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  • 201. Lin, H.
    et al.
    Zhang, R.
    Andersson, Birger
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    A conceptual model of connection of strategies and operations in organisations: A perspective of management control2010In: International Journal of Services and Operations, ISSN 1741-539X, E-ISSN 1741-5403, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 158-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework of management control systems in the informational perspective, in order to connect strategies and operations. The framework takes strategic planning and control as a whole, and integrates diagnostic control and interactive control into the same framework. It conceptualises the related functions to five components, and shows their interactions and work flows. Formulation and implementation of strategies or strategic change are explained under this framework, focusing on the roles of diagnostic control and interactive control. We use enterprise modelling techniques, i* and e3 value, to describe goal model, business model and their alignment. The connection model is to improve organisational effectiveness and efficiency, by discovering and correcting deviations and taking opportunities. To illustrate and validate the model, a case study is done, showing how the framework works for bridging strategies and operations and how strategic change could be triggered and implemented under the framework.

  • 202.
    Lindahl, L.
    et al.
    Faculty of Law, University of Lund.
    Odelstad, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Intermediaries and intervenients in normative systems2008In: Journal of Applied Logic, ISSN 1570-8683, E-ISSN 1570-8691, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 229-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many concepts in legal texts are “intermediaries”, in the sense that they serve as links between statements of legal grounds, on one hand, and of legal consequences, on the other. In our paper, an algebraic representation of normative systems is used for distinguishing between different kinds of intermediaries and making the idea of a joining between grounds and consequences more precise. In Section 1, the idea of intermediaries is presented and earlier discussions of the subjects are outlined. In Section 2, we introduce the algebraic framework and develop the formal theory. After introducing our approach to the representation of a normative system, we here present a theory of “intervenients”, seen as a tool for analysing intermediaries. In Section 3, dealing with applications, after presenting a model of the formal theory, suited for the analysis of concepts in normative systems, we apply the theory to a number of examples, introduced in the first part. Finally, in Section 4, we make some remarks on the methodology of intermediate concepts.

  • 203.
    Lindahl, L.
    et al.
    Faculty of Law, University of Lund.
    Odelstad, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Strata of Intervenient Concepts in Normative Systems2008In: Lecture notes in artificial intelligence, ISSN 0302-9743, Vol. 5076, p. 203-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Writing a contract of a specific content is a ground for purchase, purchase is a ground for ownership, ownership is a ground for power to dispose. Also power to dispose is a consequence of ownership, ownership is a consequence of purchase. etc. The paper presents a continuation of the authors’ previous algebraic representation on ground - consequence chains in normative systems.The paper analyzes different kinds of “implicative closeness” between grounds and consequences in chains of legal concepts, in particular combinations of “weakest ground”, “strongest consequence” and “minimal joining”. The idea of a concept’s being intermediate between concepts of two different sorts is captured by the technical notion of “intervenient”, defined in terms of weakest ground and strongest consequence. A legal example concerning grounds and consequences of “ownership” and “trust” is used to illustrate the application of the formal theory.

  • 204.
    Lindahl, Lars
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Fac Law, Lund, Sweden..
    Odelstad, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV. Univ Gavle, Dept Math Nat & Comp Sci, Gavle, Sweden..
    Open and Closed Intermediaries in Normative Systems2006In: LEGAL KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS / [ed] VanEngers, T M, IOS PRESS , 2006, p. 91-+Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Legal terms such as "owner", "contract", "possession'', "citizen" are "intermediaries". in the sense that they serve as vehicles of inference between statements of legal grounds, on one hand, and legal consequences. on the other. After introducing our approach to the representation of a normative system. we present a theory of "intervenients", seen as a tool for analysing intermediaries. The paper is especially concerned with the subject-matter of open and closed intervenients as well as the related issue of negations of intervenients. Also, we introduce the idea of so-called gic-systems, where "gic" is an abbreviation of "ground-intervenient-consequence".

  • 205.
    Lindgren, Tony
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    On handling conflicts between rules with numerical features2006In: Proc ACM Symp Appl Computing, 2006, p. 37-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rule conflicts can arise in machine learning systems that utilise unordered rule sets. A rule conflict is when two or more rules cover the same example but differ in their majority classes. This conflict must be solved before a classification can be made. The standard methods for solving this type of problem are to use naive Bayes to solve the conflict or using the most frequent class (CN2). This paper studies the problem of rule conflicts in the area of numerical features. A novel family of methods, called distance based methods, for solving rule conflicts in continuous domains is presented. An empirical evaluation between a distance based method, CN2 and naive Bayes is made. It is shown that the distance based method significantly outperforms both naive Bayes and CN2.

