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  • 151.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Juslin, P. N.
    Uppsala University.
    A system for improving the communication of emotion in music performance by feedback learning2002Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 111, nr 5, s. 2471-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Expressivity is one of the most important aspects of music performance. However, in music education, expressivity is often overlooked in favor of technical abilities. This could possibly depend on the difficulty in describing expressivity, which makes it problematic to provide the student with specific feedback. The aim of this project is to develop a computer program, which will improve the students’ ability in communicating emotion in music performance. The expressive intention of a performer can be coded in terms of performance parameters (cues), such as tempo, sound level, timbre, and articulation. Listeners’ judgments can be analyzed in the same terms. An algorithm was developed for automatic cue extraction from audio signals. Using note onset–offset detection, the algorithm yields values of sound level, articulation, IOI, and onset velocity for each note. In previous research, Juslin has developed a method for quantitative evaluation of performer–listener communication. This framework forms the basis of the present program. Multiple regression analysis on performances of the same musical fragment, played with different intentions, determines the relative importance of each cue and the consistency of cue utilization. Comparison with built‐in listener models, simulating perceived expression using a regression equation, provides detailed feedback regarding the performers’ cue utilization.

  • 152.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Askenfelt, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    IMUTUS: an interactive system for learning to play a musical instrument2004Ingår i: Proc. of International Conference of Interactive Computer Aided Learning (ICL), September 29 - October 1, 2004, Carinthia Tech Institute, Villach, Austria / [ed] Auer, M.; Auer, U., Kassel University Press GmbH, 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    IMUTUS (Interactive Music Tuition System) is a EU project that aims to develop a practising environment for the recorder, combining new technologies and new approaches for music learning. Automatic analysis and evaluation of student performances play a central role in the student-system interaction. The performance evaluation module identifies typical performance errors, and provides feedback that relates to performance skills, helping the student to improve. The performance evaluation process is based on the knowledge and experience of recorder teachers, obtained via questionnaires, interviews and structured evaluations of recorded student performances. Another important feature of the performance evaluation is that it can be guided by teachers writing the content for IMUTUS by means of annotations.

  • 153. Serafin, S.
    et al.
    Dahl, S.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Jensenius, A. R.
    Unnthorsson, R.
    Välimäki, V.
    NordicSMC: A nordic university hub on sound and music computing2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 15th Sound and Music Computing Conference: Sonic Crossings, SMC 2018, Sound and music Computing network , 2018, s. 124-128Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound and music computing (SMC) is still an emerging field in many institutions, and the challenge is often to gain critical mass for developing study programs and undertake more ambitious research projects. We report on how a long-term collaboration between small and medium-sized SMC groups have led to an ambitious undertaking in the form of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Network (NordicSMC), funded by the Nordic Research Council and institutions from all of the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). The constellation is unique in that it covers the field of sound and music from the "soft" to the "hard," including the arts and humanities, the social and natural sciences, and engineering. This paper describes the goals, activities, and expected results of the network, with the aim of inspiring the creation of other joint efforts within the SMC community.

  • 154.
    Seward, Alexander
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    A fast HMM match algorithm for very large vocabulary speech recognition2004Ingår i: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 191-206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The search over context-dependent continuous density Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), including state-likelihood computations, accounts for a considerable part of the total decoding time for a speech recognizer. This is especially apparent in tasks that incorporate large vocabularies and long-dependency n-gram grammars, since these impose a high degree of context dependency and HMMs have to be treated differently in each context. This paper proposes a strategy for acoustic match of typical continuous density HMMs, decoupled from the main search and conducted as a separate component suited for parallelization. Instead of computing a large amount of probabilities for different alignments of each HMM, the proposed method computes all alignments, but more efficiently. Each HMM is matched only once against any time interval, and thus may be instantly looked up by the main search algorithm as required. In order to accomplish this in real time, a fast time-warping match algorithm is proposed, exploiting the specifics of the 3-state left-to-right HMM topology without skips. In proof-of-concept tests, using a highly optimized SIMD-parallel implementation, the algorithm was able to perform time-synchronous decoupled evaluation of a triphone acoustic model, with maximum phone duration of 40 frames, with a real-time factor of 0.83 on one of the CPUs of a Dual-Xeon 2 GHz workstation. The algorithm was able to compute the likelihood for 636,000 locally optimal HMM paths/second, with full state evaluation.

