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  • 151.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Survival, productivity and growth of new ventures across locations2014Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 477-491Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We assess the impact of the location of genuinely new ventures and spinoffs on these firms' survival, productivity and growth. The study distinguishes between four different categories of locations: metro cities, metro regions, urban areas, and rural areas. Using a unique database covering more than 23,000 new entrants between 2000 and 2004 in Sweden and observing them for 5 years, several conclusions may be drawn from our study. First, there is a substantial difference in ex-post entry performance between the manufacturing and service sectors. Second, the proposed superiority of start-ups by ex-employees depends on the performance measures and the sector. Third, knowledge and technology intensity of the industry matter for the viability of the new firms.

  • 152.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    The Joint Impact of Innovation and Knowledge Spillovers on Productivity and Growth for Exporting Firms2014Inngår i: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 38, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides new insights regarding the role of innovation and localisation on the levels and growth of total factor productivity among exporting firms. For that purpose, we establish a dynamic model using data collected from nearly 10,000 Swedish exporting firms over a 12-year period. Different innovation proxies are used, and we distinguish between persistent and non-persistent innovators, while knowledge from outside the firm is measured by a newly developed methodology with detailed spatial resolution. The econometric evidence shows two distinct results. First, persistent innovators benefit significantly more than other exporters from access to a rich spectrum of nearby knowledge. Second, the level of productivity among non-innovative exporters and exporters that are only temporary engaged in innovation is positively affected by externalities in the most knowledge-intense local milieus.

  • 153.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Oh, Dong-Huyn
    Creating Innovations, Productivity and Growth - the efficiency of Icelandic firms2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Iceland is one of the smallest European economies and the country was hit severely by the 2008-financial crisis. This paper considers the economy in the period preceding the collapse. Applying a Data Envelopment Analysis on 204 randomly selected firms, the results suggest that a substantial fraction of the Icelandic firms can be classified as non-efficient in their production process. The production scale of many manufacturing firms is too small to be technically efficient, while service firms typically use excessive resources in their production process. A remarkably weak performance in transforming R&D and labour efforts into successful innovations is observed.

  • 154.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Oh, Donghyun
    Heshmati, Almas
    The Icelandic Economy: a victim of the financial crisis or simply inefficient?2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Iceland, one of the smallest European economies, was hit severely by the 2008-financial crisis. This paper uses a firm-level Community Innovation Survey (CIS) data set to consider the economy in the period preceding the collapse of its financial system. We examine the linkage between the crisis and innovativeness from the perspective of technical efficiency by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis of 204 randomly selected firms. The results suggest that a substantial fraction of the Icelandic firms can be classified as non-efficient in their production process. The production scale of many manufacturing firms is too small to be considered technically efficient, while services firms typically use excessive resources in their production process. A remarkably weak performance in transforming R&D and labor efforts into successful innovations is observed. Based on the empirical results, suitable policy implications are suggested to remedy the inoptimal production structure and help economic recovery.

  • 155.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Oh, Donghyun
    Heshmati, Almas
    Total Factor Productivity of Korean Manufacturing Industries: Comparison of Competing Models with Firm-Level Data2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the parametric estimation of the rates of technical change and total factor productivity (TFP) growth of 7,462 Korean manufacturing firms for the period 1987 to 2007. Two alternative formulations of technical change measured by the time trend and the general index approaches are estimated with panel data models assuming flexible functional forms. Several extensions of each approach are also considered and their benefits and limitations are discussed. In addition to making estimates of the TFP growth and its decomposition, the paper compares the parametric TFP growth measure with the non-parametric Solow residual serving as a benchmark. Several hypotheses related to technology level, firm sizes, industrial sectors, skill biased technological change and macroeconomic and industrial policies are tested to explain the growth patterns and heterogeneity in technical change, input biases and TFP growth rates. Using second regression analysis, the paper explores the determinants of TFP growth and their policy implications.

  • 156. Martinsson, G.
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Financial factors and patents2013Inngår i: Long Term Economic Development: Demand, Finance, Organization, Policy and Innovation in a Schumpeterian Perspective, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 395-416Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper conjectures that equity supply is crucial for firms in order to maintain a smooth patenting profile through time. This hypothesis is tested on Swedish firm-level observations from 1997 to 2005. Patent applications growth in Sweden has been highly volatile in recent years. During the economic downturn, following the burst of the IT-bubble, applications dropped substantially, but results here show that the downturn had little effect on the patenting of high-equity firms. Instead, the entire decline in patent applications is confined to firms with lower levels of equity. This effect is consistent across sectors, firm-size, corporate-affiliation, and human-capital intensity.

