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  • 151.
    Wahlberg, Sverker
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Yar, Mazher Ahmed
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Oxide Dispersed Tungsten Powders from Rare Earth Doped Ammonium ParatungstateManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 152.
    Wahlberg, Sverker
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Yar, Mazher Ahmed
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Solution chemical synthesis of W-Y2O3 nanocompositesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 153. Wang, Q.
    et al.
    Rihtnesberg, D. B.
    Bergström, A.
    Almqvist, S.
    Zhang, A. Z. Z.
    Kaplan, W.
    Andersson, J. Y.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Yang, Xuran
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Compacted nanoscale sensors by merging ZnO nanorods with interdigitated electrodes2011Ingår i: Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) sensors utilizing hybrid or monolithic integration of the NRs on nanoscale or microscale interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) were fabricated and characterized. The IDEs with their finger electrode width ranging from 50 nm to 3 μm were formed on SiO2/Si substrates by nanoimprint lithography or conventional photolithography and metallization techniques, whereas the ZnO NRs were grown by chemical synthesis method. The average diameter of the ZnO NRs is about 100 nm, and their length can be varied from 2 to 5 μm by controlling growth time. When sensing targets, such as molecules or nanoparticles, bind onto the ZnO NRs, the conductance between IDEs will change. As probing test, II-VI quantum dots (QDs) were attached on the ZnO NRs, and clear responses were obtained by measuring and comparing current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the sensor before and after binding the QDs.

  • 154.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Dual-ion Conducting Nanocompoiste for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are considered as one of the most promising power generation technologies due to their high energy conversion efficiency, fuel flexibility and reduced pollution. There is a broad interest in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs. The key issue to develop low-temperature (300~600 °C) SOFCs (LTSOFCs) is to explore new electrolyte materials. Recently, ceria-based composite electrolytes have been developed as capable alternative electrolyte for LTSOFCs. The ceria-based composite electrolyte has displayed high ionic conductivity and excellent fuel cell performance below 600 °C, which has opened up a new horizon in the LTSOFCs field. In this thesis, we are aiming at exploring nanostructured composite materials for LTSOFCs with superior properties, investigating the detailed conduction mechanism for their enhanced ionic conductivity, and extending more suitable composite system and nanostructure materials.In the first part, core-shell samarium doped ceria-carbonate nanocomposite (SDC/Na2CO3) was synthesized for the first time. The core-shell nanocomposite was composed of SDC particles smaller than 100 nm coated with amorphous Na2CO3 shell. The nanocomposite has been applied in LTSOFCs with excellent performance. A freeze dry method was used to prepare the SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposites, aiming to further enhance its phase homogeneity. The ionic conduction behavior of the SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite has been studied. The results indicated that H+ conductivity in the nanocomposite is predominant over O2- conductivity with 1-2 orders of magnitude in the temperature range of 200-600 °C, indicating the proton conduction in the nanocomposite mainly accounts for the enhanced total ionic conductivity. The influence of Na2CO3 content to the proton and oxygen ion conductivity in the nanocomposite was studied as well.In the second part, both the proton and oxygen ion conduction mechanisms have been studied. It is suggested that the interface in the nanocomposite electrolyte supplies high conductive path for the proton, while oxygen ions are probably transported by the SDC grain interiors. An empirical “Swing Model” has been proposed as a possible mechanism of superior proton conduction, while oxygen ion conduction is attributed to oxygen vacancies through SDC grain in nanocomposite electrolyte.In the final part, a novel concept of non-ceria-salt-composites electrolyte, LiAlO2-carbonate composite electrolyte, has been investigated for LTSOFCs. The LiAlO2-carbonate electrolyte exhibits good conductivity and excellent fuel cell performances below 650 °C. The work not only developed a more stable composite material, but also strongly demonstrated that the high ionic conductivity is mainly related to interface effect between oxide and carbonate. As a potential candidate for nanocomposite, uniform quasi-octahedral CeO2 mesocrystals was synthesized in this thesis work as well. The CeO2 mesocrystals shows excellent thermal stability, and display potential for fuel cell applications.

