demand reduction is investigated by means of screening analyses, local sensitivity analyses and global methods. A method for assessing the potential reduction of the energy demand in existing buildings and to evaluate the cost-efficiency of renovation measures based on the screening analysis is introduced and tested on two building typologies. In parallel, a program tool for parametric energy simulations, Consolis Parametric, has been developed on the core of an existing dynamic software, Consolis Energy +.

    Factorial analysis has been used to investigate the relations between the reduction of the energy demand and of the energy supply when ground source heat pumps are used for heating and cooling. Optimal configurations- dependent on the insulation of the building- of number of boreholes and spacing were identified for minimum electricity consumption.

    In the second part of this thesis exergy is used as tool for the definition of the efficient energy use in the built environment. The analysis of a multi-step heat pump to supply energy at two temperature levels, for space heating and domestic hot water production, exemplified how the reduction of the exergy loss can lead to a more efficient use of energy. The analysis was performed by means of SEPE, a modular software program developed in this work for exergy analysis in buildings.

    For the systematic reduction of the exergy losses in the built environment, an important prerequisite is the reduction of the exergy required by the building. Systems like floor heating and cooling, based on low difference emission temperature, are examples of low-exergy systems. Buildings with reduced need of exergy input increase the efficiency of systems like heat pumps and enhance the use of low quality energy, like waste heat and energy from low temperature renewable sources.

  • 182.
    Molinari, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    An Application of the Screening Analysis to Rank the Potential for the Reduction of the Energy Demand in RenovationArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 183.
    Molinari, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Jóhannesson, Gudni
    Exergy As A Decision Tool For The Choice Of Heating And Cooling Emission Systems2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2nd International Exergy, Life Cycle Assessment, and Sustainability Workshop & Symposium (ELCAS2), 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings have low exergy demand compared to their energy demand. In spite of this,heating and cooling are mostly supplied with high quality energy sources, resulting inhigh thermodynamic losses. Heat pumps give an example how this potential can bebetter exploited, since their energy performance is dependent on the exergy demandof the building. The energy performance of heat pumps is highly dependent onemission temperature in the building and source temperature in the environment.Given certain environmental conditions, the exergy optimization of the emissionsystems has a direct consequence on the performance of the HPs, and hence on theelectricity consumed. In residential buildings, waterborne systems such as floorheating/cooling have large emission surfaces and allow lower input temperatures.However, a certain amount of fresh air has to be supplied for hygienic reasons, whichmight make airborne systems advantageous. In the present paper an exergy analysisof a waterborne and a hollow-core slab emission system is performed to show underwhat conditions each system has the lowest exergy demand. The analysis is based onthe results from SEPE, a specific tool for exergy analysis. It is believed that theresults indicate rational building solutions to the designers

  • 184.
    Molinari, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Lazzarotto, Alberto
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Dynamic exergy analysis of ground-coupled heat pumps for residential buildings2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings have lower exergy demand than their energy demand. Heat pumps can exploit this potential. Their COP greatly increases for a reduced temperature difference between evaporator and condenser. Given a low-temperature heating emission system, the performance of the heat pumps can be maintained high throughout the year, even in cold climates, if a ground storage system or a ground heat source is present. The interactions between building, heat pump, circulation pumps and source systems are complex. The performance of ground-coupled heat pumps is commonly measured in terms of COP, but the mere energy analysis might be misleading in finding potential for further optimization. Instead, the concept of exergy has been chosen since it yields the thermodynamic value of its associated energy flow.

    In this paper exergy has been applied to practical study cases, involving ground-coupled heat pumps, to give a better understanding on such systems and explore the potential for improving them. Dynamic simulations of the buildings have been done with IDA and the storage has been modeled by means of MATLAB.

  • 185.
    Molinari, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Lazzarotto, Alberto
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    The application of the parametric analysis for improved energy design of a ground source heat pump for residential buildings2013Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 63, s. 119-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use in buildings represents a major share of the overall energy used in developed countries. The reduction of the energy demand and the efficient energy use are often seen as feasible ways for a more sustainable energy use in the built environment. Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) are efficient systems to supply heating and cooling energy to buildings but their design is critical for their performance. Furthermore, their performance depends on the cooling and heating demand and on the environmental conditions. The need for the end-use energy for a building supplied with GSHP has been studied with regard to four parameters in two different locations. The effect of two building performance parameters, roof and external walls insulation, and of two parameters affecting the performance of GSHP, boreholes spacing and number of boreholes, have been investigated by means of factorial analysis. Results show that from an energy point of view the optimal configurations of the boreholes change depending on the variation of building parameters such as insulation. The methodology proposed allows to quantify the impact of different design configurations on the need for end-use energy.