  • 157.
    Martinsson, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Firm Collateral and the Cyclicality of Knowledge Intensity2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Schumpeterian view on Business cycles treats recessions as a cleansingmechanism and a state where firms can regroup and innovate. Firms need toaccess finance externally in order to compensate declining cash flow inrecessions. Due to financial frictions, the literature proposes that firms needto post collateral in order to mitigate problems of information asymmetries.In this paper I view knowledge within a firm as a prerequisite for it to beinnovative.Combining financial frictions and firm knowledge intensity the overallhypothesis of this paper is: Firms which have collateral can retain itsknowledge intensity when cash flow declines. This enables firms withcollateral to benefit from recessions like Schumpeter proposed.In this paper I explore the impact of firm collateral on the cyclicality ofknowledge intensity. This is conducted through using firm level data on14,500 Swedish manufacturing firms over the period 1997-2004. The mainresults are: (i) the knowledge intensity of a firm without collateral is procyclical.I.e. its share of highly educated employees is positively correlatedwith sales variation; (ii) on the other hand, the knowledge intensity of firmswith collateral is counter-cyclical.Through retaining their knowledge intensity even as sales drops firmswith collateral can benefit from recessions as Schumpeter proposed.

  • 158.
    Martinsson, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    The Impact of Firm Collateral on Knowledge IntensiveConsulting Firms2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how sales and employment for knowledge intensive consulting firms arecorrelated. I apply theory on cash flow-investment sensitivities, mostly applied tomanufacturing firms, to a less capital intensive part of the economy. Therefore theknowledge intensive consulting sector is investigated but instead of analyzing the investmentin plant and machinery this analysis regards the investment in skilled employees. Theargument of Kaplan & Zingales (1997) regarding low cash flow-investment sensitivity beinga sign of financial distress is applied. The main result is that firms less likely to be financiallyconstrained display 60 percent higher sales-employment sensitivities than firms more likelyto be financially constrained. The results are estimated from a sample comprising 23,500Swedish knowledge intensive consulting firms.

  • 159.
    Martinsson, Gustav
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Glaser, Bjoern
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Lime Dissolution in Foaming BOF Slag2018Inngår i: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 49, nr 6, s. 3164-3170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the dissolution mechanisms of lime into liquid and foaming slags relevant to the BOF process. Two different master slags are employed, representing two different periods of the converter process: an early stage where the FeO content is fixed to 45 wt pct, and a later stage where the FeO content is fixed to 25 wt pct. For these master slags, the ratio between CaO/SiO2 is varied to examine the effect of basicity on lime dissolution. Calcium silicates are formed and peeled off, or partially peeled off, from the interface between the lime cube and the slag in all cases. The main difference for the dissolutions in pure liquid slag and foaming slag is the controlling step for dissolution. In liquid slag, the controlling mechanism is the removal of the calcium silicate layers, while in foaming slag, the controlling mechanism is the contact area between the lime and the liquid slag phase of the foam. The strong convection in the foam enhance the dissolution process, in some cases, the lime even dissociates into small pieces.

  • 160.
    Martinsson, Gustav
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Internal Finance and Patents: Evidence from firm-level data2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We find that internal finance resources at the firm-level, measured by cash flow, play a non-trivial role for the number of patent applications, even after controlling for the standard variables of a patent study. The results are based on estimating panel count-data models on a sample of 2,700 Swedish manufacturing firms, with observations from the period 1997-2005. The cash-flow effect is larger during the aftermath of the bursting IT-bubble and for firms that are more likely to be financially constrained. Our results suggest that some firms reduce or stop applying for patents during periods of declining economic activity.

  • 161.
    Mohammadi, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Shafi, Kourosh
    Gender differences in the contribution patterns of equity-crowdfunding investors2018Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 275-287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an exploratory attempt to understand gender-related differences in the behavior of investors in firms seeking equity financing. Using data from the Swedish equity crowdfunding platform FundedByMe, we find that female investors are less likely to invest in the equity of firms that are younger and high tech and have a higher percentage of equity offerings. This pattern seems consistent with a greater risk aversion in female versus male investors. Furthermore, female investors are more likely to invest in projects in which the proportion of male investors is higher.

  • 162.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Inherited Advantage and Spinoff SuccessManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

      This paper focuses on exports, innovation, tenure and management and investigates how the incumbent firm characteristics affect the viability of its spinoff. Using comprehensive Swedish employer-employee panel data sets, three possible outcomes are identified for spinoffs: survival, acquisition and complete exit from the market. While experience from exporting parent has a significant and positive effect on spinoff survival, no spillover effect from an innovative firms can be found. However, taking the managerial experience in the incumbent firm into account, there is some weak evidence of a positive link between the innovative parent and the survival of the spinoff.

  • 163.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Business regulation and red tape in the entrepreneurial economy2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the interrelationship between business regulations and entrepreneurial activities. Most empirical studies find that business regulations have a negative effect on the amount of entrepreneurial activities in an economy. In addition, we argue that the regulatory quality and amount of business regulation may also be influenced by the amount of entrepreneurial activities in the society since policymakers and bureaucrats tend to respond to changing conditions in the society. In the empirical part of the paper, data for 23 OECD countries for the period 1972-2002 in order to elaborate on the interrelationship between entrepreneurship and the quality of business regulations. The empirical findings indicate that there is a positive relationship between entrepreneurship, and the quality of business regulations.

