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  • 151.
    Dürr, Hans-Bernd
    et al.
    Institute for Systems Theory and Automatic Control, University of Stuttgart.
    Stankovic, Milos S.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Distributed Positioning of Autonomous Mobile Sensors with Application to Coverage Control2011Inngår i: Proc. American Control Conference (ACC), IEEE, 2011, s. 4822-4827Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider problems in multi-agent systems where a network of mobile sensors needs to self-organize such that some global objective function is maximized. To deal with the agents' lack of global information we approach the problem in a game-theoretic framework where agents/players are only able to access local measurements of their own local utility functions whose parameters and detailed analytical forms may be unknown. We then propose a distributed and adaptive algorithm, where each agent applies a local extremum seeking feedback adopted to its specific motion dynamics, and prove its global practical stability, implying that the agents asymptotically reach a configuration that is arbitrary close to the globally optimal one. For the stability analysis we introduce a novel methodology based on a Lie bracket trajectory approximation and combine it with a potential game approach. We apply the proposed algorithm to the sensor coverage problem and solve it in a distributed way where the agents do not need any a priori knowledge about the distribution of the events to be detected and about the detection probabilities of the individual agents. The proposed scheme is illustrated through simulations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 152.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Bottegal, Giulio
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Molinari, Marco
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    Division of Signals and Systems, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Luleå University of Innovation and Technology.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Multi-room occupancy estimation through adaptive gray-box models2015Inngår i: Decision and Control (CDC), 2015 IEEE 54th Annual Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, s. 3705-3711Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem of estimating the occupancylevel in buildings using indirect information such as CO2 concentrations and ventilation levels. We assume that oneof the rooms is temporarily equipped with a device measuringthe occupancy. Using the collected data, we identify a gray-boxmodel whose parameters carry information about the structuralcharacteristics of the room. Exploiting the knowledge of thesame type of structural characteristics of the other rooms inthe building, we adjust the gray-box model to capture the CO2dynamics of the other rooms. Then the occupancy estimatorsare designed using a regularized deconvolution approach whichaims at estimating the occupancy pattern that best explainsthe observed CO2 dynamics. We evaluate the proposed schemethrough extensive simulation using a commercial software tool,IDA-ICE, for dynamic building simulation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 153.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Bottegal, Giulio
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Blind identification strategies for room occupancy estimation2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose and test on real data a two-tier estimation strategy for inferring occupancy levels from measurements of CO2 concentration and temperature levels. The first tier is a blind identification step, based either on a frequentist Maximum Likelihood method, implemented using non-linear optimization, or on a Bayesian marginal likelihood method, implemented using a dedicated Expectation-Maximization algorithm. The second tier resolves the ambiguity of the unknown multiplicative factor, and returns the final estimate of the occupancy levels. The overall procedure addresses some practical issues of existing occupancy estimation strategies. More specifically, first it does not require the installation of special hardware, since it uses measurements that are typically available in many buildings. Second, it does not require apriori knowledge on the physical parameters of the building, since it performs system identification steps. Third, it does not require pilot data containing measured real occupancy patterns (i.e., physically counting people for some periods, a typically expensive and time consuming step), since the identification steps are blind.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 154.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Bottegal, Giulio
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Estimation of building occupancy levels through environmental signals deconvolution2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5th ACM Workshop on Embedded Systems For Energy-Efficient Buildings, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the problem of estimating the occupancy levelsin rooms using the information available in standardHVAC systems. Instead of employing dedicated devices, weexploit the significant statistical correlations between the occupancylevels and the CO2 concentration, room temperature,and ventilation actuation signals in order to identify adynamic model. The building occupancy estimation problemis formulated as a regularized deconvolution problem, wherethe estimated occupancy is the input that, when injected intothe identified model, best explains the currently measuredCO2 levels. Since occupancy levels are piecewise constant,the zero norm of occupancy is plugged into the cost functionto penalize non-piecewise constant inputs. The problemthen is seen as a particular case of fused-lasso estimator byrelaxing the zero norm into the `1 norm. We propose bothonline and offline estimators; the latter is shown to performfavorably compared to other data-based building occupancyestimators. Results on a real testbed show that the MSE ofthe proposed scheme, trained on a one-week-long dataset, is half the MSE of equivalent Neural Network (NN) or SupportVector Machine (SVM) estimation strategies.

  • 155.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Bottegal, Giulio
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Regularized Deconvolution-Based Approaches for Estimating Room Occupancies2015Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 1157-1168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the problem of estimating the number of people in a room using information available in standard HVAC systems. We propose an estimation scheme based on two phases. In the first phase, we assume the availability of pilot data and identify a model for the dynamic relations occurring between occupancy levels, CO2 concentration and room temperature. In the second phase, we make use of the identified model to formulate the occupancy estimation task as a deconvolution problem. In particular, we aim at obtaining an estimated occupancy pattern by trading off between adherence to the current measurements and regularity of the pattern. To achieve this goal, we employ a special instance of the so-called fused lasso estimator, which promotes piecewise constant estimates by including an l(1) norm-dependent term in the associated cost function. We extend the proposed estimator to include different sources of information, such as actuation of the ventilation system and door opening/closing events. We also provide conditions under which the occupancy estimator provides correct estimates within a guaranteed probability. We test the estimator running experiments on a real testbed, in order to compare it with other occupancy estimation techniques and assess the value of having additional information sources.

