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  • 151.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow over a viscous hyper-elastic wall2017Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 830, s. 708-735Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform numerical simulations of a turbulent channel flow over an hyper-elastic wall. In the fluid region the flow is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, while the solid is a neo-Hookean material satisfying the incompressible Mooney-Rivlin law. The multiphase flow is solved with a one-continuum formulation, using a monolithic velocity field for both the fluid and solid phase, which allows the use of a fully Eulerian formulation. The simulations are carried out at Reynolds bulk Re = 2800 and examine the effect of different elasticity and viscosity of the deformable wall. We show that the skin friction increases monotonically with the material elastic modulus. The turbulent flow in the channel is affected by the moving wall even at low values of elasticity since non-zero fluctuations of vertical velocity at the interface influence the flow dynamics. The near-wall streaks and the associated quasi-streamwise vortices are strongly reduced near a highly elastic wall while the flow becomes more correlated in the spanwise direction, similarly to what happens for flows over rough and porous walls. As a consequence, the mean velocity profile in wall units is shifted downwards when shown in logarithmic scale, and the slope of the inertial range increases in comparison to that for the flow over a rigid wall. We propose a correlation between the downward shift of the inertial range, its slope and the wall-normal velocity fluctuations at the wall, extending results for the flow over rough walls. We finally show that the interface deformation is determined by the fluid fluctuations when the viscosity of the elastic layer is low, while when this is high the deformation is limited by the solid properties.

  • 152.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Pinelli, Alfredo
    Turbulent channel flow over an anisotropic porous wall - drag increase and reduction2018Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 842, s. 381-394Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the variations of the permeability tensor on the close-to-the-wall behaviour of a turbulent channel flow bounded by porous walls is explored using a set of direct numerical simulations. It is found that the total drag can be either reduced or increased by more than 20% by adjusting the permeability directional properties. Drag reduction is achieved for the case of materials with permeability in the vertical direction lower than the one in the wall-parallel planes. This configuration limits the wall-normal velocity at the interface while promoting an increase of the tangential slip velocity leading to an almost 'one-component' turbulence where the low- and high-speed streak coherence is strongly enhanced. On the other hand, strong drag increase is found when high wall-normal and low wall-parallel permeabilities are prescribed. In this condition, the enhancement of the wall-normal fluctuations due to the reduced wall-blocking effect triggers the onset of structures which are strongly correlated in the spanwise direction, a phenomenon observed by other authors in flows over isotropic porous layers or over ribletted walls with large protrusion heights. The use of anisotropic porous walls for drag reduction is particularly attractive since equal gains can be achieved at different Reynolds numbers by rescaling the magnitude of the permeability only.

  • 153.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Ge, Zhouyang
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Jain, Suhas S.
    Stanford Univ, Ctr Turbulence Res, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Dodd, Michael S.
    Stanford Univ, Ctr Turbulence Res, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Droplets in homogeneous shear turbulence2019Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 876, s. 962-984Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We simulate the flow of two immiscible and incompressible fluids separated by an interface in a homogeneous turbulent shear flow at a shear Reynolds number equal to 15 200. The viscosity and density of the two fluids are equal, and various surface tensions and initial droplet diameters are considered in the present study. We show that the two-phase flow reaches a statistically stationary turbulent state sustained by a non-zero mean turbulent production rate due to the presence of the mean shear. Compared to single-phase flow, we find that the resulting steady-state conditions exhibit reduced Taylor-microscale Reynolds numbers owing to the presence of the dispersed phase, which acts as a sink of turbulent kinetic energy for the carrier fluid. At steady state, the mean power of surface tension is zero and the turbulent production rate is in balance with the turbulent dissipation rate, with their values being larger than in the reference single-phase case. The interface modifies the energy spectrum by introducing energy at small scales, with the difference from the single-phase case reducing as the Weber number increases. This is caused by both the number of droplets in the domain and the total surface area increasing monotonically with the Weber number. This reflects also in the droplet size distribution, which changes with the Weber number, with the peak of the distribution moving to smaller sizes as the Weber number increases. We show that the Hinze estimate for the maximum droplet size, obtained considering break-up in homogeneous isotropic turbulence, provides an excellent estimate notwithstanding the action of significant coalescence and the presence of a mean shear.

  • 154.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Izbassarov, Daulet
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hormozi, Sarah
    Ohio Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Athens, OH 45701 USA..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Turbulent channel flow of an elastoviscoplastic fluid2018Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 853, s. 488-514Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present numerical simulations of laminar and turbulent channel flow of an elastoviscoplastic fluid. The non-Newtonian flow is simulated by solving the full incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the evolution equation for the elastoviscoplastic stress tensor. The laminar simulations are carried out for a wide range of Reynolds numbers, Bingham numbers and ratios of the fluid and total viscosity, while the turbulent flow simulations are performed at a fixed bulk Reynolds number equal to 2800 and weak elasticity. We show that in the laminar flow regime the friction factor increases monotonically with the Bingham number (yield stress) and decreases with the viscosity ratio, while in the turbulent regime the friction factor is almost independent of the viscosity ratio and decreases with the Bingham number, until the flow eventually returns to a fully laminar condition for large enough yield stresses. Three main regimes are found in the turbulent case, depending on the Bingham number: for low values, the friction Reynolds number and the turbulent flow statistics only slightly differ from those of a Newtonian fluid; for intermediate values of the Bingham number, the fluctuations increase and the inertial equilibrium range is lost. Finally, for higher values the flow completely laminarizes. These different behaviours are associated with a progressive increases of the volume where the fluid is not yielded, growing from the centreline towards the walls as the Bingham number increases. The unyielded region interacts with the near-wall structures, forming preferentially above the high-speed streaks. In particular, the near-wall streaks and the associated quasi-streamwise vortices are strongly enhanced in an highly elastoviscoplastic fluid and the flow becomes more correlated in the streamwise direction.

  • 155.
    Rosén, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Aidun, C. K.
    Lundell, Fred
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    The dynamical states of a prolate spheroidal particle suspended in shear flow as a consequence of particle and fluid inertia2015Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 771, s. 115-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rotational motion of a prolate spheroidal particle suspended in shear flow is studied by a lattice Boltzmann method with external boundary forcing (LB-EBF). It has previously been shown that the case of a single neutrally buoyant particle is a surprisingly rich dynamical system that exhibits several bifurcations between rotational states due to inertial effects. It was observed that the rotational states were associated with either fluid inertia effects or particle inertia effects, which are always in competition. The effects of fluid inertia are characterized by the particle Reynolds number Rep=4Ga2/ν, where G is the shear rate, a is the length of the particle major semi-axis and ν is the kinematic viscosity. Particle inertia is associated with the Stokes number St=α· Rep, where alpha is the solid-to-fluid density ratio. Previously, the neutrally buoyant case (St=Rep) was studied extensively. However, little is known about how these results are affected when St≢Rep, and how the aspect ratio rp (major axis/minor axis) influences the competition between fluid and particle inertia in the absence of gravity. This work gives a full description of how prolate spheroidal particles in the range 2≤ rp≤ 6 behave depending on the chosen St and Rep. Furthermore, consequences for the rheology of a dilute suspension containing such particles are discussed. Finally, grid resolution close to the particle is shown to affect the quantitative results considerably. It is suggested that this resolution is a major cause of quantitative discrepancies between different studies. Thus, the results of this work and previous direct numerical simulations of this problem should be regarded as qualitative descriptions of the physics involved, and more refined methods must be used to quantitatively pinpoint the transitions between rotational states.

