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  • 151.
    Yin, Litao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, 30 Xueyuan Rd, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Div Surface & Corros Sci, Drottning Kristinas Vag 51, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Li, Wenchao
    Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, 30 Xueyuan Rd, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Yongchao
    Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, 30 Xueyuan Rd, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China..
    Jin, Ying
    Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, 30 Xueyuan Rd, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China..
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Numerical simulation of micro-galvanic corrosion of Al alloys: Effect of density of Al(OH)(3) precipitate2019Inngår i: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 324, artikkel-id UNSP 134847Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is a further step to develop a finite element model to simulate localized corrosion of aluminum alloys driven by micro-galvanic effects. The focus herein is to explore the effect of density (porosity and tortuosity) of Al(OH)(3) precipitates generated both on the electrode surface and in the liquid phase. Two coupled processes are identified and discussed, both influencing the local pH: the Al3+ dissolution from the electrode surface, and the steric hindrance effects on mass transport of species between the bulk solution and the anolyte next to the corroding surface. With the densest precipitate investigated, Al3+ dissolution is more effectively blocked and the mass transport largely hindered of Al3+ ions leaving the electrode surface. With increasing porosity of the precipitate, Al3+ dissolution is enhanced, also the mass transport of species in the electrolyte. The most severe localized acidification inside the occluded volume occurs when the density, namely ascribed by porosity, of precipitate is at an intermediate level with epsilon(c )= 0.01. In qualitative agreement with experimental observations, this work highlights the importance of corrosion product density on the progress of localized corrosion.

  • 152.
    Yin, Litao
    et al.
    Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Div Surface & Corros Sci, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Jin, Ying
    Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China..
    Experimental and Simulation Investigations of Copper Reduction Mechanism with and without Addition of SPS2018Inngår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, nr 13, s. D604-D611Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotating disk electrode and rotating ring-disk electrode were used to investigate the mechanism of copper reduction and the influence of convection on the effect of Bis-3-sodiumsulfopropyl disulfide (SPS), a widely used accelerator in copper via-filling and copper foil manufacturing. The experimental results show that the commonly accepted single electron transfer for copper reduction is dominating in the low overpotential range, whereas the double electron transfer is also involved in the high overpotential range. SPS was found to exhibit a weak inhibition effect even with Cl- ion in the solution under strong convection, and generate more intermediates in the solution with both Cl- ion and SPS than with Cl- ion alone. Based on the experimental observations, a reaction model for copper reduction considering competition between the single electron transfer and the double electron transfer, as well as desorption and runoff of generated Cu+-containing intermediates, was proposed and used for finite element method modeling. The simulation results enable quantitative description of the proportion of the two charge transfer reactions and the runoff of the intermediates, providing guidelines for selecting the additives and plating conditions in industrial manufacturing. 

  • 153.
    Yoder, Mikayla A.
    et al.
    Univ Illinois, Sch Chem Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Yan, Zheng
    Univ Missouri, Dept Chem Engn, Columbia, MO 65211 USA.;Univ Missouri, Dept Mech & Aerosp Engn, Columbia, MO 65211 USA..
    Han, Mengdi
    Northwestern Univ, Ctr Biointegrated Elect, Evanston, IL 60208 USA..
    Rogers, John A.
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Northwestern Univ, Ctr Biointegrated Elect, Evanston, IL 60208 USA..
    Nuzzo, Ralph G.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Semiconductor Nanomembrane Materials for High-Performance Soft Electronic Devices2018Inngår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 140, nr 29, s. 9001-9019Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of methods to synthesize and physically manipulate extremely thin, single-crystalline inorganic semiconductor materials, so-called nano membranes, has led to an almost explosive growth of research worldwide into uniquely enabled opportunities for their use in new "soft" and other unconventional form factors for high-performance electronics. The unique properties that nanomembranes afford, such as their flexibility and lightweight characteristics, allow them to be integrated into electronic and optoelectronic devices that, in turn, adopt these unique attributes. For example, nanomembrane devices are able to make conformal contact to curvilinear surfaces and manipulate strain to induce the self-assembly of various 3D nano/micro device architectures. Further, thin semiconductor materials (e.g., Si-nanomembranes, transition metal dichalcogenides, and phosphorene) are subject to the impacts of quantum and other size-dependent effects that in turn enable the manipulation of their bandgaps and the properties of electronic and optoelectronic devices fabricated from them. In this Perspective, nanomembrane synthesis techniques and exemplary applications of their use are examined. We specifically describe nanomembrane chemistry exploiting high-performance materials, along with precise/high-throughput techniques for their manipulation that exemplify their growing capacities to shape outcomes in technology. Prominent challenges in the chemistry of these materials are presented along with future directions that might guide the development of next generation nanomembrane-based devices.