  • 155.
    Seward, Alexander
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Tal, musik och hörsel.
    A Tree-Trellis N-best Decoder for Stochastic Context-Free Grammars2000Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Beijing, China, 2000: vol 4, 2000, s. 282-285Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a decoder for continuous speech recognition using stochastic context-free grammars is described. It forms the backbone of the ACE recognizer, which is a modular system for real-time speech recognition. A new rationale for automata is introduced, as well as a new model for pruning the search space.

  • 156.
    Seward, Alexander
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Efficient Methods for Automatic Speech Recognition2003Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents work in the area of automatic speech recognition (ASR). The thesis focuses on methods for increasing the efficiency of speech recognition systems and on techniques for efficient representation of different types of knowledge in the decoding process. In this work, several decoding algorithms and recognition systems have been developed, aimed at various recognition tasks.

    The thesis presents the KTH large vocabulary speech recognition system. The system was developed for online (live) recognition with large vocabularies and complex language models. The system utilizes weighted transducer theory for efficient representation of different knowledge sources, with the purpose of optimizing the recognition process.

    A search algorithm for efficient processing of hidden Markov models (HMMs) is presented. The algorithm is an alternative to the classical Viterbi algorithm for fast computation of shortest paths in HMMs. It is part of a larger decoding strategy aimed at reducing the overall computational complexity in ASR. In this approach, all HMM computations are completely decoupled from the rest of the decoding process. This enables the use of larger vocabularies and more complex language models without an increase of HMM-related computations.

    Ace is another speech recognition system developed within this work. It is a platform aimed at facilitating the development of speech recognizers and new decoding methods.

    A real-time system for low-latency online speech transcription is also presented. The system was developed within a project with the goal of improving the possibilities for hard-of-hearing people to use conventional telephony by providing speech-synchronized multimodal feedback. This work addresses several additional requirements implied by this special recognition task.

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  • 157.
    Seward, Alexander
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Low-Latency Incremental Speech Transcription in the Synface Project2003Ingår i: Proceedings of the European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech), Geneva, Switzerland, 2003: vol 2, 2003, s. 1141-1144Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a real-time decoder for low-latency onlinespeech transcription is presented. The system was developedwithin the Synface project, which aims to improve thepossibilities for hard of hearing people to use conventionaltelephony by providing speech-synchronized multimodalfeedback. This paper addresses the specific issues related toHMM-based incremental phone classification with real-timeconstraints. The decoding algorithm described in this workenables a trade-off to be made between improved recognitionaccuracy and reduced latency. By accepting a longer latencyper output increment, more time can be ascribed tohypothesis look-ahead and by that improve classificationaccuracy. Experiments performed on the Swedish SpeechDatdatabase show that it is possible to generate the sameclassification as is produced by non-incremental decodingusing HTK, by adopting a latency of approx. 150 ms ormore.

  • 158.
    Seward, Alexander
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Tal, musik och hörsel.
    The KTH Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition System2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 159.
    Seward, Alexander
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Transducer Optimizations for Tight-Coupled Decoding2001Ingår i: Proceedings of the European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech), Aalborg, Denmark, 2001: vol 3, 2001, s. 1607-1610Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we apply a framework of finiteastate transducers (FsT) to uniformly represent various information sources and dataastructures used in speech recognition. These source models include contextafree language models, phonology models, acoustic model information (Hidden Markov Models), and pronunciation dictionaries. We will describe how this unified representation can serve as a single input model for the recognizer. We will demonstrate how the application of various levels of optimizations can lead to a more compact representation of these transducers and evaluate the effects on recognition performance, in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.