  • 155.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Ionic Conducting Composite as Electrolyte forLow Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells2010Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are considered as one of the most promising powergeneration technologies due to their high energy conversion efficiency, fuel flexibilityand reduced pollution. The current SOFCs with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)electrolyte require high operation temperature (800-1000 °C), which not only hinderstheir broad commercialization due to associated high cost and technologicalcomplications. Therefore, there is a broad interest in reducing the operating temperatureof SOFCs. The key to development of low-temperature SOFCs (LTSOFCs) is to explorenew electrolyte materials with high ionic conductivity at such low temperature (300-600 °C).Recently, ceria-based composite electrolyte, consisting of doped cerium oxide mixedwith a second phase (e.g. Na2CO3), has been investigated as a promising electrolyte forLTSOFCs. The ceria-based composite electrolyte has shown a high ionic conductivityand improved fuel cell performance below 600 °C. However, at present the developmentof composite electrolyte materials and their application in LTSOFCs are still at an initialstage. This thesis aims at exploring new composite systems for LTSOFCs with superiorproperties, and investigates conductivity behavior of the electrolyte. Two compositesystems for SOFCs have been studied in the thesis.In the first system, a novel concept of non-ceria-salt-composites electrolyte, LiAlO2-carbonate (Li2CO3-Na2CO3) composite electrolyte, was investigated for SOFCs. TheLiAlO2-carbonate electrolyte exhibited good conductivity and excellent fuel cellperformances below 650 oC. The ion transport mechanism of the LiAlO2-carbonatecomposite electrolyte was studied. The results indicated that the high ionic conductivityrelates to the interface effect between oxide and carbonate.In the second system, we reported a novel core-shell samarium-doped ceria(SDC)/Na2CO3 nanocomposite which is proposed for the first time, since the interface isdominant in the nanostructured composite materials. The core-shell nanocompositeparticles are smaller than 100 nm with amorphous Na2CO3 shell. The nanocompositeelectrolyte was applied in LTSOFCs and showed excellent performance. Theconductivity behavior and charge carriers have been studied. The results indicated that H+conductivity in SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite is predominant over O2- conductivity with1-2 orders of magnitude in the temperature range of 200-600 °C. It is suggested that theinterface in composite electrolyte supplies high conductive path for proton, while oxygenions are most probably transported by the SDC nano grain interiors. Finally, a tentativemodel “swing mechanism” was proposed for explanation of superior proton conduction.

  • 156.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Li, Shanghua
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Kashyout, Abdel-Hady
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Ceria-based nanocomposite with simultaneous proton and oxygen ion conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells2011Ingår i: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 196, nr 5, s. 2754-2758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The samarium doped ceria-carbonate (SDC/Na2CO3) nanocomposite systems have shown to be excellent electrolyte materials for low-temperature SOFCs, yet, the conduction mechanism is not well understood. In this study, a four-probe d.c. technique has been successfully employed to study the conduction behavior of proton and oxygen ion in SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte. The results demonstrated that the SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte possesses unique simultaneous proton and oxygen ion conduction property, with the proton conductivity 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the oxygen ion conductivity in the temperature range of 200-600 degrees C, indicating the proton conduction in the nanocomposite mainly accounts for the enhanced total ionic conductivity. It is suggested that the interface in composite electrolyte supplies high conductive path for proton, while oxygen ions are probably transported by the SDC grain interiors. An empirical "Swing Model" has been proposed as a possible mechanism of superior proton conduction. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 157.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Li, Shanghua
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Kashyout, Abdel-Hady
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    On proton and oxygen co-ion conduction behavior in samarium doped ceria-carbonate nanocomposite electrolyteArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 158.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Li, Shanghua
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite: New freeze drying based synthesis and application as electrolyte in low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells2012Ingår i: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 37, nr 24, s. 19380-19387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A key issue to develop low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs) is to develop new electrolyte materials with enhanced ionic conductivity. Recently, SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite, as a proton and oxide co-ion conductor, has been developed as promising electrolyte candidates for LTSOFCs, where Na2CO3 as the secondary phase performs several crucial functions. However, it's difficult to control the homogeneity of Na 2CO3 phase in the composite by the current methods for composite fabrication. In this study, we report a new freeze drying technique to fabricate SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposites with different content of Na2CO3. Structural and morphological study confirmed that the homogeneity of both SDC and Na2CO3 phases in the nanocomposite is well controlled by the freeze drying technique. The effect of Na2CO3 content on proton and oxygen ion conductivities of SDC-carbonate samples were investigated by the four-probe d.c. measurement. Proton conductivity transformation around 350 °C has been observed for all the SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposites due to the glass transition of amorphous Na2CO3 phase, and the proton conductivity is dependent on Na2CO3 content. While oxygen ion conductivity deceases with the increasing of Na2CO3 volume fraction in the nanocomposite. Finally, SOFCs were fabricated using SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite samples and tested for electrochemical performances. The excellent performance of SOFCs using SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte verifies that nanocomposite approach is an effective way to fabricate electrolyte with enhanced ionic conductivity for LTSOFCs.