  • 154.
    Zander, Thomas
    et al.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Ctr Mat & Costal Res, Inst Mat Res, Max Planck Str 1, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany..
    Wieland, D. C. Florian
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Ctr Mat & Costal Res, Inst Mat Res, Max Planck Str 1, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany..
    Raj, Akanksha
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Salmen, Paul
    TU Dortmund, DELTA, Fak Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Dogan, Susanne
    TU Dortmund, DELTA, Fak Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Dédinaité, Andra
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Garamus, Vasil M.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Ctr Mat & Costal Res, Inst Mat Res, Max Planck Str 1, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany..
    Schreyer, Andreas
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Ctr Mat & Costal Res, Inst Mat Res, Max Planck Str 1, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany..
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Willumeit-Roemer, Regine
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Ctr Mat & Costal Res, Inst Mat Res, Max Planck Str 1, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany..
    Influence of high hydrostatic pressure on solid supported DPPC bilayers with hyaluronan in the presence of Ca2+ ions2019Inngår i: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 15, nr 36, s. 7295-7304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for outstanding lubrication of natural systems, like articular joints, have been the focus of scientific research for several decades. One essential aspect is the lubrication under pressure, where it is important to understand how the lubricating entities adapt under dynamic working conditions in order to fulfill their function. We made a structural investigation of a model system consisting of two of the molecules present at the cartilage interface, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and hyaluronan, at high hydrostatic pressure. Phospholipid layers are found at the cartilage surfaces and are able to considerably reduce friction. Their behavior under load and varied solution conditions is important as pressures of 180 bar are encountered during daily life activities. We focus on how divalent ions, like Ca2+, affect the interaction between DPPC and hyaluronan, as other investigations have indicated that calcium ions influence their interaction. It could be shown that already low amounts of Ca2+ strongly influence the interaction of hyaluronan with DPPC. Our results suggest that the calcium ions increase the amount of adsorbed hyaluronan indicating an increased electrostatic interaction. Most importantly, we observe a modification of the DPPC phase diagram as hyaluronan absorbs to the bilayer which results in an L-alpha-like structure at low temperatures and a decoupling of the leaflets forming an asymmetric bilayer structure.

  • 155.
    Zhang, Fan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Chen, Chengdong
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Hou, R.
    Li, Jing
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Cao, Yanhui
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Dong, S.
    Lin, C.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Investigation and application of mussel adhesive protein nanocomposite film-forming inhibitor for reinforced concrete engineering2019Inngår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 153, s. 333-340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A mussel adhesive protein based nanocomposite thin film was produced to be applied as surface pre-treatment or primer on rebars of reinforced concrete. The film deposition and drying processes were investigated to enhance the corrosion protection, and facilitate large-scale industrial applications. The morphology, chemical composition and microstructure of the film were characterised with SEM, EDS, Micro-IR and AFM techniques. EIS results suggested the film provides excellent and increased corrosion protection for the carbon steel in mild and extreme concrete pore solutions. In-situ AFM results demonstrated the self-healing ability of the film to the pitting corrosion.

  • 156.
    Zhang, Fan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Recent Development of Corrosion Protection Strategy Based on Mussel Adhesive Protein2019Inngår i: FRONTIERS IN MATERIALS, ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 207Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of traditional anti-corrosion approaches using chromate are effective but hazardous to natural environment and human health, so development of green and effective alternatives is desirable. One of the mussel adhesive proteins derived from mussel byssus presents extraordinary adhesion to steel surface and exhibits film-forming and corrosion inhibition properties. Novel strategies for enhancing the corrosion inhibition of steel by the protein have been demonstrated recently. The protein together with ceria nanoparticles presents a great potential for the development of new corrosion inhibitors and thin films that are "green" and "effective," and have "smart" protection properties.