     

  • 164.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Determinants of Regional Entry and Exit in Industrial Sectors2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent empirical research by, for example, Audretsch and Fritsch (1999) and Armington andAcs, (2002) shows that regional determinants of new firm formation differs between industries. Ithas also been suggested that a large part of the regional variation of new firm formation can beexplained by differences in industrial structure. This paper reinvestigates the regionaldeterminants of entry and exit considering these findings. The empirical analysis is performedusing data on Swedish firm entry and exit rates for 1997-2001. It is shown that on average about0.5 to 2.7 percent of the regional variation in entry and exit rates remains to be explained, aftercontrolling for differences in industrial structure, but that there is substantial regional variation. Amajority of the firms in the 47 industries investigated are sensitive to unobserved regionalcharacteristics, such as regional policy when deciding to enter or exit a particular region.Agglomeration and the size structure in the particular industry and region are factors that arefound to influence entry and exit rates in almost all industries.

  • 165.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Firm Maturity and Product and Process R&D in Swedish Manufacturing Firms2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the commonly debated question about innovations and firm age.Are innovations made by incumbent firms, and does innovation therefore constitute abarrier to entry, or is innovation a way for new firms to successfully compete? The paperfurther investigates the relationship between firm size and innovation. Does innovationconstitute a way for small firms to compete or are innovation a large firm phenomenon? Inthe analysis the paper explicitly distinguishes between product and process innovation.Data from 1997 and 1999 on product and process R&D, firm size and age in the Swedishmanufacturing industry is used in the empirical analysis. A multinomial logit-model is usedto estimate the probability of performing process and product R&D. The results show thatthere are complementarities between product and process R&D and very few firms conductonly process R&D. The probability of product R&D and combined product and processR&D is higher for large firms and firms that are older than 80 years. The size and ageeffects are more pronounced for firms that carry out both process and product R&D.

  • 166.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Interdependencies in the Dynamics of Firm Entry and Exit2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the dynamics of firm entry and exit with a focus on differences betweenindustrial sectors. The paper discusses how entry and exit rates in industrial sectors are affectedby previous exit and entry rates. Economic theory presents two different approaches to how entryand exit of firms are interrelated to each other, the multiplier effect and the competition effect.This paper intends to investigate which force that is the predominant one. The empirical analysisis based on data for 25 Swedish manufacturing industries at the 2-digit SIC-level, for firms withmore than five employees during the period 1991-2000. A dynamic panel data approach assuggested by Anderson and Hsio (1981) and Arellano and Bond (1991) are used in estimating therelationships. The empirical results find some evidence of the multiplier effect being thepredominant effect explaining entry while competition effects are more important for explainingexit patterns.

  • 167.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Is Entrepreneurship the Salvation for Enhanced Economic Growth?: A review of the empirical evidence of the effect ofentrepreneurship on employment, productivity andeconomic growth.2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, enhancing entrepreneurship has emerged as commonly used policymeasurein order to improve economic growth. However, is it true that entrepreneurshipunambiguously can be claimed to improve economic growth? This paper intends to reviewthe empirical evidence on the relationship between entrepreneurship on three measures ofeconomic growth, employment, productivity and aggregate economic growth. The reviewshows that the studies that find no positive relationship between entrepreneurship andproductivity growth have studied a relatively short period. Most studies that have studied alonger period (about ten years) provide rather clear evidence on the positive relationshipbetween entrepreneurship and growth. Regarding the relationship between entrepreneurshipand employment growth, the empirical evidence to some extent point in different directions.However, it must be concluded that in the long run there seems to be a positive relationship.A majority of the studies on the relationship between entrepreneurship and aggregateeconomic growth find a positive relationship. Studies that find a negative relationship usuallyemploy non-harmonised self-employment rates as the measure of entrepreneurship.

  • 168.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Labor mobility and entrepreneurship: Who do new firms employ?2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship is often claimed to be important for generating employment. However, the empirical evidence on the relationship between entrepreneurship is not always convincing. Most of the studies that analyse the relationship between new firm formation and employment growth perform their analysis on cross-country or regional data. At the micro-level, we still know little about the labour dynamics and re-allocation effects induced by new firm formation. Which role do new firms play regarding labour reallocation? This paper intends to explore the individual and firm characteristics for employees in new Swedish firms. Do new firm start-ups absorb outsiders in the labour market or do they recruit employees from already incumbent firms? The paper use unique matched firm-employees dataset that makes it possible to link new firm formation and information about the individuals employed in these new firms. The empirical results indicate that the individual and firm characteristics associated with employees differ between new and incumbent firms. In particular, the share of immigrants, recently graduated employees and people entering the labor market is slightly higher in new firms. Hence, new firms might play a more important role for outsiders in the labor market.