  • 159.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Novel core-shell SDC/amorphous Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte for low-temperature SOFCs2008Ingår i: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 1617-1620Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel core-shell SDC (Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9)/amorphous Na2CO3 nanocomposite was prepared for the first time. The core-shell nanocomposite particles are smaller than 100 nm with amorphous Na2CO3 shell of 4-6 nm in thickness. The nanocomposite electrolyte shows superionic conductivity above 300 °C, where the conductivity reaches over 0.1 S cm-1. Such high conductive nanocomposite has been applied in low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs) with an excellent performance of 0.8 W cm-2 at 550 °C. A new potential approach of designing and developing superionic conductors for LTSOFCs was presented to develop interface as 'superionic highway' in two-phase materials based on coated SDC.

  • 160.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Qin, Jian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Synthesis of uniform quasi-octahedral CeO2 mesocrystals via a surfactant-free route2011Ingår i: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 13, nr 11, s. 5879-5885Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile surfactant-free nonaqueous method is presented to prepare uniform quasi-octahedral ceria, CeO 2 , mesocrystals, in which only Ce(NO 3 ) 3 and octanol were used as the reactants at a reaction temperature of 150 °C. CeO 2 sample synthesized using this technique consists of well-dispersed quasi-octahedrons and exhibits an uniform size and morphology. Based on structural characterization, it is proposed that the CeO 2 mesostructure was formed by self-assembly of primary nanocrystals based on unique 3D oriented-attachment mechanism. Optical characterization exhibited a strong quantum confinement, revealing small size of primary nanocrystals. The thermal stability and UV–Vis study reveal CeO 2 mesocrystal has various potential for high temperature applications and optical apparatus applications.

  • 161.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    State of the art ceria-carbonate composites (3C) electrolyte for advanced low temperature ceramic fuel cells (LTCFCs)2012Ingår i: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 37, nr 24, s. 19417-19425Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are considered as one of the most promising power-generation technologies. However, the current high operation temperature (800-1000 °C) of SOFCs impedes their commercialization significantly. A key requirement for reducing the operation temperature of SOFCs is to improve the performance of the electrolyte at such low temperature. Recently, ceria-based composite materials, especially ceria-carbonate composites (3C), have been developed as competitive electrolyte candidates for SOFCs operated below 600 °C, which resulted in an emerging R & D upsurge followed up by worldwide activities. This report gives a short review on current worldwide activities on 3C for advanced low temperature ceramic fuel cells (LTCFCs), which mainly based on recent more than 70 publications since 2010. It gives an overview of materials composition and microstructure, multi-ion conduction effects, durability of the 3C materials in the areas of LTCFC or joint SOFC/MCFC filed, as well as some other novel applications of the 3C materials.

  • 162.
    Yakhshi Tafti, Mohsen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Jacquot, Alexandre
    Johnsson, Mats
    Toprak, Muhammet S
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Temperature Dependent Structure Stability Studies on Thermoelectric Yb0.025Fe0.3Co0.7Sb32015Ingår i: Materials Research Society Proceeding / [ed] S.R. Bishop , D. Cahen , R. Chen , E. Fabbri , F.C. Fonseca and D. Ginley, Materials Research Society , 2015, Vol. 1735Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Depending on their application temperature thermoelectric (TE) materials are classified in three main categories; as low (up to 250°C), intermediate (up to 550°C) and high (above 600°C) temperature. Currently, Skutterudites (CoSb3) based materials have shown promising results in the intermediate temperature range (300-500°C). This family of material is highly suitable for automotive, marine transportation and industrial power generation applications to recover the waste heat from the exhaust and generate electricity. Conventional TE modules need p- and n-type semiconductor materials and for the skutterudite family, iron (Fe) has proven to be among the best candidates for the substitution of cobalt sites. Additionally, rare earths are introduced as rattlers in the crystal cages of the skutterudite to decrease the thermal conductivity, thus improving the figure of merit ZT of the TE material. For practical application for device fabrication, stability of these materials is of great importance. Compositional stability is being addressed as the material decomposes above certain temperature. Temperature dependent x-ray diffraction study was performed on Fe substituted, Yb-filled skutterudites, using Beam Line I711 at MAX LAB, to observe the crystal structure as a function of temperature. Diffraction patterns were collected from room temperature up to 500°C by utilizing Huber furnace. The results show success in filling process showing almost 80% reduction of the thermal conductivity from bulk. Additionally the thermal expansion coefficient value was within the average value for skutterudites which proves practical application of this powder for industrial applications.

