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  • 201.
    Xu, Nan
    et al.
    Jilin Univ, State Key Lab Automot Simulat & Control, Changchun 130022, Peoples R China..
    Kong, Yan
    Jilin Univ, State Key Lab Automot Simulat & Control, Changchun 130022, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, Västerås, Sweden..
    Zhang, Yuanjian
    Queens Univ Belfast, Sch Mech & Aerosp Engn, Belfast, North Ireland..
    Sui, Yan
    Jilin Univ, State Key Lab Automot Simulat & Control, Changchun 130022, Peoples R China..
    Ju, Hao
    Jilin Univ, State Key Lab Automot Simulat & Control, Changchun 130022, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Heng
    Jilin Univ, State Key Lab Automot Simulat & Control, Changchun 130022, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Zhe
    China FAW Grp Corp, Res & Dev Ctr, Changchun, Peoples R China..
    Global optimization energy management for multi-energy source vehicles based on "Information layer - Physical layer - Energy layer- Dynamic programming" (IPE-DP)2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 312, article id 118668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reveal the energy-saving mechanisms of global energy management, we propose a global optimization framework of "information layer-physical layer-energy layer-dynamic programming " (IPE-DP), which can realize the unity of different information scenarios, different vehicle configurations and energy conversions. The deterministic dynamic programing (DP) and adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) are taken as the core algorithms. As a benchmark for assessing the optimality, DP strategy has four main challenges: standardization, real-time application, accuracy, and satisfactory drivability. To solve the above problems, the IPE-DP optimization framework is established, which consists of three main layers, two interface layers and an application layer. To be specific, the full-factor trip information is acquired from three scenarios in the information layer, and then the feasible work modes of the vehicle are determined in the physical layer based on the proposed conservation framework of "kinetic/potential energy & onboard energy ". The above lays a foundation for the optimal energy distribution in the energy layer. Then, a global domain-searching algorithm and action dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP) model are developed for different information acquisition scenarios to obtain the optimal solution. To improve the computational efficiency under the deterministic information, a fast DP is developed based on the statistical rules of DP behavior, the core of which is to restrict the exploring region based on a reference SOC trajectory. Regarding the stochastic trip information, the ADHDP model is established, including determining the utility function, network design and training process. Finally, two case studies are given to compare the economic performance of the vehicle under different information acquisition scenarios, which lays a foundation for analyzing the relationship between the amount of information input and energy-saving potential of the vehicle. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method gains a better performance in both real-time performance and global optimality.

  • 202.
    Xu, Tianhao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Gunasekara, Saman Nimali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Chiu, Justin NingWei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Palm, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Sawalha, Samer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Thermal behavior of a sodium acetate trihydrate-based PCM: T-history and full-scale tests2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 261, article id 114432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) has been receiving increasing attention from researchers and engineers. A practical LHTES installation requires a deep understanding of phase change material’s (PCM’s) thermal behavior under thermal property testing and realistic operating conditions. To enrich this understanding, an experimental study on a commercial sodium acetate trihydrate-based PCM (Climsel C58) is presented in this article. C58 was characterized with two test methods: T-history tests and full-scale LHTES tests. The results are presented and discussed to exhibit the thermal behavior of C58 with these two test methods and the variations between them. With T-history tests, the thermal properties of C58 such as melting/solidification temperature range (57–61 °C/55–50 °C) and latent heat of fusion (216 kJ/kg) were determined. In full-scale LHTES tests, a parametric study was conducted to investigate the effects of heat transfer fluid flowrate and operating temperature range on the thermal performance of a 0.38 m3 storage prototype containing cylindrically macro-encapsulated C58. Moreover, longitudinal and radial PCM temperature distributions in full-scale tests were analyzed, suggesting the presence of phase separation. In general, C58 behaved differently between the two test methods regarding phase separation (negligible in T-history tests), supercooling effects (within 3 K in full-scale but up to 10 K in T-history tests), and thermal energy storage capacity (10% lower in full-scale tests). When using C58 or other salt hydrate-based PCMs for large-scale heat storage, these thermal behavior differences between the property-measurement and the application-oriented environments should be properly addressed in the design stage to ensure performance.

  • 203.
    Xu, Tianhao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Nyholm Humire, Emma
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Chiu, Ning-Wei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Sawalha, Samer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Numerical thermal performance investigation of a latent heat storage prototype toward effective use in residential heating systems2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 278, article id 115631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent heat thermal energy storage has been receiving increasing interests in residential heating applications. In this paper, a numerical heat transfer model was built with finite element method for a cylindrically encapsulated latent heat storage prototype and used for investigating its thermal performance optimization measures. The model was validated against four sets of experimental results for both charge and discharge, as the difference in accumulated storage capacity between simulation and experiment is less than 4%. Transient storage inlet boundary conditions were set in simulation for discharge considering the thermal output from the coupled radiators. The results of the optimization analyses show that: 1) reducing the capsule diameter from 69 mm to 15 mm shortens the completion time of charge and discharge by up to 70%, however, at the expense of 23% decrease in total storage capacity; 2) using parabolic or linear time-increasing heat transfer fluid flowrate profiles than a time-constant one extends around twofold the useful discharge timespan; 3) increasing the storage vessel diameter from 0.6 m to 0.7 m and to 0.8 m prolongs the useful discharge timespan from 2 hrs to the recommended 3 hrs, though the further enlargement to 0.8 m results in a lower state of charge after 3 hrs due to increase in unexploited storage capacity. From the numerical optimization study, we proposed a storage design adjustment of using 15 mm-diameter phase change material capsules in a 0.7 m-diameter cylindrical storage vessel, coupled with a parabolic flow strategy, to improve the storage on-peak discharging performance.