  • 169.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Regional Institutional Environment and Swedish Regional New Firm Formation2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses an institutional approach to investigate the relationship between the regionalinstitutional environment and regional new firm formation. The importance of perceivedattitudes regarding private enterprises, local taxes, political majority, the size of thegovernment sector and perceived rules and bureaucracy on new firm formation in 286Swedish municipalities are investigated. The empirical findings show that perceived positiveattitudes toward private enterprises and political governance by a right bloc majority tend tohave positive effects on regional new firm formation. A large local government sector, on theother hand, tends to have negative effects on regional new firm formation. The paper alsoexplore if the effect of different aspects of regional institutional environment on new firmformation are similar across industries. The pattern in the private service sector industries ismost similar to the overall pattern in the economy, while the only variable reflecting theregional institutional environment that influences new firm formation in manufacturingindustries is perceived rules and bureaucracy.

  • 170.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.). KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    When students are allowed to choose: grading scale choices for degree projects2018Inngår i: Studies in Higher Education, ISSN 0307-5079, E-ISSN 1470-174X, Vol. 43, nr 11, s. 1993-2002Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies which grading systems students choose for their degree projects when they are given the choice. Furthermore, the motivational factors behind making this choice are investigated. Student record data and a survey of students conducting their degree projects are used to study whether students prefer the Pass/Fail or A-F grading scale for their degree projects. Data from study record transcripts show that 55% of students selected the Pass/Fail scale, whereas 45% opted for the A-F grading scale. The grade point average score among students choosing the Pass/Fail scale is somewhat higher compared to students who choose the A-F grading scale. Reduced stress associated with writing the degree project motivates those who choose the Pass/Fail grading scale. Enhanced motivation to do a good job on the thesis work and perceived good chances of receiving an A grade motivate students who choose the A-F grading scale.

  • 171.
    Nyström, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Knowledge Accessibility and New Firm Formation2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the role of knowledge for successful entrepreneurship. The paper explicitly discusses the role of accessibility to university and company R&D for new firm formation. Company R&D is assumed to contain a higher share of R&D directed towards generating technological knowledge. Hence, the accessibility to such R&D are expected to have a stronger influence on new firm formation than the accessibility to university R&D. Since knowledge can also be assumed to be spatially bounded and diffuses in geographical space, it is argued that local interaction, measured by intra-municipality accessibility to knowledge, have a stronger influence on new firm formation than interregional interaction. In the empirical analysis data on new firm formation in 288 Swedish municipalities and accessibility to university and company R&D for 1997 and 1999 are used. We find that accessibility to company R&D have a stronger impact on new firm formation than accessibility to university R&D. We also find that close knowledge interactions are more important for new firm formation than long distance knowledge interactions. Accessibility to inter-regional company R&D has even a negative impact on new firm formation.

  • 172. Oh, Donghyun
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Technical change and total factor productivity growth for Swedish manufacturing and service industries2012Inngår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 44, nr 18, s. 2373-2391Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents alternative specifications of the production functions of a large panel of Swedish firms for the period 1992 to 2000. The period can be characterized as a transition when long-run productivity growth in the Swedish economy improved from being among the weakest to one of the strongest within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). In order to present a detailed exploration of this dramatic change, the time trend and general index models are applied to estimate Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth, rate of technical change and returns to scale. The models are extended to allow for firm specific as well as time-varying technical change. The parametric TFP measures are also compared with the nonparametric Solow residual, and several hypotheses are tested to explain the growth patterns in the Swedish economy. It is found that the improved growth rate, initially starting in large exporting manufacturing firms, after a deep economic crisis at the beginning of the 1990s, spilled over to the rest of the economy, both manufacturing and services.

  • 173. Oh, Donghyun
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Total factor productivity of Korean manufacturing industries: Comparison of competing models with firm-level data2014Inngår i: Japan and The World Economy, ISSN 0922-1425, E-ISSN 1879-2006, Vol. 30, s. 25-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the parametric estimation of the rates of technical change and total factor productivity (TFP) growth of 7462 Korean manufacturing firms over the period 1987-2007. Two alternative formulations of technical change measured by the time trend and the general index approaches are estimated with panel data models assuming flexible functional forms. Several extensions of each approach are also considered and their benefits and limitations are discussed. In addition to making estimates of the TFP growth and its decomposition, the paper compares the parametric TFP growth measure with the non-parametric Solow residual serving as a benchmark. Several hypotheses related to technology level, firm sizes, industrial sectors, skill biased technological change and macroeconomic and industrial policies are tested to explain the growth patterns and heterogeneity in technical change, input biases and TFP growth rates. Using second regression analysis, the paper explores the determinants of TFP growth and their policy implications.