  • 160. Siciliano, C.
    et al.
    Williams, G.
    Faulkner, A.
    Salvi, Giampiero
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Intelligibility of an ASR-controlled synthetic talking face2004Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 115, nr 5, s. 2428-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the SYNFACE project is to develop a multilingual synthetic talking face, driven by an automatic speech recognizer (ASR), to assist hearing‐impaired people with telephone communication. Previous multilingual experiments with the synthetic face have shown that time‐aligned synthesized visual face movements can enhance speech intelligibility in normal‐hearing and hearing‐impaired users [C. Siciliano et al., Proc. Int. Cong. Phon. Sci. (2003)]. Similar experiments are in progress to examine whether the synthetic face remains intelligible when driven by ASR output. The recognizer produces phonetic output in real time, in order to drive the synthetic face while maintaining normal dialogue turn‐taking. Acoustic modeling was performed with a neural network, while an HMM was used for decoding. The recognizer was trained on the SpeechDAT telephone speech corpus. Preliminary results suggest that the currently achieved recognition performance of around 60% frames correct limits the usefulness of the synthetic face movements. This is particularly true for consonants, where correct place of articulation is especially important for visual intelligibility. Errors in the alignment of phone boundaries representative of those arising in the ASR output were also shown to decrease audio‐visual intelligibility.

  • 161. Siciliano, Catherine
    et al.
    Williams, Geoff
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Faulkner, Andrew
    Evaluation of a Multilingual Synthetic Talking Faceas a Communication Aid for the Hearing Impaired2003Ingår i: Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Science (ICPhS'03), Barcelona, Spanien, 2003, s. 131-134Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 162.
    Sjölander, Kåre
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Word level precision of the NALIGN automatic segmentation algorithm2004Ingår i: Proc of The XVIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference, Fonetik 2004 / [ed] Peter Branderud, Hartmut Traunmüller, 2004, s. 116-119Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 163.
    Sjölander, Peta
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Spectrum effects of subglottal pressure variation in professional baritone singers2004Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 115, nr 3, s. 1270-1273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The audio signal from five professional baritones was analyzed by means of spectrum analysis. Each subject sang syllables [pae] and [pa] from loudest to softest phonation at fundamental frequencies representing 25%, 50%, and 75% of his total range. Ten subglottal pressures, equidistantly spaced between highest and lowest, were selected for analysis along with the corresponding production of the vowels. The levels of the first formant and singer's formant were measured as a function of subglottal pressure. Averaged across subjects, vowels, and F-0, a 10-dB increase at 600 Hz was accompanied by a 16-dB increase at 3 kHz.

  • 164.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Early error detection on word level2004Ingår i: Proceedings of ISCA Tutorial and Research Workshop (ITRW) on Robustness Issues in Conversational Interaction, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper two studies are presented in which the detection of speech recognition errors on the word level was examined. In the first study, memory-based and transformation-based machine learning was used for the task, using confidence, lexical, contextual and discourse features. In the second study, we investigated which factors humans benefit from when detecting errors. Information from the speech recogniser (i.e. word confidence scores and 5-best lists) and contextual information were the factors investigated. The results show that word confidence scores are useful and that lexical and contextual (both from the utterance and from the discourse) features further improve performance.

  • 165.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Robust interpretation in the Higgins spoken dialogue system2004Ingår i: Proceedings of ISCA Tutorial and Research Workshop (ITRW) on Robustness Issues in Conversational Interaction, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes Pickering, the semantic interpreter developed in the Higgins project - a research project on error handling in spoken dialogue systems. In the project, the initial efforts are centred on the input side of the system. The semantic interpreter combines a rich set of robustness techniques with the production of deep semantic structures. It allows insertions and non-agreement inside phrases, and combines partial results to return a limited list of semantically distinct solutions. A preliminary evaluation shows that the interpreter performs well under error conditions, and that the built-in robustness techniques contribute to this performance.