  • 204.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Biofuels in Asia2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, p. S1-S10Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 205.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 148, p. A1-A6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Transitions of the future energy systems Editorial of year 2013 for the 101th volume of Applied Energy2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 101, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Chen, B.
    Wennersten, R.
    Campana, P.
    Yang, J.
    Cleaner energy for transition of cleaner city2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 196, p. 97-99Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Malardalen Univ, MDU, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chou, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Mech Engn, Singapore 117548, Singapore..
    The 35 years' development of Applied Energy: 1975-2010-Editorial for Applied Energy's 35th anniversary2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 6, p. 1801-1802Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 209.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Chou, S. K.
    Chen, Bin
    Sun, Fengchun
    Jia, Hongjie
    Yang, Jin
    Clean, affordable and reliable energy systems for low carbon city transition2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 194, p. 305-309Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Chou, S. K.
    Desideri, U.
    Tu, S. T.
    Jin, H. G.
    Research, development and innovations for sustainable future energy systems2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, p. 393-395Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Chou, S. K.
    Desideri, U.
    Xia, X.
    Innovative and sustainable solutions of clean energy technologies and policies (Part II)2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 136, p. 756-758Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Malardalen Univ, Sch Sustainable Dev Soc & Technol, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Chou, S. K.
    Desideri, U.
    Xia, Xiaohua
    Innovative and sustainable solutions of clean energy technologies and policies (Part I)2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 130, p. 447-449Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Chou, Siaw-Kiang
    Desideri, Umberto
    Lee, Duu-Jong
    Transition of clean energy systems and technologies towards a sustainable future (Part I)2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 160, p. 619-622Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 214.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalens Högskola, Sweden.
    Chou, Siaw-Kiang
    Desideri, Umberto
    Lee, Duu-Jong
    Transition of clean energy systems and technologies towards a sustainable future (Part II)2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 162, p. 1109-1113Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 215.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Editorial for Special Issue of the Third International Green Energy Conference, VisterAs, Sweden, June 18-20, 2007 at Applied Energy2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 125-125Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 216.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Jin, H. G.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Engn Thermophys, Beijing 100864, Peoples R China..
    Editorial for Special Issue of the IGEC-IV, the 4th International Green Energy Conference (IGEC-IV), Beijing, China, October 20-22, 2008 at the journal, Applied Energy2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 9, p. 2769-2769Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Keall, B.
    The editor's best reviewer award for the 'Applied Energy' journal 20112012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 98, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Obersteiner, Michael
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    Mälardalen University.
    Moreira, José
    University of Sao Paolo.
    Negative Emission Technologies - NETs2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 255, p. 1-3, article id 113749Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 219.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Sun, F.
    Chou, S. K.
    Desideri, U.
    Li, H.
    Campana, P. E.
    Xiong, R.
    Transformative Innovations for a Sustainable Future2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 204, p. 867-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology receives much attention. An algorithm based on the Lock-On Mechanism for the maximum power point tracking on the hybrid PV/TEG system was discussed, which proved to be fast and stable in comparison to the conventional fixed step hill climbing algorithm. Combined cycles are also suffering a drawback due to the implementation of large scale renewable energy systems in electric grids. However, gas turbines and combined cycles have always featured very high efficiency and a suitability of being used in combined heat and power and combined cooling heat and power plants that is uncommon among fossil fired power plants. For this reason it is important to continue studying those systems improving their performance even further and integrating the energy and mass flows between combined cycles and other energy systems. LNG production will increase further in the future, since it is expected that LNG might replace diesel or gasoline as a transportation fuel. For the battery management system electric vehicles, a multi-timescale method for dual estimation of satate of charge and capacity with an online identified battery model was discussed.

  • 220.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Energy, S-72123 Västerås, Sweden..
    Sun, F.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Natl Engn Lab Elect Vehicles, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Chou, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Mech Engn, 9 Engn Dr 1,Blk EA 04-12, Singapore 117576, Singapore..
    Desideri, U.
    Univ Pisa, Dept Energy Syst Terr & Construct Engn, I-56122 Pisa, Italy..
    Li, H.
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Energy, S-72123 Västerås, Sweden..
    Campana, P. E.
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Energy, S-72123 Västerås, Sweden..
    Xiong, R.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Natl Engn Lab Elect Vehicles, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Transformative innovations for a sustainable future2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 231, p. 1383-1388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE). School of Business, Society and Energy, Mälardalen University, 72123 Västerås, Sweden.
    Sun, F.
    Chou, S. K.
    Desideri, U.
    Li, H.
    Campana, P.
    Xiong, R.
    Transformative innovations for a sustainable future – Part III2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 222.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Sun, F.
    Choug, S. K.
    Desideri, U.
    Li, H.
    Campana, P.
    Xiong, R.
    Transformative Innovations for a Sustainable Future - Part II2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 207, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Yang, X.
    Thermal energy storage2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 240, p. A1-A6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 224.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen Univ MDH, Sch Sustainable Dev Soc & Technol, S-72123 Västerås, Sweden..
    Yang, X.
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Human Settlements & Civil Engn, Inst Bldg Environm & Sustainabil Technol, Xian 710049, Peoples R China..
    Thermal energy storage: An overview of papers published in Applied Energy 2009-20182021In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 285, article id 116397Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 225.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Zhai, Y.
    Wijayatunga, P.
    Mohamed, A. M.
    Campana, P. E.
    Renewable energy integration with mini/micro-grids2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 201, p. 241-244Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 226.
    Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Zhang, Zhien
    Chongqing Univ, Minist Educ China, Key Lab Low Grade Energy Utilizat Technol & Syst, Chongqing 400044, Peoples R China..
    Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS)2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 235, p. 1289-1299Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Yang, Hanmin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Cui, Yuxiao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Han, Tong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Energy Technol Ctr AB, Box 726, SE-94128 Pitea, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    High-purity syngas production by cascaded catalytic reforming of biomass pyrolysis vapors2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 322, p. 119501-, article id 119501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel pyrolysis followed by in-line cascaded catalytic reforming process without additional steam was developed to produce high-purity syngas from woody biomass. The key to the proposed process is the construction of a cascaded biochar + NiAl2O4 catalytic reforming process in which biochar acts as a pre-reforming catalyst, and NiAl2O4 acts as a primary reforming catalyst. The large oxygenates in the pyro-vapors are deeply cracked in the biochar layer due to the increased residence time in the hot-biochar bed. The remaining small molecules are then reformed with the autogenerated steam from pyrolysis catalyzed by the reduced Ni0 species in the NiAl2O4 catalyst (NiAlO). The results showed that the yield of syngas for the optimized process was 71.28 wt% (including 44.44 mg-H2/g-biomass and 536.48 mg-CO/g-biomass), and the CO2 yield of the process was only 3 kg-CO2/kg-hydrogen. High-purity syngas with 89.47 vol% of (H2 + CO) was obtained, and the gas energy conversion efficiency (GECE) of the process reached 75.65%. The study shows that in the cascaded catalytic reforming process, cracking of the large oxygenates and reforming of the small molecules are promoted sequentially in separated biochar + NiAlO catalyst layers, which maximizes the syngas production and improves the activity and stability of the Ni-based catalyst.