  • 163. Yao, Mingguang
    et al.
    Stenmark, Patrik
    Abou-Hamad, Edy
    Nitze, Florian
    Qin, Jian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Goze-Bac, Christophe
    Wågberg, Thomas
    Confined adamantane molecules assembled to one dimension in carbon nanotubes2011Ingår i: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 49, nr 4, s. 1159-1166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have encapsulated adamantane (C10H16) in single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Adamantane is a high symmetry cage like molecule with point group symmetry T-d and can be considered as a hydrogen-terminated diamond fragment. We confirmed and identified the successful filling by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance of the adamantane filled nanotubes reveals that the adamantane molecules stop rotating after encapsulation. A blue-shift of the Raman active radial breathing modes of the carbon nanotubes supports this and suggests a significant interaction between encapsulated adamantane molecules and the single wall nanotubes. The encapsulated adamantane molecules exhibit red shifted infrared C-H vibration modes which we assign to a slight elongation of the C-H bonds. We observe both a nanotube diameter dependence of the adamantane filling ratio and a release rate of adamantane from the CNTs that depends on the CNT diameters.

  • 164.
    Yar, Mazher Ahmed
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Development of Nanostructured Tungsten Based Composites for Energy Applications2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Tungsten (W) based materials can be used in fusion reactors due to several advantages. Different fabrication routes can be applied to develop tungsten materials with intended microstructure and properties for specific application including nanostructured grades. Therein, innovative chemical routes are unique in their approach owing numerous benefits. This thesis summarizes the development of W-based composites dispersed-strengthened by rare earth (RE) oxides and their evaluation for potential application as plasma facing armour material to be used in fusion reactor. Final material development was carried out in two steps; a) fabrication of nanostructured metallic tungsten powder dispersed with RE-oxides and b) powder sintering into bulk oxide-dispersed strengthened (ODS) composite by spark plasma process. With the help of advanced characterization tools applied at intermediate and final stages of the material development, powder fabrication and sintering conditions were optimized. The aim was to achieve a final material with a homogenous fine microstructure and improved properties, which can withstand under extreme conditions of high temperature plasma.

    Two groups of starting materials, synthesized via novel chemical methods, having different compositions were investigated. In the first group, APT-based powders doped with La or Y elements in similar ways, had identical particles’ morphology (up to 70 μm). The powders were processed into nanostructured composite powders under different reducing conditions and were characterized to investigate the effects on powder morphology and composition. The properties of sintered tungsten materials were improved with dispersion of La2O3 and Y2O3 in the respective order. The oxide dispersion was less homogeneous due to the fact that La or Y was not doped into APT particles. The second group, Ydoped tungstic acid-based powders synthesized through entirely different chemistry, contained nanocrystalline particles and highly uniform morphology. Hydrogen reduction of doped-tungstic acid compounds is complex, affecting the morphology and composition of the final powder. Hence, processing conditions are presented here which enable the separation of Y2O3 phase from Y-doped tungstic acid.

    Nevertheless, the oxide dispersion reduces the sinterability of tungsten powders, the fabricated nanostructured W-Y2O3 powders were sinterable into ultrafine ODS composites at temperatures as low as 1100 °C with highly homogeneous nano-oxide dispersion at W grain boundaries as well as inside the grain. The SPS parameters were investigated to achieve higher density with optimum finer microstructure and higher hardness. The elastic and fracture properties of the developed ODS-W have been investigated by micro-mechanical testing to estimate the materials’ mechanical response with respect to varying density and grain size. In contrast from some literature results, coarse grained ODS-W material demonstrated better properties. The developed ODS material with 1.2 Y2O3 dispersion were finally subjected to high heat flux tests in the electron beam facility “JUDITH-1”. The samples were loaded under ELM-like thermal-shocks at varying base temperatures up to an absorbed power density of 1.13 GW/m2, for armour material evaluation. Post mortem characterizations and comparison with other reference W grades, suggest lowering the oxide contents below 0.3 wt. % Y2O3.

    As an overview of the study conducted, it can be concluded that innovative chemical routes can be potential replacement to produce tungsten based materials of various composition and microstructure, for fusion reactor applications. The methods being cheap and reproducible, are also easy to handle for large production at industrial scale.