  • 166.
    Spens, Karl-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Agelfors, Eva
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Karlsson, Inger
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Salvi, Giampiero
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    SYNFACE, a talking head telephone for the hearing impaired2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 167. Stefanov, Kalin
    et al.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    A multi-party multi-modal dataset for focus of visual attention in human-human and human-robot interaction2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’16), 2016, s. 4440-4444Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 168. Stefanov, Kalin
    et al.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Salvi, Giampiero
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel. KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Self-Supervised Vision-Based Detection of the Active Speaker as Support for Socially-Aware Language Acquisition2019Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental SystemsArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a self-supervised method for visual detection of the active speaker in a multi-person spoken interaction scenario. Active speaker detection is a fundamental prerequisite for any artificial cognitive system attempting to acquire language in social settings. The proposed method is intended to complement the acoustic detection of the active speaker, thus improving the system robustness in noisy conditions. The method can detect an arbitrary number of possibly overlapping active speakers based exclusively on visual information about their face. Furthermore, the method does not rely on external annotations, thus complying with cognitive development. Instead, the method uses information from the auditory modality to support learning in the visual domain. This paper reports an extensive evaluation of the proposed method using a large multi-person face-to-face interaction dataset. The results show good performance in a speaker dependent setting. However, in a speaker independent setting the proposed method yields a significantly lower performance. We believe that the proposed method represents an essential component of any artificial cognitive system or robotic platform engaging in social interactions.

  • 169. Strangert, E.
    et al.
    Carlson, Rolf
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    On the modelling and synthesis of conversational speech2004Ingår i: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the IXth Conference / [ed] Bruce, G.; Horne, M., Lund: Peter Lang: Frankfurt am Main , 2004, s. 255-264Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 170.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Musicians performance prosody2004Ingår i: Proceedings of Reading Symposium Music Language and Human Evolution, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Music and speech are specific to humans. In our time we have many opportunities to hear music that is interpreted and executed by machines rather than by living musicians. Such examples mostly sound quite pathologic, particularly for music from the classical western repertoire. This demonstrates the relevance of the performance to the musical listening experience. For many years a research group at the department of Speech Music Hearing, KTH has studied the reasons for the computer's shortcomings as a musician. Our method has mainly analysis-by-synthesis, i.e., we have the computer play music files on a synthesizer. A professional musician, the late violinist Lars Frydén, assessed the emerging performances and recommended how they could be improved. We implemented his recommendations as performance rules in the control program and then tested them on various music examples. After many years of such experiments we had a dozen or two performance rules. These performance rules significantly contribute to improving performance, and the reason for this is an interesting question. The rules seem to be of three types. One type, the grouping rules, serves the purpose of grouping, i.e., showing where the structural boundaries are in the composition and which tones belong together. Another type enhances the difference between musical categories such as note values or scale tones or intervals, e.g., by increasing the dissimilarities between them. A third type adds emphasis to unexpected tones and deemphasizes expected tones. It is thought-provoking that the principles of grouping, category enhancement and emphasis of the unexpected are not specific to music. They occur also in other types of communication, such as speech, architecture, and others. This suggests that they emerge from demands raised by the receiving system. For example it is tempting to speculate that emphasis by delayed arrival, common both in music and speech, and delaying the emphasised information somewhat, is appropriate because it allows the neural system to finish processing the old information before it starts with processing the emphasized and hence particularly important information. In any event it seems likely that music performance as well as speech is tailored to the human cognitive system and that a comparative study of these two examples of systematic interhuman communication by acoustic signals will contribute to the understanding of human perception and cognition.

