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  • 201.
    Poujol, Matthieu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Transformation of a policy instrument for energy renovation of housing: Real case application on the French tax credit for energy transition2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fight against climate change and the reduction of energy precarity are two major challenges of the energy policy of any country. Energy management in the building sector, particularly in the housing sector, is therefore crucial, and the energy renovation of housing makes it possible to reconcile these challenges by reducing households energy expenditure and greenhouse gas emissions in the residential sector. By focusing on the tax credit for energy transition, a French flagship financial policy instrument for the renovation of private housing in France but criticised for its inefficiency and antidistributive nature, we show that a major reform of this policy instrument can lead to achieve these energy and social objectives. The new method of calculating public subsidies for energy renovation proposed in this report represents a major step forward compared to the current situation in France, by creating a tailor-made instrument adapted to the financial situation of households and reflecting the energy performance of the renovation works. We show that it is therefore possible to have an ambitious climate strategy while making a policy aimed at modest households and enhancing the efficiency of public expenditure.

  • 202.
    Ravi Kumar, Swetha
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    A techno-economic analysis of a residential solar Photovoltaic system installed in 2010: A comparative case study between California and Germany2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With environmental concerns and energy needs increasing, many regions in the world are promoting renewable energy technologies making use of various policy instruments. Although today the PV systems price is decreasing, which gives it a competitive edge; we see the technology still being dependent on policy instruments for its dissemination.

     

    The aim of this study is to research on whether or not a solar PV system is economically viable under certain circumstances. The study analyzes this by performing a cost beneficial analysis for the lifetime of the solar PV system making use of a discounted savings model. The systems being considered in this study are from California and Germany as these regions are leading in solar PV dissemination in their respective regions. The policies that are aiding the deployment of solar PV technologies are varied and thus this study compares benefits from different policy instrument for a residential customer investing in a solar PV system.

     

    The research objectives in this study are pursued making use of major concepts such as Grid Parity, Levelized Cost of Electricity and financial methods such as discounting.  Further, to understand how the different independent variables such as retail electricity prices, PV system pricing, WACC, self-consumption rate and storage availability are having an impact and how the results change with variation in these variables, a sensitivity analysis is conducted.

     

    The results obtained in this study show that a solar PV system installed in California and Germany both make net benefits over their lifetime. When compared, the Californian solar PV system under the Net Energy Metering policy is making more net economic benefits in the range of $ 40,351 in Eureka and $53,510 in San Francisco; when compared to the German solar PV systems under the Feed in Tariff ranging $4,465 in Berlin and $11,769 in Munich. Furthermore the Californian solar PV systems still prove to be more beneficial even when compared to the German solar PV systems under the self-consumption law of the Feed in Tariff ranging $ 6,443 in Berlin and $ 13,141 in Munich.  But when the self-consumption rate is increased in the German case, it is noted that the associated benefits increase.

     

    The study at hand thus results in the California Net Energy Meter policy instrument proving to be more beneficial to a residential customer than the German Feed in tariff with and without self-consumption. Another important finding made in this study is that despite the German solar PV system making lesser benefits than the Californian ones, they attain Grid Parity before the ones in California. 

  • 203.
    Remy, Florian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Potential for the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Curitiba, Brazil2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Curitiba is a city of two million inhabitants located in the South of Brazil. It is a pioneer in waste management in the country, and is famous for its programs promoting recycling and organic waste collection. The city is now willing to take waste management one step further by investigating new solutions to treat and recover energy from organic municipal solid waste. This report is the fruit of a collaboration between two departments of the municipality of Curitiba, four local universities, the Swedish environment protection agency and the Royal Institute of Technology – KTH.

    The purpose of this report is to assess the potential for the development of anaerobic digestion as a solution to treat the organic municipal solid waste generated in Curitiba. The report offers an overview of the current waste treatment and of the main sources of organic waste in Curitiba. The annual amount of organic waste generated in the city is estimated to 144,350 tons, of which 913 tons come from food markets supervised by SMAB, the secretary of food supply. Three different scenarios, corresponding to three ranges of waste sources, have been considered. In the first one, the organic wastes generated by one of the two public markets of Curitiba are treated on-site. In the second one, all the organic wastes from food markets, street markets and popular restaurants are treated together in a medium-scale anaerobic digester. In the third one, all the sources of organic municipal solid waste identified in Curitiba are considered, including residential, institutional and small commercial waste.

    The annual methane production is estimated to 5,400 m3, 86,000 m3 and 12,600,000 m3 respectively for the three scenarios. In the last two scenarios, the methane could be converted into electricity, resulting in an annual electricity production of 257 MWh and 37,600 MWh. The first scenario does not consider a post-treatment of the digestate remaining at the end of the digestion. Between 46 and 50 tons of digestate could be used as a liquid fertilizer on-site and the surplus could be sold. For the two other scenarios, the digestate would be dewatered and composted to be sold as a dry fertilizer. The dry fertilizer production is estimated to 386 tons and 63,000 tons respectively every year.

    Each of the scenario considered would be financially viable, with a discounted payback period varying from 8 months for the small-scale scenario, to over 15 years for the second scenario. The third scenario would be the most lucrative, with a net present value of about 150 million reals.

  • 204.
    Rosillo-Calle, Frank
    et al.
    Imperial College London.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Food versus Fuel: An informed introduction to biofuels2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    'Food versus Fuel' presents a high-level introduction to the science and economics behind a well-worn debate, that will debunk myths and provide quality facts and figures for academics and practitioners in development studies, environment studies, and agricultural studies. Compiled by an internationally renowned scientist and authority, and to include perspectives from 'pro' and 'anti' biofuels experts and activists, from the North and South, the aim of this book is to bring a balanced approach to the current debate on the major issues affecting the development of biofuels in a concise and clear manner in order to provide an informed, nuanced but accessible introduction, grounded in science and economics rather than conjecture and controversy.

  • 205.
    Rutkowski, E. W.
    et al.
    UNICAMP State University of Campinas.
    Demantova, G. C.
    UNICAMP State University of Campinas.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    As redes técnicas do saneamento: Sanitation technical networks2010In: Revista DAE, ISSN 0101-6040, no 184, p. 69-72Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deteriorating health conditions of the industrial cities transformed them from pole of wealth to focus of diseases. Since then, there is a relentless quest for improvement of the environmental quality. The complexity of urban relations on space sets environmental basin as a unit of territorial management. The sanitation technical networks are presented as a tool for shared municipal management sanitation as the Sanitation and Solid Waste National Policies proposed.