  • 228. Yang, J.
    et al.
    Yu, X.
    An, L.
    Tu, S. -T
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    CO2 capture with the absorbent of a mixed ionic liquid and amine solution considering the effects of SO2 and O22017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 194, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have recently been proposed as a potential candidate for CO2 capture. In this study, experiments were conducted in an absorption-desorption loop system to investigate the effects of SO2 and O2 on CO2 capture using an aqueous amine solution mixed with IL. The gas mixture containing CO2, O2, SO2 and N2 in the composition range of flue gas from a coal-fired power plant after flue gas desulfurization was selected as the feed gas. It was found that the addition of hydrophilic IL of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]) to a monoethanolamine (MEA) aqueous solution reduced the losses of MEA and water by lowering the saturated vapour pressure of the mixed absorbent. For hydrophobic IL of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([hmim][Tf2N]), the MEA loss for 30 wt% MEA + 70 wt% [hmim][Tf2N] increased dramatically with the system running because carbonate, which was formed by MEA reacting with CO2, was insoluble in [hmim][Tf2N] at the absorber operation temperature of 323 K. The effects of O2 and SO2 were relatively insignificant for the MEA and water losses. The aqueous amine solution mixed with [bmim][BF4] showed good performances with a CO2 removal efficiency of above 90% and the SO2 concentration at the absorber outlet below 20 ppb. No obvious IL loss was detected. For the absorbent of 30 wt% MEA + 50 wt% [bmim][BF4] + 20 wt% H2O, the thermal energy consumption for absorbent regeneration is 33.8% lower than that of the aqueous MEA solution.

  • 229. Yang, J.
    et al.
    Yu, X.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Tu, S. -T
    Dahlquist, E.
    Effects of SO2 on CO2 capture using a hollow fiber membrane contactor2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, no SI, p. 755-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane gas absorption technology is a promising alternative to conventional technologies for the mitigation of acid gases. In this study, with a polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane contactor as absorber and a packed column as stripper, the influence of SO2 on the CO2 capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas was investigated in an absorption-desorption experimental set-up using aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) as the absorbent. The experimental results showed that the MEA loss per ton captured CO2 increased with the addition of SO2, resulting in sharp decreases in CO2 removal efficiency and mass transfer rate of CO2 after initial several days of operation. This tendency is mainly attributed to the promotional effect of SO2 on the degradation of MEA by the formation of sulfate. Thus, it is necessary to regenerate MEA using a reclaimer in this case. The respective SO2 concentrations at the outlets of absorber and stripper remained constant values of 24 and 120ppb throughout the operation although the CO2 removal efficiency decreased dramatically with time. This co-capture of CO2 and SO2 could play an important role in further desulfuration, thus alleviating the burden of desulfuration to some extent and benefiting the subsequent CO2 purification and storage. More progresses are greatly needed in high-efficiency and stable absorbents, high-efficiency reclaimer, and methods to reduce MEA loss by evaporation.

  • 230.
    Yang, Xiaohu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Institute of the Building Environment & Sustainability Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, PR China; School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, 721 23 Västerås, Sweden.
    Bai, Q.
    Guo, Z.
    Niu, Z.
    Yang, C.
    Jin, L.
    Lu, T. J.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, 721 23 Västerås, Sweden.
    Comparison of direct numerical simulation with volume-averaged method on composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 229, p. 700-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melting heat transfer in open-cell metal foams embedded in phase-change materials (PCMS) predicted by the volume-averaged method (VAM) was systematically compared with that calculated using direct numerical simulation (DNS), with particular attention placed upon the contribution of natural convection in the melt region to overall phase change heat transfer. The two-temperature model based on the assumption of local thermal non-equilibrium was employed to account for the large difference of thermal conductivity between metallic ligaments and PCM (paraffin). The Forchheimer extended Darcy model was employed to describe the additional flow resistance induced by metal foam. For the DNS, a geometric model of metal foam based on tetrakaidehedron cells was reconstructed. The DNS results demonstrated significant temperature difference between ligament surface and PCM, thus confirming the feasibility of local thermal non-equilibrium employed in VAM simulations. Relative to the DNS results, the VAM combined with the two-temperature model could satisfactorily predict transient solid-liquid interface evolution and local temperature distribution, although pore-scale features of phase change were lost. The presence of natural convection affected significantly the melting front shape, temperature distribution and full melting. The contribution of natural convection to overall phase change heat transfer should be qualitatively and quantitatively given sufficient consideration from both macroscopic (VAM) and microscopic (DNS) point of views. Besides, practical significance and economic prospective using metal foam in TES unit for WHR system to provide residential heating or hot water is discussed and analyzed.