  • 171.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    The nasal tract as a resonator in singing: Some experimental findings2004Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2nd Intl Physiology and Acoustics of Singing Conference, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 172. Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Stopping running and stopping a piece of music. Comparing locomotion and music performance1996Ingår i: Proc of NAM 96, Nordic Acoustical Meeting / [ed] Riederer, K., & Lahti, T., 1996, s. 351-358Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 173.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Common Secrets of Musicians and Listeners - An analysis-by-synthesis Study of Musical Performance1991Ingår i: Representing Musical Structure / [ed] Howell, P.; West, R.; Cross, I., London: Academic Press, 1991, s. 161-197Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 174.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Music and locomotion. a study of the perception of tones with level envelopes replicating force patterns of walking1992Ingår i: STL-QPSR, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 109-122Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Music listening ofien produces associations to locomotion. This suggests that some patterns in music are similar to those perceived during locomotion. The present investigation tests the hypothesis that the sound level envelope of tones allude to force patterns associated with walking and dancing. Six examples of such force patterns were recorded using a force platform, and the vertical components were translated from kg to dB and used as level envelopes for tones. Sequences of four copies of each of these tones were presented with four different fixed inter-onset times. Music students were asked to characterize these sequences in three tests. In one test, the subjects were free to use any expression, and the occurrence of motion words in the responses was examined. In another test, they were asked to describe, ifpossible, the motion characteristics of the sequences, and the number of blank responses were studied. In the third test, they were asked to describe the sequences along 24 motion adjective scales, and the responses were submitted to a factor analysis. The results from the three tests showed a reasonable degree of coherence, suggesting that associations to locomotions are likely to occur under these conditions, particularly when (1) the inter-onset time is similar to the inter-step time typical of walking, and (2) when the inter-onset time agreed with that observed when the gait patterns were recorded. The latter observation suggests that the different motion patterns thus translated to sound level envelopes also may convey information on the type of motion.

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  • 175.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Music and locomotion. Perception of tones with level envelopes replicating force patterns of walking1994Ingår i: Proc. of SMAC ’93, Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, 1994, s. 136-141Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 176.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Musicians’ and nonmusicians’ sensitivity to differences in music performance1988Ingår i: STL-QPSR, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 077-081Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of ordered context-dependent rules for the automatic transformation of a music score to the corresponding musical performance has been developed, using an analysis-by-synthesis method [Sundberg, J. (1987): "Computer synthesis of music performance," pp. 52-69 in (J. Sloboda, ed.) Generative Processes in Music, Clarendon, Oxford]. The rules are implemented in the LeLisp language on a Macintosh microcomputer that controls a synthesizer via a MIDI interface. The rules manipulate sound level, fundamental frequency, vibrato extent, and duration of the tones. The present experiment was carried out in order to find out if the sensitivity of these effects differed between musicians and nonrnusicians. Pairs of performances of the same examples were presented in different series, one for each rule. Between the pairs in a series, the performance differences were varied within wide limits and, in the first pair in each series, the difference was pat, so as to catch the subject's attention. Subjects were asked to decide whether the two performances were identical. The results showed that musicians had a clearly greater sensitivity. The pedagogical implications of this finding will be discussed. 

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  • 177.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Rules for automated performance of ensemble music1989Ingår i: Contemporary Music Review, ISSN 0749-4467, E-ISSN 1477-2256, Vol. 3, s. 89-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently developed parts of a computer program are presented that contain a rule system which automatically converts music scores to musical performance, and which, in a sense, can be regarded as a model of a musically gifted player. The development of the rule system has followed the analysis-by-synthesis strategy; various rules have been formulated according to the suggestions of a professional string quartet violinist and teacher of ensemble playing. The effects of various rules concerning synchronization and timing and also tuning, in performance of ensemble music are evaluated by a listening panel of professional musicians. Further support for the notion of melodic clzarge, previously introduced and playing a prominent rule in the performance rules, is found in a correlation with fine tuning of intervals. 