  • 156.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Varagnolo, D.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Bottegal, G.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Application-oriented input design for room occupancy estimation algorithms2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE 56TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON DECISION AND CONTROL (CDC), IEEE , 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem of occupancy estimation in buildings using available environmental information. In particular, we study the problem of how to collect data that is informative enough for occupancy estimation purposes. We thus propose an application-oriented input design approach for designing the ventilation signal to be used while collecting the system identification datasets. The main goal of the method is to guarantee a certain accuracy in the estimated occupancy levels while minimizing the experimental time and effort. To take into account potential limitations on the actuation signals we moreover formulate the problem as a recursive nonlinear and nonconvex optimization problem, solved then using exhaustive search methods. We finally corroborate the theoretical findings with some numerical examples, which results show that computing ventilation signals using experiment design concepts leads to occupancy estimator performing 4 times better in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE).

  • 157. Eilers, S.
    et al.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Pettersson, H.
    Pillado, M.
    Gallegos, D.
    Tobar, M.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Friedrichs, T.
    Borojeni, S. S.
    Adolfson, M.
    COMPANION-Towards Co-operative Platoon Management of Heavy-Duty Vehicles2015Inngår i: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, IEEE , 2015, s. 1267-1273Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the EU project COMPANION is to develop co-operative mobility technologies for supervised vehicle platooning, in order to improve fuel efficiency and safety for goods transport. The potential social and environmental benefits inducted by heavy-duty vehicle platoons have been largely proven. However, until now, the creation, coordination, and operation of such platoons have been mostly neglected. In addition, the regulation and standardization of coordinated platooning, together with its acceptance by the end-users and the society need further attention and research. In this paper we give an overview over the project and present the architecture of the off-board and onboard platforms of the COMPANION cooperative platoon management system. Furthermore, the consortium reports on the first results of the human factors for platooning, legislative analysis of platooning aspects, clustering and optimization of platooning plans and prediction of congestion due to planned special events. Finally, we present the method of validation of the system via simulation and trials.

  • 158. Epstein, M.
    et al.
    Lynch, K.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Murray, R. M.
    Using hierarchical decomposition to speed up average consensus2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17th IFAC World Congress, 2008, 2008, s. 612-618Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the continuous-time consensus problem where nodes on a graph attempt to reach average consensus. We consider communication graphs that can be decomposed into a hierarchical structure and present a consensus scheme that exploits this hierarchical topology. The scheme consists of splitting the overall graph into layers of smaller connected subgraphs. Consensus is performed within the individual subgraphs starting with those of the lowest layer of the hierarchy and moving upwards. Certain ``leader'' nodes bridge the layers of the hierarchy. By exploiting the increased convergence speed of the smaller subgraphs, we show how this scheme can achieve faster overall convergence than the standard single-stage consensus algorithm running on the full graph topology. The result presents some fundamentals on how the communication architecture influences the global performance of a networked system. Analytical performance bounds are derived and simulations provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the scheme.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    multiagent_ifac08_hierarch
  • 159. Fagnani, Fabio
    et al.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Signaler, sensorer och system.
    Speranzon, Alberto
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Signaler, sensorer och system.
    Zampieri, Sandro
    On multi-vehicle rendezvous under quantized communication2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A rendezvous problem for a team of autonomous vehicles, which communicate over quantized channels, is analyzed. The paper illustrates how communication topologies based on uniform and logarithmic quantizations influence the performance. Since a logarithmic quantizer in general imposes fewer bits to be communicated compared to a uniform quantizer, the results indicate estimates of lower limits on the amount of information that needs to be exchanged in order for the vehicles to meet. Simulation examples illustrate the results.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    multirobot_mtns04
  • 160.
    Fang, Song
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Ishii, Hideaki
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Dept Comp Sci, Tokyo, Japan..
    Chen, Jie
    City Univ Hong Kong, Dept Elect Engn, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Reglerteknik.
    A Frequency-Domain Characterization of Optimal Error Covariance for the Kalman-Bucy Filter2018Inngår i: 2018 IEEE CONFERENCE ON DECISION AND CONTROL (CDC), IEEE , 2018, s. 6366-6371Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discover that the trace of the division of the optimal output estimation error covariance over the noise covariance attained by the Kalman-Bucy filter can be explicitly expressed in terms of the plant dynamics and noise statistics in a frequency-domain integral characterization. Towards this end, we examine the algebraic Riccati equation associated with Kalman-Bucy filtering using analytic function theory and relate it to the Bode integral. Our approach features an alternative, frequency-domain framework for analyzing algebraic Riccati equations and reduces to various existing related results.

  • 161.
    Fang, Song
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Skoglund, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Ishii, Hideaki
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Dept Comp Sci, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Two-Way Coding in Control Systems Under Injection Attacks: From Attack Detection to Attack Correction2019Inngår i: ICCPS '19: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2019 10TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS / [ed] Ramachandran, GS Ortiz, J, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2019, s. 141-150Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce the method of two-way coding, a concept originating in communication theory characterizing coding schemes for two-way channels, into (networked) feedback control systems under injection attacks. We first show that the presence of two-way coding can distort the perspective of the attacker on the control system. In general, the distorted viewpoint on the attacker side as a consequence of two-way coding will facilitate detecting the attacks, or restricting what the attacker can do, or even correcting the attack effect. In the particular case of zero-dynamics attacks, if the attacks are to be designed according to the original plant, then they will be easily detected; while if the attacks are designed with respect to the equivalent plant as viewed by the attacker, then under the additional assumption that the plant is stabilizable by static output feedback, the attack effect may be corrected in steady state.