  • 165.
    Yar, Mazher Ahmed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Wahlberg, Sverker
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Abuelnaga, Mohammad Omar
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Johnsson, Mats
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Processing and Sintering of Yttrium-Doped Tungsten Oxide Nano-powdersIngår i: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896XArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative chemical methods are capable of fabricating nanoscale tungsten oxide compoundsd oped with various rare-earth elements with high purity and homogeneity, which can be processed under hydrogen into nanostructured oxide-dispersed tungsten composite powders having several potential applications. However, hydrogen reduction of doped-tungsten oxide compounds is rather complex, affecting the morphology and composition of the final powder. In this study we have investigated the reduction of tungstic acid in the presence of Y and weprovide the experimental evidence that Y2O3 can be separated from Y-doped tungstic acid via hydrogen reduction to produce Y2O3-W powders. The processed powders were further consolidated by spark plasma sintering at different temperatures and holding times at 75 MPa pressure and characterized. The optimized SPS conditions suggest sintering at 1400 °C for 3 min holding time to achieve higher density composites with an optimum finer grain size (3 μm) and a hardness value up to 420 HV. Major grain growth takes place at temperatures above 1300 °C during sintering. From the density values obtained, it is recommend to apply higher pressure before 900 °C to obtain maximum density. Oxides inclusions present in the matrix were identified as Y2O3•3WO3 and Y2O3•WO3 during high resolution microscopici nvestigations.

  • 166.
    Yar, Mazher Ahmed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Wahlberg, Sverker
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Bergqvis, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Salem, Hanadi G.
    Johnsson, Mats
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Chemically produced nanostructured ODS-lanthanum oxide-tungsten composites sintered by spark plasma2011Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 408, nr 2, s. 129-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High purity W and W-0.9La(2)O(3) (wt.%) nanopowders were produced by a wet chemical route. The precursor was prepared by the reaction of ammonium paratungstate (APT) with lanthanum salt in aqueous solutions. High resolution electron microscopy investigations revealed that the tungstate particles were coated with oxide precipitates. The precursor powder was reduced to tungsten metal with dispersed lanthanum oxide. Powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1300 and 1400 degrees C to suppress grain growth during sintering. The final grain size relates to the SPS conditions, i.e. temperature and heating rate, regardless of the starting powder particle size. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that oxide phases were mainly accumulated at grain boundaries while the tungsten matrix constituted of nanosized sub-grains. The transmission electron microscopy revealed that the tungsten grains consist of micron-scale grains and finer sub-grains. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of W in dispersed oxide phases with varying chemical composition, which evidenced the presence of complex oxide phases (WO-La) in the sintered metals.

  • 167.
    Yar, Mazher Ahmed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Wahlberg, Sverker
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Bergqvist, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Salem, H. G.
    Johnsson, Mats
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Spark plasma sintering of tungsten-yttrium oxide composites from chemically synthesized nanopowders and microstructural characterization2011Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 412, nr 2, s. 227-232Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano-crystalline W-1%Y2O3 (wt.%) powder was produced by a modified solution chemical reaction of ammonium paratungstate (APT) and yttrium nitrate. The precursor powder was found to consist of particles of bimodal morphology i.e. large APT-like particles up to 20 pm and rectangular yttrium containing ultrafine plates. After thermal processing tungsten crystals were evolved from W-O-Y plate like particles. spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to consolidate the powder at 1100 and 1200 degrees C for different holding times in order to optimize the sintering conditions to yield high density but with reduced grain growth. Dispersion of yttrium oxide enhanced the sinterability of W powder with respect to lanthanum oxide. W-1%Y2O3 composites with sub-micron grain size showed improved density and mechanical properties as compared to W-La2O3 composites. Sample sintered in two steps showed improved density, due to longer holding time at lower temperature (900 degrees C) and less grain growth due to shorter holding time at higher temperature i.e. 1 min at 1100 degrees C.

  • 168.
    Yar, Mazher Ahmed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Wahlberg, Sverker
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Pintsuk, Gerald
    Johnsson, Mats
    Linke, Jochem
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Micro-mechanical and high heat load testing of W-Y2O3 ODS armourmaterials fabricated by novel chemical method and SPSIngår i: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896XArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxide-dispersed strengthened (ODS) - tungsten based composites can be fabricated using several methods. In this study W-Y2O3 composite powders were synthesized by an innovative chemical process yielding ultrafine to micron range grains that were subsequently compacted using spark plasma sintering (SPS). Micro-mechanical tests were conducted to investigate the elastic and fracture properties of sintered compacts with grain size from ultrafine to several microns. For the evaluation of the developed material for plasma facing armour application in the fusion reactor, high heat load tests have been performed in an electron beam test facility. Surface effects, i.e. roughening, particle erosion and crack formation in dependence of base temperature and power density, were determined for an applied number of 100 ELM like loads with a pulse duration of 1 ms. The crack paths at the surface and particularly versus the bulk material were investigated to determine the resistance of the material to the formation of cracks parallel to the surface which finally would limit the thermal transfer and lead to local overheating and probably melting. Furthermore, the thermal stability of material, i.e. the resistance to recrystallization was determined by thermal annealing up to 1800 °C and during the electron beam tests by applying heat loads that lead to a surface temperature increase of> 2000°C.