  • 231.
    Yang, Xiaohu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Bai, Q.
    Zhang, Q.
    Hu, W.
    Jin, L.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University (MDH), Västerås, Sweden.
    Thermal and economic analysis of charging and discharging characteristics of composite phase change materials for cold storage2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 225, p. 585-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study conducted both experimental and numerical investigations on the solidification behavior in a metal foam composite phase change material (PCM) for cold storage. Volume-average-method was adopted with the help of Forchheimer-Darcy equation to model the fluid flow through porous media. Experimental measurements were performed to validate the analytical model and the numerical method, with good agreement achieved. Local thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium states were justified numerically and experimentally. Effect of pore morphological parameters (porosity and pore density) upon the solidification features of composite PCM were investigated. For the appliance of composite PCM to cold storage, techno-economic characteristics was also assessed. Results demonstrated that the full solidification time for metal foams with a porosity of 0.93 and 0.97 can be saved 87.5% and 76.7% respectively compared with pure water. It indicated that porosity of metal foam played a dominant role in heat transfer enhancement; while pore density seemed to have little influence on phase change behavior according to the results. Local natural convection in the unsolidified phase caused a remarkable promotion of the interface evolution, and the full solidification time with natural convection considered can be saved by 14.3% compared with pure conduction for the case with the same porosity of 0.97. The economic analyses indicated that using composite PCM was profitable with a short payback period less than 2 years.

  • 232.
    Yang, Xiaohu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Xi'an Jiaotong University, China; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lu, Z.
    Bai, Q.
    Zhang, Q.
    Jin, L.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Thermal performance of a shell-and-tube latent heat thermal energy storage unit: Role of annular fins2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 202, p. 558-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study conducts numerical investigations on melting process in a shell-and-tube latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) unit with annular fins. Commercial grade paraffin is employed as the phase change material (PCM) and water serves as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). Finite-volume-method (FVM) based numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of fin number, height and thickness on the phase change process. Particular attention is made to justify the contribution of local natural convection to the overall phase change process. Results demonstrate that the full melting time could be maximally reduced by 65% by inserting annular fins into PCM. For maximizing thermal performance, an optimal group fin parameter (fin number N = 31, thickness t/l = 0.0248 and interval l/L = 0.0313) is recommended for the present study.

  • 233. Yang, Ying
    et al.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Stridh, Bengt
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Potential analysis of roof-mounted solar photovoltaics in Sweden2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 279, article id 115786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar photovoltaic energy, driven mostly by the residential and commercial market segments, has been growing a lot in recent years in Sweden. In response to the commitment towards sustainability goals, this paper explores the potential of roof-mounted solar photovoltaic projects. This paper focuses on: roof area estimation, potential installed capacity, and potential electricity generation, at the single municipal scale and at the national scale. The following categories of different building types have been investigated: residential buildings, industrial buildings, buildings of social function, buildings of business function, buildings of economic/agricultural function, buildings of complementary function, and buildings of other unknown functions. The analysis starts from Vasteras, a typical Swedish municipality and ranking seventh among the largest cities in Sweden. An estimate of 5.74 km(2) available roof area potential is calculated, by considering factors such as building purposes, roof orientations, shadows and obstacles. The total potential installed capacity is calculated, assuming the installation of commercial photovoltaic modules, and design parameters for flat roofs such as inter-row distances and tilt angles. With the inputs of meteorological parameters and geographical information, the potential yearly electricity generation is calculated. The results reveal 727, 848, and 956 MWp potential installed capacity and 626, 720, and 801 GWh annual electricity production for Vasteras on pitched roofs and flat roofs with three scenarios, respectively. The extrapolation of the methodology to the entire of Sweden yields a total of 504 km(2) usable roof area and 65, 75, and 84 GWp installed capacity. Finally, we reveal a new understanding of usable roof area distribution and of potential installed capacity of roof-mounted solar photovoltaic systems, which can largely help evaluate subsidy scale and solar energy policy formulation in Sweden.

  • 234.
    Ye, Yang
    et al.
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangzhou, Peoples R China..
    Ding, Jing
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangzhou, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Weilong
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangzhou, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Energy, Västerås, Sweden..
    The storage performance of metal hydride hydrogen storage tanks with reaction heat recovery by phase change materials2021In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 299, article id 117255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrogen storage of metal hydrides (MHs) is an exothermic process. The reaction enthalpy of magnesium hydride is 75 kJ/mol. Phase change materials (PCM) can be integrated with a MH hydrogen storage tank (MHST) to recycle the absorption heat as the heat source for desorption. To improve the heat transfer and hydrogen storage performance, this work comparatively studied the various configurations of the PCM based MHST. A numerical model is built to trace the transfer and storage process for two MHSTs with the PCM surrounded layout and sandwiched MH-PCM units. The results show that the configuration methods of PCM affects the hydrogen storage performance. The sandwiched MH-PCM units has faster heat transfer and reaction rate for the larger heat transfer area and smaller thermal resistance. The amount of PCM affects the reaction fraction due to the heat storage capacity. For the MHST with sandwiched MH-PCM units, when the amount of PCM is sufficient, the reduction of PCM will slightly decrease the average absorption rate and increase the average desorption rate by 21.8%. Considering the weight of PCM, the quantitative relationship is established among the mass ratio of PCM to MH, the maximum conversion rate of MgH2 and the actual gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity. When the amount of PCM is just sufficient, there is a maximum gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity of 0.733 wt%.