  • 162. Farhad, Farokhi
    et al.
    Johansson, Karl
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    A piecewise-constant congestion taxing policy for repeated routing games2015Inngår i: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 78, s. 123-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider repeated routing games with piecewise-constant congestion taxing in which a central planner sets and announces the congestion taxes for fixed windows of time in advance. Specifically, congestion taxes are calculated using marginal congestion pricing based on the flow of the vehicles on each road prior to the beginning of the taxing window (and, hence, there is a time-varying delay in setting the congestion taxes). We motivate the piecewise-constant taxing policy by that users or drivers may dislike fast-changing prices and that they also prefer prior knowledge of the prices. We prove for this model that the multiplicative update rule and the discretized replicator dynamics converge to a socially optimal flow when using vanishing step sizes. Considering that the algorithm cannot adapt itself to a changing environment when using vanishing step sizes, we propose adopting constant step sizes in this case. Then, however, we can only prove the convergence of the dynamics to a neighborhood of the socially optimal flow (with the size of the neighbourhood being of the order of the selected step size). The results are illustrated on a nonlinear version of Pigou's famous routing game.

  • 163. Farokhi, F.
    et al.
    Shames, I.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Private and Secure Coordination of Match-Making for Heavy-Duty Vehicle Platooning2017Inngår i: IFAC-PapersOnLine, ISSN 2405-8963, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 7345-7350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A secure and private framework for inter-agent communication and coordination is developed. This allows an agent, in our case a fleet owner, to ask questions or submit queries in an encrypted fashion using semi-homomorphic encryption. The submitted query can be about the interest of the other fleet owners for using a road at a specific time of the day, for instance, for the purpose of collaborative vehicle platooning. The other agents can then provide appropriate responses without knowing the content of the questions or the queries. Strong privacy and security guarantees are provided for the agent who is submitting the queries. It is also shown that the amount of the information that this agent can extract from the other agent is bounded. In fact, with submitting one query, a sophisticated agent can at most extract the answer to two queries. This secure communication platform is used subsequently to develop a distributed coordination mechanisms among fleet owners.

  • 164.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Adaptive control design under structured model information limitation: A cost-biased maximum-likelihood approach2015Inngår i: Systems & control letters (Print), ISSN 0167-6911, E-ISSN 1872-7956, Vol. 75, s. 8-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Networked control strategies based on limited information about the plant model usually result in worse closed-loop performance than optimal centralized control with full plant model information. Recently, this fact has been established by utilizing the concept of competitive ratio, which is defined as the worst-case ratio of the cost of a control design with limited model information to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information. We show that an adaptive controller, inspired by a controller proposed by Campi and Kumar, with limited plant model information, asymptotically achieves the closed-loop performance of the optimal centralized controller with full model information for almost any plant. Therefore, there exists, at least, one adaptive control design strategy with limited plant model information that can achieve a competitive ratio equal to one. The plant model considered in the paper belongs to a compact set of stochastic linear time-invariant systems and the closed-loop performance measure is the ergodic mean of a quadratic function of the state and control input.

  • 165.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Using piecewise-constant congestion taxing policy in repeated routing games2015Inngår i: SIAM Conference on Control and Its Applications 2015, 2015, s. 274-281Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider repeated routing games with piecewise-constant congestion taxing in which a central planner sets and announces the congestion taxes for fixed windows of time in advance. Specifically, congestion taxes are calculated using marginal congestion pricing based on the flow of the vehicles on each road prior to the beginning of the taxing window. The piecewise-constant taxing policy in motivated by that users or drivers may dislike fast-changing prices and that they also prefer prior knowledge of the prices. We prove that the multiplicative update rule converges to a socially optimal flow when using vanishing step sizes. Considering that the algorithm cannot adapt itself to a changing environment when using vanishing step sizes, we propose using constant step sizes in this case. Then, however, we can only prove the convergence of the dynamics to a neighborhood of the socially optimal flow (with its size being of the order of the selected step size).

  • 166.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    A Game-Theoretic Framework for Studying Truck Platooning Incentives2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th International IEEE Annual Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2013), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 1253-1260Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An atomic congestion game with two types of agents, cars and trucks, is used to model the traffic flow on a road over certain time intervals. In this game, the drivers make a trade-off between the time they choose to use the road, the average velocity of the flow at that time, and the dynamic congestion tax that they are paying to use the road. The trucks have platooning capabilities and therefore, have an incentive for using the road at the same time as their peers. The dynamics and equilibria of this game-theoretic model for the interaction between car traffic and truck platooning incentives are investigated. We use traffic data from Stockholm to validate the modeling assumptions and extract reasonable parameters for the simulations. We perform a comprehensive simulation study to understand the influence of various factors, such as the percentage of the trucks that are equipped with platooning devices on the properties of the pure strategy Nash equilibrium that is learned using a joint strategy fictitious play.