  • 174.
    Palmberg, Johanna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Sweden.
    The performance effect of corporate board of directors2015Inngår i: European Journal of Law and Economics, ISSN 0929-1261, E-ISSN 1572-9990, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 273-292Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship between board-member independence, family control, and financial performance in Swedish listed firms. The degree of independence is defined with respect to the principal owners, the management of the firm, and the employees. This definition of independence and the accessibility of detailed data on corporate governance variables, enable precise measurements of board-member independency. The results of this analysis indicate that the directors, who are dependent on the management of the firm, dominate the board of directors. Board-member independence positively affects a firm's financial performance. The negative effect of board-member dependency originates from the firm-related directors, whereas dependence on principal owners, families, and employees does not impact a firm's investment performance. These results are important in the contemporary political debate about the role and the composition of boards of directors. The result of the analysis shows that the definition of independence is important when discussing boards of directors. Directors, independent of the firm, positively influence a firm's investment performance.

  • 175. Perkmann, Markus
    et al.
    Tartari, Valentina
    McKelvey, Maureen
    Autio, Erkko
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    D'Este, Pablo
    Fini, Riccardo
    Geuna, Aldo
    Grimaldi, Rosa
    Hughes, Alan
    Krabel, Stefan
    Kitson, Michael
    Llerena, Patrick
    Lissoni, Franceso
    Salter, Ammon
    Sobrero, Maurizio
    Academic engagement and commercialisation: A review of the literature on university-industry relations2013Inngår i: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 423-442Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A considerable body of work highlights the relevance of collaborative research, contract research, consulting and informal relationships for university-industry knowledge transfer. We present a systematic review of research on academic scientists' involvement in these activities to which we refer as 'academic engagement'. Apart from extracting findings that are generalisable across studies, we ask how academic engagement differs from commercialisation, defined as intellectual property creation and academic entrepreneurship. We identify the individual, organisational and institutional antecedents and consequences of academic engagement, and then compare these findings with the antecedents and consequences of commercialisation. Apart from being more widely practiced, academic engagement is distinct from commercialisation in that it is closely aligned with traditional academic research activities, and pursued by academics to access resources supporting their research agendas. We conclude by identifying future research needs, opportunities for methodological improvement and policy interventions.

  • 176. Raff, Horst
    et al.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Foreign Ownership and the Extensive Margins of Exports: Evidence for Manufacturing Enterprises in Germany2014Inngår i: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 579-591Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how foreign ownership of a firm affects the variety of goods that the firm exports and the number of countries it trades with. We construct a simple theoretical model of how foreign ownership may affect these extensive margins of exports and take this model to data from Germany, one of the leading actors on the world market for goods. In line with theoretical predictions we find that foreign-owned firms do export more goods to more countries after controlling for firm size, productivity and industry affiliation. These differences between foreign-owned firms and domestically controlled firms are highly statistically significant, and they are large from an economic point of view, with foreign-owned firms exporting up to 39 per cent more goods to up to 31 per cent more countries.

  • 177.
    Stephan, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Tsapin, Andriy
    Talavera, Oleksandr
    Main Bank Power, Switching Costs, and Firm Performance: Theory and Evidence from Ukraine2012Inngår i: Emerging markets finance & trade, ISSN 1540-496X, E-ISSN 1558-0938, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 76-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine firms' motivation to change their main bank and how this switch affects loans, interest payments, and firm performance. Applying treatment effect analysis to unique firm-bank matched Ukrainian data, we find that larger and more highly leveraged companies are more likely to switch their main bank. Importantly, firms tend to switch to a new main bank that holds a higher share of equity in the firm and thus has stronger power. The results also suggest that after switching, firms obtain additional access to bank loans but, on average, have lower profits due to bigger interest payments.

  • 178. Tavassoli, S.
    et al.
    Bengtsson, L.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Strategic entrepreneurship and knowledge spillovers: spatial and aspatial perspectives2017Inngår i: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 233-249Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature in the Strategic Entrepreneurship (SE) is increasingly embracing the concept and implications of knowledge spillovers. In this paper, we add to the theoretical repertoire on SE and knowledge spillovers by investigating the types of knowledge spillovers and what they imply for various dimensions of SE. On the one hand, we distinguish between spatial and aspatial knowledge spillovers. On the other hand, we distinguish between three dimensions of SE, i.e. inputs, resource orchestration, and output. Finally, we conceptually link the various types of knowledge spillovers and dimensions of SE and discuss the implications. Doing so, we argue that spatial knowledge spillovers (inter-firm) has received the major attention in previous research in increasing the amount of ‘inputs’ dimension of SE, while the aspatial knowledge (either inter-regional or intra-firm) has been relatively neglected not only for ‘inputs’, but also for ‘resource orchestration’ dimension. At the end, the paper provides suggestions for future research.

  • 179. Tavassoli, S.
    et al.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Persistence of various types of innovation analyzed and explained2015Inngår i: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 44, nr 10, s. 1887-1901Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the persistency in innovation behavior of firms. Using five waves of the Community Innovation Survey in Sweden, we have traced the innovative behavior of firms over a ten-year period, i.e., between 2002 and 2012. We distinguish between four types of innovations: process, product, marketing, and organizational innovations. First, using transition probability matrix, we found evidence of (unconditional) state dependence in all types of innovation, with product innovators having the strongest persistent behavior. Second, using a dynamic probit model, we found evidence of "true" state dependency among all types of innovations, except marketing innovators. Once again, the strongest persistency was found for product innovators.