  • 156.
    Rosén, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fred
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Aidun, C. K.
    Effect of fluid inertia on the dynamics and scaling of neutrally buoyant particles in shear flow2014Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 738, s. 563-590Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic dynamics of a prolate spheroidal particle suspended in shear flow is studied using lattice Boltzmann simulations. The spheroid motion is determined by the particle Reynolds number (Re-p) and Stokes number (St), estimating the effects of fluid and particle inertia, respectively, compared with viscous forces on the particle. The particle Reynolds number is defined by Re-p = 4Ga(2)/nu, where G is the shear rate, a is the length of the spheroid major semi-axis and nu is the kinematic viscosity. The Stokes number is defined as St = alpha . Re-p, where alpha is the solid-to-fluid density ratio. Here, a neutrally buoyant prolate spheroidal particle (St = Re-p) of aspect ratio (major axis/minor axis) r(p) = 4 is considered. The long-term rotational motion for different initial orientations and Re-p is explained by the dominant inertial effect on the particle. The transitions between rotational states are subsequently studied in detail in terms of nonlinear dynamics. Fluid inertia is seen to cause several bifurcations typical for a nonlinear system with odd symmetry around a double zero eigenvalue. Particle inertia gives rise to centrifugal forces which drives the particle to rotate with the symmetry axis in the flow-gradient plane (tumbling). At high Re-p, the motion is constrained to this planar motion regardless of initial orientation. At a certain critical Reynolds number, Re-p = Re-c, a motionless (steady) state is created through an infinite-period saddle-node bifurcation and consequently the tumbling period near the transition is scaled as vertical bar Re-p - Re-c vertical bar(-1/2). Analyses in this paper show that if a transition from tumbling to steady state occurs at Re-p = Re-c, then any parameter beta (e. g. confinement or particle spacing) that influences the value of Re-c, such that Re-p = Re-c as beta = beta(c), will lead to a period that scales as vertical bar beta - beta c vertical bar(-1/2) and is independent of particle shape or any geometric aspect ratio in the flow.

  • 157. Rowley, Clarence W.
    et al.
    Mezic, Igor
    Bagheri, Shervin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Spectral analysis of nonlinear flows2009Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 641, s. 115-127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a technique for describing the global behaviour of complex nonlinear flows by decomposing the flow into modes determined from spectral analysis of the Koopman operator, an infinite-dimensional linear operator associated with the full nonlinear system. These modes, referred to as Koopman modes, are associated with a particular observable, and may be determined directly from data (either numerical or experimental) using a variant of a standard Arnoldi method. They have an associated temporal frequency and growth rate and may be viewed as a nonlinear generalization of global eigenmodes of a linearized system. They provide an alternative to proper orthogonal decomposition, and in the case of periodic data the Koopman modes reduce to a discrete temporal Fourier transform. The Arnoldi method used for computations is identical to the dynamic mode decomposition recently proposed by Schmid & Sesterhenn (Sixty-First Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, 2008), so dynamic mode decomposition can be thought of as an algorithm for finding Koopman modes. We illustrate the method on an example of a jet in crossflow, and show that the method captures the dominant frequencies and elucidates the associated spatial structures.

  • 158.
    Samanta, Arghya
    Indian Institute of Science, India .
    Shear-imposed falling film2014Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 753, s. 131-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of a film falling down an inclined plane is revisited in the presence of imposed shear stress. Earlier studies regarding this topic (Smith, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 217, 1990, pp. 469-485; Wei, Phys. Fluids, vol. 17, 2005a, 012103), developed on the basis of a low Reynolds number, are extended up to moderate values of the Reynolds number. The mechanism of the primary instability is provided under the framework of a two-wave structure, which is normally a combination of kinematic and dynamic waves. In general, the primary instability appears when the kinematic wave speed exceeds the speed of dynamic waves. An equality criterion between their speeds yields the neutral stability condition. Similarly, it is revealed that the nonlinear travelling wave solutions also depend on the kinematic and dynamic wave speeds, and an equality criterion between the speeds leads to an analytical expression for the speed of a family of travelling waves as a function of the Froude number. This new analytical result is compared with numerical prediction, and an excellent agreement is achieved. Direct numerical simulations of the low-dimensional model have been performed in order to analyse the spatiotemporal behaviour of nonlinear waves by applying a constant shear stress in the upstream and downstream directions. It is noticed that the presence of imposed shear stress in the upstream (downstream) direction makes the evolution of spatially growing waves weaker (stronger).

  • 159.
    Samanta, Arghya
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Lashgari, Iman
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Enhanced secondary motion of the turbulent flow through a porous square duct2015Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 784, s. 681-693Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations of the fully developed turbulent flow through a porous square duct are performed to study the effect of the permeable wall on the secondary cross-stream flow. The volume-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are used to describe the flow in the porous phase, a packed bed with porosity epsilon(c) = 0.95. The porous square duct is computed at Re-b similar or equal to 5000 and compared with the numerical simulations of a turbulent duct with four solid walls. The two boundary layers on the top wall and porous interface merge close to the centre of the duct, as opposed to the channel, because the sidewall boundary layers inhibit the growth of the shear layer over the porous interface. The most relevant feature in the porous duct is the enhanced magnitude of the secondary flow, which exceeds that of a regular duct by a factor of four. This is related to the increased vertical velocity, and the different interaction between the ejections from the sidewalls and the porous medium. We also report a significant decrease in the streamwise turbulence intensity over the porous wall of the duct (which is also observed in a porous channel), and the appearance of short spanwise rollers in the buffer layer, replacing the streaky structures of wall-bounded turbulence. These spanwise rollers most probably result from a Kelvin-Helmholtz type of instability, and their width is limited by the presence of the sidewalls.

  • 160. Sanmiguel Vila, C.
    et al.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Discetti, S.
    Ianiro, A.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, R.
    On the identification of well-behaved turbulent boundary layers2017Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 822, s. 109-138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a new method based on the diagnostic plot (Alfredsson et al., Phys. Fluids, vol. 23, 2011, 041702) to assess the convergence towards a well-behaved zero-pressure-gradient (ZPG) turbulent boundary layer (TBL). The most popular and well-understood methods to assess the convergence towards a well-behaved state rely on empirical skin-friction curves (requiring accurate skin-friction measurements), shape-factor curves (requiring full velocity profile measurements with an accurate wall position determination) or wake-parameter curves (requiring both of the previous quantities). On the other hand, the proposed diagnostic-plot method only needs measurements of mean and fluctuating velocities in the outer region of the boundary layer at arbitrary wall-normal positions. To test the method, six tripping configurations, including optimal set-ups as well as both under- and overtripped cases, are used to quantify the convergence of ZPG TBLs towards well-behaved conditions in the Reynolds-number range covered by recent high-fidelity direct numerical simulation data up to a Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness and free-stream velocity of approximately 4000 (corresponding to 2.5 m from the leading edge) in a wind-tunnel experiment. Additionally, recent high-Reynolds-number data sets have been employed to validate the method. The results show that weak tripping configurations lead to deviations in the mean flow and the velocity fluctuations within the logarithmic region with respect to optimally tripped boundary layers. On the other hand, a strong trip leads to a more energized outer region, manifested in the emergence of an outer peak in the velocity-fluctuation profile and in a more prominent wake region. While established criteria based on skin-friction and shape-factor correlations yield generally equivalent results with the diagnostic-plot method in terms of convergence towards a well-behaved state, the proposed method has the advantage of being a practical surrogate that is a more efficient tool when designing the set-up for TBL experiments, since it diagnoses the state of the boundary layer without the need to perform extensive velocity profile measurements.

  • 161. Sardina, G.
    et al.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Picano, F.
    Casciola, C. M.
    Wall accumulation and spatial localization in particle-laden wall flows2012Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 699, s. 50-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the two main phenomenologies associated with the transport of inertial particles in turbulent flows, turbophoresis and small-scale clustering. Turbophoresis describes the turbulence-induced wall accumulation of particles dispersed in wall turbulence, while small-scale clustering is a form of local segregation that affects the particle distribution in the presence of fine-scale turbulence. Despite the fact that the two aspects are usually addressed separately, this paper shows that they occur simultaneously in wall-bounded flows, where they represent different aspects of the same process. We study these phenomena by post-processing data from a direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with different populations of inertial particles. It is shown that artificial domain truncation can easily alter the mean particle concentration profile, unless the domain is large enough to exclude possible correlation of the turbulence and the near-wall particle aggregates. The data show a strong link between accumulation level and clustering intensity in the near-wall region. At statistical steady state, most accumulating particles aggregate in strongly directional and almost filamentary structures, as found by considering suitable two-point observables able to extract clustering intensity and anisotropy. The analysis provides quantitative indications of the wall-segregation process as a function of the particle inertia. It is shown that, although the most wall-accumulating particles are too heavy to segregate in homogeneous turbulence, they exhibit the most intense local small-scale clustering near the wall as measured by the singularity exponent of the particle pair correlation function.