  • 206.
    Lundberg, Carl
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Assessment and Evaluation of Man-portable Robots for High-Risk Professions in Urban Settings2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a number of professions in which exposure to life threatening risks is part of daily routine and robots could possibly be used to avoid some of these. In fact, there are applications in which this is already done, the most prominent being bomb disposal and mine clearing. The user testing of new technology is part of achieving similar benefits for other tasks. Methods for use need to be explored, technical solutions have to be trialed, and advantages gained must be compared to the loads imposed in order to guide future development and to determine if the new tools are ready to be deployed.

    This thesis has performed such feasibility tests on robots within Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT). The aim has been to gain a comprehensive view of a potential user and to embed a robot amongst them in order to assess its tactical feasibility and evaluate its technical performance. An army company specialized in urban operations made up the primary user group and an iRobot Packbot Scout was the robot system in focus. Setting up the tests included identifying and modifying a number of the company’s standard behaviors to include the robot. During the two tests, which lasted over a period of three and six months respectively, it was up to the users to deploy the robot as they considered appropriate.

    It was found that the military rely on precise and thoroughly trained actions that can be executed with a minimum of ambiguity. Gaining similar efficiency with robots will require tactical optimization over several years. The most common application during the tests was exploration inside buildings in situations where an enemy presence was uncertain and time was not critical. Deploying the robot took more time and was less precise than traditional methods. In return it kept the soldiers out of harm’s way and enabled them to decrease weapon deployment. The range of the radio link, limited video feedback, and the operator control unit were the features constraining the system’s overall performance the most. Other properties, such as the robot’s ruggedness, size, weight, terrain ability and endurance of the robot, on the other hand, proved to match the application. The test unit was of the opinion that robots such as the Packbot Scout would be valuable to have as a standard feature.

    Four additional users groups were surveyed to examine to what extent the gained results had general validity for high-risk professionals. The most extensive of these included embedding a Packbot into a Special Weapons And Tactics (SWAT) police team for five months. It was found that the robot could be used during negotiation if upgraded with two-way audio. Further technical adaptations would also enable deployment during long term surveillance and for deploying non-lethal weapons.

    Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD), firefighting, and Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Contamination Control (CBRN) were the other groups surveyed. These were investigated by means of interviews and observations during 1-2 days. It was found that while the five professions share many demands they also have unique needs which prevents a single type of robot from being satisfactory for all of them. The tasks within EOD and fire fighting includes grasping and moving objects of up to 50-70 kg. The MOUT, CBRN and SWAT applications are less dependent on the grasping ability, but require a robot that can be easily transported and which is able to access narrows.

  • 207.
    López Poveda, Anayanci
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Rusu, L.
    Johannesson, P.
    A method for analyzing IT service strategy in municipal governments from nicaragua2010In: 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2010, AMCIS 2010, 2010, p. 2966-2978Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of IT strategy is generally accepted, though in practice this may vary from one IT organization to another. The design of a formal IT strategy may be required or not, depending on the environment, but, independently of this, strategic decisions still must be made and therefore strategic practices are performed. In order to make any improvement in strategic practices, awareness of their current state in the IT organization is needed. This paper proposes a method for analyzing IT service strategy in the context of IT organizations in municipal governments; the main issues considered are both people- and organization-related (e.g. internal service providers, prioritized cost-effectiveness, current practices oriented to tactical and operational activities, etc.). This method decomposes the analysis from two different perspectives: strategic practices in use and maturity level of such practices. The method was tested in two municipal governments from Nicaragua.

  • 208.
    Magnusson, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Molvidsson, Josef
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Zetterqvist, Sven
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Value creation and return on security investments (ROSI)2007In: New Approaches for Security, Privacy and Trust in Complex Environments / [ed] Venter, H; Eloff, M; Labuschagne, L; Eloff, J; VonSolms, R, 2007, Vol. 232, p. 25-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates if IT security is as a part of value creation. The first part of the commentary focuses on the current theoretical conditions for IT security as a part of value creation. Different Return On Security Investment (ROSI) models are studied to investigate if they can calculate value creation with regard either to efficiency or to effectiveness. The second part of the paper investigates empirical evidence of a ROSI or any indication of a shareholder value perspective on IT security in three large, listed companies from different business segments. What they have in common is their first priority: value creation. The commentary begins by describing the "Productivity Paradox". It is followed by the most well-known ROSI models. Then, it explains the models applicability in value creation. Next, the three companies in the study are investigated. In the following section conclusions are drawn. Finally, the results of the research are discussed.