  • 206.
    Rutkwoski, E. W.
    et al.
    UNICAMP State University of Campinas.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Emissões de todos: mudanças no saneamento pelo clima2009In: Lei Nacional de Saneamento Básico: Perspectivas para as políticas e gestão dos serviços públicos / [ed] Berenice S. Cordeiro, Brasilia: PNSS/MCid , 2009, Vol. 2, p. 377-389Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Rutkwoski, E. W.
    et al.
    UNICAMP State University of Campinas.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Mello, L. F.
    UNICAMP State University of Campinas.
    Consumo Sustentável: o gesto brusco para as mudanças globais?2008In: Mudanças climáticas e mudanças socioambientais globais: reflexões sobre alternativas de futuro / [ed] Eda Terezinha de Oliveira Tassara, Brasilia, Brasil: UNESCO , 2008, First, p. 113-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Sabah, Ibrahim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analysis of the Expected Development of Solar PV Market in Turkey2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity generation through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has been one of the leading renewable energy generation options in the global arena and in many countries that are working to address increasing energy demand and high fuel import dependencies. Due to the feed in tariff (FIT) amendment in 2011 and decreasing costs in global PV sector, the interest in this emerging market is quickly increasing in Turkey. The aim of this thesis is to explore the prospects for development of the solar PV market in Turkey, considering residential, commercial and utility scale PV systems with rooftop or ground mounted installations.

    The economic situation, the energy profile, regulatory framework for solar energy and the market conditions in the country were researched. The ultimate purpose was to assess the overall conditions to attract investors, and estimate the development of the solar PV market growth in Turkey particularly in the next few years.

    High irradiation levels, limited domestic energy resources and high interest in license applications suggest a big potential for solar PV electricity in Turkey. However, the regulatory framework is not yet suitable for a fast growth of this emerging solar PV market in the country due to lack of political support and experience in related government functions. Despite the high interest and demand for commercial systems, the solar PV market in Turkey is expected to grow linearly as a start. This contrast with precedents in leading European markets, which experienced exponential growth at the beginning. This study shows that there is a need for performance improvement within the regulative authorities, time for stakeholders to experience the market and more comprehensive and stable legislation. However, in the long term, solar PV technology is expected to gain high competitive advantage due to improving financial conditions in the country, increase in electricity prices (e.g. grid parity has already been reached for residential systems), and cost reductions for PV components around the world.

  • 209.
    Salih, Nizam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Renewable for Rural Electrification in Sri Lanka2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the beginning of the 1970s, the industrial countries accounted for about 80%of world oil consumption. Today, they are down tolittle more than 50%. Already, China uses more totalprimary energy than United States.  Developing countries are in the process ofconsuming a substantial amount of energydue to alarming growth, industrialization, urbanization etc. With a tight and volatile oil market, combined with sharply risingconsumption in emerging countries there is renownedconcerns about energy security. Various models are beingimplemented in these countries with the help ofdonors and local governments toenhance the use of renewable energy fora sustainable development. Use of renewable energy for rural electrificationhas not progressed as anticipated regardless of provisions of subsidies &other measurers by governments. InSri Lanka, the primary energy contributions in 2009 to nationalenergy supply were 51% from biomass, 44.8% from crude oil and petroleumproducts, and 3.6% from hydroelectricity and other renewable sources. The useof non-conventional energy resources, NCRE, (small-scale hydropower, biomass,biogas and waste, solar power and wind power) in Sri Lanka is of a relativelysmaller scale (<1%) and therefore its contribution is presently of lowsignificance in the macro energy picture. Regardless, the energy policydocument of the government of Sri Lanka has set a target to reach a minimumlevel of 10% of electrical energy supplied to the grid to be from non-conventionalrenewable energy in 2015. Inthis context, this study attempts to analyse the strengths and weaknesses ofthe existing financial and institutional models for renewable energydissemination for rural electrification in Sri Lanka and to recommend possiblemeasures needed for better financial and institutional models. In addition to aliterature survey, a questionnaire survey was carried out with power producers,financial institutions and government and non-government organizations in therenewable energy business to obtain their perception for better analysis.

  • 210.
    Salomon, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Erlich, Catharina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Pelletization: an alternative for polygeneration in the palm oil industry2013In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 213-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural residues continue to attract interest for energy recovery purposes as a renewable, CO2 neutral and increasingly cost-competitive alternative to traditional fossil fuels. Furthermore, some of these residues, like palm oil residues, represent a disposal problem for the processing industries, or they are not used efficiently. Several palm oil mills (POM) lack efficient energy systems and thus there is a considerable potential for improvement. These factors represent a strong driving force for the development of innovative polygeneration plants with combined electricity, heat and refined fuel production based on conversion of solid residues. This paper aims at analyzing the use of agro-industrial residues as fuel. For that, we propose different technology configurations based on the case of a small-scale palm oil mill in Colombia processing 30 tons of fresh fruit bunch per hour. The technology configurations include steam cycles using backpressure turbines, condensing-extraction turbines and also gasification-gas engine cycles in hybrid configurations. The possibilities to produce pellets from the residues from palm oil were also analyzed. The steam cycle base operational parameters were 20 bar and 350 °C. However, more advanced steam conditions (40 bar) were also considered and evaluated. All the analyses performed included a maximum of 60 % of the empty fruit bunch (EFB) produced in the POM for energy purposes due to its value as natural fertilizer in the palm oil plantations. The results show that the POM under study and other POMs that use electricity from the national grid have the capacity of being self-sufficient to cover of all their energy needs using the solid residues available. This means that POMs that currently only generate the required heat for the process can generate the electricity required and in some cases even an excess of energy that could be sold to other users with an adequate use of the residues available. Furthermore, based on the modeling done in Aspen Utilities Planner® it is shown that it is possible to cover the demand of the POM, the required energy demand for EFB preparation included possible pelletization of these residues and even generate an excess of electricity. In several of the configurations, excess electricity generation could be achieved in the range of 0.5–8 MW.

  • 211.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Gómez Galindo, María Fernanda
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Optimal Upgrade of a District Heating Plant into a Polygeneration Plant Using Biomass as Feedstock2013In: Power Division (Publication) POWER American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at evaluating the possible upgrading of an existing district heating plant for production of electricity and pellets. The evaluation is carried out by optimizing the alternatives from the economic, thermodynamic and environmental point of view. In order to examine how the design can be optimized, a detailed model of the process has been elaborated using ASPEN Utilities and Matlab optimization toolbox. The parameters of the polygeneration plant have then been varied in order to examine how optimal economic benefit can be extracted from the biomass streams whilst still meeting the fundamental process demands of the industries and heat demand of the community. A multi-objective optimization has been used to investigate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs that exist between low electricity costs and investment cost. The resulting polygeneration plant designs conclude that it is feasible toproduce 18 and 25 MW of power while at the same time supplying the process steam required by the nearby industries and district heating for the community. The results also shown that it is feasible to operate the plant more hours per year by producing pellets and it could be possible to generate additional district heating (up to 25 ton/h of hot water) to cover the demands of a growing community.