  • 162.
    Sardina, Gaetano
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Picano, Francesco
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Casciola, Carlo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan Stafan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Self-similar transport of inertial particles in a turbulent boundary laye2012Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 706, s. 584-596Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Results are presented from a direct numerical simulation of a particle-laden spatially developing turbulent boundary layer up to Re-theta = 2500. The peculiar feature of a boundary-layer flow seeded with heavy particles is the variation of the local dimensionless parameters defining the fluid-particle interactions along the streamwise direction. Two different Stokes numbers can be defined, one using inner flow units and the other with outer units. Since these two Stokes numbers exhibit different decay rates in the streamwise direction, we find a decoupled particle dynamics between the inner and the outer region of the boundary layer. Preferential near-wall particle accumulation is similar to that observed in turbulent channel flow, while different behaviour characterizes the outer region. Here the concentration and the streamwise velocity profiles are found to be self-similar and to depend only on the local value of the outer Stokes number and the rescaled wall-normal distance. These new results are powerful in view of engineering and environmental applications and corresponding flow modelling.

  • 163.
    Sarmast, Sasan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Tech Univ Denmark.
    Dadfar, Reza
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Mikkelsen, R. F.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Ivanell, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sorensen, Jens N.
    Henningson, Dans S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Mutual inductance instability of the tip vortices behind a wind turbine2014Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 755, s. 705-731Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two modal decomposition techniques are employed to analyse the stability of wind turbine wakes. A numerical study on a single wind turbine wake is carried out focusing on the instability onset of the trailing tip vortices shed from the turbine blades. The numerical model is based on large-eddy simulations (LES) of the Navier-Stokes equations using the actuator line (ACL) method to simulate the wake behind the Tj ae reborg wind turbine. The wake is perturbed by low-amplitude excitation sources located in the neighbourhood of the tip spirals. The amplification of the waves travelling along the spiral triggers instabilities, leading to breakdown of the wake. Based on the grid configurations and the type of excitations, two basic flow cases, symmetric and asymmetric, are identified. In the symmetric setup, we impose a 120 degrees symmetry condition in the dynamics of the flow and in the asymmetric setup we calculate the full 360 degrees wake. Different cases are subsequently analysed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The results reveal that the main instability mechanism is dispersive and that the modal growth in the symmetric setup arises only for some specific frequencies and spatial structures, e.g. two dominant groups of modes with positive growth (spatial structures) are identified, while breaking the symmetry reveals that almost all the modes have positive growth rate. In both setups, the most unstable modes have a non-dimensional spatial growth rate close to pi/2 and they are characterized by an out-of-phase displacement of successive helix turns leading to local vortex pairing. The present results indicate that the asymmetric case is crucial to study, as the stability characteristics of the flow change significantly compared to the symmetric configurations. Based on the constant non-dimensional growth rate of disturbances, we derive a new analytical relationship between the length of the wake up to the turbulent breakdown and the operating conditions of a wind turbine.

  • 164.
    Sasaki, Kenzo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Morra, Pierluigi
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Cavalieri, Andre V. G.
    Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Aerodynam Dept, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, Brazil..
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Mekanik.
    On the role of actuation for the control of streaky structures in boundary layers2020Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 883, artikel-id A34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with the closed-loop control of streaky structures induced by free-stream turbulence (FST), at the levels of 3.0% and 3.5 %, in a zero-pressure-gradient transitional boundary layer, by means of localized sensors and actuators. A linear quadratic Gaussian regulator is considered along with a system identification technique to build reduced-order models for control. Three actuators are developed with different spatial supports, corresponding to a baseline shape with only vertical forcing, and to two other shapes obtained by different optimization procedures. A computationally efficient method is derived to obtain an actuator that aims to induce the exact structures that are inside the boundary layer, given in terms of their first spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) mode, and an actuator that maximizes the energy of induced downstream structures. All three actuators lead to significant delays in the transition to turbulence and were shown to be robust to mild variations in the FST levels. Integrated total drag reductions observed were up to 21% and 19% for turbulence intensity levels of 3.0% and 3.5 %, respectively, depending on the considered actuator. Differences are understood in terms of the SPOD of actuation and FST-induced fields along with the causality of the control scheme when a cancellation of disturbances is considered along the wall-normal direction. The actuator optimized to generate the leading downstream SPOD mode, representing the streaks in the open-loop flow, leads to the highest transition delay, which can be understood due to its capability of closely cancelling structures in the boundary layer.

  • 165.
    Sasaki, Kenzo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Cavalieri, Andre V. G.
    Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Aerodynam Dept, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, Brazil..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Transfer functions for flow predictions in wall-bounded turbulence2019Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 864, s. 708-745Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three methods are evaluated to estimate the streamwise velocity fluctuations of a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer of momentum-thickness-based Reynolds number up to using as input velocity fluctuations at different wall-normal positions. A system identification approach is considered where large-eddy simulation data are used to build single and multiple-input linear and nonlinear transfer functions. Such transfer functions are then treated as convolution kernels and may be used as models for the prediction of the fluctuations. Good agreement between predicted and reference data is observed when the streamwise velocity in the near-wall region is estimated from fluctuations in the outer region. Both the unsteady behaviour of the fluctuations and the spectral content of the data are properly predicted. It is shown that approximately 45 % of the energy in the near-wall peak is linearly correlated with the outer-layer structures, for the reference case. These identified transfer functions allow insight into the causality between the different wall-normal locations in a turbulent boundary layer along with an estimation of the tilting angle of the large-scale structures. Differences in accuracy of the methods (single- and multiple-input linear and nonlinear) are assessed by evaluating the coherence of the structures between wall-normally separated positions. It is shown that the large-scale fluctuations are coherent between the outer and inner layers, by means of an interactions which strengthens with increasing Reynolds number, whereas the finer-scale fluctuations are only coherent within the near-wall region. This enables the possibility of considering the wall-shear stress as an input measurement, which would more easily allow the implementation of these methods in experimental applications. A parametric study was also performed by evaluating the effect of the Reynolds number, wall-normal positions and input quantities considered in the model. Since the methods vary in terms of their complexity for implementation, computational expense and accuracy, the technique of choice will depend on the application under consideration. We also assessed the possibility of designing and testing the models at different Reynolds numbers, where it is shown that the prediction of the near-wall peak from wall-shear-stress measurements is practically unaffected even for a one order of magnitude change in the corresponding Reynolds number of the design and test, indicating that the interaction between the near-wall peak fluctuations and the wall is approximately Reynolds-number independent. Furthermore, given the performance of such methods in the prediction of flow features in turbulent boundary layers, they have a good potential for implementation in experiments and realistic flow control applications, where the prediction of the near-wall peak led to correlations above 0.80 when wall-shear stress was used in a multiple-input or nonlinear scheme. Errors of the order of 20 % were also observed in the determination of the near-wall spectral peak, depending on the employed method.

  • 166.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Assessment of direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layers2010Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 659, s. 116-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistics obtained from seven different direct numerical simulations (DNSs) pertaining to a canonical turbulent boundary layer (TBL) under zero pressure gradient are compiled and compared. The considered data sets include a recent DNS of a TBL with the extended range of Reynolds numbers Re-theta = 500-4300. Although all the simulations relate to the same physical flow case, the approaches differ in the applied numerical method, grid resolution and distribution, inflow generation method, boundary conditions and box dimensions. The resulting comparison shows surprisingly large differences not only in both basic integral quantities such as the friction coefficient c(f) or the shape factor II12, but also in their predictions of mean and fluctuation profiles far into the sublayer. It is thus shown that the numerical simulation of TBLs is, mainly due to the spatial development of the flow, very sensitive to, e. g. proper inflow condition, sufficient settling length and appropriate box dimensions. Thus, a DNS has to be considered as a numerical experiment and should be the subject of the same scrutiny as experimental data. However, if a DNS is set up with the necessary care, it can provide a faithful tool to predict even such notoriously difficult flow cases with great accuracy.

  • 167.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent boundary layers at moderate Reynolds numbers: inflow length and tripping effects2012Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 710, s. 5-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent assessment of available direct numerical simulation (DNS) data from turbulent boundary layer flows (Schlatter & Orlu, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 659, 2010, pp. 116-126) showed surprisingly large differences not only in the skin friction coefficient or shape factor, but also in their predictions of mean and fluctuation profiles far into the sublayer. While such differences are expected at very low Reynolds numbers and/or the immediate vicinity of the inflow or tripping region, it remains unclear whether inflow and tripping effects explain the differences observed even at moderate Reynolds numbers. This question is systematically addressed by re-simulating the DNS of a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flow by Schlatter et a l. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 21, 2009, art. 051702). The previous DNS serves as the baseline simulation, and the new DNS with a range of physically different inflow conditions and tripping effects are carefully compared. The downstream evolution of integral quantities as well as mean and fluctuation profiles is analysed, and the results show that different inflow conditions and tripping effects do indeed explain most of the differences observed when comparing available DNS at low Reynolds number. It is further found that, if transition is initiated inside the boundary layer at a low enough Reynolds number (based on the momentum-loss thickness) Re-theta < 300, all quantities agree well for both inner and outer layer for Re-theta > 2000. This result gives a lower limit for meaningful comparisons between numerical and/or wind tunnel experiments, assuming that the flow was not severely over-or understimulated. It is further shown that even profiles of the wall-normal velocity fluctuations and Reynolds shear stress collapse for higher Re-theta irrespective of the upstream conditions. In addition, the overshoot in the total shear stress within the sublayer observed in the DNS of Wu & Moin (Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010, art. 085105) has been identified as a feature of transitional boundary layers.