  • 167.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    A Study of Truck Platooning Incentives Using a Congestion Game2015Inngår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 581-595, artikkel-id 6847185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce an atomic congestion game with two types of agents, namely, cars and trucks, to model the traffic flow on a road over various time intervals of the day. Cars maximize their utility by finding a tradeoff between the time they choose to use the road, the average velocity of the flow at that time, and the dynamic congestion tax that they pay for using the road. In addition to these terms, the trucks have an incentive for using the road at the same time as their peers because they have platooning capabilities, which allow them to save fuel. The dynamics and equilibria of this game-theoretic model for the interaction between car traffic and truck platooning incentives are investigated. We use traffic data from Stockholm, Sweden, to validate parts of the modeling assumptions and extract reasonable parameters for the simulations. We use joint strategy fictitious play and average strategy fictitious play to learn a pure strategy Nash equilibrium of this game. We perform a comprehensive simulation study to understand the influence of various factors, such as the drivers' value of time and the percentage of the trucks that are equipped with platooning devices, on the properties of the Nash equilibrium.

  • 168.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dynamic Control Design Based on Limited Model Information2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, 2011, s. 1576-1583Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of optimal H_2 dynamic controllers for interconnected linear systems using limited plant model information is considered. Control design strategies based on various degrees of model information are compared using the competitive ratio as a performance metric, that is, the worst case control performance for a given design strategy normalized with the optimal control performance based on full model information. An explicit minimizer of the competitive ratio is found. It is shown that this control design strategy is not dominated by any other strategy with the same amount of model information. The result applies to a class of system interconnections and design information characterized through given plant, control, and design graphs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    IR-EE-RT_2011_090
  • 169.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Investigating the Interaction Between Traffic Flow and Vehicle Platooning Using a Congestion Game2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th IFAC World Congress, 2014 / [ed] Boje, Edward; Xia, Xiaohua, 2014, s. 4170-4177Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a congestion game with two types of agents to describe the traffic flow on a road at various time intervals in each day. The first type of agents (cars) maximize a utility which is determined by a sum of a penalty for using the road at a time other than their preferred time interval, the average velocity of the traffic flow, and the congestion tax. The second type of agents (trucks or heavy-duty vehicles) can benefit from using the road together with other second-type agents. This is because the trucks can form platoons to save fuel through reducing the air drag force. We study a Nash equilibrium of this game to study the interaction between the traffic flow and the platooning incentives. We prove that the introduced congestion game does not admit a potential function unless we devise an appropriate congestion taxing policy. We use joint strategy fictitious play and average strategy fictitious play to learn a pure strategic Nash equilibrium of this congestion game. Lastly, we demonstrate the developed results on a numerical example using data from a highway segment in Stockholm.

  • 170.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Limited Model Information Control Design for Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Stochastic Parameters2012Inngår i: 2012 IEEE 51st Annual Conference on Decision And Control (CDC), IEEE , 2012, s. 855-861Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We design optimal local controllers for large-scale networked systems using exact local model information and statistical beliefs about the model of the rest of the system. We study the value of model information in control design using the closed-loop performance degradation caused by the lack of full model information in the control design procedure. This performance degradation is captured using the ratio of the cost of the optimal controller with limited model information over the cost of the optimal controller with full model information. Both finite-horizon and infinite-horizon cost functions are considered. A numerical example illustrates the developed approach.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 171.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Optimal control design under limited model information for discrete-time linear systems with stochastically-varying parameters2015Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 60, nr 3, s. 684-699Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The value of plant model information available in the control design process is discussed. We design optimal state-feedback controllers for interconnected discrete-time linear systems with stochastically-varying parameters. The parameters are assumed to be independently and identically distributed random variables in time. The design of each controller relies only on (i) exact local plant model information and (ii) statistical beliefs about the model of the rest of the system. We consider both finite-horizon and infinite-horizon quadratic cost functions. The optimal state-feedback controller is derived in both cases. The optimal controller is shown to be linear in the state and to depend on the model parameters and their statistics in a particular way. Furthermore, we study the value of model information in optimal control design using the performance degradation ratio which is defined as the supremum (over all possible initial conditions) of the ratio of the cost of the optimal controller with limited model information scaled by the cost of the optimal controller with full model information. An upper bound for the performance degradation ratio is presented for the case of fully-actuated subsystems. Comparisons are made between designs based on limited, statistical, and full model information. Throughout the paper, we use a power network example to illustrate concepts and results.

  • 172.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Optimal Control Design under Structured Model Information Limitation Using Adaptive Algorithms2012Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Networked control strategies based on limited information about the plant model usually results in worse closed-loop performance than optimal centralized control with full plant model information. Recently, this fact has been established by utilizing the concept of competitive ratio, which is defined as the worst case ratio of the cost of a control design with limited model information to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information. In this paper, we show that with an adaptive networked controller with limited plant model information, it is indeed possible to achieve a competitive ratio equal to one. We show that an adaptive controller introduced by Campi and Kumar asymptotically achieves closed-loop performance equal to the optimal centralized controller with full model information. The plant model considered in the paper belongs to a compact set of stochastic linear time-invariant systems and the closed loop performance measure is the ergodic mean of a quadratic function of the state and control input. We illustrate the applicability of the results numerically on a vehicle platooning problem.