  • 180. Tavassoli, Sam
    et al.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Innovation strategies and firm performance: Simple or complex strategies?2016Inngår i: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 25, nr 7, s. 631-650Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the effect of various innovation strategies (ISs) of firms on their future performance, captured by labor productivity. Using five waves of the Community Innovation Survey in Sweden, we have traced the innovative behavior of firms over a decade, that is, from 2002 to 2012. We defined ISs to be either simple or complex (in various degrees). We call an IS a simple IS when firms engage in only one of the four types of Schumpeterian innovations, that is, product, process, marketing, or organizational, while a complex IS is when firms simultaneously engage in more than one type. The main findings indicate that those firms that choose and afford to have complex ISs are better off in terms of their future productivity in comparison with those firms that choose not to innovative (base group) and also in comparison with those firms that choose simple ISs. The results are mostly robust for those complex innovators that have a higher degree of complexity and also keep the balance between technological (product and process) and non-technological (organizational and marketing) innovations.

  • 181.
    Tavassoli, Sam
    et al.
    RMIT Univ, Sch Management, 445 Swanston St, Melbourne, Vic 3000, Australia.;Lund Univ, CIRCLE, Lund, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    The role of regional context on innovation persistency of firms2018Inngår i: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 97, nr 4, s. 931-956Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the role of regional context on innovation persistency of firms. Using the Community Innovation Survey in Sweden, we have traced firms' innovative behaviour from 2002 to 2012, in terms of four Schumpeterian types of innovation: product, process, organizational, and marketing. Controlling for an extensive set of firm-level characteristics, we find that certain regional characteristics matter for innovation persistency of firms. In particular, those firms located in regions with: (i) thicker labour market or (ii) higher extent of knowledge spillover exhibit higher probability of being persistent innovators up to 14 percentage points. Such higher persistency is mostly pronounced for product innovators.

  • 182.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Department of Economics, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    A note on firm age and the margins of exports: First evidence from Germany2015Inngår i: The international trade journal, ISSN 0885-3908, E-ISSN 1521-0545, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 93-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses a new tailor-made data set to empirically investigate the link between firm age and the extensive and intensive margins of exports for the first time for Germany. Results turn out to be fully in line with theoretical considerations. Older firms are more often exporters, export more and more different goods to more different destination countries, and export to more distant destination markets.

  • 183.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana University, Germany.
    A note on firm age and the margins of imports: first evidence from Germany2015Inngår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 22, nr 9, s. 679-682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses a new tailor-made data set to investigate the link between firm age and the extensive margins of imports empirically for the first time for Germany. Results turn out to be fully in line with the theoretical considerations. Older firms are more often importers, import more different goods, and import from more different countries of origin.

  • 184.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany.
    A survey of empirical studies using transaction level data on exports and imports2016Inngår i: Review of World Economics, ISSN 1610-2878, E-ISSN 1610-2886, Vol. 152, nr 1, s. 215-225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a tabular survey of 147 empirical studies for 39 countries, plus 8 studies for multiple countries, that use transaction level data on exports or imports of firms. I hope this survey is useful for readers who want to get an impression of the huge number of different topics that have been investigated with transaction level data for a large number of countries already; who want to learn whether transaction level data have already been used for a particular (maybe, their own) country, by whom they have been used to investigate which topics, and what the important results found are; who have access to transaction level data and an idea how to use them, and who want to find out whether others pursued the same or a similar topic already; who want to compare results from their own study based on transaction level data to results from other (similar, neighbor) countries and who are looking for suitable studies; who have access to transaction level data and who are looking for studies based on data from other countries that they can replicate with their data to uncover and investigate differences across countries, or to contribute to the unravelling of stylized facts that hold across countries (and time).

  • 185.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana Univ Lueneburg, D-21314 Luneburg, Germany.;KTH, CESIS, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Active on Many Foreign Markets: A Portrait of German Multi-market Exporters and Importers from Manufacturing Industries2018Inngår i: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, ISSN 0021-4027, Vol. 238, nr 2, s. 157-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses information on more than 160 million export and import transactions by German firms from 2009 to 2012 to document the decisive role of multi-market traders that are active on many foreign markets, where a market is defined as a combination of a good traded and a country traded with. Using merged information from trade transactions and from surveys conducted by the statistical offices it is shown that, controlling for detailed industry affiliation, the number of foreign markets a firm from manufacturing industries is active on as an exporter or importer is higher in firms that are larger, older and foreign owned and that have higher labor productivity, human capital intensity and R&D intensity. With the exception of labor productivity these results are valid ceteris paribus, too. All these results from a descriptive empirical investigation are in line with hypotheses that are derived from the literature on the links between firm characteristics and the extensive margins of foreign trade.