  • 235. Ye, Yang
    et al.
    Lu, Jianfeng
    Ding, Jing
    Wang, Weilong
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalens högskola.
    Numerical simulation on the storage performance of a phase change materials based metal hydride hydrogen storage tank2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 278, article id 115682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In metal hydride (MH) hydrogen storage tanks, the integration of phase change materials (PCM) can store and release the reaction heat to promote the reaction process without an external heat source. In order to get a high-performance MH-PCM storage tank and understand the effect of mass ratio of PCM to MH on the storage performance, this research proposes a novel MH-PCM storage unit (PCM sandwiched between two layers of MH) stacked inside a cylindrical tank. A mathematical model is established to describe the heat and mass transfer in the process of hydrogen ab/desorption and heat storage/release. It is found that the PCM sandwiched structure has a larger heat transfer area than the surrounding structure, which improves the hydrogen absorption and desorption rate. For the MH-PCM unit, the mass ratio of PCM to MH affects the hydrogen ab/desorption rate. Varying the mass ratio of PCM to MH requires adjustments in the hydrogen absorption pressure for completely absorbing the hydrogen, which also impacts the amount of sensible and latent heat stored in the PCM. The results show that in order to fully absorb the hydrogen, the hydrogen absorption pressure must increase to compensate for reduced mass ratio of PCM to MH, and the ratio of sensible heat to latent heat storage increases.

  • 236.
    Ye, Yang
    et al.
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangzhou, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Jianfeng
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangzhou, Peoples R China..
    Ding, Jing
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangzhou, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Weilong
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangzhou, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business, Soc & Energy, Västerås, Sweden..
    Performance improvement of metal hydride hydrogen storage tanks by using phase change materials2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 320, p. 119290-, article id 119290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In metal hydride based hydrogen storage tanks, heat transfer fluid (HTF) has been extensively used to continuously transfer the reaction heat for promoting the reaction via heat exchangers. In this study, the phase change material (PCM) is integrated with the tank to enhance heat transfer and recycle the reaction heat. A novel storage tank with a simple concentric straight-tube heat exchanger surrounded by PCM is put forward to improve the hydrogen storage performance. A numerical model is built to track the transfer and reaction process. By comparison, the new tank shows better heat transfer and storage performance, and the hydrogen absorption time is shortened by 60.2% than that of the tank without PCM. For the new tank, the optimal amount of PCM is obtained, based on which the increased absorption pressure could effectively accelerate the heat discharge and reaction rate during the absorption process. However, the increased inlet velocity of HTF has a limited improvement effect on heat transfer and reaction performance. Furthermore, on the PCM side of the tank, the addition of fins and increasing the thermal conductivity of PCM had little effect on the performance of the tank.

  • 237. Yin, C.
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels: Combustion fundamentals and modeling2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 162, p. 742-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels (PF), as a promising technology for CO2 capture from power plants, has gained a lot of concerns and also advanced considerable research, development and demonstration in the past years worldwide. The use of CO2 or the mixture of CO2 and H2O vapor as the diluent in oxy-fuel combustion, instead of N2 in conventional air-fuel combustion, induces significant changes to the combustion fundamentals, because of the great differences in the physical properties and chemical effects of the different diluents. Therefore, some fundamental issues and technological challenges need to be properly addressed to develop oxy-fuel combustion into an enabled technology. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling, which has been proven to be a very useful and cost-effective tool in research and development of conventional air-fuel combustion, is expected to play a similarly vital role in future development of oxy-fuel combustion technology. The paper presents a state-of-the-art review and an in-depth discussion of PF oxy-fuel combustion fundamentals and their modeling, which underpin the development of this promising technology. The focus is placed on the key issues in combustion physics (e.g., turbulent gas-solid flow, heat and mass transfer) and combustion chemistry (e.g., pyrolysis, gas phase combustion and char reactions), mainly on how they are affected in oxy-fuel conditions and how they are modeled and implemented into CFD simulations. The system performance of PF oxy-fuel combustion is also reviewed. Finally, the current status of PF oxy-fuel combustion fundamentals and modeling is concluded and the research needs in these regards are suggested.

  • 238. Yu, Aiping
    et al.
    Chen, Zhongwei
    Maric, Radenka
    Zhang, Lei
    Zhang, Jiujun
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Electrochemical supercapacitors for energy storage and delivery: Advanced materials, technologies and applications2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 153, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239. Yu, Biying
    et al.
    Ma, Ye
    Xue, Meimei
    Tang, Baojun
    Wang, Bin
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Wei, Yi-Ming
    Environmental benefits from ridesharing: A case of Beijing2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 191, p. 141-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging ridesharing travel could be an effective way in China to reduce travel demand by cars, which can further seek to shift personal transportation choices from an owned asset to a service used on demand and lessen the traffic jam and emissions. Drawing on the raw observed ridesharing trip data provided by DiDi Chuxing company, this study evaluated the direct environmental benefits of ridesharing resulted from the travel mode shift and the indirect environmental benefits resulted from the attitude change towards car purchase behavior. The megacity Beijing is taken as the empirical context given its more serious situation of traffic congestion and difficulties for car purchase. Estimation results show that direct annual energy savings made by ridesharing are approximately 26.6 thousand tce, and annual emission reductions of CO2 and NOx are approximately 46.2 thousand tons and 253.7 tons, respectively. Besides, using ridesharing service will lead to substantial energy savings and emission reductions from the long-term perspective attributing to the weakening willingness on purchasing new cars. Promoting EVs among ridesharing vehicles and switching to clean electricity generation as well as improving vehicle efficiency can further enhance the environmental benefits of ridesharing, with maximum effects amounting to 67% of energy savings and 57% of CO2 emission reductions compared to 2016 level of the fuel related energy consumption and emissions made by ridesharing.