  • 168. Schmid, P. J.
    et al.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Mekanik.
    On the stability of a falling liquid curtain2002Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 463, s. 163-171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of a falling liquid curtain is investigated. The sheet of liquid is assumed two-dimensional, driven by gravity and influenced by a compressible cushion of air enclosed on one side of the curtain. The linear stability problem is formulated in the form of an integro-differential eigenvalue problem. Although experimental efforts have consistently reported a peak in the low-frequency range of the spectrum, the linear stability results do not show instabilities at these frequencies. However, a multi-modal approach combined with a projection onto low-frequency modes reveals a dominant and robust instability feature that is in good agreement with experimental measurements. This instability manifests itself as a wave packet, consisting of a linear superposition of linear global modes, that travels down the curtain and causes a strong pressure signal in the enclosed air cushion.

  • 169. Schmidt, Oliver T.
    et al.
    Hosseini, Seyed M.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rist, Ulrich
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Sweden.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Optimal wavepackets in streamwise corner flow2015Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 766Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The global non-modal stability of the flow in a right-angled streamwise corner is investigated. Spatially confined linear optimal initial conditions and responses are obtained by use of direct-adjoint looping. Two base states are considered, the classical self-similar solution for a zero streamwise pressure gradient, and a modified solution that mimics leading-edge effects commonly observed in experimental studies. The latter solution is obtained in a reverse engineering fashion from published measurement data. Prior to the global analysis, a classical local linear stability and sensitivity analysis of both base states is conducted. It is found that the base-flow modification drastically reduces the critical Reynolds number through an inviscid mechanism, the so-called corner mode. A survey of the geometry of the two base states confirms that the modification greatly aggravates the inflectional nature of the flow. Global optimals are calculated for subcritical and supercritical Reynolds numbers, and for two finite optimization times. The optimal initial conditions are found to be self-confined in the spanwise directions, and symmetric with respect to the corner bisector. They evolve into streaks or streamwise modulated wavepackets, depending on the base state. Substantial transient growth caused by the Orr mechanism and the lift-up effect is observed.

  • 170.
    Schrader, Lars-Uve
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Amin, Subir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Transition to turbulence in the boundary layer over a smooth and rough swept plate exposed to free-stream turbulence2010Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 646, s. 297-325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Receptivity, disturbance growth and transition to turbulence of the three-dimensional boundary layer developing on a swept flat plate are studied by means of numerical simulations. The flow is subject to a favourable pressure gradient and represents a model for swept-wing flow downstream of the leading edge and upstream of the pressure minimum of the wing. The boundary layer is perturbed by free-stream turbulence and localized surface roughness with random distribution in the spanwise direction. The intensity of the turbulent free-stream fluctuations ranges from conditions typical for free flight to higher levels usually encountered in turbo-machinery applications. The free-stream turbulence initially excites non-modal streak-like disturbances as in two-dimensional boundary layers, soon evolving into modal instabilities in the form of unsteady crossflow modes. The crossflow modes grow faster than the streaks and dominate the downstream disturbance environment in the layer. The results show that the receptivity mechanism is linear for the disturbance amplitudes under consideration, while the subsequent growth of the primary disturbances rapidly becomes affected by nonlinear saturation in particular for free-stream fluctuations with high intensity. Transition to turbulence occurs in the form of localized turbulent spots randomly appearing in the flow. The main features of the breakdown are presented for the case of travelling crossflow vortices induced by free-stream turbulence. The flow is also receptive to localized roughness strips, exciting stationary crossflow modes. The mode with most efficient receptivity dominates the downstream disturbance environment. When both free-stream fluctuations and wall roughness act on the boundary layer at the same time, transition is dominated by steady crossflow waves unless the incoming turbulence intensity is larger than about 0.5 % for roughness amplitudes of about one tenth of the boundary-layer displacement thickness. The results show that a correct prediction of the disturbance behaviour can be obtained considering the receptivity and evolution of individual modes. In addition, we provide an estimate for the amplitudes of the external disturbance sources above which a fully nonlinear receptivity analysis is necessary.

  • 171.
    Schrader, Lars-Uve
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll.
    Receptivity mechanisms in three-dimensional boundary-layer flows2009Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 618, s. 209-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Receptivity in three-dimensional boundary-layer flow to localized surface roughness and free-stream vorticity is studied. A boundary layer of Falkner–Skan–Cooke type with favourable pressure gradient is considered to model the flow slightly downstream of a swept-wing leading edge. In this region, stationary and travelling crossflow instability dominates over other instability types. Three scenarios are investigated: the presence of low-amplitude chordwise localized, spanwise periodic roughness elements on the plate, the impingement of a weak vortical free-stream mode on the boundary layer and the combination of both disturbance sources. Three receptivity mechanisms are identified: steady receptivity to roughness, unsteady receptivity to free-stream vorticity and unsteady receptivity to vortical modes scattered at the roughness. Both roughness and vortical modes provide efficient direct receptivity mechanisms for stationary and travelling crossflow instabilities. We find that stationary crossflow modes dominate for free-stream turbulence below a level of about 0.5%, whereas higher turbulence levels will promote the unsteady receptivity mechanism. Under the assumption of small amplitudes of the roughness and the free-stream disturbance, the unsteady receptivity process due to scattering of free-stream vorticity at the roughness has been found to give small initial disturbance amplitudes in comparison to the direct mechanism for free-stream modes. However, in many environments free-stream vorticity and roughness may excite interacting unstable stationary and travelling crossflow waves. This nonlinear process may rapidly lead to large disturbance amplitudes and promote transition to turbulence.

  • 172.
    Schrader, Lars-Uve
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Mavriplis, Catherine
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa,.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Receptivity to free-stream vorticity of flow past a flat plate with elliptic leading edge2010Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 653, s. 245-271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Receptivity of the two-dimensional boundary layer on a flat plate with elliptic leading edge is studied by numerical simulation. Vortical perturbations in the oncoming free stream are considered, impinging on two leading edges with different aspect ratio to identify the effect of bluntness. The relevance of the three vorticity components of natural free-stream turbulence is illuminated by considering axial, vertical and spanwise vorticity separately at different angular frequencies. The boundary layer is most receptive to zero-frequency axial vorticity, triggering a streaky pattern of alternating positive and negative streamwise disturbance velocity. This is in line with earlier numerical studies on non-modal growth of elongated structures in the Blasius boundary layer. We find that the effect of leading-edge bluntness is insignificant for axial free-stream vortices alone. On the other hand, vertical free-stream vorticity is also able to excite non-modal instability in particular at zero and low frequencies. This mechanism relies on the generation of streamwise vorticity through stretching and tilting of the vertical vortex columns at the leading edge and is significantly stronger when the leading edge is blunt. It can thus be concluded that the non-modal boundary-layer response to a free-stream turbulence field with three-dimensional vorticity is enhanced in the presence of a blunt leading edge. At high frequencies of the disturbances the boundary layer becomes receptive to spanwise free-stream vorticity, triggering Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) modes and receptivity increases with leading-edge bluntness. The receptivity coefficients to free-stream vortices are found to be about 15% of those to sound waves reported in the literature. For the boundary layers and free-stream perturbations considered, the amplitude of the T-S waves remains small compared with the low-frequency streak amplitudes.