  • 173.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Stochastic Sensor Scheduling for Networked Control Systems2014Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 59, nr 5, s. 1147-1162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal sensor scheduling with applications to networked estimation and control systems is considered. We model sensor measurement and transmission instances using jumps between states of a continuous-time Markov chain. We introduce a cost function for this Markov chain as the summation of terms depending on the average sampling frequencies of the subsystems and the effort needed for changing the parameters of the underlying Markov chain. By minimizing this cost function through extending Brockett's recent approach to optimal control of Markov chains, we extract an optimal scheduling policy to fairly allocate the network resources among the control loops. We study the statistical properties of this scheduling policy in order to compute upper bounds for the closed-loop performance of the networked system, where several decoupled scalar subsystems are connected to their corresponding estimator or controller through a shared communication medium. We generalize the estimation results to observable subsystems of arbitrary order. Finally, we illustrate the developed results numerically on a networked system composed of several decoupled water tanks.

  • 174.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Stochastic sensor scheduling with application to networked control2013Inngår i: 2013 American Control Conference (ACC), AACC American Automatic Control Council , 2013, s. 2325-2332Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider stochastic sensor scheduling with application to networked control systems. We model sampling instances (in a networked system) using jumps between states of a continuous-time Markov chain. We introduce a cost function for this Markov chain which is composed of terms depending on the average sampling frequencies of the subsystems and the effort needed for changing the parameters of the underlying Markov chain. By extending Brockett's recent contribution in optimal control of Markov chains, we extract an optimal scheduling policy to fairly allocate network resources (i.e., access to the network) among the control loops. We apply this scheduling policy to a networked control system composed of several scalar decoupled subsystems and compute upper bounds for their closed-loop performance. We illustrate the developed results numerically on a networked system composed of several water tanks.

  • 175.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Krichene, Walid
    University of California at Berkeley.
    Alexandre M., Bayen
    University of California at Berkeley.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    When Do Potential Functions Exist in Heterogeneous Routing Games?2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We study a heterogeneous routing game in which vehicles might belong to more than one type. The type determines the cost of traveling along an edge as a function of the flow of various types of vehicles over that edge. We relax the assumptions needed for the existence of a Nash equilibrium in this heterogeneous routing game. We extend the available results to present necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a potential function. We characterize a set of tolls that guarantee the existence of a potential function when only two types of users are participating in the game. We present an upper bound for the price of anarchy (i.e., the worst-case ratio of the social cost calculated for a Nash equilibrium over the social cost for a socially optimal flow) for the case in which only two types of players are participating in a game with affine edge cost functions. A heterogeneous routing game with vehicle platooning incentives is used as an example throughout the article to clarify the concepts and to validate the results.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 176.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Krichene, Walid
    University of California at Berkeley.
    Bayen, Alexandre M.
    University of California at Berkeley.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    A Heterogeneous Routing Game2013Inngår i: 2013 51st Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, Allerton 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 448-455Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most literature on routing games make the assumption that drivers or vehicles are of the same type and, hence, experience the same latency or cost when traveling along the edges of the network. In contrast, in this article, we propose a heterogeneous routing game in which each driver or vehicle belongs to a certain type. The type determines the cost of traveling along an edge as a function of the flow of all types of drivers or vehicles over that edge. We examine the existence of a Nash equilibrium in this heterogeneous routing game. We study the conditions for which the problem of finding a Nash equilibrium can be posed as a convex optimization problem and is therefore numerically tractable. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the results.

  • 177.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Langbort, Cedric
    Department of Aerospace Engineering and the Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA..
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Control Design with Limited Model Information2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2011 American Control Conference, AACC , 2011, s. 4697-4704Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the family of limited model information control design methods, which construct controllers by accessing the plant’s model in a constrained way, according to a given design graph. This class generalizes the notion of communication-less control design methods recently introduced by one of the authors, which construct each sub-controller using only local plant model information. We study the tradeoff between the amount of model information exploited by a control design method and the quality of controllers it can produce. In particular, we quantify the benefit (in terms of the competitive ratio and domination metrics) of giving the control designer access to the global interconnection structure of the plant-to-be-controlled, in addition to local model information.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 178.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Langbort, Cedric
    Department of Aerospace Engineering and the Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA..
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Decentralized Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Plant Model Information2013Inngår i: SIAM Journal of Control and Optimization, ISSN 0363-0129, E-ISSN 1095-7138, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 1543-1573Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of optimal disturbance accommodation and servomechanism controllers with limited plant model information is studied in this paper. We consider discrete-time linear time-invariant systems that are fully actuated and composed of scalar subsystems, each of which is controlled separately and influenced by a scalar disturbance. Each disturbance is assumed to be generated by a system with known dynamics and unknown initial conditions. We restrict ourselves to control design methods that produce structured dynamic state feedback controllers where each subcontroller, at least, has access to the state measurements of those subsystems that can affect its corresponding subsystem. The performance of such control design methods is compared using a metric called the competitive ratio, which is the worst-case ratio of the cost of a given control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information. We find an explicit minimizer of the competitive ratio and show that it is undominated, that is, there is no other control design strategy that performs better for all possible plants while having the same worst-case ratio. This optimal controller can be separated into a static feedback law and a dynamic disturbance observer. For step disturbances, it is shown that this structure corresponds to proportional-integral control.