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    fulltext
  • 178.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Rules for automatized performance of ensemble music1987Ingår i: STL-QPSR, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 057-078Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently developed parts of a computer program are presented that contain a rule system which automatically converts music scores to musical performance, and which, in a sense, can be regarded as a model of a musically gifted player. The development of the rule system has followed the analysis-by-synthesis strategy; various rules have been formulated after having been suggested by a professional string quartet violinist and teacher of ensemble playing. The effects of various rules concerning synchronization and timing and, also, tuning in performance of ensemble music are evaluated by a listening panel of professional musicians. Further support for the notion of melodic charge, previously introduced and playing a prominent rule in the performance rules, is found in a correlation with fine tuning of intervals. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 179.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Threshold and preference Quantities of Rules for Music Performance1991Ingår i: Music perception, ISSN 0730-7829, E-ISSN 1533-8312, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 71-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an analysis- by-synthesis investigation of music performance, rules have been developed that describe when and how expressive deviations are made from the nominal music notation in the score. Two experiments that consider the magnitudes of such deviations are described. In Experiment 1, the musicians' and nonmusicians' sensitivities to expressive deviations generated by seven performance rules are compared. The musicians showed a clearly greater sensitivity. In Experiment 2, professional musicians adjusted to their satisfaction the quantity by which six rules affected the performance. For most rules, there was a reasonable agreement between the musicians regarding preference. The preferred quantities seemed close to the threshold of perceptibility.

  • 180.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Mathews, M. V.
    Bennett, G.
    Experiences of combining the radio baton with the director musices performance grammar2001Ingår i: MOSART project workshop on current research directions in computer music, 2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 181.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Expressive aspects of instrumental and sung performance1994Ingår i: Proceedings  of the Symposium on Psychophysiology and Psychopathology of the Sense of Music / [ed] Steinberg, R., Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 1994Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 182. Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Expressive aspects of instrumental and vocal performance1995Ingår i: Music and the Mind Machine: Psychophysiology and Psychopathology of the Sense of Music / [ed] Steinberg, R., Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 1995Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Several music computers can now convert an input note file to a sounding performance. Listening to such performances demonstrates convincingly the significance of the musicians’ contribution to music performance; when the music score is accurately replicated as nominally written, the music sounds dull and nagging. It is the musicians’ contributions that make the performance interesting. In other words, by deviating slightly from what is nominally written in the music score, the musicians add expressivity to the music.

  • 183.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Music communication as studied by means of performance1991Ingår i: STL-QPSR, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 065-083Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an overview of a long-term research work with a rule system for the automatic performance of music. The performance rules produce deviations from the durations, sound levels, and pitches nominally specified in the music score. They can be classified according to their apparent musical function: to help the listener (I) in the differentiation of different pitch and duration categories and (2) in the grouping of the tones. Apart from this, some rules serve the purpose of organizing tuning and synchronization in ensemble performance. The rules reveal striking similarities between music performance and speech; for instance final lengthening occur in both and the acoustic code used for marking of emphasis are similar.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 184.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Thalén, M.
    Alku, P.
    Vilkman, E.
    Estimating perceived phonatory pressedness in singing from flow glottograms2004Ingår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 56-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), defined as the ratio between the peak-to-peak amplitude of the flow pulse and the negative peak amplitude of the differentiated flow glottogram and normalized with respect to period time, has been shown to be related to glottal adduction. Glottal adduction, in turn, affects mode of phonation and hence perceived phonatory pressedness. The relationship between NAQ and perceived phonatory pressedness was analyzed in a material collected from a professional female singer and singing teacher who sang a triad pattern in breathy, flow, neutral, and pressed phonation in three different loudness conditions (soft, middle, loud). In addition, she also sang the same triad pattern in four different styles of singing, classical, pop, jazz, and blues, in the same three loudness conditions. A panel of experts rated the degree of perceived phonatory press along visual analogue scales. Comparing the obtained mean rated pressedness ratings with the mean NAQ values for the various triads showed that about 73% of the variation in perceived pressedness could be accounted for by variations of NAQ.