  • 173.
    Schrader, Lars-Uve
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Zaki, Tamer A.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College.
    Receptivity, instability and breakdown of Görtler flow2011Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 682, s. 362-396Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Receptivity, disturbance growth and breakdown to turbulence in Gortler flow are studied by spatial direct numerical simulation (DNS). The boundary layer is exposed to free-stream vortical modes and localized wall roughness. We propose a normalization of the roughness-induced receptivity coefficient by the square root of the Gortler number. This scaling removes the dependence of the receptivity coefficient on wall curvature. It is found that vortical modes are more efficient at generating Gortler vortices than localized roughness. The boundary layer is most receptive to zero- and low-frequency free-stream vortices, exciting steady and slowly travelling Gortler modes. The associated receptivity mechanism is linear and involves the generation of boundary-layer streaks, which soon evolve into unstable Gortler vortices. This connection between transient and exponential amplification is absent on flat plates and promotes transition to turbulence on curved walls. We demonstrate that the Gortler boundary layer is also receptive to high-frequency free-stream vorticity, which triggers steady Gortler rolls via a nonlinear receptivity mechanism. In addition to the receptivity study, we have carried out DNS of boundary-layer transition due to broadband free-stream turbulence with different intensities and frequency spectra. It is found that nonlinear receptivity dominates over the linear mechanism unless the free-stream fluctuations are concentrated in the low-frequency range. In the latter case, transition is accelerated due to the presence of travelling Gortler modes.

  • 174.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A simplified vortex model of propeller and wind-turbine wakes2013Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 725, s. 91-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new vortex model of inviscid propeller and wind-turbine wakes is proposed based on an asymptotic expansion of the Biot-Savart induction law to account for the finite vortex core size. The circulation along the blade is assumed to be constant from the blade root to the tip approximating a turbine with maximum power production for given operating conditions. The model iteratively calculates the tip-vortex path, allowing the wake to expand/contract freely, and is afterward able to evaluate the velocity field in the whole domain. The 'roller-bearing analogy', proposed by Okulov and Sorensen (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 649, 2010, pp. 497-508), is used to determine the vortex core size. A comparison of the main outcomes of the present model with the general momentum theory is performed in terms of the operating parameters (namely the number of blades, the tip-speed ratio, the blade circulation and the vortex core size), demonstrating good agreement between the two. Furthermore, experimental data have been compared with the model outputs to validate the model under real operating conditions.

  • 175.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik.
    Arnqvist, Johan
    A spectral model for stably stratified turbulence2015Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 781, s. 330-352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A solution of the inviscid rapid distortion equations for a stratified flow with homogeneous shear is proposed, extending the work of Hanazaki & Hunt (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 507, 2004, pp. 1-42) to the two horizontal velocity components. The analytical solution allows for the determination of the spectral tensor evolution at any given time starting from a known initial condition. By following the same approach as that adopted by Mann (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 273, 1994, pp. 141-168), a model for the spectral velocity tensor in the atmospheric boundary layer is obtained, where the spectral tensor, assumed to be isotropic at the initial time, evolves until the breakup time where the spectral tensor is supposed to achieve its final state observed in the boundary layer. The model predictions are compared with atmospheric measurements obtained over a forested area, giving the opportunity to calibrate the model parameters, and further validation is provided by additional low-roughness data. Characteristic values of the model coefficients and their dependence on the Richardson number are proposed and discussed.

  • 176.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Garrett, Stephen J.
    On the non-parallel instability of the rotating-sphere boundary layer2017Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 818, s. 288-318Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new solution for the steady boundary-layer flow over the rotating sphere that also accounts for the eruption of the boundary layer at the equator and other higher-order viscous effects. Non-parallel corrections to the local type I and type II convective instability modes of this flow are also computed as a function of spin rate. Our instability results are associated with the previously observed spiral vortices and remarkable agreement between our predictions of the number of vortices and experimental observations is found. Vortices travelling at 70 %-80 % of the local surface speed are found to be the most amplified for sufficient spin rates, also consistent with prior experimental observations.

  • 177.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Inghels, Pieter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Confinement effects in wind-turbine and propeller measurements2014Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 756, s. 110-129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new model to account for the presence of the test-section wall in wind-turbine or propeller measurements is proposed. The test section, here assumed to be cylindrical, is modelled by means of axisymmetric source panels, while the wind turbine (or the propeller) is modelled with a simplified vortex model (Segalini & Alfredsson, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 725, 2013, pp. 91-116). Combining both models in an iterative scheme allows the simulation of the effect of the test-section wall on the flow field around the rotor. Based on this novel approach, an analysis of the flow modification due to blockage is conducted together with a comparison of actuator-disk theory results. Glauert's concept of equivalent unconfined turbine is reviewed and extended to account for the angular velocity of the rotor. It is shown that Glauert's equivalent free-stream velocity concept is beneficial and can correct most of the systematic error introduced by the presence of the test-section wall, although some discrepancies remain, especially in the power coefficient. The effect of the confinement on the wake structure is also discussed in terms of wake expansion/contraction, pitch of the tip vortices and forces at the rotor.

  • 178.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. University of Bologna, Italy.
    Rüedi, J. -D
    Monkewitz, P. A.
    Systematic errors of skin-friction measurements by oil-film interferometry2015Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 773, s. 298-326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the independent measurement of wall shear stress with oil-film or oil-drop interferometry has become a cornerstone of turbulent-boundary-layer research as many arguments depend critically on a precise knowledge of the skin friction τ<inf>w</inf>∗. To our knowledge, all practitioners of oil-drop interferometry have so far used the leading-order similarity solution for asymptotically thin, wedge-shaped, two-dimensional oil films established by Tanner & Blows (J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., vol. 9, 1976, pp. 194-202) to relate the evolution of drop thickness to τ<inf>w</inf>∗. It is generally believed that this procedure, if carefully implemented, yields the true time-averaged τ<inf>w</inf>∗ within ±1% or possibly better, but the systematic errors due to the finite thickness of the oil film have never been determined. They are analysed here for oil films with a thickness of the order of a viscous unit in a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer. Neglecting spanwise surface curvature and surface tension effects, corrections due to the secondary air boundary layer above the oil film are derived with a linearised triple-layer approach that accounts for the turbulent shear-stress perturbation by means of modified van-Driest-type closure models. In addition, the correction due to processing oil drops with a slight streamwise surface curvature as if they were exact wedges is quantified. Both corrections are evaluated for oil-drop interferograms acquired in a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer at a Reynolds number of around 3500, based on displacement thickness, and are shown to produce a reduction of the friction velocity relative to the basic Tanner and Blows theory of between -0.1% and -1.5%, depending on the mixing-length model. Despite the uncertainty about the true correction, the analysis allows the formulation of some guidelines on where and when to analyse interference fringes in order to minimise the error on the measured wall shear stress.

  • 179.
    Sembian, Sundarapandian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Liverts, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Apazidis, Nicholas
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Plane blast wave interaction with an elongated straight and inclined heat-generated inhomogeneity2018Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 851, s. 245-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The unstable evolution of an elongated elliptically shaped inhomogeneity that is embedded in ambient air and aligned both normal and at an angle to an incident plane blast wave of impact Mach number 2.15 is investigated both experimentally and numerically. The elliptic inhomogeneities and the blast waves are generated using gas heating and exploding wire technique and their interaction is captured optically using shadowgraph method. While two symmetric counter-rotating vortices due to Richtmyer-Meshkov instability are observed for the straight interaction, the formation of a train of vortices similar to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, introducing asymmetry into the flow field, are observed for an inclined interaction. During the early phase of the interaction process in the straight case, the growth of the counter-rotating vortices (based on the sequence of images obtained from the high-speed camera) and circulation (calculated with the aid of numerical data) are found to be linear in both space and time. Moreover, the normalized circulation is independent of the inhomogeneity density and the ellipse thickness, enabling the formulation of a unique linear fit equation. Conversely, the circulation for an inclined case follows a quadratic function, with each vortex in the train estimated to move with a different velocity directly related to its size at that instant. Two factors influencing the quadratic nature are identified: the reduction in strength of the transmitted shock thereby generating vortices with reduced vorticity, along with the gradual loss of vorticity of the earlier-generated vortices.