  • 157.
    Zhang, Xian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. Wuhan Univ Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Refractory Mat & Met, Hubei Prov Key Lab Syst Sci Met Proc, Int Res Inst Steel Technol, Wuhan 430081, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Atmospheric corrosion of Zn-Al coatings in a simulated automotive environment2018Inngår i: Surface Engineering, ISSN 0267-0844, E-ISSN 1743-2944, Vol. 34, nr 9, s. 641-648Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated NVDA (VDA 233-102) tests were performed on bare Zn and Al sheets, Galfan coating (Zn-5 wt-% Al) and Galvalume coating (Zn-55 wt-% Al) on steel. ZnO, Zn(OH)(2) and Zn-5(OH)(8)Cl-2 center dot H2O were the main corrosion products identified on both bare Zn sheet and Galfan. AlOOH and Al(OH)(3) were preferentially formed on bare Al sheet and Galvalume. In addition, Zn-Al-containing corrosion products, Zn6Al2(OH)(16)CO3 center dot 4H(2)O and/or Zn2Al(OH)(6)Cl center dot 2H(2)O were identified on both Galfan and Galvalume. Corrosion products of Zn6Al2(OH)(16)CO3 center dot 4H(2)O with a platelet morphology were preferentially formed in the zinc-rich interdendritic regions of the Galvalume surface. Galfan revealed a similar corrosion behaviour as bare Zn sheet, whereas Galvalume exhibited similar behaviour as bare Al sheet. Deposition of chlorides highly influenced the corrosion of both Galvalume and Al rather than Galfan and Zn due to the rapid local damage of the compact native thin film of Al2O3.

  • 158.
    Zhao, Weijie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Johnson, C. Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Nano Infrared Microscopy: Obtaining Chemical Information on the Nanoscale in Corrosion Studies2019Inngår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 166, nr 11, s. C3456-C3460Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this perspective article, the novel technique "nano infrared microscopy" is introduced as a valuable tool in the field of corrosion science to obtain chemical information with a spatial resolution of around 10 nm. Accordingly, the resolution is well below the diffraction limit, in contrast to conventional vibrational microscopy techniques. Thus, studies of corrosion initiation, localized corrosion, and thin protective films can be performed in greater detail than before. There are a few different types of nano infrared microscopes, but they all have in common that they are based on a combination of infrared (IR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this article the theory of the different techniques is discussed, and some results are highlighted to show the ability of the technique in the field of corrosion science. Future possibilities of the technique in studies of corrosion and degradation of materials are also discussed. 

  • 159.
    Zhou, Nian
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Surface integrity and corrosion behavior of stainless steels after grinding operations2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steels are widely used in applications where both the mechanical properties of steels and high corrosion resistance are required. There is continuous research to enable stainless steel components to be produced in a more economical way and be used in more harsh environments. A way to achieve this is to correlate the service performance with the production processes.

    The central theme of this thesis is surface integrity and corrosion, especially the stress corrosion cracking behavior, after grinding processes. Controlled grinding parameters, including abrasive grit size, machine power and grinding lubricant, were used and the resulting surface properties studied for austenitic 304L and duplex 2304 stainless steels. The abrasive grit size effect was found to have a larger influence. Surface defects, a highly deformed surface layer and the generation of a high level surface tensile residual stresses along the grinding direction were observed as the main types of damage. 

    The effect of grinding on stress corrosion cracking behavior of austenitic 304L, ferritic 4509 and duplex 2304 stainless steels in chloride-containing environments was also investigated.  The abrasive grit size effect on corrosion behavior for the three grades was compared. Grinding-induced surface tensile residual stress was suggested as the main factor to cause micro-cracks on the ground surface for 304L and 2304; for 4509, grinding-induced grain fragmentation was considered as the main factor for the initiation of extensive micro-pits. For duplex 2304, the microstructure and micro-notches in the as-ground surface also had significant influence. Depending on the surface conditions, the actual loading by four-point bending was found to deviate from the calculated value using the formula according to ASTM G39 by different amounts. The knowledge obtained from this work can provide guidance for choosing appropriate stainless steel grades and grinding parameters; and can also be used to help understanding the failure mechanism of ground stainless steel components during service.