  • 240. Yu, X.
    et al.
    Yang, J.
    Lu, H.
    Tu, S.-T.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. School of Business Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Energy-efficient extraction of fuel from Chlorella vulgaris by ionic liquid combined with CO2 capture2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 160, p. 648-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Algae-sourced feedstocks remain confined to commercialization because of the high cost and energy consumption of biomass cultivation and feedstock extraction. In this study, to reduce the energy consumption required for algae extraction, experiments with Chlorella vulgais extraction by ionic liquids (ILs) combined with CO<inf>2</inf> capture were conducted considering that captured CO<inf>2</inf> by ILs can compensate the energy consumption of extraction. The results showed that the addition of CO<inf>2</inf> to [BMIM][BF<inf>4</inf>] increased the lipid yield of Chlorella vulgaris from 68.0% to 75.6%. The properties of synthesized biodiesel from C. vulgaris lipids met the UNE-EN 14214 European biodiesel standard except for oxidative stability. Protein denaturation and degradation were found during the lysis of algae cells. Approximately 82.2wt.% of the total extracted proteins could be precipitated during both algae lysis and supernatant liquid drying. A microalgae-to-biofuel route including C. vulgaris extraction and CO<inf>2</inf> capture was proposed that involves wet algae input and delivery outputs of water, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, proteins, sugars, biogas and glycerol. Fossil energy ratios (FER) based on the overall energy balance were 3.30 (n= 1, n is the volume ratio of IL to wet algae) and 3.84 (n= 2) for [BMIM][BF<inf>4</inf>] with CO<inf>2</inf> capture, approximately 2.5 times those based on commercially available technologies. The possibilities of synthesizing novel ILs that show both high CO<inf>2</inf> absorption and good abilities in cell wall breakage are discussed. More progress is greatly needed to reduce IL recovery loss.

  • 241.
    Yuan, Zhao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Reza Hesamzadeh, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Hierarchical coordination of TSO-DSO economic dispatch considering large-scale integration of distributed energy resources2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 195, p. 600-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a hierarchical coordination mechanism for coordinating the economic dispatch of transmission system operator (TSO) and distribution system operator (DSO). The challenge of dispatching large-scale distributed energy resources (DERs) is addressed. The coordination problem of dispatching energy and reserve is formulated. Benders decomposition is the underlying mathematical foundation of the proposed hierarchical coordination mechanism. We define the generalized bid function to approximate the dispatch cost of distribution network by a series of affine functions. The generalized bid function is communicated from DSO to TSO. By using convex AC optimal power flow model, the convergence of hierarchical coordination is guaranteed. A grid computing structure in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) to accelerate the computation is proposed. The generalized bid function is simulated for various test cases. We also demonstrate the effect of DERs on the voltage magnitude and phase angle. The numerical results show that the hierarchical coordination using the generalized bid function converges to very close results compared with the results of centralized dispatch. Hierarchical coordination is capable of managing various network congestion scenarios and power loads. The generalized bid function provides a unified format of communication between TSO and DSO.

  • 242.
    Yuan, Zhao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wogrin, Sonja
    Comillas Pontifical University.
    Hesamzadeh, Mohammad Reza
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Towards the Power Synergy Hub (PSHub): Coordinating the energy dispatch of super grid by modified Benders decomposition2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 205, p. 1419-1434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of operating ultra-large-scale power system or super grid is addressed in this paper. We set up the concept of power synergy hub (PSHub) serving as the operation hub coordinating the energy dispatch of multiple nations or regions across the continent to achieve global optimal targets. An efficient mechanism based on the modified Benders decomposition (BD) is proposed to coordinate the operations of national or regional power networks. The key contribution is that we take the total power outputs of regional power networks as the complicating variables to formulate the master problem and subproblems in the modified BD. Instead of using DC optimal power flow model (DC OPF), we propose to use convex AC optimal power flow model based on second-order cone programming (SOC-ACOPF) to operate the super grid. A comprehensive investigation proves that the SOC-ACOPF outperforms DC OPF in terms of accuracy. Numerical evaluations also show that our SOC-ACOPF model has stronger convergence capability and computational efficiency over other considered SOC-ACOPF models. The convergence of the modified BD is guaranteed by the convexity of SOC-ACOPF. A parallel computation framework in GAMS is proposed to assist real-time operation of the super grid. Compared with operating super grid in a centralized way, the modified BD approach shows stronger convergence capability, computational efficiency and robustness.

  • 243.
    Zhang, Cheng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    CDM’s influence on technology transfers: A study of the implemented clean development mechanism projects in China2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 158, p. 355-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology transfers through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol is one of the most important catalysts in the cooperation between developed (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries for climate change mitigation. With the large-scale implementation of CDM projects in recent years, it is important to timely and comprehensively analyze the effectiveness of technology transfers in these implemented projects on the level of individual countries. In this context, China is of particular significance as it is the biggest host country of CDM projects in the world; 50% of total CDM projects implemented from 2007 to 2012 have issued Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) to 60% of all of the CDM projects. In this study, we evaluated the performance of technology transfers in an exclusive database of 754 CDM projects hosted by China between 2007 and 2012 with issued CERs since CERs were first issued in China. In addition, we developed a logistic regression approach using 11-variables that include a series of extended technology transfer-based indicators from the perspectives of project design, economic level, and technology capability that have not been studied in detail in the past. The results show that technology transfers are more likely to occur in large-sized projects with higher CER incomes, in projects with international participants, and in projects involving types such as HFC-23 reduction, fuel substitute, and N<inf>2</inf>O decomposition, in comparison to projects involving renewable energy. We observed that over 90% of the technology transfer projects only include importation of equipment or training to China. In our findings of the regression results, it shows that technology transfers occurred more often in regions with lower technology capabilities, less energy consumption, and a lower GDP growth rate. Supported by high local technology capability and the governmental strategy with independent innovation, the advantages of introducing technology from other countries are offset by local technology diffusion. In a market view, financial incentives hinder CDM host parties from introducing new equipment or trainings for the high marginal cost, unless the high marginal cost of technology transfer can be offset by a large CDM with a high CER income. Technology transfer is more income-driven than sustainability-driven at the present stage in China. In our analysis, the drive out effect between HFC-23 and renewable projects in CDM suggests China government to publish more effective incentives to attract more sustainable types of CDM projects with a higher level of technology innovation. The results are also discussed in the context of policy issues, which can be helpful for the decision makers when formulating future sustainable strategic plans and policy.