  • 209.
    Magnusson, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Olá, Heidi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Silversjö Holmqvist, Camilla
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    The knowledge pressure on Risk and Security managers is increasing2006In: Proc. First Int. Conf. Availab. Reilab. Sec., 2006, p. 974-979Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether risk and security managers' work has been changing for member companies of the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise during recent years. An additional reason for the study is to research whether further improvement of qualifications and additional training within the area of security and risk management is required and, if so, to elucidate what areas this improvement/training should cover. The commentary begins by describing the most common working areas in security and risk management today. It is followed by accounting for the most important areas included in the working tasks. Then, it explains whether the importance of certain areas has increased or decreased. Next, the respondents' experience from security and risk management is investigated. In the following section the participants give their opinions about additional training. Finally, conclusions are drawn.

  • 210. Masiello, I.
    et al.
    Ramberg, Robert
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Lonka, K.
    Learning in a web-based system in medical education2005In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 561-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New learning environments such as distance education and computer-aided instruction promise to bring a change in today's learning environments by adjusting the relationship between the learner, the educational content and the organization of education. In this study, we explored whether students' approaches to learning related to their perception of a particular virtual learning environment. Scales of the ASSIST questionnaire were loaded in a two-principal component solution, surface and deep-strategic. We found statistically significant correlations between the approaches to learning and the students' attitudes towards ICT. Early identification of approaches to learning and attitudes towards ICT may prove to be important in order to provide assistance to aid the transition of students with diverse individual characteristics and to the design of new learning environments.

  • 211. Masiello, Italo
    et al.
    Ramberg, Robert
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Lonka, Kirsti
    Attitudes to the application of a web-based learning system in a microbiology course2005In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 171-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer-based systems have great potential for delivering learning material. Here, a Web-based learning management system is employed by a medical university to support undergraduate courses. The objective was to help the university's staff to understand the readiness and attitudes of students to the use of information technology, their orientation to new learning environments, and the functionality of the system. The participants were a cohort of first-year medical students enrolled in an introductory microbiology course. Students' attitudes to information technology and learning styles were measured by a rearranged questionnaire, and a principal component analysis identified the students' orientations to information technology and the learning environment. The results of the study revealed that students showed readiness to and positive attitudes towards information technology in education and exposed a possible benefit from its use in the long run. However, they also conveyed negative opinions of the learning management system used in their coursework, suggesting a need for change of the technology. This study provides evidence that in order for computer-based system to be effective they must be designed and implemented with care, otherwise they may risk to lower students' interests and activation.

  • 212.
    Mattsson, Johan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Interaction through spells: establishing traces of nvisible onnections2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In post desktop and co-located collaborative computer interaction as well as in real world settings, there are usually both private and shared work threads going on. For example: private, individual activities such thinking, taking notes, (dreaming…) and the shared collaborative work tasks such discussing, presenting or producing sketches or document drafts etc. A central issue in collaborative activities is to share awareness of the ongoing activity as an option for the co-workers to influence the shared work process. Significant passages in cooperative activities are the configurations of common tasks, such as entering, leaving or changing the users acting and participation in shared activities. Spells introduce real-world user interfaces that provide tools to allow the users to easily and intuitively express how and when they intend to contribute to interactive activities. This expression both makes the user and the co-workers able to reveal and interpret the interactive environment and signaling meaning for all participants. The Spells is a metaphor system for interaction within co-located collaborative work settings. The Spells are supported by a platform for implementing artifacts that supports the Spells based on that platform two prototype systems have been implemented cases of the Spells, Magic Bowl and iwand. The Spells provide a user interaction form that bridges gaps between co-located entities, addressing both people and devices in a world of ubiquitous computing.

  • 213.
    Mattsson, Johan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Pointing, Placing, Touching: Physical Manipulation and Coordination Techniques for Interactive Meeting Spaces2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design and study of dedicated ubiquitous computing environments, efforts to enhance and support co-located collaborative activities and work have been a particular focus. In his vision of ubiquitous computing, Mark Weiser foresees a new era of computing, one that closes and follows on from the era of Personal Computing (Post Desktop). The vision involves simultaneous computations facilitated by a number of technical resources (services and artifacts) available in the environment. Ubiquitous Computing also draws on the perspective of embodied interaction: that our overall physical and social interaction, and the design of artifacts supporting interaction with people, places, and the environment, are two different perspectives sharing a common goal.