  • 186. Müller, A.
    et al.
    Kranzl, L.
    Tuominen, P.
    Boelman, E.
    Molinari, Marco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Entrop, A.G.
    Estimating exergy prices for energy carriers in heating systems: Country analyses of exergy substitution with capital expenditures2011Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, nr 12, s. 3609-3617Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exergy represents the ability of an energy carrier to perform work and can be seen as a core indicator for measuring its quality. In this article we postulate that energy prices reflect the exergy content of the underlying energy carrier and that capital expenditures can substitute for exergy to some degree. We draw our line of argumentation from cost and technology data for heating systems of four European countries: Austria, Finland, The Netherlands, and Sweden. Firstly, this paper shows that the overall consumer costs for different heating options, widely installed in those countries, are in the same range. In this analysis we derived an overall standard deviation of about 8%. Secondly, additional analysis demonstrates that the share of capital costs on total heating cost increases with lower exergy input. Based on the data used in this analysis, we conclude that for the case of modern cost effective heating systems the substitution rate between exergy and capital is in the vicinity of 2/3. This means that by reducing the average specific exergy input of the applied energy carriers by one unit, the share of capital costs on the total costs increases by 2/3 of a unit.

  • 187.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Lindroos, Kristoffer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Värmelagring i en innervägg av betong i ett småhus2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens byggnormer så minskas hela tiden kravet för ett hus energianvändning. Under 2012 så sänkte Boverket kraven angående energianvändning i småhus. Detta innebär för det undersökta huset att kraven för ett hus i Umeå sänktes från 130 kWh/m

    2 till 110 kWh/m2 i BBR 19 för ett hus byggd för normal energiförbrukning (BFS2011:26).

    En möjlig metod för att minska energianvändningen i en byggnad är att lagra värme i byggnadsdelarna. Genom att utnyttja byggmaterialens värmetröghet så går det att lagra värme i byggnadens olika delar vilket kan utnyttjas för att senare kunna tillgodose byggnadens uppvärmningsbehov, då dessa ser olika ut beroende på tid på dygnet. Till exempel skulle en innervägg av betong som är ett värmetrögt material, kunna agera som värmelager.

    I vår undersökning ställer vi upp en energimodell med vårt husprojekt som utgångspunkt och bärande hjärtväggen i betong i synnerhet. Denna lösning kommer vi att jämföra med konventionella bärande träregelväggar. Detta för att se hur energiförbrukningen ändras under dygnet samt hur det går att utnyttja detta i praktiken. Modellerna är åskådliggjorda i datorprogrammet IDA Indoor Climate and Energy där vi har simulerat hur enegrigörbrukningen ser ut för de olika modellerna under ett år. Dessutom vi gjort en litteraturstudie där vi tittade på vilka faktorer som påverkar effekten av den termiska massan så som betongens sammansättning, placering av den termiska massan samt hur man kan optimera styr och reglersystemen för att de ska dra maximal nytta av den lagrade energin.

  • 188.
    Nilsson, Catharina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Uteluftsventilerade krypgrunder: Bedömning av lämpliga åtgärder för ombyggnad och av lämpliga konstruktioner för nyproduktion2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 189.
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Fuktrisker i kallvindsutrymmen - problem och förbättringsmetoder2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 190.
    Nordstrand, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Riskbedömning av golv i våtutrymmen2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 191.
    Norén, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Byggtekniska brister i ett radhusområde Förslag på lösningar vid ombyggnad2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 192.
    Näsström, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Bengtsson, Susanna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Halmhuset2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 193.
    Olofsson, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Småhusutformning och solenergiutnyttjande2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper goes through solar energy and what uses it has. It is also a guide in the choice of solar collectors for

    the real estate that I have drawn for the thesis work.

    Solar energy is a renewable source of energy from the Sun's light. Energy can be used to produce both heat and

    electricity through solar collectors and solar cells. Some of the benefits of solar energy is that it is completely free

    to extract, environmentally friendly and virtually maintenance-free. Disadvantages are that the technology is

    expensive, does not cover the entire energy needs and takes a long time until it pays. Solar heat is extracted

    through a solar collector, usually a flat solar collectors or vacuum isolated solar collectors. Solar electricity is

    extracted usually by photovoltaic cells but also with the help of thermal processes. There are different types of

    solar cells in which crystalline silicon solar cells are the most common.

    Because I want a solar collector to cover a large part of the heating for hot water throughout the summer, I have

    mainly singled out more models that I compared with each other. I decided to choose

    GJ140D.5 by Sunmark

    A/S

    because it is the most affordable in relation to efficiency.