  • 212.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Gómez Galindo, María Fernanda
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Technical polygeneration potential in palm oil mills in Colombia: A case study2013In: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, Vol. 3, p. 40-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural residues offer the possibility of reducing fossil fuel consumption, increasing energy security, and lowering  greenhouse gas emissions. However, certain residues, like palm oil residues, either represent a disposal problem for the processing industries or they are not used and thus, there is a considerable potential for improvement. These factors represent a strong driving force for the development of innovative polygeneration plants based on solid residues. This paper considers an energy analysis of a Palm Oil Mill (POM) in Colombia processing 30 ton of Fresh Fruit Bunch per hour (FFB/h).  Different heat and power generation options were considered with solid residues as feedstock. These configurations included steam cycles using backpressure or condensing-extraction turbines.  The possibilities to produce pellets from the residues and biodiesel from palm oil were also analyzed.  The steam cycle base operational parameters were 20 bar and 350 °C. More advanced steam conditions (40 bar) were also considered. The results show that it is possible to cover the demand of the POM and the required energy demand for residues preparation including possible pelletization and also biodiesel production. It is possible to obtain an excess of electricity between 0.4 and 3 MW if only residues are used.

  • 213.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Gómez Galindo, María Fernanda
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Spelling, James
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Optimization of a Sawmill-Based Polygeneration Plant2013In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2013, ASME Press, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass-based fuels have attracted worldwide interest due to their plentiful supply and their environmentally friendly characteristics. In many cases they are still considered waste but for most industries in Sweden, biomass has changed from being simply a disposal problem to become an important part of the energy supply, thanks to the long-term efforts made by the government, researchers and industry, where energy policies have played an important role. However, the amount of power that could be generated from biomass resources is much greater than that which is currently used. To effectively capture this resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants and their effective integration into already existing industrial processes.The implementation of an integrated polygeneration scheme requires the simultaneous consideration of technical, economic and environmental factors to find optimum solutions. With this in mind, a unified modeling approach that takes into account thermodynamic as well as economic and environmental aspects was used. The analysis was done using ASPEN Utilitiesand the MATLAB optimization toolbox. A specific case of a sawmill in Sweden, with an annual capacity of 130’000 m3 of sawn wood, has been analyzed and different options for generating electricity and process heat (for the sawmill and fora district heating network) as well as densified biofuels was analyzed. Optimization was then applied for different configurations and operational parameters. The results show that the sawmill has the capability to not only supply its own energy needs, but also to export from 0.4 to 1MW of electricity to the grid, contribute 5 to 6 MWth of district heating and 20 000 ton/y of biomass pellets. The production of pellets helps to maintain the electricity production throughout the year when the district heating demand is lower. However, the levelized electricity cost is higher than the usual electricity price in the Nordic electricity market and may have difficulty to competing with low-cost electricity sources, such as nuclear energy and hydropower. Inspite of this, polygeneration remains attractive for covering the energy demands of the sawmill and pelletization plant.

  • 214.
    Salomón, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Gómez Galindo, María Fernanda
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Upgrading a biomass-based district heating plant in sweden: a technoeconomic optimization and sensitivity analysisIn: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating systems have contributed with the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by also producing industrial steam, using waste heat from industrial process in the networks and integration of other industrial processes. This paper aims at evaluating the possible upgrading of an existing district heating plant for production of electricity and pellets. The evaluation is carried out by optimizing the alternatives from the economic, thermodynamic and environmental point of view. In order to examine how the design can be optimized, a detailed model of the process has been elaborated using ASPEN Utilities and Matlab optimization toolbox. The parameters of the polygeneration plant have then been varied in order to examine how optimal economic benefit can be extracted from the biomass streams whilst still meeting the fundamental process demands of the industries and heat demand of the community. A multi-objective optimization has been used to investigate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs that exist between low electricity costs and investment cost. The resulting polygeneration plant designs conclude that it is feasible to produce 18 and 25 MW of power while at the same time supplying the process steam required by the nearby industries and district heating for the community. The results also shown that it is feasible to operate the plant more hours per year by producing pellets and  it could be possible to generate additional district heating (up to 25 ton/h of hot water) to cover the demands of a growing community.

  • 215.
    Samuel, Victor
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Environmental and socioeconomic assessment of rice straw conversion to ethanol in Indonesia: The case of Bali2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The vast rice production in some developing Asian countries like Indonesia raises expectation on poverty alleviation and energy diversification through second generation biofuel production from rice residues, specifically rice straw. This work attempts to estimate the potential environmental and socioeconomic benefits of rice straw-to-ethanol project in Indonesia. Literature research and interviews are performed to quantify several environmental and socioeconomic indicators that are considered as the major concerns inimplementing an energy project. Assuming all the technically available rice straw in Bali is used (~244-415 kilotonne/year), ethanol production may yield gasoline replacement, lifecycle GHG savings, GDP contribution, foreign exchange savings, and employment beneficiaries of 55-93 ML/year, 140-240 millionUSD/year, 19-32 kilotonne of CO2-equivalent/year, 100-180 million USD/year, and 2,200-3,700 persons, respectively. Sensitivity analyses are done for some parameters, showing that ethanol yield, total capital cost, feed-in-tariff for electricity, and imported crude oil price are the major factors affecting the viability of rice straw-to-ethanol project in Indonesia.

  • 216.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Forest and Energy: Designing a management tool for performance assessment of forest-based bioenergy supply chains2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Is Bioenergy the Big Bad Wolf in the Forestry Sector?: A discussion about the sustainable supply chain management role in bioenergy systems2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011), 9-13 May, Linköping: Bioenergy Technology - Volume 1 / [ed] Bahram Moshfegh, Sweden: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2011, p. 25-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper’s aim is to use a bioenergy supply chain management approach in order to reinforce sustainable development in a likely scenario of competition between bioenergy and the production of other goods extracted from wood. This competition is perceived as a threat because it may lead to an increase in raw material and energy prices and reduce the competitiveness of the European pulp & paper industry compared to other regions of the world. The key question is then: is bioenergy the big bad wolf in the forestry sector or an opportunity for improving the sustainability of biomass-based supply chains? The work assumes bioenergy as an opportunity because a systemic approach to bioenergy systems’ optimization can lead to performance improvement beyond the boundaries of a single company and increase the sustainability aspects of the entire network. The results are based on content analysis conducted by a literature review and information gathering from relevant publications in the field.

  • 218.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The forgotten development: A discussion about the clean development mechanism and socioenvironmental sustainability2007In: Sustainable Development and Planning III, Vols 1 and 2 / [ed] Kungolos, A; Brebbia, CA; Beriatos, E, United Kingdom: WIT Press , 2007, p. 551-557Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of sustainable development (SD) has been broadened to become a new paradigm and form a hope for human impact mitigation. There is some consensus around its implementation; however, the imprecision of the SD concept causes worldwide debates regarding the diversity of adoption and understanding. In this context, the question is how we can shape the development process in order to make it capable of taking into consideration the local way of becoming sustainable. One recent attempt is the clean development mechanism (CDM) concept. This faces similar problems because the way in which the mechanism is used today does not fulfil its goal of assisting SD. Generally the mechanism is used only to meet the terms for emission reduction described in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol and does not contribute to the local society development. Consequently, it is necessary to develop a strategic plan for CDM’s future implementation and repair its design failures by evaluating its current performance. An effective mechanism must integrate the socioenvironmental development concept into the implementation strategy. As a result, the new CDM must not only promote strict environmental sustainability, but also contribute to the reduction of poverty and social inequalities. This is because CDM will not be successful in the long term if it does not achieve the integration of social development with reduction of emissions.