    This thesis addresses three critical aspects of interactive meeting spaces: Multi-device selection, Multi-device setup, and Multi-device direct manipulation. To do so, physical interaction techniques have been designed that make more visible the critical and central co-located manipulation and coordination actions in interactive meeting spaces. The tree designed physical interaction techniques, that have been developed and investigated are: the iwand, a pointing technique; the Magic Bowl, a placing technique; and Physical Cursors, a touching technique.

    In evaluation of the interaction techniques, addressed five problems that originated in observations during the development of interactive meeting spaces. How to: 1) identify and manipulate a physical object in order to select and control a particular service; 2) support the control of complementary combinations of services through physical manipulation; 3) capture, store and recall a preset group of services; 4) maintain and reuse presets, to preserve the prerequisite for a scene, under continually changing circumstances; and 5) design ways to manipulate physical widgets to enable a social protocol for coordination as an alternative to individual (invisible) manipulation?

    A tentative design pattern language developed, along with “sharing control”, a further developed sample of a design pattern, which applies to physical manipulations in interactive meeting spaces. Additionally, principles are described for conducting long-term studies of living-laboratory observations and for revisiting central design decisions. The principles and design patterns are drawn from designed interaction techniques and from the design and deployment of interactive meeting spaces.

  • 214. Milenkoski, A.
    et al.
    Stojcevska, B.
    Popov, Oliver
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Statistical framework for ns-3: Terminating simulation and regression analysis2014In: World Journal of Modelling and Simulation, ISSN 1746-7233, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 116-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ns-3 simulator is constantly gaining popularity. It plays a central role in many recent research experiments. The accuracy of the reported simulation results of these experiments is an important concern. Thus, the support in ns-3 for simulation methodologies which guarantee the accuracy of these results is a necessity. Also, the simulation results are affected by numerous scenario parameters. The correlation between the results and the simulation parameters is a significant point of interest in many experiments. In this paper, we present a ns-3 statistical framework. It enables calculation of statistically accurate simulation results by applying the terminating simulation methodology. It features simultaneous execution of simulation scenarios in multi-processor and distributed environments. Also, we integrate support for regression analysis procedures. The proposed framework supports linear and polynomial regression analysis models.We consider simulation results as dependent variables and simulation parameters as independent variables. Regression analysis enables identification of simulation scenario parameters which are significantly correlated to given simulation results. Once a valid regression model is found, it is possible to estimatively predict metric values based on simulation parameter values. This may result in substantially reduced time and effort spent on simulation experimentation.

  • 215. Mojtahed, V.
    et al.
    Andersson, Birger
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Kabilan, Vandana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    BOM++, a semantically enriched BOM2008In: Simul. Interoperability Stand. Organ. - Simul. Interoperability Workshop Spring, Workshop Pap., 2008, p. 315-326Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Defence Conceptual Modelling Framework (DCMF) is the Swedish Defence Research Agency's (FOI) proposal to deal with conceptual modelling in the military domain. The vision of the DCMF is to enable composability, interoperability and reuse of knowledge for modelling and simulation. The final products, the conceptual models, are called Mission Space Models (MSMs), following the original CMMS proposal (proposed by the US DoD). However, the representation formalisation for the MSMs is still under research. To find a suitable representation template we are currently investigating several proposals of which the Base Object Model (BOM) is one. In this paper, we introduce two different proposals for semantic enhancements of BOM for enabling representation of the MSM conceptual models.

  • 216. Mor, Y.
    et al.
    Tholander, J.
    Holmberg, Jesper
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Designing for constructionist web-based knowledge building2005In: CSCL 2005: Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: The Next 10 Years, Proceedings, 2005, p. 450-459Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the iterative design of a web-based collaborative workspace used in educational practice, called WebReports. The system-s unique feature is that it allows participants to discuss mathematical and scientific concepts using programmed animated and interactive models of their ideas. Rather than focusing on the specific features of the collaboration tool, we analyze it as part of a constructionist activity system. We describe the context in which the system was developed and used and compare our approach to previous research in the field. Further, we then present two scenarios which demonstrate the system in action. Following that, we attempt to map our cases to an activity theory framework. We highlight several issues in the process of the systems- development, where the contradictions between the WebReports system and other elements in the activity system shaped its design, and comment on several issues which go beyond the activity theory framework.