  • 194.
    Oskarsson, Angelica
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Analys av energisituationen för BRF Ekbacken med förslag till förbättringsåtgärder2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset kring energifrågor har ökat på sista tiden och vi hör dagligen om den negativa miljöpåverkan.

    EU och dess medlemsländer har satt upp mål att minska energianvändningen med 20 procent till år 2020 jämfört med nivåerna år 1990. Därutöver har Sverige det nationella målet att till år 2050 minska energianvändningen med 50 procent. Bostadssektorn bidrar till en stor andel av den totala energianvändningen. Idag utgör bostäderna från miljonprogrammet, åren 1965

    —1974, en tredjedel av Sveriges alla bostäder och många av dessa är i behov av renovering och har god potential till energieffektivisering. Därmed är det intressant att fokusera på just bostäder från den tiden.

    En målgrupp som har anammat intresset kring energifrågor och därmed vill minska sina fastigheters energianvändning är BRF Ekbacken.

    I denna rapport har BRF Ekbackens två fastigheter belägna i Larsberg på Lidingö studerats för att sedan utföra en energianalys av byggnaderna. Därefter har en undersökning kring energieffektiviseringsåtgärder gjorts.

    Byggnaderna är byggda år 1973/74 vilket var under tiden för miljonprogrammet där staten satsade på en hög bostadsproduktion. Således är byggnaderna byggda enligt den tidens tänk och behöver nu renoveras och energieffektiviseras för att nå upp till de energikrav som regeringen satt upp idag.

    En modell för att beräkna byggnadernas energianvändning har tagits fram. Data har samlats in genom granskning av ritningar och andra nödvändiga parametrar kring byggnadernas energiförbrukning har tagit fram. Dessa indata tillsammans med formler för beräkning av energianvändning har lett fram till ett resultat om fastigheternas energianvändning i nuläget.

    En boendeenkätundersökning har dessutom skickats ut och genomförts för att få en uppfattning om hur de boende upplever byggnaderna. Resultatet har analyserats och visar hur rådande inomhusmiljö upplevs.

    De sammanvägda resultaten har lett fram till vilka energieffektiviseringsåtgärder som är relevanta för att minska byggnadernas energianvändning.

    Resultaten visar att byggnadernas ventilationssystem står för de största värmeförlusterna. Resultatet visar även att byggnadernas fönster är en svag punkt och står för stora värmeförluster. Det visar sig dessutom att fasaderna är dåligt isolerade och inte lever upp till de rekommendationer gällande isolertjocklek som gäller idag.

    Resultatet visar att en effektivisering av klimatskal, innefattande byte av köksfönster och en yttre tilläggsisolering på en av fasaderna rekommenderas. Detta tillsammans med installation av värmeåtervinning med frånluftventilationssystemet skulle kunna minska byggnadernas energianvändning med upp till 33 procent.

  • 195.
    Padt, Moses
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Fuktproblem i uteluftade krypgrunder- Tekniska åtgärder2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 196.
    Paunović, Diana
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Uttorkningsmöjligheter i ett fuktskadat badrum med hjälp av spaltmetoden2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings today are built to maintain a healthy indoor environment and an efficient energy usage which is probably why damages caused by dampness has increased since the 1960’s.

    A study between year 2008 and 2010 showed that 26 percent of the 110 000 examined houses had damages and flaws caused by dampness that could prove to be harmful later on. This means that one out of four bathrooms risk the chance to develop damages by dampness. Approximately 2 percent of the houses had already developed water damages. It is here where the problems appear. A house or a building that is damaged by water of dampness need time to dry out before any renovation can take place. This means that damaged parts must be removed and allowed to dry out, this takes a long time to do and the costs are high and at the same time it can cause inconvenience to the residents. Here is where the Air Gap Method enters the picture. The meaning with the method is to drain and dry out the moisture without the need to perform a larger renovation. The Air Gap Method is a so called "forgiving"-system that is if water damages occur the consequences will be small.

    The Air Gap method means that an air gap is created in the walls, ceiling and the floor where a heating cable in the gap heats up the air and creates an air movement. The point is to create a stack effect in the gap that with the help of the air movement transports the damp air through an opening by the ceiling.

    The aim of this thesis is to examine if it’s necessary with the heating cable in the air gap and if there is a specific drying out pattern of the water damaged bathroom floor. The possibility of mould growth will also be examined.

    The study showed that the damped floor did dry out even without a heating cable, but as one of the studies showed signs of mould growth it is shown that the risk for mould growth is higher without a heating cable. There was a seven days difference in the drying out time between the studies with and without the heating cable; this difference can be decisive for mould growth which is why the heating cable is recommended.