  • 180.
    Semeraro, Onofrio
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Transition delay in a boundary layer flow using active control2013Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 731, s. 288-311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Active linear control is applied to delay the onset of laminar-turbulent transition in the boundary layer over a flat plate. The analysis is carried out by numerical simulations of the nonlinear, transitional regime. A three-dimensional, localized initial condition triggering Tollmien-Schlichting waves of finite amplitude is used to numerically simulate the transition to turbulence. Linear quadratic Gaussian controllers based on reduced-order models of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations are designed, where the wall sensors and the actuators are localized in space. A parametric analysis is carried out in the nonlinear regime, for different disturbance amplitudes, by investigating the effects of the actuation on the flow due to different distributions of the localized actuators along the spanwise direction, different sizes of the actuators and the effort of the controllers. We identify the range of parameters where the controllers are effective and highlight the limits of the device for high amplitudes and strong control action. Despite the fully linear control approach, it is shown that the device is effective in delaying the onset of laminar-turbulent transition in the presence of packets characterized by amplitudes a approximate to 1% of the free stream velocity at the actuator location. Up to these amplitudes, it is found that a proper choice of the actuators positively affects the performance of the controller. For a transitional case, a approximate to 0.20 %, we show a transition delay of Delta Re-x = 3 .0 x 10(5).

  • 181.
    Semeraro, Onofrio
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll.
    Transition delay in boundary layer flow using feedback controlIngår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 182.
    Semeraro, Onofrio
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll.
    Henningson, Dan Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll.
    Feedback control of three-dimensional optimal disturbances using reduced-order models2011Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 677, s. 63-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The attenuation of three-dimensional wavepackets of streaks and Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves in a transitional boundary layer using feedback control is investigated numerically. Arrays of localized sensors and actuators (about 10-20) with compact spatial support are distributed near the rigid wall equidistantly along the spanwise direction and connected to a low-dimensional (r = 60) linear quadratic Gaussian controller. The control objective is to minimize the disturbance energy in a domain spanned by a number of proper orthogonal decomposition modes. The feedback controller is based on a reduced-order model of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations including the inputs and outputs, computed using a snapshot-based balanced truncation method. To account for the different temporal and spatial behaviour of the two main instabilities of boundary-layer flows, we design two controllers. We demonstrate that the two controllers reduce the energy growth of both TS wavepackets and streak packets substantially and efficiently, using relatively few sensors and actuators. The robustness of the controller is investigated by varying the number of actuators and sensors, the Reynolds number and the pressure gradient. This work constitutes the first experimentally feasible simulation-based control design using localized sensing and acting devices in conjunction with linear control theory in a three-dimensional setting.

  • 183.
    Semeraro, Onofrio
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Pralits, Jan O.
    Rowley, Clarence W.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Riccati-less approach for optimal control and estimation: an application to two-dimensional boundary layers2013Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 731, s. 394-417Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The control of Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a two-dimensional boundary layer is analysed using numerical simulations. Full-dimensional optimal controllers are used in combination with a setup of spatially localized inputs (actuator and disturbance) and outputs (sensors). The adjoint of the direct-adjoint (ADA) algorithm, recently proposed by Pralits & Luchini (In Seventh IUTAM Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition (ed. P. Schlatter & D. S. Henningson), vol. 18, 2010, Springer), is used to efficiently compute an optimal controller known as a linear quadratic regulator; the method is iterative and allows one to bypass the solution of the corresponding Riccati equation, which is infeasible for high-dimensional systems. We show that an analogous iteration can be made for the estimation problem; the dual algorithm is referred to as adjoint of the adjoint-direct (AAD). By combining the solutions of the estimation and control problem, full-dimensional linear quadratic Gaussian controllers are obtained and used for the attenuation of the disturbances arising in the boundary layer flow. The full-dimensional controllers turn out to be an excellent benchmark for evaluating the performance of the optimal control/estimation design based on reduced-order models. We show under which conditions the two strategies are in perfect agreement by focusing on the issues arising when feedback configurations are considered. An analysis of the finite-amplitude disturbances is also carried out by addressing the limitations of the optimal controllers, the role of the estimation, and the robustness to the nonlinearities arising in the flow of the control design.

  • 184.
    Shahinfar, Shahab
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    S. Sattarzadeh, Sohrab
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Talamelli, Alessandro
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Scaling of streamwise boundary layer streaks and their ability to reduce skin-friction drag2013Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 733, s. 1-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spanwise arrays of miniature vortex generators (MVGs)are used to generate energetic transient disturbance growth, which is able to modulate the boundary layer flow with steady and stable streak amplitudes up to 32% of the free-stream velocity. This type of modulation has previously been shown to act in a stabilizing manner on modal disturbance growth described by classical instability theory. In anattempt to reproduce a more realistic flow configuration, in the present experimental setup, Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves are generated upstream of the MVG array, allowingfor a complete interaction of the incoming wave with the array. Fifteen new MVG configurations are investigated and the stabilizing effect on the TS waves is quantified. We show that the streak amplitude definition is very importantwhen trying to relate it to the stabilization, since it may completely bypass information on the mean streamwise velocity gradient in the spanwise direction, which is an essential ingredient of the observed stabilization. Here, we use an integral-based streak amplitude definition along with a streak amplitude scaling relation based on empiricism,which takes the spanwise periodicity of the streaks into account. The results show that, applying the integral definition, the optimal streak amplitude for attenuating TS wave disturbance growth is around 30% of the free-stream velocity, which corresponds to ̃20% in the conventional definition when keeping the spanwise wavelength constant. The experiments also show that the disturbance energy level, based on the full velocity signal, is significantly reduced in the controlled case, and that the onset of transition may be inhibited altogether throughout the measured region in the presence of an MVG array.

  • 185.
    Shahinfar, Shahab
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    S. Sattarzadeh, Sohrab
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Passive boundary layer control of oblique distrubances by finite-amplitude streaks2014Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 749, s. 1-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent experimental results on the attenuation of two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting wave (TSW) disturbances by means of passive miniature vortex generators (MVGs) have shed new light on the possibility of delaying transition to turbulence and hence accomplishing skin-friction drag reduction. A recurrent concern has been whether this passive flow control strategy would work for other types of disturbances than plane TSWs in an experimental configuration where the incoming disturbance is allowed to fully interact with the MVG array. In the present experimental investigation we show that not only TSW disturbances are attenuated, but also three-dimensional single oblique wave (SOW) and pair of oblique waves (POW) disturbances are quenched in the presence of MVGs, and that transition delay can be obtained successfully. For the SOW disturbance an unusual interaction between the wave and the MVGs occurs, leading to a split of the wave with one part travelling with a 'mirrored' phase angle with respect to the spanwise direction on one side of the MVG centreline. This gives rise to 3-vortices on the centreline, which force a low-speed streak on the centreline, strong enough to overcome the high-speed streak generated by the MVGs themselves. Both these streaky boundary layers seem to act stabilizing on unsteady perturbations. The challenge in a passive control method making use of a non-modal type of disturbances to attenuate modal disturbances lies in generating stable streamwise streaks which do not themselves break down to turbulence.

  • 186.
    Shahmardi, Armin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Zade, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Poole, Rob J.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Turbulent duct flow with polymers2019Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 859, s. 1057-1083Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed direct numerical simulation of the turbulent flow of a polymer solution in a square duct, with the FENE-P model used to simulate the presence of polymers. First, a simulation at a fixed moderate Reynolds number is performed and its results compared with those of a Newtonian fluid to understand the mechanism of drag reduction and how the secondary motion, typical of the turbulent flow in non-axisymmetric ducts, is affected by polymer additives. Our study shows that the Prandtl's secondary flow is modified by the polymers: the circulation of the streamwise main vortices increases and the location of the maximum vorticity moves towards the centre of the duct. In-plane fluctuations are reduced while the streamwise ones are enhanced in the centre of the duct and dumped in the corners due to a substantial modification of the quasi-streamwise vortices and the associated near-wall low- and high-speed streaks; these grow in size and depart from the walls, their streamwise coherence increasing. Finally, we investigated the effect of the parameters defining the viscoelastic behaviour of the flow and found that the Weissenberg number strongly influences the flow, with the cross-stream vortical structures growing in size and the in-plane velocity fluctuations reducing for increasing flow elasticity.We have performed direct numerical simulation of the turbulent flow of a polymer solution in a square duct, with the FENE-P model used to simulate the presence of polymers. First, a simulation at a fixed moderate Reynolds number is performed and its results compared with those of a Newtonian fluid to understand the mechanism of drag reduction and how the secondary motion, typical of the turbulent flow in non-axisymmetric ducts, is affected by polymer additives. Our study shows that the Prandtl's secondary flow is modified by the polymers: the circulation of the streamwise main vortices increases and the location of the maximum vorticity moves towards the centre of the duct. In-plane fluctuations are reduced while the streamwise ones are enhanced in the centre of the duct and dumped in the corners due to a substantial modification of the quasi-streamwise vortices and the associated near-wall low- and high-speed streaks; these grow in size and depart from the walls, their streamwise coherence increasing. Finally, we investigated the effect of the parameters defining the viscoelastic behaviour of the flow and found that the Weissenberg number strongly influences the flow, with the cross-stream vortical structures growing in size and the in-plane velocity fluctuations reducing for increasing flow elasticity.