  • 186.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana University, Lueneburg.
    Credit constraints and exports: a survey of empirical studies using firm-level data2014Inngår i: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 1477-1492Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Business managers are well aware of the fact that credit constraints can hamper or even prevent exporting. Economists only recently started to incorporate these arguments in theoretical models of heterogeneous firms and to test the implications of these models econometrically with firm-level data. Starting with the pioneering study by Greenaway, Guariglia, and Kneller (Journal of International Economics, 2007), a growing number of empirical papers looked at the links between financial constraints and export activities using data at the level of the firm. This article presents a tabular survey of 32 empirical studies that cover 14 different countries plus five multi-country studies. The big picture can be summarized as follows: financial constraints are important for the export decisions of firms: exporting firms are less financially constrained than non-exporting firms. Studies that look at the direction of this link usually report that less constrained firms self-select into exporting, but that exporting does not improve financial health of firms. The article argues that the results at hand should not be considered as stylized facts that can guide policy makers in an evidence-based way and suggests a strategy to further improve our knowledge in this area.

  • 187.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany .
    Credit constraints and exports: evidence for German manufacturing enterprises2014Inngår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 294-302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses newly available enterprise-level data for firms from manufacturing industries in Germany to test for the link between credit constraints, measured by a credit-rating score from the leading credit-rating agency Creditreform, and exports. In line with hypotheses from a theoretical model, we find a positive link between a better credit-rating score of a firm and both the probability that the firm is an exporter and a higher share of exports in total sales. This link, though statistically highly significant, is not very strong from an economic point of view. While empirical evidence for the hypothesis that credit-constrained firms are less likely to start to export is, at best, weak, we find no evidence for a statistically significant difference in credit-rating scores between firms that stopped to export and firms that continued to export.

  • 188.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana University, Lueneburg.
    Credit constraints and margins of import: first evidence for German manufacturing enterprises2015Inngår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 47, nr 5, s. 415-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses tailor-made enterprise-level data for 2008-2010 from various sources for firms from manufacturing industries to test for the link between credit constraints, measured by a credit rating score provided by a leading credit rating agency, and imports in Germany for the first time. We find empirical evidence that a better credit rating score is positively related to extensive margins of import - firms with a better score have a higher probability to import, they import more goods and they source from more countries of origin. The intensive margin of imports the share of imports in total sales - is found not to be related to credit constraints.

  • 189.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Distance-sensitivity of German exports: first evidence from firm-product level data2016Inngår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, s. 1-3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses a tailor-made new data set of 7 580 251 observations for German exports at the firm-product-destination level to estimate a gravity equation and to investigate the link between the amount of firms’ exports and the distance to destination countries. It is shown that, in line with stylized facts based on aggregate data, the quantity of exports declines significantly with distance within a firm for a given product.

  • 190.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana Universitat Luneburg, Luneburg, Germany .
    Econometric Studies with Integrated Micro-data from German Official Statistics2018Inngår i: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, ISSN 0021-4027, Vol. 238, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 191.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana University, Germany.
    Exporter and Importer Dynamics Database for Germany2016Inngår i: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, ISSN 0021-4027, Vol. 236, nr 3, s. 411-420Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 192.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana Universitat Luneburg, Germany.
    Intra-good trade in Germany: a first look at the evidence2017Inngår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 49, nr 57, s. 5753-5761Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to the literature by using newly released comprehensive transaction-level data on all exports and imports to document facts about the amount of intra-good trade - the simultaneous export and import of identical goods by one firm - in Germany. Combined data for trade transactions and for characteristics of a representative large sample of trading firms are then used to report differences between firms that export and import different goods only (inter-good traders) and firms that engage in the simultaneous export and import of identical goods (intra-good traders). We find that the share of intra-good trade in total trade was some 17% in Germany in 2012. Intra-good trade matters. This share differs widely between broadly defined groups of goods and between industries. Controlling for detailed industry affiliation, intra-good traders differ significantly from inter-good traders - they are larger, more human capital intensive, more productive, have a higher R&D intensity and are more profitable. The data, however, are not rich enough to reveal the direction of causality between intra-good trade and firm performance and to investigate empirically the reasons why some firms engage in intra-good trade.

  • 193.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Is export diversification good for profitability?: First evidence for manufacturing enterprises in Germany2014Inngår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 46, nr 33, s. 4083-4090Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses a tailor-made newly available data set for enterprises from manufacturing industries in Germany to investigate for the first time the links between export diversification over destination countries and goods on the one hand and the profitability of the exporting firms on the other hand. We find that profits tend to be larger in firms with less diversified export sales over goods and in firms with more diversified export sales over destination countries.