  • 185.
    Svedman, Patrick
    et al.
    KTH.
    Wilson, Sarah Kate
    Cimini, Leonard J., Jr.
    Ottersten, Björn
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Opportunistic beamforming and scheduling for OFDMA systems (vol 55, pg 941, 2007)2007Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 1266-1266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 186.
    Székely, Éva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Henter, Gustav Eje
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Off the cuff: Exploring extemporaneous speech delivery with TTS2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 187. Székely, Éva
    et al.
    Henter, Gustav Eje
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Spontaneous conversational speech synthesis from found data2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, INTERSPEECH, ISCA , 2019, s. 4435-4439Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesising spontaneous speech is a difficult task due to disfluencies, high variability and syntactic conventions different from those of written language. Using found data, as opposed to lab-recorded conversations, for speech synthesis adds to these challenges because of overlapping speech and the lack of control over recording conditions. In this paper we address these challenges by using a speaker-dependent CNN-LSTM breath detector to separate continuous recordings into utterances, which we here apply to extract nine hours of clean single-speaker breath groups from a conversational podcast. The resulting corpus is transcribed automatically (both lexical items and filler tokens) and used to build several voices on a Tacotron 2 architecture. Listening tests show: i) pronunciation accuracy improved with phonetic input and transfer learning; ii) it is possible to create a more fluent conversational voice by training on data without filled pauses; and iii) the presence of filled pauses improved perceived speaker authenticity. Another listening test showed the found podcast voice to be more appropriate for prompts from both public speeches and casual conversations, compared to synthesis from found read speech and from a manually transcribed lab-recorded spontaneous conversation.

  • 188.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Talöverföring och musikakustik. KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel. KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Choir acoustics: an overview of scientific research published to date2003Ingår i: International Journal of Research in Choral Singing, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 3-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Choir acoustics is but one facet of choir-related research, yet it is one of the most tangible. Several aspects of sound can be measured objectively, and such results can be related to known properties of voices, rooms, ears and musical scores. What follows is essentially an update of the literature overview in my Ph.D. dissertation from 1989 of empirical investigations known to me that deal specifically with the acoustics of choirs, vocal groups, or choir singers. This compilation of sources is no doubt incomplete in certain respects; nevertheless, it will hopefully prove to be useful for researchers and others interested in choir acoustics.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    http://www.speech.kth.se/prod/publications/files/qpsr/2002/2002_43_1_001-008.pdf
  • 189.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Preferred self-to-other ratios in choir singing1999Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 105, nr 6, s. 3563-3574Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Choir singers need to hear their own voice in an adequate self-to-other ratio (SOR) over the rest ofthe choir. Knowing singers’ preferences for SOR could facilitate the design of stages and of choral formations. In an experiment to study the preferred SOR, subjects sang sustained vowels together with synthesized choir sounds, whose loudness tracked that of their own voice. They could control the SOR simply by changing their distance to the microphone. At the most comfortable location, the SOR was measured. Experimental factors included unison and four-part tasks, three vowels and two levels of phonation frequency. The same experiment was run four times, using sopranos, altos, tenors, and basses, with stimulus tones adapted for each category. The preferred self-to-other ratios were found to be similar to SORs measured previously in actual performance, if a little higher. Preferences were quite narrow, typically +/-2 dB for each singer, but very different from singer to singer, with intrasubject means ranging from -1 to +15 dB. There was no significant difference between the unison and the four-part tasks, although this might have been caused by systematic differences in the stimulus sounds. Some effects of phonation frequency and vowel were significant, but interdependent and difficult to interpret. The results and their relevance to live choir singing are discussed.

  • 190.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Andersson, Marie
    Scandinavian College of Manual Medicine.
    Bergman, Ulrika
    Scandinavian College of Manual Medicine.
    An effect of body massage on voice loudness and phonation frequency in reading2000Ingår i: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 146-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 191.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Talöverföring och musikakustik. KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Analysis and simulation of small variations in the fundamental frequency of sustained vowels1989Ingår i: STL-QPSR, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 001-014Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 192.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Monteverdi’s vespers. A case study in music synthesis1988Ingår i: STL-QPSR, Vol. 29, nr 2-3, s. 093-105Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes the methods used in synthesizing a performance of the first movement of Monteverdi's Vespers from 1610. The synthesis combines results from studies of singing voice acoustics, ensemble acoustics, and rules for music performance. The emphasis is on the synthesis of choir sounds.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 193.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Howard, D.
    Synthesizing singing: What's the buzz?2004Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2nd Intl Physiology and Acoustics of Singing Conference, 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 194.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Synthesizing choir singing1988Ingår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 332-335Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis by synthesis is a method that has been successfully applied in many areas of scientific research. In speech research, it has proven to be an excellent tool for identifying perceptually relevant acoustical properties of sounds. This paper reports on some first attempts at synthesizing choir singing, the aim being to elucidate the importance of factors such as the frequency scatter in the fundamental and the formants. The presentation relies heavily on sound examples.