  • 187.
    Shahriari, Nima
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Bodony, Daniel J.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Acoustic receptivity simulations of flow past a flat plate with elliptic leading edge2016Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 800, artikel-id R2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results of numerical simulations of leading-edge acoustic receptivity for acoustic waves impinging on the leading edge of a finite-thickness flat plate. We use both compressible and incompressible flow solvers fitted with high-order high-accuracy numerical methods and independent methods of estimating the receptivity coefficient. The results show that the level of acoustic receptivity in the existing literature appears to be one order of magnitude too high. Our review of previous numerical simulations and experiments clearly identifies some contradictory trends. In the limit of an infinitely thin flat plate, our results are consistent with asymptotic theory and numerical simulations.

  • 188.
    Shahriari, Nima
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Kollert, Matthias R.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Control of a swept-wing boundary layer using ring-type plasma actuators2018Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 844, s. 36-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of ring-type plasma actuators for control of laminar-turbulent transition in a swept-wing boundary layer is investigated thorough direct numerical simulations. These actuators induce a wall-normal jet in the boundary layer and can act as virtual roughness elements. The flow configuration resembles experiments by Kim et al. (2016 Technical Report. BUTERFLI Project TR D3.19, http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/46529). The actuators are modelled by the volume forces computed from the experimentally measured induced velocity field at the quiescent air condition. Stationary and travelling cross-flow vortices are triggered in the simulations by means of surface roughness and random unsteady perturbations. Interaction of vortices generated by actuators with these perturbations is investigated in detail. It is found that, for successful transition control, the power of the actuators should be increased to generate jet velocities that are one order of magnitude higher than those used in the experiments by Kim et al. (2016) mentioned above.

  • 189.
    Shahriari, Nima
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Kollert, Matthias R.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Passive control of a swept-wing boundary layer using ring-type plasma actuatorsIngår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of the ring-type plasma actuators for passive control of laminar- turbulent transition in a swept-wing boundary layer is investigated thorough direct numerical simulations. These actuators induce a wall-normal jet in the boundary layer and can act as virtual roughness elements. The flow configuration resembles experiments of Kim et al. (2016). The actuators are modelled by the volume forces computed from the experimentally measured induced velocity filed at the quiescent air condition. The natural surface roughness and unsteady perturbations are also included in the simulations. The interaction of generated vortices by the actuators with these perturbations is investigated in details. It is found that for a successful transition control the power of the actuator should be increased to generate a jet velocity one order of magnitude higher than that in the considered experiments. 

  • 190.
    Sharma, Vandita
    et al.
    Indian Inst Technol Ropar, Dept Math, Rupnagar 140001, India..
    Nand, Sada
    Indian Inst Technol Ropar, Dept Math, Rupnagar 140001, India..
    Pramanik, Satyajit
    KTH, Centra, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Chen, Ching-Yao
    Natl Chiao Tung Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan..
    Mishra, Manoranjan
    Indian Inst Technol Ropar, Dept Math, Rupnagar 140001, India..
    Control of radial miscible viscous fingering2020Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 884, artikel-id A16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the stability of radial viscous fingering (VF) in miscible fluids. We show that the instability is determined by an interplay between advection and diffusion during the initial stages of flow. Using linear stability analysis and nonlinear simulations, we demonstrate that this competition is a function of the radius r0 of the circular region initially occupied by the less-viscous fluid in the porous medium. For each r0, we further determine the stability in terms of Peclet number (Pe) and log-mobility ratio (M). The Pe-M parameter space is divided into stable and unstable zones: the boundary between the two zones is well approximated by Mc Dff.r0 /Pe 0:55 c. In the unstable zone, the instability is reduced with an increase in r0. Thus, a natural control measure for miscible radial VF in terms of r0 is established. Finally, the results are validated by performing experiments that provide good qualitative agreement with our numerical study. Implications for observations in oil recovery and other fingering instabilities are discussed.

  • 191.
    Sharma, Vandita
    et al.
    Indian Inst Technol Ropar, Dept Math, Rupnagar 140001, India..
    Pramanik, Satyajit
    KTH, Centra, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Chen, Ching-Yao
    Natl Chiao Tung Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan..
    Mishra, Manoranjan
    Indian Inst Technol Ropar, Dept Math, Rupnagar 140001, India.;Indian Inst Technol Ropar, Dept Chem Engn, Rupnagar 140001, India..
    A numerical study on reaction-induced radial fingering instability2019Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 862, s. 624-638Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of A + B -> C fronts is analysed numerically in a radial geometry. We are interested to understand miscible fingering instabilities when the simple chemical reaction changes the viscosity of the fluid locally and a non-monotonic viscosity profile with a global maximum or minimum is formed. We consider viscosity-matched reactants A and B generating a product C having different viscosity than the reactants. Depending on the effect of C on the viscosity relative to the reactants, different viscous fingering (VF) patterns are captured which are in good qualitative agreement with the existing radial experiments. We have found that, for a given chemical reaction rate, an unfavourable viscosity contrast is not always sufficient to trigger the instability. For every fixed Peclet number (Pe), these effects of chemical reaction on VF are summarized in the Damkohler number (Da) - the log-mobility ratio (R-c) parameter space that exhibits a stable region separating two unstable regions corresponding to the cases of more and less viscous product. Fixing Pe, we determine Da-dependent critical log-mobility ratios R-c(+) and R-c(-) such that no VF is observable whenever R-c(-) <= R-c <= R-c(+). The effect of geometry is observable on the onset of instability, where we obtain significant differences from existing results in the rectilinear geometry.

  • 192. Shiomi, J.
    et al.
    Kudo, M.
    Ueno, I.
    Kawamura, H.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Mekanik.
    Feedback control of oscillatory thermocapillary convection in a half-zone liquid bridge2003Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 496, s. 193-211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Active feedback control was applied to suppress oscillations in thermocapillary convection in a half-zone liquid bridge. The experiment is on a unit-aspect-ratio liquid bridge where the most unstable azimuthal mode has wavenumber 2 when control is absent. Active control was realized by locally modifying the surface temperature using the local temperature measured at different locations fed back through a simple control law. The performance of the control process was quantified by analysing local temperature signals, and the flow structure was simultaneously identified by flow visualization. With optimal placement of sensors and heaters, proportional control can raise the critical Marangoni number by more than 40%. The amplitude of the oscillation can be suppressed to less than 30% of the initial value for a wide range of Marangoni number, up to 90% of the critical value. The proportional control was tested for a period-doubling state and it stabilized the oscillation to a periodic state. Weakly nonlinear control was applied by adding a cubic term to the control law to improve the performance of the control and alter the bifurcation characteristics.

  • 193.
    Shukla, Isha
    et al.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Fluid Mech & Instabil, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Kofman, Nicolas
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Fluid Mech & Instabil, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Balestra, Gioele
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Fluid Mech & Instabil, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Zhu, Lailai
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Fluid Mech & Instabil, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Princeton Univ, Dept Mech & Aerosp Engn, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.
    Gallaire, Francois
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Fluid Mech & Instabil, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Film thickness distribution in gravity-driven pancake-shaped droplets rising in a Hele-Shaw cell2019Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 874, s. 1021-1040, artikel-id PII S0022112019004531Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study here experimentally, numerically and using a lubrication approach, the shape, velocity and lubrication film thickness distribution of a droplet rising in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell. The droplet is surrounded by a stationary immiscible fluid and moves purely due to buoyancy. A low density difference between the two media helps to operate in a regime with capillary number $Ca$ lying between $0.03$ and $0.35$ , where $Ca=\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}_{o}U_{d}/\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FE}$ is built with the surrounding oil viscosity $\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}_{o}$ , the droplet velocity $U_{d}$ and surface tension $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FE}$ . The experimental data show that in this regime the droplet velocity is not influenced by the thickness of the thin lubricating film and the dynamic meniscus. For iso-viscous cases, experimental and three-dimensional numerical results of the film thickness distribution agree well with each other. The mean film thickness is well captured by the Aussillous & Quere (Phys. Fluids, vol. 12 (10), 2000, pp. 2367-2371) model with fitting parameters. The droplet also exhibits the 'catamaran' shape that has been identified experimentally for a pressure-driven counterpart (Huerre et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 115 (6), 2015, 064501). This pattern has been rationalized using a two-dimensional lubrication equation. In particular, we show that this peculiar film thickness distribution is intrinsically related to the anisotropy of the fluxes induced by the droplet's motion.