  • 217.
    Morshed, Muhammad Sarwar Jahan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Shahadat Hossain, Md.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    An efficient implementation approach for Wireless Sensor Network2009In: Proceedings of the 2009 2nd International Conference on Computer Science and Its Applications, CSA 2009, 2009, p. 5404194-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lot of research are going on in industrial and academic research organization for an energy efficient, secure, dynamic, and reliable Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) protocol. Some good proposals have been presented in the last couple of years. We have investigated and analyzed some of these popular proposals and found shortcomings in them. One of the important shortcomings is that life time of the nodes varies significantly and thus monitoring of the application area by WSN is ineffective and inefficient. Research proved that a number of sensor nodes become inactive or dead after a certain period while the WSN is considered to be working in the target area. So monitoring the whole target area by increasing the life time of the nodes is the big issue for current research in WSN. To solve this issue we have presented a new approach in this paper. In the proposed model, tasks (such as event sampling in the target area and data transmission to the Sink Node (SN)) are distributed separately among nodes. We have simulated and found all sensor nodes become inactive more or less at the same estimated time due to their battery exhausting. Thus implementation of this proposed model with WSN will make possible to monitor the target area more effectively and efficiently.

  • 218.
    Muftic, Sead
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Schmölzer, Gernot
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Cryptonet: Secure E-mail system2008In: SECRYPT 2008: Proceedings Of The International Conference On Security And Cryptography / [ed] FernandezMedina, E; Malek, M; Hernando, J, 2008, p. 84-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes new, innovative and highly secure E-mail system. The system, first, provides both standard security services for E-mail letters: signed and encrypted E-mail. In addition, address book is encrypted, thus E-mail addresses can not be stolen for spamming. Each E-mail server is protected using SAML authorization policy, so E-mails are received only from authorized senders. Finally, all E-mail addresses arc validated and certified by specially designed Secure E-mail Infrastructure (SEI) Authorities, organized in a federated hierarchy. Thus CryptoNet Secure E-mail system completely eliminates spam, distribution of viruses, worms, and malware, and eliminates the possibility to use fake E-mail addresses.

  • 219.
    Mwakalinga, Jeffy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Kowalski, Stewart
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Yngström, Louise
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Secure E-learning using the Holistic and Immune Security Framework2009In: The 4th International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, 2009, p. 189-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how to secure e-learning systems by applying the Holistic and Immune Security Framework. E-learning has great potential for developing communities but security of e-learning systems has not been fully addressed. We have developed a security framework that considers culture of users and environments where information systems operate. We apply the holistic approach to secure e-learning systems. The holistic and immune security framework is a function of the deterrence, prevention, detection, response, and recovery system. The security framework makes an E-learning system learn to adapt to environments and to culture of users. We apply the principles of immune system to secure E-learning systems. We describe how to secure the weak links that are created by culture of users in E-leaning systems.

  • 220. Naudet, Y.
    et al.
    Latour, T.
    Hausmann, K.
    Abels, S.
    Hahn, A.
    Johannesonn, Paul
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Describing interoperability: The OoI ontology2006In: CEUR Workshop Proc., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Though ontologies are widely used to solve some specific interoperability problems, there is no specific ontology defining what interoperability actually is, independently from any domain. In this paper, we propose and discuss a first version of such an ontology, namely the OoI (Ontology of Interoperability), which we formalized using the Ontology Web Language (OWL). On the basis of previous research efforts having lead to UML formalization of our model of Interoperability, we use this paper for presenting the OWL version and for linking and comparing it with other models dealing with Interoperability: maturity models for interoperability like e.g. the Levels of Information System Interoperability (LISI) model, and the Model Morphisms ontology (MoMo), which deals with interoperability of models. Finally, we illustrate in a brief use case how the OoI could be used with MoMo to provide solutions to interoperability problems between two models.