  • 244.
    Zhang, Chi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås, 721 23, Sweden.
    Liu, C.
    Division of Traffic Analysis and Logistics, Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Stockholm, 100 44, Sweden.
    Wang, K.
    Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research & School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås, 721 23, Sweden.
    Crowdfunding preferences for a sustainable milk product with integrated photovoltaic water pumping system in China2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 255, article id 113694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of potential investors in financing renewable energy systems—specifically, relating to crowdfunding as a financing mechanism, with the enhancement of internet and social-media tools. The research question in this study is whether crowdfunding with a novel socio-technical product reward program attracts potential customers to a more sustainable milk product with a specific integrated photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system. The particular case study we empirically investigated is product reward crowdfunding in dairy milk production in China. The milk production chain was supplied by PVWP system integration, which generated solar energy both for feed production for dairy cows and for the operation of dairy farms. 48 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted between the research team and customers in order to perform qualitative analyses of the determinants of customers’ milk purchase behaviors. In addition, 357 online surveys were collected for quantitative analysis. Binary and ordered probit regressions were employed to use survey date to systematically estimate purchase intention and willingness-to-pay for sustainable milk. Customer behaviors, environmental consciousness, and individual socio-demographic factors were investigated as potential explanatory variables. Over 82% of the survey participants showed intentions to purchase the sustainable milk with the PVWP system. In the survey and interview samples, results showed that milk quality, nutrition improvement, emissions reduction, and environmental benefits attributed to the integrated PVWP system were the major factors considered by interviewees who showed intentions to purchase the crowdfunded dairy milk. Regression model results suggested that potential customers with higher income levels, and those of parenting age, and those with young children or planning to have children, had a higher willingness-to-pay than other customers for the crowdfunded sustainable dairy milk. The familiarity with and popularity of online shopping and pre-sale purchases in China made customers more open to and proactive towards pre-pay and crowdfunding mechanisms. This article evaluated key factors which may influence potential customers for crowdfunding, and used a discrete choice model to estimate customers’ willingness-to-pay for reward-based projects. These results could help producers of sustainable milk products to identify potential target groups in China and estimate market demand. This exploratory study could provide a framework with both quantitative and qualitative assessment of crowdfunding for renewable energy systems in a national or international context.

  • 245.
    Zhang, Hongtao
    et al.
    Univ Waterloo, Dept Mech & Mechatron Engn, Lab Fuel Cell & Green Energy RD&D 20 20, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.;Univ Waterloo, Dept Appl Math, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada..
    Li, Xianguo
    Univ Waterloo, Dept Mech & Mechatron Engn, Lab Fuel Cell & Green Energy RD&D 20 20, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada..
    Liu, Xinzhi
    Univ Waterloo, Dept Appl Math, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Malardalen Univ, Sch Sustainable Dev Soc & Technol, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Enhancing fuel cell durability for fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles through strategic power management2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 241, p. 483-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (FC-PHEVs) can have extended range while utilizing cheap grid electricity, but has poor durability of onboard fuel cells due to dynamic loading. In this study, fuel cell durability is enhanced significantly for a novel configuration of FC-PHEVs with three fuel cell stacks through strategic power management by making each fuel cell stack work only at a fixed operating point (i.e., constant output power) and by shortening its active time (operation) via on-off switching control. A hysteresis control strategy of power management is designed to make the active time evenly distributed over the three fuel cell stacks and to reduce the number of on-off switching. The results indicate that the durability of the onboard fuel cells can be increased 11.8, 4.8 and 6.9 times, respectively, for an urban, highway and a combined urban-highway driving cycle. This enhanced fuel cell durability is derived from the fact that the average power demand of real-time driving cycles is only a fraction of the maximum power that FC-PHEVs could provide, and substantially increased durability can be used to reduce the over-design, hence the cost, of fuel cells.

  • 246.
    Zhang, Jie
    et al.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Geog Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Yao, Tian
    Univ Space Res Assoc, Columbia, MD 21044 USA.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Zhang, Yang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Lundblad, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Melton, Forrest
    NASA ARC CREST, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA.;Calif State Univ Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA 93955 USA..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    The water-food-energy nexus optimization approach to combat agricultural drought: a case study in the United States2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 449-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequent recent drought events in the Great Plains of United States have led to significant crop yield reductions and crop price surges. Using an integrated water-food-energy nexus modelling and optimization approach, this study laid the basis for developing an effective agricultural drought management system by combining real-time drought monitoring with real-time irrigation management. The proposed water-food-energy simulation and optimization method is spatially explicit and was applied to one major corn region in Nebraska. The crop simulations, validated with yield statistics, showed that a drought year like 2012 can potentially reduce the corn yield by 50% as compared to a wet year like 2009. The simulation results show that irrigation can play a key role in halting crop losses due to drought and in sustaining high yields of up to 20 t/ha. Nevertheless, the water-food-energy relationship shows that significant investments on water and energy are required to limit the negative effects of drought. The multi-criteria optimization problem developed in this study shows that the optimal crop yield does not necessarily correspond to the maximum yield, resulting in potential water and energy savings.

  • 247. Zhang, Jun
    et al.
    Liu, Jiahong
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Zhang, Ruiqiang
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden .
    Gao, Xuerui
    Model of evapotranspiration and groundwater level based on photovoltaic water pumping system2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 136, p. 1132-1137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system has been proved being environmental-friendly and low energy-cost, which has a promising prospect in arid areas which are rich in solar energy resources. However, water resources remain to be one of the main restraints to the application of PV water pumping system widely. Models to evaluate the evapotranspiration and groundwater level in the well are estimated based on the data of a field trip, which was conducted in Wulanchabu grassland, Inner Mongolia, China. Data about the performance of the PV water pumping system, including evapotranspiration and the groundwater level variation were collected. In this paper, evapotranspiration is calculated by Penman-Monteith method and Theis formula is introduced to calculate the soil characters and simulate the groundwater level variation. PRMSE and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency are used to validate the model performance with the collected lysimeter data and groundwater level. The results show that the modeling of the evapotranspiration and groundwater level is reliable. According to the water demand and energy demand, the method to optimize the pumping system is introduced. Based on the calculated result and collected data of water demand and groundwater level, groundwater in the site is abundant to support the system. However, due to the stickiness of the soil condition, the recharge rate is smaller than the pumping rate. According to the comparison, the current system is oversized. In this condition, the pump would run out of water, and have to stop pumping. Therefore, not only the water quantity is an important factor to be considered, the soil condition and recharge rate are also of great significance to the optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems.