  • 160.
    Zhou, Nian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Schönning, Mikael
    Lin Peng, Ru
    Influence of surface grinding on corrosion behavior of ferritic stainless steels in boiling magnesium chloride solution2018Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of grinding operations on surface properties and corrosion behavior of a ferritic stainless steel (FSS), EN 1.4509, has been investigated and limited comparisons also made to the grade EN 1.4622. Surface grinding was performed along the rolling direction of the material. Corrosion tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride solution according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and under four‐point bend loading. The surface topography and cross‐section microstructure before and after exposure were investigated, and residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after corrosion tests using X‐ray diffraction. In addition, in situ surface stress measurements were performed to evaluate the actual surface stresses of specimens subject to four‐point bend loading according to ASTM G39. Micro‐pits showing branched morphology initiated from the highly deformed ground surface layer which contained fragmented grains, were observed for all the ground specimens but not those in the as‐delivered condition. Grain boundaries under the surface layer appeared to hinder the corrosion process. No macro‐cracking was found on any specimen after exposure even at high calculated applied loads.

  • 161.
    Örnek, Cem
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Additive manufacturing–a general corrosion perspective2018Inngår i: Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, ISSN 1478-422X, E-ISSN 1743-2782, Vol. 53, nr 7, s. 531-535Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic additive manufacturing will replace some materials produced by conventional fabrication methods in the nearest future. However, corrosion will remain an important aspect needed to be prevented. The corrosion behaviour of additively manufactured alloys has been sparsely studied and very little work has been published so far. In this article, a general discussion about materials produced by additive manufacturing will be provided. 

  • 162.
    Örnek, Cem
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Div Surface & Corros Sci, Drottning Kristinas Vag 51, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stress Corrosion Cracking and Hydrogen Embrittlement of Type 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Beneath MgCl2 and MgCl2: FeCl3 Droplets2019Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 75, nr 6, s. 657-667Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The atmospheric corrosion, as well as environmentally assisted cracking behavior of 316L austenitic stainless steel (UNS S31603) beneath MgCl2 and MgCl2: FeCl3 droplets under elastic and elastic-plastic strain exposed for 6 months at 50 degrees C and 30% relative humidity were investigated. Shallow and deep corrosion sites with filiform corrosion along with stress corrosion cracking (SCC) were formed beneath the salt-laden droplets, and the potential role of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) and crevice corrosion in damage evolution elucidated. Elastic strain (0.1%) was sufficient to cause SCC cracking as well as HE under droplets with 145 mu g/cmth> of chloride, with the severity of cracking increasing with increasing chloride deposition density (CDD). Elastic-plastic strain (0.2%) increased the propensity to both corrosion and SCC/HE, with cracks seen under droplets having CDD as low as 14.5 mu g/cm(2). Elastic-plastic strain was further seen to facilitate and accelerate pitting corrosion, leading to pits with more penetration depth. The extent of corrosion and cracking increases with increasing chloride deposition density, with ferric ions having more severe effect, in particular promoting localized corrosion with multiple nucleation sites. The work reported here was brought into a larger context of stainless steel corrosion and discussed in light of better understanding atmospheric corrosion of structural components such as nuclear waste storage containers.