  • 179.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Langbort, Cedric
    Department of Aerospace Engineering and the Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA..
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Decentralized H2 Control Design with Limited Model Information2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with designing optimal decentralized H2 controller for interconnected discrete-time time-invariant systems with limited model information. We adapt the notion of limited model information designs to handle the dynamic H2 controllers. The best decentralized control design strategy, in terms of the competitive ratio and domination metrics, is found for different acyclic plant graphs when the control graph is a super-graph of the plant graph.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    TRITA-EE_2011_064
  • 180.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Langbort, Cedric
    Department of Aerospace Engineering and the Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA..
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    On Designing Optimal Controllers with Limited Model Information2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the family of limited model information designs, which construct controllers by accessing the plant's model in a constrained manner. We investigate the closed loop performance of the best controller that they can produce. For a class of linear discrete-time, time invariant plants, we show that there exists a limited model information control design which results in a controller whose performance is in a bounded neighborhood of the optimal control design and we show that this controller is the best controller that one can design with limited information about the plant model. We investigate the plant model structure and the model information on this neighborhood.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    TRITA-EE_2010_039
  • 181.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Langbort, Cedric
    Department of Aerospace Engineering and the Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA..
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Optimal Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Model Information2012Inngår i: 2012 American Control Conference (ACC), IEEE Computer Society, 2012, s. 4757-4764Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of optimal dynamic disturbance accommodation controller with limited model information is considered. We adapt the family of limited model information control design strategies, defined earlier by the authors, to handle dynamic controllers. This family of limited model information design strategies construct subcontrollers distributively by accessing only local plant model information. The closed-loop performance of the dynamic controllers that they can produce are studied using a performance metric called the competitive ratio which is the worst case ratio of the cost a control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 182.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Langbort, Cedric
    Department of Aerospace Engineering and the Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA..
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Optimal Structured Static State-Feedback Control Design with Limited Model Information for Fully-Actuated Systems2013Inngår i: Automatica, ISSN 0005-1098, E-ISSN 1873-2836, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 326-337Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the family of limited model information control design methods, which construct controllers by accessing the plant's model in a constrained way, according to a given design graph. We investigate the closed-loop performance achievable by such control design methods for fully-actuated discrete-time linear time-invariant systems, under a separable quadratic cost. We restrict our study to control design methods which produce structured static state feedback controllers, where each subcontroller can at least access the state measurements of those subsystems that affect its corresponding subsystem. We compute the optimal control design strategy (in terms of the competitive ratio and domination metrics) when the control designer has access to the local model information and the global interconnection structure of the plant-to-be-controlled. Finally, we study the trade-off between the amount of model information exploited by a control design method and the best closed-loop performance (in terms of the competitive ratio) of controllers it can produce.

  • 183. Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    Liang, Kuo-Yun
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Cooperation Patterns between Fleet Owners for Transport Assignments2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE CONFERENCE ON CONTROL AND APPLICATIONS (CCA 2015), IEEE conference proceedings, IEEE , 2015, s. 1124-1129Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study cooperation patterns between the heavy- duty vehicle fleet owners to reduce their costs, improve their fuel efficiency, and decrease their emissions. We consider a distributed cooperation pattern in which the fleet owners can communicate directly with each other to form alliances. A centralized cooperation pattern is studied in which the fleet owners pay to subscribe to a third-party service provider that pairs their vehicles for cooperation. The effects of various pricing strategies on the behaviour of fleet owners and their inclusiveness are analyzed. It is shown that the fleet size has an essential role. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 184.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Complexity Reduction for Parameter-Dependent Linear Systems2013Inngår i: 2013 American Control Conference (ACC), American Automatic Control Council , 2013, s. 2624-2630Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a complexity reduction algorithm for a family of parameter-dependent linear systems when the system parameters belong to a compact semi-algebraic set. This algorithm potentially describes the underlying dynamical system with fewer parameters or state variables. To do so, it minimizes the distance (i.e., $H_\infty$-norm of the difference) between the original system and its reduced version. We present a sub-optimal solution to this problem using sum-of-squares optimization methods. We present the results for both continuous-time and discrete-time systems. Lastly, we illustrate the applicability of our proposed algorithm on numerical examples.

  • 185.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Optimal H-Infinity Control Design under Model Information Limitations and State Measurement Constraints2013Inngår i: 2013 IEEE 52nd Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 6218-6225Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a suboptimal control design algorithm for a family of continuous-time parameter-dependent linear systems that are composed of interconnected subsystems. We are interested in designing the controller for each subsystem such that it only utilizes partial state measurements (characterized by a directed graph called the control graph) and limited model parameter information (characterized by the design graph). The algorithm is based on successive local minimizations and maximizations (using the subgradients) of the H∞-norm of the closed-loop transfer function with respect to the controller gains and the system parameters. We use a vehicle platooning example to illustrate the applicability of the results.

  • 186.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Shames, Iman
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed MPC Via Dual Decomposition and Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers2013Inngår i: Distributed Model Predictive Control Made Easy / [ed] Rudy R. Negenborn and Jose M. Maestre, Springer, 2013Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A conventional way to handle model predictive control (MPC) problems distributedly is to solve them via dual decomposition and gradient ascent. However, at each time-step, it might not be feasible to wait for the dual algorithm to converge. As a result, the algorithm might be needed to be terminated prematurely. One is then interested to see if the solution at the point of termination is close to the optimal solution and when one should terminate the algorithm if a certain distance to optimality is to be guaranteed. In this chapter, we look at this problem for distributed systems under general dynamical and performance couplings, then, we make a statement on validity of similar results where the problem is solved using alternative direction method of multipliers.