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    fulltext
  • 195. Thompson, W. F.
    et al.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Evaluating rules for the synthetic performance of melodies1986Ingår i: STL-QPSR, Vol. 27, nr 2-3, s. 027-044Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from a text-to-speech conversion program (Carlson & Granstrom, 1975), a note-to-tone conversion program has been developed (!Xmdberg & ~rydh, 1985). It works with a set of ordered rules af fe&- ing the performance of melodies written into the computer. Depending on the musical context, each of these rules manipulates various tone parameters, such as sound level, fundamental frequency, duration, etc. In the present study the effect of some of the rules developed so far on the musical quality of the performance is tested; various musical excerpts perbrmed according to different combinations an5 versions of nine performance rules were played to musically trained listeners who rated the musical quality. The results support the assumption that the musical quality of the performance is improved by applying the rules. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 196. Thompson, W. F.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    The Use of Rules for Expression in the Performance of Melodies1989Ingår i: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 17, s. 63-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 197.
    Tånnander, Christina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH. Myndigheten för tillgängliga medier, MTM.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Preliminary guidelines for the efficient management of OOV words for spoken text2019Ingår i: Speech Synthesis Workshop (SSW), 2019, Vol. 10, s. 137-142Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the practical short-term and long-term effects of five different frequency ranks used for selecting which out-ofvocabulary (OOV) words to add to a pronunciation lexicon for text-to-speech (TTS) of university textbooks. The work is an empirical study on a corpus of 200 university text books selected for talking book production and it takes the extensive pronunciation lexicon of a commercial text-to-speech system as its baseline. The main take-home message is a short but succinct set of guidelines that promise to increase the efficiency of OOV management, at least for text-to-speech production of university text books. Index 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 198.
    Tånnander, Christina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH. Myndigheten för tillgängliga medier, MTM.
    Fallgren, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    Spot the pleasant people! Navigating the cocktail party buzz2019Ingår i: Proceedings of Interspeech, 2019, s. 4220-4224Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an experimental platform for making voice likability assessments that are decoupled from individual voices, and instead capture voice characteristics over groups of speakers. We employ methods that we have previously used for other purposes to create the Cocktail platform, where respondents navigate in a voice buzz made up of about 400 voices on a touch screen. They then choose the location where they find the voice buzz most pleasant. Since there is no image or message on the screen, the platform can be used by visually impaired people, who often need to rely on spoken text, on the same premises as seeing people. In this paper, we describe the platform and its motivation along with our analysis method. We conclude by presenting two experiments in which we verify that the platform behaves as expected: one simple sanity test, and one experiment with voices grouped according to their mean pitch variance.

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    fulltext
  • 199. Vijayan, Aravind Elanjimattathil
    et al.
    Alexanderson, Simon
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Leite, Iolanda
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Using Constrained Optimization for Real-Time Synchronization of Verbal and Nonverbal Robot Behavior2018Ingår i: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2018, s. 1955-1961Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 200. Wagner, Petra
    et al.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Betz, Simon
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel. KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Henter, Gustav Eje
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Le Maguer, Sébastien
    Malisz, Zofia
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Székely, Éva
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Tånnander, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Speech Synthesis Evaluation: State-of-the-Art Assessment and Suggestion for a Novel Research Program2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 10th Speech Synthesis Workshop (SSW10), 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
12345 151 - 200 av 216
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