  • 221.
    Nawaz, Ather
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    The role of culture in the structure of categories of application between Denmark and China2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to investigate the impact of culture on the results of established methods of usability testing. The production and use of technologically advanced information and communication applications are no longer restricted to the Western world, and there are indications that usability testing procedures developed for use in, e.g., Europe or the US do not give reliable results in countries such as India, China or Malaysia. This project is an in-depth investigation of the cultural specifics that go into usability test situations in three countries: Denmark, India and China. In a second phase we want to explore possible developments of the testing methods in order to avoid cultural bias and produce comparable results across countries of the world

  • 222. Nfuka, E. N.
    et al.
    Rusu, Lazar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    IT governance in the public sector in a developing country2009In: Handbook of Research on ICT-enabled Transformational Government: A Global Perspective, IGI Global, 2009, p. 452-486Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on IT governance in the public sector organizations in a developing country like Tanzania. Today in many organizations in the public sector, the use of IT has become crucial in sustaining and extending the organizations' strategies and objectives. This pervasive use of technology has caused a critical dependency on IT that calls for a specific focus on IT governance. In this chapter, we provide its overview and, based on the analysis of five case studies indicate the current practices, problems, and consequences in the Tanzanian public sector environment. Moreover, we reveal twelve key issues to consider for effective IT governance together with the trends and future research in improving ICT-enabled transformational government in public service delivery in this environment. In this context, the chapter contributes to an understanding of the IT governance practices and related ICT-enabled transformational government issues and complexities involved in the transformational phase for better public service delivery in a developing country like Tanzania.

  • 223. Nfuka, E. N.
    et al.
    Rusu, Lazar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Management of IT-enabled change in a public organisation in Tanzania2007In: International Journal of Information Systems and Change Management, ISSN 1479-3121, E-ISSN 1479-313X, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 334-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of Information Technology (IT) is always associated with organisational change issues and in developing countries this is even more complex due to poorer and less established IT resources and governance. Therefore, our paper has focused to analyse the management of IT-enabled change in a public organisation in Tanzania by using Ward and Elvin framework, and see how these changes affected the organisation's performance. The results indicate that, despite the contextual complexity, the IT-enabled change that considers techno-organisational issues, is likely to meet the change objectives. Moreover, using the Ward and Elvin framework we have summarised six main success factors (which are involvement and commitment of top management; engagement of the key stakeholders; alignment of IT and business; developing necessary skills, competence and motivation; institutionalisation of the change process and incorporation of the learning process for adjustment and future intervention) that worth noting for replication to other similar IT-enabled changes.

  • 224.
    Nfuka, Edephonce N.
    et al.
    DSV, Stockholm univ..
    Rusu, Lazar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    An Analysis of IT-Enabled Change in a Public Organization in Tanzania2009In: INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT: CHALLENGES IN PRACTICE, THEORY AND EDUCATION / [ed] Barry C; Conboy K; Lang M; Wojtkowski G; Wojtkowski W, NEW YORK: SPRINGER , 2009, p. 353-368Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of information technology (IT) is always associated with a series of complex organizational change issues. In developing countries, these issues are even more complex because the IT infrastructure, technology and governance are still poorer and information systems development and associated resources are less established. Therefore in our research paper we have analyzed the IT-enabled change in Tanzania Revenue Authority, a public organization in Tanzania by applying Ward and Elvin framework. Using this framework, we have analyzed the changes from almost paper to computerized-based business operations and how such changes affected the performance of the organization. The results indicate that, although there is some problems related to the maturity of technology deployment in the country and scarcity of resources, the IT-enabled change (that takes into account both technology and organizational issues) is likely to meet the organizational change objectives. Based upon the results arrived from use of the Ward and Elvin framework, we have summarized six main success factors that are worth noting for replication to other similar IT-enabled changes or research programs including the ones focusing to developing countries. It includes involvement and commitment of senior/top management; engagement of the key stakeholders; alignment of IT and business; identifying and developing necessary skills, competence and motivation; institutionalization of the change process; and incorporation of the learning process for adjustment and future intervention. Finally in conclusion, we could notice that the alignment of IT with business is the backbone of any meaningful IT-enabled change process and is illustrated by use of a benefit dependency network schema.