  • 219.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Towards a cleaner vehicle fleet: The dynamics of the Swedish biofuel system2013In: 4th International Workshop Advances in Cleaner Production: Integrating Cleaner Production into Sustainability Strategies / [ed] Giannetti, B. F.; Almeida, C. M. V. B.; Bonilla, S. H, São Paulo: UNIP , 2013, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study’s overall objective is to present how the development of the Swedish biofuels system impacts the achievement of the European Union’s target of 10% of renewable fuels in transport by 2020 and the establishment of a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030 in the country. The methodological approach is based on a combination of forecasting and backcasting scenarios. This cross-analysis is used to relate one set of data with others in order to identify gaps between the potential energy use in the Swedish domestic transport sector with the country’s desired targets. Our analysis shows three gaps related to i) infrastructure and management capabilities for local biofuel production, ii) policy instruments to trigger systemic changes to reduce dependence of imports, and iii) investment decisions. In order to bridge those gaps, policymakers have to decide on how to steer the system’s development not only by combining different pathways between growth patterns of the Swedish biofuel system but also deciding either to apply supply or demand pressures onto the system as driving forces. Despite meeting the desired target of 10% of renewable fuels in transport by 2020, these choices have to be taken in a very short-run in order to shape the development of the Swedish biofuel system away of failing the target of establishing a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030.

  • 220.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Gómez, María Fernanda
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The dynamics of the Swedish biofuel system toward a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 96, p. 452-466, article id 4126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to present an analytical framework monitoring the development of the Swedish biofuels system, to evaluate its impacts on the achievement of 10% of renewable fuels by 2020, and to identify development patterns in order to establish a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030. The methodological approach relies on systems thinking approach and uses causal loops diagram as a guide to our analysis. The results show that policymakers have to decide among different pathways of growth based on internal- and external-resources of the Swedish biofuel system as well as to apply either supply or demand pressures onto the system in order to accomplish a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030.

  • 221.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Lima, J.C.F.
    UNICAMP State University of Campinas.
    Rutkowski, E.W.
    UNICAMP State University of Campinas.
    Ecologia Industrial no Brasil: uma discussão sobre as abordagens brasileiras de simbiose industrial2007In: Anais do IX Encontro Nacional Sobre Gestão Empresarial e Meio Ambiente / [ed] A. Coltro, et al., Curitba, Brazil: ENGEMA , 2007, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [pt]

    No Brasil, a Ecologia Industrial (EI) apresenta-se por meio de iniciativas isoladas e as abordagens são as mais variadas. Não existe um acompanhamento dos sucessos, vícios e perversidades da estratégia. Desta forma, a discussão entre as abordagens brasileiras de EI e a ecoeficiência dos seus resultados devem ser entendidas, pois é preciso planejar estrategicamente a sua implementação e, assim, corrigir as suas imperfeições. Uma das abordagens da EI é o conceito de Simbiose Industrial (SI). O conceito está baseado na sinergia entre diferentes atividades produtivas que apresentam maior eficiência de recursos aliados com benefícios ambientais e econômicos. Contrariamente à simbiose, onde todos integrantes são beneficiados localmente, a abordagem brasileira, geralmente, está nas relações de mercado ou oferta e procura de resíduo e as únicas informações necessárias para esta interrelação são a informação logística e a informação mercadológica

  • 222.
    Sanches Pereira, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Lima, J.C.F.
    UNICAMP State University of Campinas.
    Rutkowski, E.W.
    UNICAMP State University of Campinas.
    Ecologia Industrial, Produção e Ambiente: uma discussão sobre as abordagens de inter-conectividade produtiva2007In: 1st International Workshop on Advances in Cleaner Production: The role of Cleaner Production in the sustainable development of modern societies / [ed] B. F. Giannetti, C. M.V.B. de Almeida, S. H. Bonilla, D. Huisingh, F. M. Ribeiro and O.L.G. Quelhas, São Paulo, Brazil: UNIP , 2007, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Ecology (IE) initiatives are presented by isolated strategies. As a result, there is a need to understand the eco-efficiency of approaches in order to plan strategically the IE implementation and to correct potential imperfections. One of the approaches is the Industrial Symbiosis (IS). This concept is based on sinergy between different productive activities, which lead to a greater efficiency of resources uses allied with environmental and economical benefits. Contrarily to the IS concept, where all integrant are benefited locally, the Brazilian approach is based on supply/demand relations. Thus, the necessary information for this interrelation are: the logistic and the market information.

  • 223.
    Sanches-Pereira, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Tudeschini, L. G.
    Coelho, S. T.
    Evolution of the Brazilian residential carbon footprint based on direct energy consumption2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 54, p. 184-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As one of the leading nations on climate negotiations, Brazil has to go beyond its voluntary commitment to reduce its carbon footprint and become a more constructive and less low-key player in the UNFCCC negotiations. In this context, the studys main objective was to evaluate the Brazilian residential energy consumption, its regional specificity, and the related carbon emissions. The results show that the poor coming out of poverty affects the size of the increase in energy demand. Especially in the case of carbon emission from direct energy consumption for cooking, in which as the poor come out of poverty their demand for high efficiency energy carriers increases leading to lower emissions or vice versa. Also, the results show that the country must ratifies its commitments to the global efforts to combat climate change not only by elaborating but also by conducting more ambitious initiatives to reduce carbon emissions from its own territory.

  • 224.
    Sani, Lorenzo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Harahap, Fumi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Herawan, Tjahjono
    Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute.
    Identifying opportunities to manage palm oil mill effluent (POME):the case of Indonesia2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The palm oil agroindustry produces the most consumed vegetable oil in the world but also a significant quantity of residual biomass waste (e.g. empty fruit bunch, shell, palm oil mill effluent). The importance of using some of these residues for energy production is widely understood. However, the palm oil mill effluent (POME), which is responsible for the highest share of GHG emissions in palm oil production, is still conventionally treated in an unsustainable way. This research aims at investigating alternatives to retrofit Indonesian palm oil mills into biorefineries that could efficiently use POME to produce value-added products (e.g. electricity, compost and pellet). We present a literature review of mature treatments for biomass residues highlighting the most promising ones. Subsequently, biorefinery concepts are proposed comprising conversion technologies and the use of POME with other palm residues aimed at maximizing revenues while reducing environmental impact. The results are then evaluated through a multi-criteria analysis accounting for techno-economic, environmental and social impacts. The study demonstrates that POME treatment can be done in a profitable way resulting in significant reduction of methane emissions. The most interesting option is to generate electricity from biogas and use it on site to produce high-value products such as pellets and crude palm kernel oil. Biorefinery concepts are an opportunity for mill owners to comply with strict environmental regulations while generating extra profits.