  • 169.
    Ye, Fei
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Chemically Synthesized Nano-Structured Materials for Biomedical and Photonic Applications2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured materials have attracted a broad interest for applications in scientific and engineering fields due to their extraordinary properties stemming from the nanoscale dimensions. This dissertation presents the development of nanomaterials used for different applications, namely biomedicine and dye lasing.

    Various inorganic nanoparticles have been developed as contrast agents for non-invasive medical imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT), owing to their unique properties for efficient contrasting effect. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are synthesized by thermo-decomposition method and phase-transferred to be hydrophilic used as MRI T2 (negative) contrast agents. Effects of surface modification of SPIONs by mesoporous silica (mSiO2) coating have been examined on the magnetic relaxivities. These contrast agents (Fe3O4@mSiO2) were found to have a coating-thickness dependent relaxation behavior and exhibit much higher contrast efficiency than that for the commercial ones. By growing thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide -co-acrylamide) (P(NIPAAm-co-AAm)) as the outermost layer on Fe3O4@mSiO2 through free radical polymerization, a multifunctional core-shell nano-composite has been built up. Responding to the temperature change, these particles demonstrate phase transition behavior and were used for thermo-triggered magnetic separation. Their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) can be subtly tuned from ca. 34 to ca. 42 ˚C, suitable for further in vivo applications. An all-in-one contrast agent for MRI, CT and fluorescence imaging has been synthesized by depositing gadolinium oxide carbonate hydrate [Gd2O(CO3)2·H2O] shell on mSiO2-coated gold nanorod (Au NR), and then the particles were grafted with antibiofouling copolymer which can further link with the fluorescent dye. It shows both a higher CT and MRI contrast than the clinical iodine and gadolinium chelate contrast agent, respectively. Apart from the imaging application, owing to the morphology of Au NR, the particle has a plasmonic property of absorbing near-infrared (NIR) irradiation and suitable for future photothermal therapy. Cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of aforementioned nanoparticles have been evaluated and minor negative effects were found, which support their further development for medical applications.

    Gold nanoparticles embedded in the optical gain material, water solution of Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) in particular, used in dye lasers can both increase and damp the dye fluorescence, thus, changing the laser output intensity. The studies of size effect and coating of gold nanoparticles on photostability of the gain media reveal that small sized (ca. 5.5 nm) gold nanoparticles are found detrimental to the photostability, while for the larger ones (ca. 25 nm) fluorescence enhancement rather than quenching is likely to occur. And a noticeable improvement of the photostability for the gain material is achieved when gold is coated with SiO2.

  • 170.
    Ye, Fei
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Synthesis of nanostructured and hierarchical materials for bio-applications2011Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, nanostructured materials incorporated with inorganic particles and polymers have attracted attention for simultaneous multifunctional biomedical applications. This thesis summarized three works, which are preparation of mesoporous silica coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4@mSiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) as magnetic resonance imaging T2 contrast agents, polymer grafted Fe3O4@mSiO2 NPs response to temperature change, synthesis and biocompatibility evaluation of high aspect ratio (AR) gold nanorods.

    Monodisperse Fe3O4@mSiO2 NPs have been prepared through a sol-gel process. The coating thickness and particle sizes can be precisely controlled by varying the synthesis parameters. Impact of surface coatings on magnetometric and relaxometric properties of Fe3O4 NPs is studied. The efficiency of these contrast agents, evaluated by MR relaxivities ratio (r2/r1), is much higher than that of the commercial ones. This coating-thickness dependent relaxation behavior is explained due to the effects of mSiO2 coatings on water exclusion.

    Multifunctional core-shell composite NPs have been developed by growing thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide) (P(NIPAAm-co-AAm)) on Fe3O4@mSiO2 NPs through free radical polymerization. Their phase transition behavior is studied, and their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) can be subtly tuned from ca. 34 to ca. 42 °C, suitable for further in vivo applications.

    A seedless surfactant-mediated protocol has been applied for synthesis of high AR gold nanorods with the additive of HNO3. A growth mechanism based on the effect of nitrate ions on surfactant micelle elongation and Ostwald ripening process is proposed. The biocompatibility of high AR nanorods was evaluated on primary human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Their minor effects on viability and immune regulatory markers support further development for medical applications.