  • 163.
    Örnek, Cem
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Engelberg, D. L.
    Univ Manchester, Corros & Protect Ctr, Sackville St, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England.;Univ Manchester, Mat Performance Ctr, Sch Mat, Sackville St, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Toward Understanding the Effects of Strain and Chloride Deposition Density on Atmospheric Chloride-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Type 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel Under MgCl2 and FeCl3:MgCl2 Droplets2019Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 75, nr 2, s. 167-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 304 (UNS S30400) austenitic stainless steel was exposed for 6 months under elastic (0.1%) and elastic/plastic (0.2%) strain to MgCl2 and mixed MgCl2:FeCl3 droplets with varying chloride deposition densities (1.5 mu g/cm(2)-1,500 mu g/cm(2)) at 30% relative humidity (RH) and 50 degrees C. The occurrence of pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, atmospheric chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (AISCC), and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) was observed, and the average crack growth rates estimated. Exposure to elastic/plastic strain resulted in longer and more severe cracks. AISCC was found at chloride deposition densities down to 14.5 mu g/cm(2), whereas no cracks were seen at lower deposition densities, with cracks developing at pit or crevice corrosion sites. More severe cracks were seen under MgCl2 droplets as contrasted to mixed MgCl2:FeCl3 salt droplets, which were seen to promote more localized corrosion sites with deeper penetration and in conjunction with shorter crack lengths. Differences in AISCC propagation rates and associated crack morphologies are discussed in relation to understanding long-term atmospheric corrosion exposures.

  • 164.
    Örnek, Cem
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    On the Volta potential measured by SKPFM - fundamental and practical pects with relevance to corrosion science2019Inngår i: Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, ISSN 1478-422X, E-ISSN 1743-2782, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 185-198Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Volta potential is an electron-sensitive parameter and describes the ermodynamic propensity of a metal to take part in electrochemical actions. It has found widespread acceptance among corrosion searchers due to its connection to the corrosion potential and its sy measurability in local scale, being often used to study localised rrosion phenomena and micro-galvanic activities. The principle object this paper is to provide a comprehensive, fundamental insight into e meaning of the Volta potential and to define a polarity convention measured potentials by the scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy KPFM) in order to assess local nobilities in microstructures. nditions to relate the Volta potential with the mixed-potential theory e discussed and a possible connection to corrosion phenomena plained. The limitations of the Volta potential as well as the SKPFM chnique are also aimed to be explained, with some practical formation to maximise the output of high quality data.

  • 165.
    Örnek, Cem
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Passive film characterisation of duplex stainless steel using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy in combination with electrochemical measurements2019Inngår i: npJ Materials Degradation, ISSN 2397-2106, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The characterisation of passive oxide films on heterogeneous microstructures is needed to assess local degradation (corrosion, cracking) in aggressive environments. The Volta potential is a surface-sensitive parameter which can be used to assess the surface nobility and hence passive films. In this work, it is shown that the Volta potential, measured on super duplex stainless steel by scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy, correlates with the electrochemical properties of the passive film, measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarisation. Natural oxidation by ageing in ambient air as well as artificial oxidation by immersion in concentrated nitric acid improved the nobility, both reflected by increased Volta potentials and electrochemical parameters. Passivation was associated with vanishing of the inherent Volta potential difference between the ferrite and austenite, thereby reducing the galvanic coupling and hence improving the corrosion resistance of the material. Hydrogen-passive film interactions, triggered by cathodic polarisation, however, largely increased the Volta potential difference between the phases, resulting in loss of electrochemical nobility, with the ferrite being more affected than the austenite. A correlative approach of using the Volta potential in conjunction with electrochemical data has been introduced to characterise the nobility of passive films in global and local scale.