  • 187.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Shirazinia, Amirpasha
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Kommunikationsteori. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Networked Estimation Using Sparsifying Basis Prediction2013Inngår i: IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 2013, s. 174-181Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework for networked state estimation, where systems encode their (possibly high dimensional) state vectors using a mutually agreed basis between the system and the estimator (in a remote monitoring unit). The basis sparsifies the state vectors, i.e., it represents them using vectors with few non-zero components, and as a result, the systems might need to transmit only a fraction of the original information to be able to recover the non-zero components of the transformed state vector. Hence, the estimator can recover the state vector of the system from an under-determined linear set of equations. We use a greedy search algorithm to calculate the sparsifying basis. Then, we present an upper bound for the estimation error. Finally, we demonstrate the results on a numerical example.

  • 188.
    Fiorenzi, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Girella, Daniele
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Möller, Niels
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Arvidsson, A.
    Skog, R.
    Petersson, J.
    Karlsson, P.
    Fischione, Carlo
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Enhancing TCP over HSDPA by cross-layer signalling2007Inngår i: GLOBECOM 2007: 2007 IEEE GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE, 2007, s. 5362-5366Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive performance evaluation of a cross-layer solution to increase users' downlink data rates over HSDPA is provided. The solution consists of a proxy entity between a server and the Radio Network Controller, and cross-layer signalling from the base station to the proxy. The performance of the solution is evaluated though a detailed ns-2 simulator environment, which includes all HSDPA features, as well as some existing TCP enhancing protocols widely adopted for internet traffic over wireless links. Numerical results show that the proxy significantly increases the users' throughput, while also improving the utilization of the radio resources.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 189.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Bonivento, A.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Cooperative Diversity with Disconnection Constraints and Sleep Discipline for Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks2006Inngår i: 2006 IEEE 63RD VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, IEEE , 2006, s. 578-582Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We derive a power control policy for a group of sensor nodes that are monitoring a real-time application sensitive to disconnections (outages) of the communication. Specifically, we suggest that the sensor nodes perform cooperative diversity while running a sleep discipline. After the description of a detailed model of the wireless links, we propose a power minimization algorithm with a constraint expressed in terms of outage probability. Suboptimal solutions are also discussed. Numerical examples are provided for various number of nodes; wireless scenarios and nodes activities. It is argued that nodes with reduced activity show better performance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 190.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Bonivento, A.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Santucci, F.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Performance Analysis of Collaborative Spatio-Temporal Processing for Wireless Sensor Networks2006Inngår i: 2006 3RD IEEE CONSUMER COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE, 2006, s. 325-329Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatio-temporal processing (STP) is a control technique to increase the quality of the received signals in wireless networks. Outage events have a strong influence not only on the performance of the physical layer, but also on routing, MAC, and application layers. In this paper, we propose an outage-based performance analysis of collaborative STP for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). After an accurate characterization of the wireless channel, we derive the outage statistics as a function of the STP coefficients, and investigate the effects of STP on the probability, average duration and rate of the outage events. Furthermore, we show that a proper control policy for the STP coefficients can be derived according to the requirements from the application and communication layers.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 191.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Buttissi, M.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    D'Angelo, M.
    Power and Rate Control with Outage Constraints in CDMA Wireless Networks2009Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 57, nr 8, s. 2225-2229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A radio power control strategy to achieve maximum throughput for the up-link of CDMA wireless systems with variable spreading factor is investigated. The system model includes slow and fast fading, rake receiver, and multi-access interference caused by users with heterogeneous data sources. The quality of the communication is expressed in terms of outage probability, while the throughput is defined as the sum of the users' transmit rates. The outage probability is accounted for by resorting to a lognormal approximation. A mixed integer-real optimization problem P-1, where the objective function is the throughput under outage probability constraints, is investigated. Problem P-1 is solved in two steps: firstly, we propose a modified problem P-2 to provide feasible solutions, and then the optimal solution is obtained with an efficient branch-and-bound search. Numerical results are presented and discussed to assess the validity of our approach.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    wsn_ieeetcom09
  • 192.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Ergen, S. Coleri
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Medium Access Control Analytical Modeling and Optimization in Unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks2009Inngår i: 2009 6TH ANNUAL IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SOCIETY CONFERENCE ON SENSOR, MESH AND AD HOC COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS (SECON 2009), NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, s. 440-448Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate analytical expressions of delay and packet reception probabilities, and energy consumption of duty-cycled wireless sensor networks with random medium access control (MAC) are instrumental for the efficient design and optimization of these resource-constrained networks. Given a clustered network topology with unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 and preamble sampling MAC, a novel approach to the modeling of the delay, reliability, and energy consumption is proposed. The challenging part in such a modeling is the random MAC and sleep policy of the receivers, which prevents to establish the exact time of data packet transmission. The analysis gives expressions as function of sleep time, listening time, traffic rate and MAC parameters. The analytical results are then used to optimize the duty cycle of the nodes and MAC protocol parameters. The approach provides a significant reduction of the energy consumption compared to existing solutions in the literature. Monte Carlo simulations by ns2 assess the validity of the analysis.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    wsn_secon09_mac
  • 193.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Graziosi, F.
    Santucci, F.