  • 194. Siconolfi, L.
    et al.
    Camarri, S.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Strömningsfysik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Boundary layer stabilization using free-stream vortice2015Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 764, s. R2-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this numerical investigation we explore the possibility of applying free-stream vortices as a passive flow control method for delaying the transition to turbulence. The work is motivated by previous experimental studies demonstrating that stable streamwise boundary layer (BL) streaks can attenuate both two-and three-dimensional disturbances inside the BL, leading to transition delay, with the implication of reducing skin-friction drag. To date, successful control has been obtained using physical BL modulators mounted on the surface in order to generate stable streaks. However, surface mounted BL modulators are doomed to failure when the BL is subject to free-stream turbulence (FST), since a destructive interaction between the two is inevitable. In order to tackle free-stream disturbances, such as FST, a smooth surface is desired, which has motivated us to seek new methods to induce streamwise streaks inside the BL. A first step, in a systematic order, is taken in the present paper to prove the control idea of generating free-stream vortices for the attenuation of ordinary Tollmien-Schlichting waves inside the BL. In this proof-of-concept study we show that, by applying a spanwise array of counter-rotating free-stream vortices, inducing streamwise BL streaks further downstream, it is possible to alter the BL stability characteristics to such a degree that transition delay may be accomplished. For the demonstration we use direct numerical simulations along with stability analysis.

  • 195. Siconolfi, L.
    et al.
    Camarri, S.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Stability analysis of boundary layers controlled by miniature vortex generators2015Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 784, s. 596-618Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is currently known that Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves can be attenuated by the introduction of spanwise mean velocity gradients in an otherwise two-dimensional boundary layer (BL). The stabilizing effect, associated with an extra turbulence production term, is strong enough to obtain a delay in transition to turbulence induced by TS waves, with the implication of reducing skin-friction drag. Miniature vortex generators (MVGs), mounted in an array, have successfully been used to obtain velocity modulations by the generation of alternating high-and low-speed streaks in the spanwise direction to control the BL. Experimentally, an initial amplification of the TS waves has been reported, which takes place in the near-wake region of the MVG array. The higher the streak amplitude, the stronger the downstream stabilizing effect becomes, but with the drawback of experiencing an even stronger initial amplification. This can lead to a sub-critical transitional Reynolds number, which would not only mean that the control has failed but, even worse, also lead to an advancement of the transition location. Here, direct numerical simulations and a local spatial stability analysis have been performed in order to reach a deeper understanding of this behaviour. The results agree well with experiments and we propose an explanation of the described behavior in terms of stability properties of the controlled BL. This important knowledge can be used in future designs of BL modulators, which can lead to improved stability of the control and to an extended region of laminar flow.

  • 196.
    Singh, Nishant K.
    KTH, Centra, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Moffatt-drift-driven large-scale dynamo due to a fluctuations with non-zero correlation times2016Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 798, s. 696-716Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a theory of large-scale dynamo action in a turbulent flow that has stochastic, zero-mean fluctuations of the a parameter. Particularly interesting is the possibility of the growth of the mean magnetic field due to Moffatt drift, which is expected to he finite in a statistically anisotropic turbulence. We extend the Kraichnan Moffatt model to explore effects of finite memory of a fluctuations, in a spirit similar to that of Sridhar & Singh (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., vol. 445, 2014, pp. 3770-3787). Using the first-order smoothing approximation, we derive a linear integro-differential equation governing the dynamics of the large-scale magnetic field, which is non-perturbative in the alpha-correlation time tau(alpha), We recover earlier results in the exactly solvable white-noise limit where the Moffatt drift does not contribute to the dynamo growth/decay. To study finite-memory effects, we reduce the integro-differential equation to a partial differential equation by assuming that tau(alpha). be small but non-zero and the large-scale magnetic field is slowly varying. We derive the dispersion relation and provide an explicit expression for the growth rate as a function of four independent parameters. When tau(alpha) not equal 0, we find that: (i) in the absence of the Moffatt drift, but with finite Kraichnan diffusivity, only strong a fluctuations can enable alpha mean-field dynamo (this is qualitatively similar to the white-noise case); (ii) in the general case when also the Moffatt drift is non-zero, both weak and strong a fluctuations can lead to a large-scale dynamo; and (iii) there always exists a wavenumber (k) cutoff at sonic large k beyond which the growth rate turns negative, irrespective of weak or strong a fluctuations. Thus we show that a finite Moffatt drift can always facilitate large-scale dynamo action if sufficiently strong, even in the case of weak alpha fluctuations, and the maximum growth occurs at intermediate wavenumbers.

  • 197. Sjöberg, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mekanik.
    Measurement and modelling of homogeneous axisymmetric turbulence1998Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 374, s. 59-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for determining the slow and rapid pressure-strain rate terms directly from wind-tunnel experiments has been developed with the aid of a newly developed theoretical description of the kinematics of homogeneous axisymmetric turbulence. Both the straining and the return-to-isotropy process of homogeneous axisymmetric turbulence are studied with the aim of improving Reynolds stress closures. Direct experimental determination of the different terms in the transport equation for the Reynolds stress tensor plays a major role in the validation and development of turbulence models. For the first time it is shown that the pressure-strain correlation can be determined with good accuracy without balancing it out from the Reynolds stress transport equation land without measuring the pressure). Instead it is determined through evaluation of integrals containing second- and third-order two-point velocity correlations. All the terms in the Reynolds stress equations are measured directly and balance is achieved.

  • 198. Skote, M.
    et al.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Mekanik.
    Direct numerical simulation of a separated turbulent boundary layer2002Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 471, s. 107-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulation of two turbulent boundary layer flows has been performed. The boundary layers are both subject to a strong adverse pressure gradient. In one case a separation bubble is created while in the other the boundary layer is everywhere attached. The data from the simulations are used to investigate scaling laws near the wall, a crucial concept in turbulence models. Theoretical work concerning the inner region in a boundary layer under an adverse pressure gradient is reviewed and extended to the case of separation. Excellent agreement between theory and data from the direct numerical simulation is found in the viscous sub-layer, while a qualitative agreement is obtained for the overlap region.

  • 199. Stroh, A.
    et al.
    Hasegawa, Y.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Frohnapfel, B.
    Global effect of local skin friction drag reduction in spatially developing turbulent boundary layer2016Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 805, s. 303-321Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical investigation of two locally applied drag-reducing control schemes is carried out in the configuration of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL). One control is designed to damp near-wall turbulence and the other induces constant mass flux in the wall-normal direction. Both control schemes yield similar local drag reduction rates within the control region. However, the flow development downstream of the control significantly differs: persistent drag reduction is found for the uniform blowing case, whereas drag increase is found for the turbulence damping case. In order to account for this difference, the formulation of a global drag reduction rate is suggested. It represents the reduction of the streamwise force exerted by the fluid on a plate of finite length. Furthermore, it is shown that the far-downstream development of the TBL after the control region can be described by a single quantity, namely a streamwise shift of the uncontrolled boundary layer, i.e. a changed virtual origin. Based on this result, a simple model is developed that allows the local drag reduction rate to be related to the global one without the need to conduct expensive simulations or measurements far downstream of the control region.

  • 200.
    Sundin, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Interaction between hairy surfaces and turbulence for different surface time scales2018Ingår i: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 861, s. 556-584Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Surfaces with filamentous structures are ubiquitous in nature on many different scales, ranging from forests to micrometre-sized cilia in organs. Hairy surfaces are elastic and porous, and it is not fully understood how they modify turbulence near a wall. The interaction between hairy surfaces and turbulent flows is here investigated numerically in a turbulent channel flow configuration at friction Reynolds number Re-tau approximate to 180. We show that a filamentous bed of a given geometry can modify a turbulent flow very differently depending on the resonance frequency of the surface, which is determined by the elasticity and mass of the filaments. Filaments having resonance frequencies lower than the main frequency content of the turbulent wall-shear stress conform to slowly travelling elongated streaky structures, since they are too slow to adapt to fluid forces of higher frequencies. On the other hand, a bed consisting of stiff and low-mass filaments has a high resonance frequency and shows local regions of increased permeability, which results in large entrainment and a vast increase in drag.

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