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  • 151. Terruggia, Robert
    et al.
    Dondossola, Giovanna
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Nätverk och systemteknik.
    Cyber security analysis of Web-of-Cells energy architectures2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium for ICS & SCADA Cyber Security Research (ICS-CSR), 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of the power grid toward a distributed architecture requires rethinking of the traditional control strategies. From a hierarchical structure the future grid moves on to a decentralized organization where the Distributed Energy Resources are spread over the whole infrastructure. The control strategies need to implement new functionalities where the ICT (Information and Communication Technology) components represent essential assets and the cyber security issues have to be addressed very carefully. This paper presents a methodology for the cyber security analysis of an ICT architecture implementing the Web-of-Cells (WoC) concept for the control of the future power grid as proposed by the ELECTRA EU project. Starting from a WoC architecture, a realistic Cell network topology is modelled by the securiCAD tool. The model comprises cells where the main ICT assets (hosts, network nodes, programs, services and data flows) contain vulnerabilities allowing that possible attack steps are deployed to perform a cyber attack. To contrast the attack process, specific cyber security measures can be included in the model. The cyber security analysis is performed by means of the securiCAD tool implementing the proposed methodology for the evaluation of the attack graphs and the computation of the TTC (Time To Compromise) indicator. TTC represents the expected time an attacker would take to compromise every single asset in the modelled ICT infrastructure. The methodology allows to perform a sensitivity analysis estimating the efficacy of the applied mitigation measures by comparing the TTC values in the different model setups. The cyber security analysis described in this paper addresses the cyber threat assessment of a sample multi phase attack process by evaluating the possible attack paths and obtaining the TTC values for the attack target assets.

  • 152. Udd, R.
    et al.
    Asplund, M.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, S.
    Kazemtabrizi, Mehrdad
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Exploiting bro for intrusion detection in a SCADA system2016Ingår i: CPSS 2016 - Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Workshop on Cyber-Physical System Security, Co-located with Asia CCS 2016, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, s. 44-51Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems that run our critical infrastructure are increasingly run with Internet-based protocols and devices for remote monitoring. The embedded nature of the components involved, and the legacy aspects makes adding new security mechanisms in an efficient manner far from trivial. In this paper we study an anomaly detection based approach that enables detecting zero-day malicious threats and benign malconfigurations and mishaps. The approach builds on an existing platform (Bro) that lends itself to modular addition of new protocol parsers and event handling mechanisms. As an example we have shown an application of the technique to the IEC-60870-5-104 protocol and tested the anomaly detector with mixed results. The detection accuracy and false positive rate, as well as real-time response was adequate for 3 of our 4 created attacks. We also discovered some additional work that needs to be done to an existing protocol parser to extend its reach.

  • 153.
    Ullberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    A Framework for interoperability analysis on the semantic web using architecture models2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the Workshop on Enterprise Interoperability (IWEI 2008), IEEE , 2008, s. 207-215Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IT decision making requires analysis of possible future scenarios. The quality of the decisions can be enhanced by the use of architecture models that increase the understanding of the components of the system scenario. It is desirable that the created models support the needed analysis effectively since creation of architecture models often is a demanding and time consuming task. This paper suggests a framework for assessing interoperability on the systems communicating over the semantic web as well as a metamodel suitable for this assessment. Extended influence diagrams are used in the framework to capture the relations between various interoperability factors and enable aggregation of these into a holistic interoperability measure. The paper is concluded with an example using the framework and metamodel to create models and perform interoperability analysis.

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  • 154.
    Vargas, Norman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Plazaola, Leonel
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    A consolidated strategic business and IT alignment representation: A framework aggregated from literature2008Ingår i: 41st Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2008, HICSS, 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    StrategicBusinessand Information TechnologyAlignment(SBITA) has been linked to enterprise performance improvement.Anumber of attempts have been made to define the SBITA, severalrepresentationson whatbusinessandITalignmentare available in academic and practitioners field. This paper providesaframeworkfor SBITA based onaconsolidation of relatedliterature. This paper uses the Extended Influence Diagram notation (EID) andamethod for knowledge elicitation from scientific texts in order to construct suchconsolidatedSBITAframework. The EID is use asamean for presenting and comparing theories and models from existingliteratureand has been expanded for consolidation of such theories and models. TheconsolidatedSBITAframeworkillustrates key aspects of the most relevant theories and models forStrategicBusinessandITAlignmentaccording to the criteria presented in this paper.

  • 155.
    Vernotte, Alexandre
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Nätverk och systemteknik.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Nätverk och systemteknik.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Nätverk och systemteknik.
    In-Depth Modeling of the UNIX Operating System for Architectural Cyber Security Analysis2017Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2017 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS AND DEMONSTRATIONS (EDOCW 2017) / [ed] Halle, S Dijkman, R Lapalme, J, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 127-136Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT systems have become an integral part of business and life. At the same time, these systems have become extremely complex. In such systems exist numerous vulnerabilities waiting to be exploited by potential threat actors. pwnPr3d is a novel modelling approach that performs automated architectural analysis with the objective of measuring the cyber security of the modeled architecture. Its integrated modelling language allows users to model software and hardware components with great level of details. To illustrate this capability, we present in this paper the metamodel of UNIX, operating systems being the core of every software and every IT system. After describing the main UNIX constituents and how they have been modelled, we illustrate how the modelled OS integrates within pwnPr3d's rationale by modelling the spreading of a self-replicating malware inspired by WannaCry.