  • 171.
    Ye, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Brismar, Torkel
    Shi, Jingwen
    Lin, Dong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Fotonik och optik, Optik.
    Sayed, Ramy El
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Fotonik och optik, Optik.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Gold nanorod/mesoporoussilica/gadolinium oxide carbonate hydrate core/shell nanoparticles: A multimodalcontrast agent for MRI, CT and fluorescence imaging2012Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 172.
    Ye, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Laurent, Sophie
    Fornara, Andrea
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Astolfi, Laura
    Qin, Jian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Roch, Alain
    Martini, Alessandro
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Muller, Robert N.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Uniform mesoporous silica coated iron oxide nanoparticles as a highly efficient, nontoxic MRI T2 contrast agent with tunable proton relaxivities2012Ingår i: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1555-4309, E-ISSN 1555-4317, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 460-468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Monodisperse mesoporous silica (mSiO2) coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4@mSiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed as a potential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 contrast agent. To evaluate the effect of surface coating on MRI contrast efficiency, we examined the proton relaxivities of Fe3O4@mSiO2 NPs with different coating thicknesses. It was found that the mSiO2 coating has a significant impact on the efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs for MRI contrast enhancement. The efficiency increases with the thickness of mSiO2 coating and is much higher than that of the commercial contrast agents. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry of Fe3O4@mSiO2 further revealed that mSiO2 coating is partially permeable to water molecules and therefore induces the decrease of longitudinal relaxivity, r1. Biocompatibility evaluation of various sized (ca. 3595 nm) Fe3O4@mSiO2 NPs was tested on OC-k3 cells and the result showed that these particles have no negative impact on cell viability. The enhanced MRI efficiency of Fe3O4@mSiO2 highlights these coreshell particles as highly efficient T2 contrast agents with high biocompatibility.

  • 173.
    Ye, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Qin, Jian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Funktionella material, FNM (Stängd 20120101).
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Multifunctional core-shell nanoparticles: superparamagnetic, mesoporous, and thermosensitive2011Ingår i: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 13, nr 11, s. 6157-6167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multifunctional core-shell composite nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed by the combination of three functionalities into one entity, which is composed of a single Fe3O4 NP as the magnetic core, mesoporous silica (mSiO2) with cavities as the sandwiched layer, and thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide) (P(NIPAAm-co-AAm)) copolymer as the outer shell. The mSiO2-coated Fe3O4 NPs (Fe3O4@mSiO2) are monodisperse and the particle sizes were varied from 25 to 95 nm by precisely controlling the thickness of mSiO2-coating layer. The P(NIPAAm-co-AAm) were then grown onto surface-initiator-modified Fe3O4@mSiO2 NPs through free radical polymerization. These core-shell composite NPs (designated as Fe3O4@mSiO2@P(NIPAAm-co-AAm)) were found to be superparamagnetic with high r2 relaxivity. To manipulate the phase transition behavior of these thermosensitive polymer-coated NPs for future in vivo applications, the characteristic lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was subtly tuned by adjusting the composition of the monomers to be around the human body temperature (i.e. 37 °C), from ca. 34 to ca. 42 °C. The thermal response of the core-shell composite NPs to the external magnetic field was also demonstrated. Owing to their multiple functionality characteristics, these porous superparamagnetic and thermosensitive NPs may prove valuable for simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), temperature-controlled drug release, and temperature-programed magnetic targeting and separation applications.

  • 174.
    Ye, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Vallhov, Helen
    Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute and University Hospital Solna, Sweden.
    Qin, Jian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Daskalaki, Evangelia
    Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Universty Hospital Solan, Sweden.
    abhilash, Sugunan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Fornara, Andrea
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Gabrielsson, Susanne
    Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Universty Hospital Solan, Sweden.
    Scheynius, Annika
    Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Universty Hospital Solan, Sweden.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Synthesis of high aspect ratio gold nanorods and their effects on human antigen presenting dendritic cells2011Ingår i: International Journal Of Nanotechnology, ISSN 1475-7435, Vol. 8, nr 8-9, s. 631-652Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High aspect ratio (AR) gold nanorods (NRs) attract great interest for biomedical applications due to their novel physicochemical properties. Here, we report a facile method for preparation of high AR gold NRs through a seedless surfactant-mediated protocol with the additive of nitric acid. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies showed that the concentration of nitric acid has great effects on the crystal structures of the initially formed nuclei and consequently the growth of gold NRs. A mechanism based on the effect of nitrate ions on surfactant micelle elongation and Ostwald ripening process is proposed for the growth of high AR gold NRs. The biocompatibility of high AR NRs was evaluated on primary human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), and compared with that of spherical gold nanoparticles (NPs) and low AR NRs. Low AR (similar to 4.5) gold NRs induced considerable cell death due to CTAB, while spherical gold NPs (7 nm) and high AR (similar to 21) gold NRs showed no or minor effects on viability and immune regulatory markers, which supports the further development of high AR gold NRs for medical applications.