  • 225.
    SAUL, CAROLINE
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    ASSESSMENT OF BUSINESS MODELS FOR PROVIDING ENERGY SERVICES IN RURAL BANGLADESH2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary water sources of twenty million people in Bangladesh are contaminated with arsenic; almost sixty percent of population does not have access to electricity, and close to ninety percent of the population cooks with solid fuels. These statistics have severe health and development implications for Bangladesh. Polygeneration technology is being developed that can address all of these issues with a single system, by utilizing the exhaust heat from a biogas electricity generator to remove arsenic from water via membrane distillation and using excess biogas as a cooking fuel. History is full of stories of investment in developing countries gone horribly wrong. Thorough market research and analysis can help prevent that in the future.

    This thesis demonstrates the process of determining beneficial components of business models for the deployment of polygeneration technology in Bangladesh. This involves understanding the existing business models used for providing rural services in Bangladesh and assessing which of these models would be more sustainable for biogas based polygeneration systems within the socio-economic and institutional context of rural Bangladesh.

    This is achieved through the development of a set of sustainability indicators and an interview questionnaire for providers of rural services in Bangladesh, which was applied during a field study in early 2013. The sustainability indicator scores were calculated and analyzed in the context of strategic management tools, such as the Business Model Canvas. The combination of the quantitative and qualitative aspects of these case studies highlights crucial business model elements.

    Based on the results of the sustainability indicators for the field sites included in the study, community and cooperative business models provide a sustainable structure for the multiple products and inputs inherent in a polygeneration system. They have the ability to reach a wider customer base and are not focused on maximizing their profit, but still make reasonable economic choices. 

  • 226.
    Selvakkumaran, Sujeetha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Exploring synergies between climate and electrification goals – the cases of Ethiopia, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partners to the UNFCCC have been asked to make their pledges and contribute to climate change mitigation through Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs). Funds have been allocated to support developing countries implement climate mitigation and adaptation measures. Meanwhile, the global sustainable development agenda has also been approved, including energy and climate goals. In other words, we would expect that INDCs explore the synergies between climate and development agendas. In 2012, Ethiopia, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) had electrification levels of 26.6%, 23% and 18% respectively. This also means the three countries had populations of 70 million, 35 million and 60 million with no access to electricity. The electricity access targets of Ethiopia, Kenya and the DRC for 2030 are 75%. The objective of this paper is to analyze how these countries improve energy access in a context of climate change mitigation. The analysis explores (i) the electricity mix aimed for, (ii) the expected GHG emissions from electricity generation until 2030, and (iii) electrification and related metrics. Ultimately, we aim at a better understanding of what these countries’ climate and development strategies encompass in terms of emissions reductions as well as electrification goals, as per reflected in their INDCs. Given the bottom-up process inherent in the INDCs and the climate agreement mechanism, the paper gives insights on how these countries have used the INDCs to prioritize sustainable electricity access. The electrification goals are achieved by increasing generation in these countries for domestic use and enabling access to generated electricity. The INDCs are an ideal platform to achieve this if generation capacity is increased by catalyzing climate finance if the expansion falls under the category of climate-appropriate technologies. The BAU case electricity generation has been computed using a simple regression model. It has been compared with targets given by the countries or multilateral organizations. The regression model’s independent variable is the GDP/capita for each individual country. These GDP/capita forecasts are also an underpinning assumption of their submitted INDCs, and thus it is reasonable to use them in the regression model to forecast electricity generation. The diversity of the power mix is calculated using the Shannon-Weiner Index. The percentage of renewable energy sources are calculated along with their share in the total potential available in each country. The results show that the three countries have different storylines as to their sustainable electricity access targets and their INDCs. Ethiopia aims at nearly 100% renewables for power in 2030, while Kenya’s renewables only generate 54% of the total electricity provided in 2030.  In the case of DRC, the renewables are very high, but the per capita electricity use is very low and it will become a power exporter. Although the climate mitigation goals for the energy sector as defined in the INDCs of the three countries are ambitious, they still have a long way to go in translating the electricity access ambitions into feasible domestic electricity use.

  • 227.
    Selvakkumaran, Sujeetha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Exploring synergies between the intended nationally determined contributions and electrification goals of Ethiopia, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)2019In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 401-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to assess the linkages between climate-related measures and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Ethiopia, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) within the scope of submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC). Given the under-reporting of least developed countries' and emerging economies' issues with regards to climate change mitigation and adaptation, this study is important in studying how these three countries are integrating electrification goals (SDG7) with their INDC. The analysis explores the electricity mix, the expected greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation until 2030, and electrification and related metrics. The INDCs provide a platform to achieve universalization of electrification, catalysing climate finance. Given the bottom-up process inherent to the current climate agreement mechanism, the paper gives insights on how these countries have used the INDC to prioritize sustainable electricity access. The results show that the countries have different storylines as to their electricity access targets and INDC. Ethiopia aims at nearly 100% renewables for power, while Kenya only generates 54% of the total electricity with renewables in 2030. In the DRC, the percentage of renewables is very high, but the per capita electricity consumption remains low while the country becomes a power exporter. The three countries have set a target of 75% electricity access in 2030, but only Kenya comes halfway to the minimum of 2000 kWh/capita of economy-wide electricity generation, which is required for a reasonable level of welfare.

  • 228.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Bioenergy – realizing the potential2005Book (Other academic)
  • 229.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Promoting bioenergy through the clean development mechanism2005In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 107-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol to promote modern bioenergy options in developing countries. The starting point is that developing countries need to be given a major role in the implementation of the Convention on Climate Change because of their increasing energy demands and the pressing need to mitigate climate change. The role of CDM is discussed in the context of sustainable development. formation of carbon markets, and promotion of bioenergy options. Besides contributing to mitigate climate change, CDM can be used to demonstrate and disseminate new technologies. reduce investment risks and enhance the cost-efficiency of projects, while also creating jobs and improving environmental conditions. In this context. bioenergy projects are attractive and CDM provides a complementary bridge for international cooperation towards sustainable development. However, since CDM is project-based, a broader policy framework is needed to integrate such projects in regional and global bioenergy systems solutions.

  • 230.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Ska jag tanka etanol?2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ska konsumenter som vill agera miljövänligt köra fordon somdrivs på etanol? Sänks verkligen utsläppen när folk tankar E85 istället för bensin? Och riskerar en ökad etanolproduktion att ta mark ianspråk som istället kunde användas till att odla livsmedel?

    Denna studie vill nyansera debatten och slå hål på några av myterna kring användandet av etanol. Här ges exempel på samhällets vinster av en ökad produktion och användning av etanol inomtransportsektorn, såväl för miljön som för ekonomin. Likaså visarden på de positiva effekter etanolen har i de utvecklingsländer därfrämst sockergrödor odlas, särskilt vad avser en modernisering avjordbruks- och industrisektorerna. I ett särskilt avsnitt diskuterasockså industriländernas generella behov av en högre tillgång till alternativa drivmedel.

    Studien ser positivt på en utbyggd produktion av etanol somdrivmedel, men betonar tydligt att det inte får vara den enda vägenframåt. Behövliga satsningar inom etanolindustrin ska inte utesluta eller ske på bekostnad av utvecklingen av andra förnybarabränslen.