  • 156.
    Välja, Margus
    et al.
    KTH.
    Korman, Matus
    KTH.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Swedish Inst Comp Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Automated Architecture Modeling for Enterprise Technology Management Using Principles from Data Fusion: A Security Analysis Case2016Ingår i: PORTLAND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (PICMET 2016): TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT FOR SOCIAL INNOVATION / [ed] Kocaoglu, DF Anderson, TR Daim, TU Kozanoglu, DC Niwa, K Perman, G, IEEE , 2016, s. 14-22Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Architecture models arc used in enterprise management for decision support. These decisions range from designing processes to planning for the appropriate supporting technology. It is unreasonable for an existing enterprise to completely reinvent itself. Incremental changes are in most cases a more resource efficient tactic. Thus, for planning organizational changes, models of the current practices and systems need to be created. For mid-sized to large organizations this can be an enormous task when executed manually. Fortunately, there's a lot of data available from different sources within an enterprise that can be used for populating such models. The data are however almost always heterogeneous and usually only representing fragmented views of certain aspects. In order to merge such data and obtaining a unified view of the enterprise a suitable methodology is needed. In this paper we address this problem of creating enterprise architecture models from heterogeneous data. The paper proposes a novel approach that combines methods from the fields of data fusion and data warehousing. The approach is tested using a modeling language focusing on cyber security analysis in a study of a lab setup mirroring a small power utility's IT environment.

  • 157.
    Välja, Margus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Korman, Matus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    A Requirements Based Approach for Automating Enterprise IT Architecture Modeling Using Multiple Data Sources2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE 19th International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Workshop (EDOCW), Adelaide, SA, 2015, s. 79-87Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) is an approach where models of an enterprise are used for decision support. An important part of EA is enterprise IT architecture. Creating models of both types can be a complex task. EA can be difficult to model due to unavailable business data, while in the case of enterprise IT architecture, there can be too much IT data available. Furthermore, there is a trend of a growing availability of data possibly useful for modeling. We call the process of making use of available data, automatic modeling. There have been previous attempts to achieve automatic model creation using a single source of data. Often, a single source of data is not enough to create the models required. In this paper we address automatic modeling when data from multiple heterogeneous sources are needed. The paper looks at the potential data sources, requirements that the data must meet and proposes a four-part approach. The approach is tested in a study using the Cyber Security Modeling Language in order to model a lab setup at KTH Royal Institute of Technology. The lab aims at mirroring a small power utility's IT setup. The paper demonstrates that it is possible to create timely and scalable enterprise IT architecture models from multiple sources, and that manual modeling and data quality related problems can be resolved using known data processing methods.

  • 158. Zerbst, J.
    et al.
    Pietre-Cambacedes, L.
    Dondossola, G.
    Mcdonald, J.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Torkilseng, Åge
    Cyber attack modelling and security graded approach: Key elements when designing security architecture for Electric Power Utilities (EPUs)2012Ingår i: 44th International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2012, 2012, s. 1-8Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The multiplication of access interfaces and technologies in Electric Power Utilities (EPUs) communication architectures and the smart grid developments, which will enable numerous new services with new traffic patterns, will change radically both network accesses and core architectures. This evolution could introduce new vulnerabilities to the reliability of electricity supply, based on the introduction and exposure of vulnerabilities in digital systems, architectures, and communications. This situation calls for new security requirements for digital systems and the underlying architecture used in EPUs. Security requirements have to be derived from appropriate risk assessments and general architectural decisions. Numerous existing cyber security standards provide guidance and use-cases which represent valuable inputs for the development of such requirements. The proliferation of standards suggests, however, that the existing documents either do not meet completely the needs of EPUs or are difficult to combine together. This paper focuses on two weak points of the existing cyber security standards in the area. Initially, the paper addresses the characterization, categorization and modeling of malicious cyber threats, which represent key steps in a risk assessment process. The paper presents a conceptual model expressing the meaning and the links between the key concepts of cyber security risks. Following this, the work examines attack modeling, addressing some pertinent technical and architectural issues. In addition, the paper explains why attack modeling is central to risk assessment and present graphical approaches to attack modeling. The second part the paper addresses the use of security architecture principles, notably the graded security approach as a fundamental framework to classify and structure a process of risk mitigation by security controls in both current and future EPU architectures. This discussion starts with the clarification of the terminology related to a graded security approach and then gives a general overview of the characteristics of known standards and best practices of graded security architectures. Following this, the paper presents an outlook of classification criteria to enable the implementation of a graded security approach in a real world environment and then illustrates the effectiveness and adaptability of a graded security approach in a real-world attack case.

1234 151 - 158 av 158
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