  • 166.
    Örnek, Cem
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. Swerea KIMAB AB, Department of Corrosion in Energy and Process Industry.
    Liu, Min
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. University of Science and Technology Beijing, National Center for Materials Service Safety.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Jin, Ying
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, National Center for Materials Service Safety.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Volta Potential Evolution of Intermetallics in Aluminum Alloy Microstructure Under Thin Aqueous Adlayers: A combined DFT and Experimental Study2018Inngår i: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 61, nr 9-11, s. 1169-1182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, first-principle density functional theory (DFT) was used to calculate the work function and Volta potential differences between aluminum alloy matrix and two intermetallic phases (Mg2Si and Al2Cu) with varying surface terminations as a function of adhering monolayers (ML) of water. The calculated data were compared with experimental local Volta potential data obtained by the scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) on a commercial aluminum alloy AA6063-T5 in atmospheric environments with varying relative humidity (RH). The calculations suggest that the surface termination has a major effect on the magnitude and polarity of the Volta potential of both intermetallic phases (IMP’s). The Volta potential difference between the IMP’s and the aluminum matrix decreases when the surface is gradually covered by water molecules, and may further change as a function of adhering ML’s of water. This can lead to nobility inversions of the IMP’s relative to the aluminum matrix. The measured Volta potential difference between both IMP’s and their neighboring matrix is dependent on RH. Natural oxidation in ambient indoor air for 2 months led to a nobility inversion of the IMP’s with respect to the aluminum matrix, with the intermetallics showing anodic nature already in dry condition. The anodic nature of Al2Cu remained with the introduction of RH, whereas Mg2Si became cathodic at high RH, presumably due to de-alloying of Mg and oxide dissolution. The DFT calculations predicted an anodic character of both IMP’s in reference to the oxidized aluminum matrix, being in good agreement with the SKPFM data. The DFT and SKPFM data were discussed in light of understanding localized corrosion of aluminum alloys under conditions akin to atmospheric exposure.

  • 167.
    Örnek, Cem
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Långberg, Marie
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Evertsson, Jonas
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Harlow, Gary
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Linpe, Weronica
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Rullik, Lisa
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Carla, Francesco
    European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Felici, Roberto
    Area Ric Roma 2 Tor Vergata, SPINCNR, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Bettini, Eleonora
    Sandvik Mat Technol, SE-81181 Sandviken, Sweden..
    Kivisakk, Ulf
    Sandvik Mat Technol, SE-81181 Sandviken, Sweden..
    Lundgren, Edvin
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    In-situ synchrotron GIXRD study of passive film evolution on duplex stainless steel in corrosive environment2018Inngår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 141, s. 18-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents new findings about the passive film formed on super duplex stainless steel in ambient air and corrosive environments, studied by synchrotron grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The passive film, formed in air, was seen to be a nano-crystalline mixed-oxide. Electrochemical polarisation to the passive region in aqueous 1 M NaCl at room temperature resulted in an increase of the passive film thickness, preferential dissolution of Fe, and partial loss of crystallinity. After termination of polarization to the transpassive regime, reformation of the mixed-oxides was observed, showing a thicker, semi-crystalline, and more defective nature (more vacancies) with further new oxides/hydroxides.

  • 168.
    Örnek, Cem
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Långberg, Marie
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. Swerim, SE-16407 Kista, Sweden..
    Evertsson, Jonas
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Phys Chem Dept, D-35392 Giessen, Germany..
    Harlow, Gary
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Linpe, Weronica
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Rullik, Lisa
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Carla, Francesco
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE, Oxon, England..
    Felici, Roberto
    SPINCNR, Area Ric Roma 2 Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Kivisakk, Ulf
    Sandvik Mat Technol, SE-81181 Sandviken, Sweden..
    Lundgren, Edvin
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Influence of Surface Strain on Passive Film Formation of Duplex Stainless Steel and Its Degradation in Corrosive Environment2019Inngår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 166, nr 11, s. C3071-C3080Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface strain on the passive film evolution of SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel exposed to ambient air and 0.1 M NaCl solution with varying anodic polarization at room temperature has been investigated using in-situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) in combination with electrochemical measurements. Surface strain affected the crystallinity of the passive film as such that the surface oxides/hydroxides were predominantly amorphous, with some minor crystalline CrOOH and FeOOH present in the film. Crystalline CrOOH was seen to diminish in volume upon immersion in the NaCl solution, well-possibly becoming amorphous during anodic polarization, whereas crystalline FeOOH was seen to increase in volume during polarization to the passive potential regime. Strain relaxation, associated with metal dissolution, occurred in both austenitic and ferritic grains during immersion in the electrolyte. Anodic polarization to the transpassive regime led to maximum strain relaxation, occurring more on the austenite than the ferrite. The selective transpassive dissolution nature of the ferrite was significantly reduced due to large strains in the austenite. Passive film breakdown was reflected by enhanced dissolution of Fe, Cr, Mo and Ni occurring simultaneously around 1300 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. 

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