  • 231.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The role of energy policies and markets in promoting sustainable development2010Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the use of energy provision as a strategy for promoting sustainabledevelopment. We briefly discuss the role that bioenergy can play in addressing environmentand development issues through the promotion of efficient renewable alternatives fortransport and electrification in developing countries. We argue that accumulated experiencesprovide guidance to how energy policies and programs can contribute to overall developmentgoals in developing countries. The topic is of high relevance for multilateral organizationssuch as UNCTAD, the World Bank, development assistance agencies, and nationalgovernments in developing countries.

  • 232.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Andersson, Lars
    Lebedys, Arvydas
    Opportunities to boost bioenergy in Lithuania2006In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 1076-1081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant efforts have been made in Lithuania to enhance the utilization of bioenergy since the early 1990s. While opportunities are large and signs of development visible, bioenergy still needs technical, institutional and policy-related support for further development side by side with other industries. This paper discusses the existing bioenergy potential in Lithuanian forests, biofuels market formation in the region and possible roads to boost development. The retrofitting of heat plants, forest management and policies ate reviewed as a way to identify opportunities to promote bioenergy in the country. It is shown that the interplay between national and regional forces can promote technological and managerial improvements in the forest industry while also enhancing the biomass supply and sustainability of bioenergy systems.

  • 233.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    De Lange, Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Xylia, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Exploring new pathways to promote the transition towards electrification of Public Transport in urban areas: the case of Stockholm.2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As cities struggle to provide public transport services at competitive costs, they also have a major responsibility to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions, thus often facing a dilemma between multiple objectives, and short-term versus long-term solutions. Still significant efforts and progress are being made in this direction. The city of Stockholm has already achieved broad penetration of renewables in bus fleets and now aims at 20% electrification in 2030. This paper explores ways to overcome infrastructure and cost barriers and facilitate the transition towards fully renewable pathways in the transport sector. The impacts of externalities such as air pollution and noise exposure are observed in the context of property price dynamics, aiming at finding patterns that can justify electrification pathways for public bus transport in Stockholm. An overlay analysis combining public transport hotspots with empirical data on air and noise pollution in Stockholm inner-inner city area is linked to a property price analysis. This allows an evaluation of relationships between property prices and urban externalities resulting from road transport. The analysis shows that the properties with the highest selling prices for the year 2015 generally fall outside the most polluted traffic and noisy avenues with extensive public transport. An optimum location in terms of price premiums can be observed between the 100-meter and 300-meter band. The results indicate that electrification of public transport may have implications for real estate property values. If captured in a broader urban planning context, barriers to the sustainable transition for transport systems can be partly overcome, particularly when it comes to the high investment costs for infrastructure. Thus municipalities need to consider new planning frameworks to actively capture the multiple dividends of electrification of bus transport, motivating the transition not only in terms of emissions reductions but also towards value creation and total improvement of the urban environment. 

  • 234.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Harahap, Fumi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Sustainable Bioenergy Development in Indonesia - Summary for Policy Makers2018Report (Other academic)
  • 235. Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Navigating the transition to sustainable bioenergy in Sweden and BrazilManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and Brazil have become world leaders in modern bioenergy with respect to research, technology innovation and system implementation. However, there are still underdeveloped bioenergy segments in both countries. In this paper, we use approaches from the transition and innovation literatures to analyse both successes and deficiencies in different end-use segments of the transition to modern bioenergy in Sweden and Brazil. The analysis focuses on the development of socio-technical regimes and identification of innovative approaches that have enabled or hindered transitions in the two countries. We conclude that specific technology options and strategic policies had an important role in orchestrating the transition but the alignment of old established structures and interest groups in agriculture and forestry with industrial actors and policy-makers at national and sub-national scales were key factors for promoting modern bioenergy in the two countries. These findings justify a systemic approach in navigating the bioenergy transition, to meet the multiple and simultaneous interferences that may be caused in established socio-technical regimes within various sectors simultaneously.

  • 236.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Conditions for sugarcane biofuels production in Indonesia2019In: Sugarcane Biofuels: Status, Potential, and Prospects of the Sweet Crop to Fuel the World, Springer Netherlands, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indonesia has a long history of sugar production and a significant potential to enhance both sugar and bioethanol production. This chapter examines the lifecycle energy balance and GHG emissions of bioethanol production, and conditions for development of the sugarcane-based agro-industry in Indonesia to meet both sugar self-sufficiency and biofuel blending targets in domestic transport. The lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the production and use of ethanol are estimated at 29 gCO2eq per MJ of ethanol produced, equivalent to a 67% reduction in comparison to gasoline emissions. Net Energy Value (NEV) and Net Renewable Energy Value (NREV) are -7 MJ l-1 and 17.7 MJ l-1, while the energy yield ratio (ER) is 6.1. At present conditions, 450 million liters bioethanol can be annually produced in the country using sugarcane molasses, a low-value co-product. This gives a marginal contribution equivalent to 1% of the total gasoline consumption in 2015. However, using both molasses and cane juice, Indonesia can meet the blending targets set for 2020 (i.e., 4.45 BL ethanol) and 2025 (i.e., 11.48 BL ethanol). This translates into sugarcane feedstock obtained from 1.60 Mha and 2.76 Mha land, respectively. Improved resource efficiency can be achieved exploring the bioelectricity production potential from sugarcane biomass, enhanced yields, and modernization of sugarcane mills. An orchestrated strategy for upgrading technologies and production methods along the whole chain of agro-industries in the sugar-ethanol segment is required for Indonesia to realize its biofuel potential.

  • 237.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Ethanol production and fuel substitution in Nepal—Opportunity to promote sustainable development and climate change mitigation2010In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 1644-1652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential for ethanol production and fuel substitution in Nepal based on established sugarcane production, installed capacity for sugar and ethanol production, economic opportunities for the national economy, and potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At present conditions, 18,045 m3 ethanol can be annually produced in Nepal without compromising the production of food products from sugar cane such as sugar, chaku and shakhar. The effects for the country can be manifold. As much as 14% of gasoline import reduction, and annual savings of US$ 10 million could be achieved through the introduction of the E20. The activity can provide an incentive for improved yields in sugarcane production, and help develop the industrial sector. This, in turn, will have a positive effect in terms of job and income generation in the rural areas where 85% of the population live. Improvement of agricultural practices for sugarcane could also have an indirect and positive effect on improving other agriculture activities. Furthermore, the use of ethanol in the transport sector will have a positive environmental effect while reducing CO2 emissions and combating pollution in the Kathmandu Valley. Finally, the substitution of ethanol in transport will imply lower imports of oil products and less draining of resources from the Nepalese economy.