  • 194.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Multiple Import Sourcing. First Evidence for German Enterprises from Manufacturing Industries2018Inngår i: Open Economies Review, ISSN 0923-7992, E-ISSN 1573-708X, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 165-175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses information on import transactions by German firms from 2009 to 2012 merged with information on characteristics of the importers taken from surveys by the Statistical Offices to document that a large share of importers engage in multiple import sourcing by importing the same good from more than one source country in a year and that a large share of total imports is due to multiple sourcing. It is shown that the probability of multiple import sourcing and the share of imports from multiple sourcing in total imports increase with firm productivity and firm size after controlling for detailed industry affiliation.

  • 195.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Quality of Firms' Exports and Distance to Destination Countries: First Evidence from Germany2016Inngår i: Open Economies Review, ISSN 0923-7992, E-ISSN 1573-708X, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 811-818Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a tailor-made new data set of 7,112,614 observations for export quality (measured by the unit value of exports) at the firm-product-destination level for German and the reporting year 2011. Data are from 119,280 firms that exported 4986 products (recorded at the HS6-level) in 1,632,731 firm-product combinations to 174 countries. The paper investigates for the first time the link between the quality of firms' exports and the distance to destination countries for Germany. It is shown that, in line with theory, the quality of exported goods and distance to destination countries are statistically positively correlated.

  • 196.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana Universitat Luneburg, Germany .
    Still Different After All These Years Extensive and Intensive Margins of Exports in East and West German Manufacturing Enterprises2016Inngår i: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, ISSN 0021-4027, Vol. 236, nr 2, s. 297-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a new tailor-made data set to investigate the differences in extensive and intensive margins of exports in manufacturing firms from East Germany and West Germany. It documents that these margins do still differ in 2010, 20 years after the re-unification of Germany. West German firms outperform East German firms at all four margins of exports - they have a larger propensity to export, export a larger share of total sales, export more goods and export to a larger number of countries. All these differences are large from an economic point of view. A decomposition analysis shows that in 2010 between 59 percent and 78 percent of the difference in margins can be explained by differences in firm characteristics.

  • 197.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana Univ Lueneburg, Luneburg, Germany.;KTH Stockholm, CESIS, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Temporary exports and characteristics of destination countries: first evidence from German transaction data2018Inngår i: Economics, ISSN 1864-6042, E-ISSN 1864-6042, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 201854Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses information on all export transactions of goods by German firms with countries outside the European Union from 2009 to 2014 to document for the first time the patterns of export participation at the firm-good-destination level over time and to investigate the link between the duration of export patterns and characteristics of destination countries. It turns out that only 6.5 percent of all combinations were recorded in each year, while more than half of all patterns are only observed once. In line with theoretical hypotheses, the likelihood of permanent trade patterns increases within a firm with proximity and market size of destination countries.

  • 198.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana Univ Lueneburg.
    The Lumpiness of German Exports and Imports of Goods2016Inngår i: Economics, ISSN 1864-6042, E-ISSN 1864-6042, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 2016-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at a hitherto neglected extensive margin of international trade by investigating for the first time the frequency at which German exporters and importers trade a given good with a given country. Imports and exports show a high degree of lumpiness. In a given year about half of all firm-good-country combinations are recorded only once or twice for trade with EU-countries, and this is the case for more than 60 percent of all firm-good-country combinations in trade with non-EU countries. The frequency of recorded transactions tends to decline with an increase in the number of transactions per year. This is in accordance with the presence of per-shipment fixed costs that provide an incentive for trading firms to engage in cross-border transactions infrequently. Empirical models show that for Germany the frequency of transactions at the firm-good-country level tends to decrease with an increase in per-shipment costs when unobserved firm and goods characteristics are controlled for.

  • 199.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    The Role of Extensive Margins of Exports in The Great Export Recovery in Germany, 2009/20102014Inngår i: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, ISSN 0021-4027, Vol. 234, nr 4, s. 518-526Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the literature by documenting for the first time the contribution of adding (and dropping) goods and destination countries to the sharp increase in exports of goods in the German economy as a whole during the Great Export Recovery in 2009/2010. The empirical investigation finds that firms that exported in both 2009 and 2010 are much more important for the export dynamics than export starters and export stoppers. Firms that increased their exports (and that were the drivers of the export boom) exported on average more goods and to more destination countries in 2009 than firms that decreased their exports, and they increased both extensive margins of exports on average while firms with decreased exports reduced both the number of goods exported and the number of countries exported to.

  • 200.
    Wagner, Joachim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Time zones and German exports: first evidence from firm-product level data2019Inngår i: Review of World Economics, ISSN 1610-2878, E-ISSN 1610-2886, Vol. 155, nr 1, s. 181-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a tailor-made new data set of 3,390,871 observations for German exports to non-EU countries at the firm-product-destination level in 2011 to investigate the link between the amount of firms' exports and the difference in time zones between Germany and the destination countries. The results indicate that including firm and product level heterogeneity is important. When distance to destination countries is controlled for, time zones only decrease exports for smaller exporters and for intermediate goods. The quantity of exports declines with increasing time difference within a firm for a given product for exports to the West (where time difference to Germany is negative) but not the East.

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