    The Air Gap method is quite easy to apply in houses with light frame constructions simply by using a smaller dimension on the studs to create the air gap in the floor and walls. The method can also be applied in apartment buildings with a concrete frame by using the room-in- room principal. When renovating existing bathrooms it’s easier to use prefabricated elements to create the air gap in the floor and walls.

    ~ ~

  • 197.
    Pesonen, Laura
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Finns det samband mellan byggskador och hälsobesvär?: Erfarenheter av Carl Bro Barabs skadeutredningar2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 198.
    Pilgrim, Alexander B.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Konstruktion av yttervägg med vakuumisoleringspanel2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 199.
    Pourghazian, Hanif
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Industrial Construction Methods for Cost-Effective and Sustainable Multi-Storey Buildings2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduction of the cost of construction is a constant goal for the building industry. One way of reducing the construction cost of buildings is to develop building technologies that will give increased productivity. Reduced construction time at the building-site and waste of materials and resources contribute to furtherreduction of the costs. This is why the sector is developing towards more industrialized construction methods with prefabricated components. The objective of this thesis is development of industrial construction methods forcost-effective and energy-efficient construction of multi-storey buildings. It is important to highlight the difference between cheap or low-cost and cost-effective production. It is possible to produce buildings to a low-cost at the expense of decreased quality and design. Conversely, cost-effective buildings are buildings that are produced to a low cost while maintaining a high standard of design and comfort. While cost reduction efforts are often made based on a, relatively, fixed building process, this research is focused on reducing the costs by changing the building process with the help of innovative building technologies. The construction of a building is a very complex practice with a wide range of interacting processes. The hypothesis is that a holistic approach is advantageous in order to find effective construction methods. To achieve a holistic view, an interdisciplinary approach to the research is required. By approaching the development of construction methods from the point of view of the entire building process, it is possible to achieve optimizations with synergy effects and by that find solutions that are time-efficient, energy-efficient and cost-effective at the same time.

    The work started by analysing the building process and the construction methods currently used in order to; discover the most common problems, gain understanding of the strengths and weaknesses in the conventional construction methods and identify the fields where the largest potential for improvements existed. Based on this analysis, a new building concept for industrial construction of multi-storey buildings is formulated called The Symphony concept. The concept involves a holistic view of the whole building process and is based on a prefabricated heavy structure that is covered with a prefabricated building envelope consisting of large, light-weight elements with a high degree of prefabrication and finished exterior surfaces. The concept required development of new types of building-elements and assembly methods. The technology was first evaluated while still on the drawing table. Some of these evaluations have been of a more detailed character and are reported in scientific papers. Thereafter an experimental building in full scale was erected in order to test the developed technology during production and assembly, while measurements and tests were performed in order to evaluate the performance of the building in operation. Based on the obtained results suggestions for improvements could be given in order to upgrade the concept further.

    The economic analysis of the building process showed that the largest cost posts in the construction of dwellings are the climatic shell (24 %), the interior finishing, and the management costs. The construction of the climatic shell is optimized through the use of the Symphony elements while the management costs are reduced through the use of prefabricated elements with a high degree of prefabrication which, substantially, increase the construction speed. Results show that it is possible to reduce the construction costs with about 25 % when constructing according to the Symphony concept compared to conventional construction methods.

    The construction of the large light-weight Symphony-elements was possible thanks to the CasaBona system. CasaBona is a building system which integrates the thermal insulation with the structural elements in the outer walls by embedding sheet metal profiles into stiff insulation blocks. The results show that the strength of the profile, when embedded in rigid insulation blocks, is increased between 22 % and 33 % when submitted to bending forces, and between 161 % and 210 % when submitted to compressive forces.

    Simulations of the annual energy use of buildings show that the energy performance of buildings is improved with increased effective thermal mass. Increased mass is also beneficial from the acoustic point of view. However, it is important that the interior space is separated from the exterior climate with constructions that have low U-values. It could be concluded that the most beneficial design strategy is the combination of a heavy core-construction (which has a large mass and thermal inertia) and a light-weight building envelope (which yields low U-value without adding to the thickness of the outer-wall).

    The construction of the experimental building made it possible to test the technology in an inexpensive yet realistic way. However, it is important to bear in mind that the information which can be gathered from an experimental building can be limited depending on the size of the building and its finishing standard. It could also be noticed that industrial construction benefits from an interdisciplinary design process since this render the increased use of prefabricated components possible.

  • 200.
    Pourghazian, Hanif
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    The impact of industrialized construction on the production cost of dwellings2008Inngår i: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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