  • 238.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The role of ethanol from sugarcane in mitigating climate change and promoting sustainable development in LDCs: the case of Nepal2013In: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness: The Role of Sugar Cane in Africa / [ed] Francis X Johnson and Vikram Seebaluck, Taylor & Francis, 2013, p. 350-368Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Leduc, S.
    Kraxner, F.
    Venkata, B. K.
    Tilvikine, V.
    Gaubyte, V.
    Romagnoli, F.
    Tauraite, E.
    Kundas, S.
    Blumberga, D.
    Peterson, K.
    Utsar, K.
    Vigants, E.
    Kalinichenko, A.
    Opportunities for bioenergy in the Baltic Sea Region2017In: International Scientific Conference “Environmental and Climate Technologies”, CONECT 2017, 10-12 May 2017, Riga, Latvia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 128, p. 157-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security of energy supply, promotion of the bio-economy, nutrient recycling, and innovation are prioritized policy areas in the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUBSR). The Baltic Sea Region (BSR) has a great bioenergy potential worth exploring in this context. This paper explores the state-of-art of bioenergy systems and synergies with eco-systems services in the BSR region in the context of developing the region's bio-economy. In this brief assessment, we consider 8 countries (i.e. Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Denmark, and Belarus) in the region. While the production and use of modern bioenergy can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, promote energy security, diversify energy resources, and contribute to a successful circular economy and rural development, it is important to find a balance between the exploration of resources and the management of eco-systems services. In addition, both climate change vulnerability and bioenergy production may affect the environment and the capacity of the BSR to deliver ecosystem services (ESS). We recommend integrated strategies for optimal use of bioresources in the region. Bioeconomy can be realized by innovative approaches, establishing cross-cutting institutional and policy linkages for increased prosperity and green growth in the Baltic Sea Region.

  • 240.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Green energy for development in Nepal2011In: The Road to Rio +20: For a development-led green economy, United Nations,UNCTAD , 2011, 2, p. 79-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 241.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Nijs, Wouter
    Vision on Technology (VITO).
    Lodewijks, Pieter
    Vision on Technology (VITO).
    Sectoral Energy Report on the Iron and Steel Sector2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel sector has traditionally been considered an important industry for strategic reasons. The focus on high-quality and innovative products has granted the European iron and steel producers a prominent position on the global market for iron and steel products. Today, European industries are facing new challenges. In this Sectoral Energy Report, ESA2 aims to identify action areas for ensuring the competitiveness of European iron and steel producers in a context of stringent climate change mitigation requirements and increased global competition.

    Resources needed for steel production as well as the steel commodities themselves are traded on a global market. Hence, the sector in Europe is closely linked to trends in steel production in other regions. This report presents energy profiles for a number of regions which are key in steel production value chains, discussing regional trends in energy efficiency and GHG emissions reductions.

    The action areas identified require a system approach for reaching the set goals of climate change mitigation while remaining competitive. ESA2 can contribute with a varied toolbox for assessing the future changes needed in the iron and steel sector as well as more reliable data. Thus, ESA2 can facilitate the transition towards sustainable steel production.

  • 242.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Uturbey, Wadaed
    Batista da Silva, Hendrigo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Sant'Ana Marques, Luciana
    A comparative analysis of PV markets in Brazil and Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Singhal, Ankit
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Biomethane to Natural Gas Grid Injection: A Technological Innovation System Analysis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biomethane (upgraded form of biogas) holds unlocked potential as a substitute to fossil natural gas, in terms of achieving climate reduction targets as well as developing a locally secured fuel supply. Biomethane is fully compatible with the existing natural gas grid infrastructure.

    Currently, nine countries in European Union are practicing natural gas grid injection. Remaining countries are in various phases of development concerning production and utilisation of biomethane. Successful deployment of a biomethane project requires coordinated action in terms of academic, industrial and economic co-operation. It demands established legal and political framework as well as supportive financial conditions.

    The thesis aims at researching how the state of development of biomethane generation and utilization gets affected by the support activities within a countries policy framework? To seek a solution, the theoretical framework of “Technological Innovation System (TIS)” is adapted. TIS provide a methodological approach to assess the development of an upcoming technology under the existing policies, regulatory and financial conditions. In the given study, the framework of TIS is adapted to the technology of “biomethane generation and injection into natural gas grid”. This adaptation led to the development of:

    • Detailed overlapping matrix of the main structural components i.e. Actors, Networks and Institutions and their corresponding activities across the value chain.
    • Development of a set of diagnostic questions and performance indicators, enabling an assessment of the dynamics of the technological system, eventually leading to the identification of strengths and weaknesses in the system.

    The adapted technological system analysis framework is further applied on two countries “Germany and UK” as case studies. With the aid of diagnostic questions, the dynamic system characteristics are evaluated in each country context. Germany reveals a well-functioning biomethane TIS. Considerable knowledge base and experience is available, appropriate policies and financial incentives are in place, dedicated organisations are established to address the technological and industrial issues. Germany currently has a market promoting biomethane utilisation via CHP applications. Further growth can be expected by addressing resource mobilisation to fulfill a larger share of heat demand and application as renewable transport fuel.

    Biomethane industry is in its nascent stage in the UK. At the time of thesis research two upgrading plants are in operation. Analysis of the system functions within UK, signals a healthy biogas industry, but there is lack of activity within the “biomethane” context. The industry is in the stage of knowledge development. Biomethane production is well communicated within national strategies. The key technical issues being encountered by the industry are the focus of research. A balanced market formation would require increasing the resource mobilisation in terms of availability of skilled manpower as well as providing access to financial capital. The industry is experiencing pilot trials and subsequent dissemination of information of the results of these trials to the stakeholders in the value chain is recommended.

    Overall, Technological Innovation System (TIS) has been an effective tool to evaluate the national approach towards development and deployment of biomethane as a technology .Moreover TIS assists in systematic identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the system. It provides a methodological approach to statically and dynamically analyse biomethane development strategy within a given region and can also assist in benchmarking the development conditions in more than one region.

  • 244. Sinkala, T.
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Biofuels for Poverty Reduction and Environmental Restoration: the Case of Jatropha in Zambia2009In: Climate challenge-the safety’s off / [ed] B. Johansson, Stockholm: FORMAS , 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 245.
    Sinkala, Thomson
    et al.
    University of Zambia.
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Small-Scale Production of Jatropha in Zambia and its Implications for Rural Development and National Biofuel Policies2012In: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa / [ed] Rainer Janssen and Dominic Rutz, Netherlands: Springer Netherlands, 2012, p. 41-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about energy security and the need to promote rural development have been key factors in the promotion of biofuels in many developing countries in Africa. At the same time, the low cost of labour and plentiful land in some regions of Africa has motivated many foreign investors to set up biofuels schemes that are aimed at export markets. Small-scale production of biofuels in a Least Developed Country (LDC) such as Zambia offers a potentially more viable alternative, or in some cases a complement, to large-scale schemes. The lower capital investment required and the fact that households and communities can use by-products allows for value-added at the local level. The case of jatropha exhibits a number of benefits if there is a willingness to experiment with various production schemes and develop different products. In this chapter small-scale jatropha production in Zambia is assessed using a case study at Thomro farms. The relation of small-scale schemes to national priorities and policies is reviewed and the future role of jatropha at local and national levels is discussed.