    Distributed cooperative processing and control over wireless sensor networks2006Inngår i: IWCMC 2006 - Proceedings of the 2006 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, 2006, Vol. 2006, s. 1311-1316Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview of some recent advances in distributed information processing for control over wireless sensor networks is presented in this paper. Firstly, a taxonomy of fundamental control and communication schemes for these systems is introduced. Next, specific research issues are proposed and discussed with three prominent examples on distributed source coding with packet aggregation, distributed cooperative diversity and distributed cooperative localization. In regard to these examples, it is argued about some open research problems and suggestions for further investigations on joint control and communication design for distributed processing and control over wireless sensor networks.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 194.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Möller, Niels
    Graziosi, F.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Santucci, F.
    Analysis of TCP/IP over WCDMA Wireless Systems under Power Control, MAI and Link Level Error Recovery2005Inngår i: Proceedings International Workshop on Convergent Technologies (IWCT), 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 195.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Design principles of wireless sensor networks protocols for control applications2011Inngår i: Wireless Networking Based Control / [ed] Sudip K. Mazumder, Springer-Verlag New York, 2011, s. 203-238Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Control applications over wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require timely, reliable, and energy efficient communications. This is challenging because reliability and latency of delivered packets and energy are at odds, and resource constrained nodes support only simple algorithms. In this chapter, a new system-level design approach for protocols supporting control applications over WSNs is proposed. The approach suggests a joint optimization, or co-design, of the control specifications, networking layer, the medium access control layer, and physical layer. The protocol parameters are adapted by an optimization problem whose objective function is the network energy consumption, and the constraints are the reliability and latency of the packets as requested by the control application. The design method aims at the definition of simple algorithms that are easily implemented on resource constrained sensor nodes. These algorithms allow the network to meet the reliability and latency required by the control application while minimizing for energy consumption. The design method is illustrated by two protocols: Breath and TREnD, which are implemented on a test-bed and compared to some existing solutions. Experimental results show good performance of the protocols based on this design methodology in terms of reliability, latency, low duty cycle, and load balancing for both static and time-varying scenarios. It is concluded that a system-level design is the essential paradigm to exploit the complex interaction among the layers of the protocol stack and reach a maximum WSN efficiency.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    wsn_design_springer11
  • 196.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pangun
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Ergen, S.C.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Analytical modeling and optimization of duty-cycles in preamble-based IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks2009Inngår i: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 197.
    Fischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Speranzon, Alberto
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto
    Peer-to-peer Estimation over Wireless Sensor Networks via Lipschitz Optimization2009Inngår i: 2009 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION PROCESSING IN SENSOR NETWORKS (IPSN 2009), NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, s. 241-252Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by a peer-to-peer estimation algorithm in which adaptive weights are optimized to minimize the estimation error variance, we formulate and solve a novel non-convex Lipschitz optimization problem that guarantees global stability of a large class of peer-to-peer consensus-based algorithms for wireless sensor network. Because of packet. losses, the solution of this optimization problem cannot be achieved efficiently with either traditional centralized methods or distributed Lagrangian message passing. The prove that the optimal solution can be obtained by solving a set of nonlinear equations. A fast distributed algorithm, which requires only local computations, is presented for solving these equations. Analysis and computer simulations illustrate the algorithm and its application to various network topologies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    wsn_ipsn09
  • 198.
    Flischione, Carlo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Ares, Benigno Zurita
    KTH.
    Minimum Energy Coding in CDMA Wireless Sensor Networks2009Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 985-994Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical framework is proposed for accurate comparison of minimum energy coding in Coded Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Energy consumption and reliability are analyzed for two coding schemes: Minimum Energy coding (ME), and Modified Minimum Energy coding (MME). A detailed model of consumed energy is described as function of the coding, radio transmit power, the characteristics of the transceivers, and the dynamics of the wireless channel. Since CDMA is strongly limited by multi-access interference, the system model includes all the relevant characteristics of wireless propagation. A distributed and asynchronous algorithm, which minimizes the total energy consumption by controlling the radio power, is developed. Numerical results are presented to validate the theoretical analysis and show under which conditions MME outperforms ME with respect to energy consumption and bit error rate. It is concluded that MME is more energy efficient than ME only for short codewords.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    wsn_ieeetwc09
  • 199.
    Flärdh, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    A Control Framework for Online Error Control Adaptation in Networked Applications2006Inngår i: Proceedings of IEEE Second International Symposium on Control, Communications, and Signal Processing, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For many real-time applications running over packet-switched networks, it is important to maintain delivered data quality using a limited amount of network resources. It is therefore natural to employ cost functions that allow online trade-off between the experienced application quality and the resource usage. However, minimizing such cost functions requires perfect knowledge of the network state at the transmission side, while, in general, such information is only partially available. In this paper, we introduce a new adaptive error correction algorithm that optimizes the amount of redundancy based on the available information from the application and the network. An extremum-seeking control algorithm is employed to deal with the high level of uncertainty in the network models. The validity of our approach is illustrated in simulations with varying network loads and loss correlation.

  • 200.
    Flärdh, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Analysis of a simple feedback scheme for error correction over a lossy network2007Inngår i: 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NETWORKING, SENSING, AND CONTROL, IEEE , 2007, s. 261-266Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A control theoretic analysis of a simple error correction scheme for lossy packet-switched networks is presented. Based on feedback information from the error correction process in the receiver, the sender adjusts the amount of redundancy using a so called extremum-seeking controller, which do not rely on any accurate model of the network loss process. The closed-loop system is shown to converge to a limit cycle in a neighborhood of the optimal redundancy. The result are validated using packet-based simulations with data from wireless sensor network experiments.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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