  • 175. Zagorodni, Andrei A.
    et al.
    Salazar-Alvarez, German
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Bar-shaped nanoparticles of iron(II) hydroxide2008Ingår i: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 377-381Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Formation of elongated nanoparticles was observed when FE3O4 was precipitated from solutions containing excess of Fe2+. The average diameter of the particles was 23 nm; the length to diameter ratio was up to 14. This shape was an unexpected phenomenon because bar- or needle-like nanoparticles have been earlier reported only for Fe(III)-based materials. Chemical analysis revealed Fe(OH)(2) nature of the obtained particles. In addition, this conclusion was verified with a new simple method for quantitative evaluation of the particle morphology. Application of this method to the mixed Fe(OH)(2/)Fe3O4 samples allowed to distinguish between the two different compounds and to attribute different morphologies to Fe(OH)(2) or Fe3O4. Results indicate that bars are frequent shapes of nano-sized iron oxides/hydroxides.

  • 176.
    Zhao, Yichen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Rihtnesberg, David B.
    Wang, Qin
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Size-tuneable synthesis of photoconducting poly-(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres and nanocomposites2012Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 9, nr 7, s. 1546-1550Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) has been applied in many fields such as organic solar cells, printed electronic circuits, due to superior semiconducting properties compared to other semiconducting polymers. The presence of p-p interaction causes regio-regular P3HT to form ordered lamellar stacks during crystallisation. Here we report a simple room temperature, solution based method to synthesise P3HT nanofibres with controllable sizes. Our method is based on differing solubility of P3HT in various solvents. In a mixed solvent environment, we could control the precipitation of P3HT to obtain nanofibres with various diameters by varying the ratios of the solvents. We found that the lengths of the nanofibres could be controlled with concentration of the solution. Other methods to obtain nanofibres of P3HT invariably involves heating and controlled cooling which makes reproducibility and morphology control difficult. Furthermore, we synthesised a nanocomposite consisting of P3HT nanofibres and quasi-type-II quantum dots and evaluated the photoelectric properties of the nanofibres as well as the nanocomposites using interdigitated gold microelectrodes.

  • 177.
    Zhou, Jing
    et al.
    University of Tampere.
    Zhang, Weikai
    University of Tampere.
    Poe, Dennis
    University of Tampere.
    Qin, Jian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Fornara, Andrea
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Zhang, Ya
    University of Tampere.
    Ramadan, Usama
    University of Helsinki.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Pyykkö, Ilmari
    University of Tampere.
    MRI manifestation of novel superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the rat inner ear2010Ingår i: Nanomedicine, ISSN 1743-5889, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 739-754Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles hierarchically coated with oleic acid and Pluronic F127 copolymers (POA@SPION) have shown exceptional 12 contrast enhancement. The aim of the present work was to investigate the MRI manifestation of POA@SPION in the inner ear. Materials & methods: A total of 26 male Wister rats were selected for testing POA@SPION administered through intracochlear, intratympanic and intravenous routes. MRI was performed with a 4.7 T MR scanner. Results & conclusion: POA@SPION can be introduced into the perilymph space, after which it becomes widely distributed and can demonstrate the integrity of the perilymph-endolymph barrier. Positive highlighting of the endolymph compartment against the darkened perilymph was visualized for the first time. POA@SPION passed through the middle-inner ear barriers in only small amounts, but stayed in the perilymph for 3 days. They did not traverse the blood-perilymph barrier or blood-endolymph barrier. The inner ear distribution of POA@SPION was confirmed by histology. POA@SPION is a promising T2 negative contrast agent.

  • 178.
    Zhu, Bin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Qin, Haiying
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Fan, Liangdong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    A fuel cell with a single component functioning simultaneously as the electrodes and electrolyte2011Ingår i: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 225-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A fuel cell device is realized by using a single component of lithium nickel oxide and gadolinium doped ceria (LiNiO2-GDC) composite material, a mixture of electronic and ionic conductors, when nickel foam and silver paste are attached to each surface of the single component pellet as current collectors. This simple fuel cell construction with only one component showed the same or even better performances compared to conventional three-component MEA (membrane electrolyte assembly) fuel cell using GDC as electrolyte. The maximum power density of 450 mW/cm(2) has been achieved at 550 degrees C for the single component fuel cell.

1234 151 - 178 av 178
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