  • 248.
    Zhang, Kai
    et al.
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Minist Educ PRC, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Resou, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, S-72123 Västerås, Sweden..
    Chen, Min
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Minist Educ PRC, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Resou, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Normal Univ, Jiangsu Prov Key Lab NSLSCS, Sch Math Sci, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Normal Univ, Sch Geog, 1 Wenyuan Rd, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Yue
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Minist Educ PRC, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Resou, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Zhong, Teng
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Minist Educ PRC, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Resou, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Zhu, Rui
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Dept Land Surveying & Geoinformat, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Fan
    Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Qian, Zhen
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Minist Educ PRC, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Resou, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Lue, Guonian
    Nanjing Normal Univ, Key Lab Virtual Geog Environm, Minist Educ PRC, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;State Key Lab Cultivat Base Geog Environm Evolut, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Ctr Collaborat Innovat Geog Informat Resou, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, S-72123 Västerås, Sweden..
    Quantifying the photovoltaic potential of highways in China2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 324, p. 119600-, article id 119600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Installing photovoltaic (PV) modules on highways is considered a promising way to support carbon neutrality in China. However, collecting the area of the highway, and precisely assessing the shadow area of the highway under complex terrain remain challenges. That severely hinders the assessment of highway PV potential. To address these challenges, a spatiotemporal model is developed in this study to estimate the annual solar PV potential on highways over the whole Chinese territory. First, the areas of different highway segments are calculated based on highway network and highway toll stations. Second, hourly shadow area on highways created by nearby terrain is estimated based on a digital elevation model (DEM). When calculating the highway PV potential, the solar irradiation received in these shadow areas is regarded as zero. Finally, the PV potential of all lanes and emergency lanes was estimated at the prefecture-level city scale using surface radiation data and radiation assessment models. Based on the highway data with a total mileage of 143,684 km at the end of 2020, the results show that the annual PV potential is 3,932 TW and that the corresponding installed capacity is 700.85 GW, which can generate clean electricity at a rate of up to 629.06 TWh. The annual PV potential of highways in the southeast is greater than that in the northwest owing to the higher highway density in the southeast. This study provides a reference basis for highway PV construction planning and suitably assessment in each region of China for PV highway development.

  • 249.
    Zhang, Qinglin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Dor, Liran
    Fenigshtein, Dikla
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Gasification of municipal solid waste in the Plasma Gasification Melting process2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 106-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    new waste-disposal technology named Plasma Gasification Melting (PGM) was developed. A pilot PGM reactor was constructed in northern Israel. The reactor is an updraft moving-bed gasifier, with plasma torches placed next to air nozzles to heat the incoming air to 6000 °C. The inorganic substances of the feedstock are melted by the high-temperature air to form a vitrified slag in which undesirable materials such as heavy metals are trapped. The residual heat in the air supplies additional heat for the gasification process.

    A series of tests were conducted to study the performance of PGM gasification. The plasma power was varied from 2.88 to 3.12 MJ/kg of municipal solid waste (MSW), and the equivalence ratio (ER) was varied from 0.08 to 0.12. For air and steam gasification, the maximum steam/MSW mass ratio reached 0.33.

    The composition of the syngas product was analyzed in all tests; the lower heating value (LHV) of the syngas varied from 6 to 7 MJ/Nm3. For air gasification, the syngas LHV decreased with increasing ER, whereas the gas yield and energy efficiency increased with ER. When high-temperature steam was fed into the reactor, the overall gas yield was increased significantly, and the syngas LHV also increased slightly. The positive effect may be attributed to the steam reforming of tar. In air and steam gasification, the influence of increased ER on syngas LHV was negative, while the effect of increased plasma power was positive. The maximum energy efficiency of the tests reached 58%. The main energy loss was due to the formation of tar.

  • 250.
    Zhang, Qinglin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Dor, Liran
    Zhang, Lan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Performance analysis of municipal solid waste gasification with steam in a Plasma Gasification Melting reactor2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 98, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma Gasification Melting (PGM) is a novel gasification technology which offers a promising treatment of low-heating-value fuels like municipal solid waste (MSW), medical waste (MW) and other types of waste. By considering the differences in pyrolysis characteristics between cellulosic fractions and plastics in MSW, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the performance of the PGM process. The measured results of MSW air and steam gasification in a PGM demo-reactor are demonstrated and compared with the model predicted results. Then, the effects of dimensionless operation parameters (ER. PER, and SAMR) are discussed. It was found that all three numbers have positive effects on system cold gas efficiency (CGE). The reasons can be attributed to promoted tar cracking by enhanced heat supply. The effects of PER and ASME on syngas LHV are also positive. The influence of ER on syngas pyrolysis can be divided into two parts. When 0.04 < ER < 0.065, the effect of ER is on LHV positive; when 0.065 < ER < 0.08, the effect of ER is positive. This phenomenon was explained by two contradictory effects of ER. It is also found that interactions exist between operation parameters. For example, increasing PER narrows the possible range of ER while increasing SAMR broadens possible ER range. Detail extents for those operation parameters are demonstrated and discussed in this paper. Finally, the optimal point aiming at obtaining maximum syngas LHV and system CGE are given.

23456 201 - 250 of 260
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