  • 246.
    Smeets, Edward
    et al.
    Wageningen.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Ballard-Tremeer, Grant
    Ecoharmony.
    Traditional and Improved Use of Biomass for Energy in Africa2012In: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa / [ed] Rainer Janssen and Dominic Rutz, Springer Netherlands, 2012, p. 3-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional biomass energy systems are widely used in Africa, mainly because of the low cost and lack of available alternatives in rural areas. Projections indicate that the (relative) contribution of traditional bioenergy will decrease, but that the total use of traditional biomass energy systems will increase during the coming decades. The efficiencies of wood-fuel (firewood and charcoal) energy systems are usually low and the use of these systems has serious negative consequences, such as indoor air pollution and related health effects, deforestation and the labour intensive and sometimes dangerous process of firewood collection. Improvements in stoves, charcoal production efficiency and switching fuels can increase the efficiency by several tens of percent points and thereby reduce the demand for labour for the collection of firewood and the costs. Other advantages of improved traditional bioenergy systems are reduced greenhouse gas emissions, reduced indoor air pollution and reduced deforestation. Various initiatives have been successful in implementing the use of improved household stoves, although the results suggest that the success of improved traditional biomass systems depends on the local conditions and socio-economic impacts of these systems.

  • 247.
    Solis, Martyna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Potential of chemical recyclingto improve the recycling of plastic waste2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical recycling can improve the plastic recycling rates and reduce the level of CO2 from fossil plasticsproduction. Thus, it is seen as an attractive technology in the action towards meeting the emission, circulareconomy and recycling targets. In the Swedish context, it could help reach the carbon neutrality goal by2045. This thesis aims to investigate the potential of chemical recycling in the Swedish plastic recyclingsystem with Brista waste-to-energy plant in Stockholm as a case study. The thesis describes different stagesof current Swedish plastic recycling system and quantifies material losses at every stage. The recycling rateof plastic packaging in the household waste stream in Stockholm was found to be lower than 7%.Remaining 93% is sent for energy recovery through incineration. The feasibility of implementing differentchemical recycling technologies is analysed together with the Technology Readiness Level (TRL). Theresults showed that there are three technologies with the highest TRL of 9: thermal cracking (pyrolysis),catalytic cracking and conventional gasification. The important parameters when implementing chemicalrecycling in an existing facility are discussed and used for the feasibility analysis of implementing thesethree technologies in Brista facility. It is not obvious which technology is the best one for this application.Gasification is proven for the production of intermediates (oil or syngas) which can be used for newplastic production, however, the scale of Brista facility is not large enough for a gasification plant to befeasible. Pyrolysis and catalytic cracking could be used at a smaller scale, but they have not contributed tothe production of new plastics so far, thus, both technologies would require further research and tests ona pilot scale before moving to commercial operation. The findings from this study have to be followed byan in-depth analysis of real data, from pilot or commercial projects, which is currently unavailable.The major challenges to implement chemical recycling of waste plastics in Sweden are of economic andpolitical nature. The key point in successful deployment of chemical recycling is the development ofa business model which would ensure that all actors along the plastic recycling chain benefit economicallyfrom the solution. For the Brista 2 plant case, the challenges include Stockholm Exergi’s insufficientexpertise to perform chemical recycling independently, uncertain feedstock purity requirements andchallenging market situation.

  • 248.
    Sten, Amanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Åström, Katja
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Opportunities and barriers for an increased flexibility in residential consumers’ electricity consumption2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, residential consumers account for a large share of the final electricity consumption. Their consumption patterns pose great impact on the network power peaks, especially during the winter. If residential consumers were more flexible in their consumption, peaks would be alleviated considerably and the balance between electricity supply and demand would more easily be maintained.

    Today, demand side flexibility is not utilized to any greater extent, except the one from energy intensive industries. De flexible capacity a single household could contribute with is of course less than within industries, but if flexible capacity from a large number of households were bundled up it would provide a considerable impact on the electricity system. At low outdoor temperatures there is an estimated potential to reach power adjustments in the size of 1 400 – 3 100 MW if the heat load in just over half of the electric heated houses in Sweden were displaced, and a few hundred more if residential consumers were flexible in their consumption of domestic electricity. According to a study by Broberg et al (2016) approximately half the population would consider to be flexible in their electricity consumption under the right circumstances.

    Households that use electricity for heating can be flexible through temporarily adjust the indoor temperature, or – if they heat their homes with electricity in combination with another heat source – by switching heat source. The adjustment can also be automatic if the heating system is equipped with a central control unit. If flexible capacity from a large number of households is bundled up into grid worthy demand response by a market actor, the capacity could be offered as bids on organized electricity markets. The study by Broberg et al (2014) also analysed how much compensation households require in exchange for being flexible. The compensation levels are justified with regard to the flexible capacity that can be gathered form households, 1 400 – 3 100 MW, at least as long as the capacity is sold in an organized electricity market. Services for automatic control of heating systems, where the power output is optimized after the varying electricity price, can be expensive today, which indicates that mainly households with a high electricity consumption utilize them today. Hence, they need to be subsidized.

    Demand side flexibility can also be to manually change consumption patterns in response to price signals. The only precondition is that the electricity consumption is measured and billed on an hourly basis, which is the case for the relatively few consumers with hourly rate agreements. The volatility of the electricity price is however subdued due to the large share of fixed surcharges, which means there is lack of incentive for consumers to adapt their consumption in response to price variations. Hence, the volatility needs to be amplified through efficient pricing.

  • 249. Suwala, W
    et al.
    Wyrwa, A
    Pluta, M
    Jedrysik, E
    Karl, U
    Fehrenbach, D
    Wietschel, M
    Bossman, T
    Elsland, R
    Fichtner, W
    Genoese, M
    Hartel, R
    Bublitz, A
    Merkel, E
    Poganietz, W-R
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Brown, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Pang, Xi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Möst, D
    Muller, T
    Gunkel, D
    Blesl, M
    Kuder, R
    Beestermöller, R
    Nijs, W
    Shaping our energy system – combining European modelling expertise: Case studies of the European energy system in 20502013Report (Refereed)
  • 250. Takama, Takeshi
    et al.
    Tsephel, Stanzin
    Johnson, Francis X
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Evaluating the relative strength of product-specific factors in fuel switching and stove choice decisions in Ethiopia: A discrete choice model of household preferences for clean cooking alternatives2012In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1763-1773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Switching from conventional stoves to modern clean, safe, and efficient stoves will improve health and social welfare for the 2.7 billion people worldwide that lack reliable access to modern energy services. In this paper, we critically review some key theoretical dimensions of household consumer behaviour in switching from traditional biomass cooking stoves to modern efficient stoves and fuels. We then describe the results of empirical research investigating the determinants of stove choice, focusing on the relative strength of product-specific factors across three wealth groups. A stated preference survey and discrete choice model were developed to understand household decision-making associated with cooking stove choice in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study found that, with the exception of price and usage cost factors for the high wealth group, the product-specific factors that were investigated significantly affect stove and fuel choices. The relative strength of factors was assessed in terms of marginal willingness to pay and provides some evidence that consumer preference for higher quality fuels and stoves tends to increase with increasing wealth.

23456 201 - 250 of 287
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