  • 225. Nfuka, Edephonce Ngemera
    et al.
    Rusu, Lazar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Critical success factors for effective it governance in the public sector organisations in a developing country: The case fo Tanzania2010In: 18th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today in many organisations in the public sector, the use of IT has become pervasive in every facet of the organisations' endeavours in supporting and evolving public service delivery. This pervasive use of technology has caused a critical dependency on IT, which in this environment involves a complex mix of political, organisational, technical and cultural concerns that call for a specific focus on effective IT governance. Much research has been done on IT governance effectiveness in these organisations. However adequate focus has not been given to such organisations in a developing country environment like Tanzania, which on one hand is characterised by IT resources, knowledge, and culture constraints and on the other hand by the increase of IT investment and applications. In this paper specifically we address such a gap by identifying the critical success factors (CSFs) for effective IT governance in this environment. The study is based mainly on IT governance focus areas in analysing the relevant CSFs from the literature and five organizations in the Tanzanian public sector. Moreover we have taken into account the fact that the IT value to be achieved due to effective IT governance is related to efficient and cost effective IT delivery, innovation and business impact. As a result of this research we have identified eleven CSFs that should be considered for effective IT governance practice in Tanzanian public sector organizations.

  • 226. Niehaves, B.
    et al.
    Stirna, Janis
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Participative enterprise modelling for balanced scorecard implementation2006In: Proc. Eur. Conf. Inf. Syst., ECIS, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Balanced Scorecards (BSC) have been established as a valuable and practicable instrument addressing major management problems in organisations. BSC are commonly IT-supported and found a conceptual basis for management information systems. They are often applied to IT-Controlling, and they are also repeatedly applied to specify requirements towards the corporate IT architecture. However, BSC implementation often struggles when it comes to discovering and documenting organisational knowledge that is not easily accessible or not of sufficient quality. On the other hand, Enterprise modelling (EM) seeks to solve organisational design problems in, for instance, business process reengineering, strategy planning, enterprise integration, and information systems development. Here, participative EM methods lead to improved quality as well as to consensus and to increased acceptance of the business decisions. At this juncture, participative EM can support BSC implementation projects that comprise activities requiring the discovery and documentation of organisational knowledge that is not easily accessible or not of sufficient quality. For that reason, the aim of this paper is to integrate participative EM approaches, taking Enterprise Knowledge Development (EKD) as an example, and BSC implementation. In order to operationalise this conceptual improvement, we will perform a stepwise analysis of BSC implementation processes and identify shortcomings that are able to be addressed with the help of participative enterprise modelling.

  • 227. Niwe, M.
    et al.
    Stirna, Janis
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Organizational patterns for B2B environments -validation and comparison2009In: Enterprise, Business-Process and Information Systems Modeling: 10th International Workshop, BPMDS 2009, and 14th International Conference, EMMSAD 2009, held at CAiSE 2009, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 8-9, 2009. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 394-406Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research captures best practices in the business-to-business (B2B) domain as a means of competitive advantage and innovation for organizations striving to adopt B2B environments. We present a case of developing and validating a set of patterns for B2B adoption and then discuss the case in the context of a number of other cases where organizational patterns have been used to capture, document and share competitive organizational knowledge.

  • 228. Niwe, M.
    et al.
    Stirna, Janis
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Pattern approach to business-to-business transactions2009In: International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, ICITST 2009, 2009, p. 5402523-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to present issues and capture solutions in business-to-business (B2B) transactions by a pattern approach. Using empirical data, we examine the processes involved in the B2B transactions and capture valuable solutions and best practices. The goal is to support the organizations in the B2B environment with an approach to improving their business practices as well as with a set of existing patterns. On the macro level the pattern language for B2B transactions addresses standards and structure in the operation, communication and collaboration of the B2B environment.

  • 229. Nohlberg, M.
    et al.
    Kowalski, Stewart
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Karlsson, K.
    Ask and you shall know: Using interviews and the SBC model for social-engineering penetration testing2008In: IMETI - Int. Multi-Conf. Eng. Technol. Innov., Proc., 2008, p. 121-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the result of a case study where the SBC model was used as a foundation to perform semi-structured interviews to test the security in a medical establishment. The answers were analyzed and presented in an uncomplicated graph. The purpose was to study the feasibility of letting the users participate, instead of exploiting their weaknesses. It was found that the approach of interviewing the subjects rendered interesting, and relevant, results, making it an approach that should be studied further due to its apparent gains: less ethically troublesome penetration testing, increased awareness, improved coverage and novel information as added bonuses.

  • 230. Norinder, Ulf
    et al.
    Lidén, Per
    Boström, Henrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Discrimination between modes of toxic action of phenols using rule based methods2006In: Molecular diversity, ISSN 1381-1991, E-ISSN 1573-501X, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 207-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rule-based ensemble modelling has been used to develop a model with high accuracy and predictive capabilities for distinguishing between four different modes of toxic action for a set of 220 phenols. The model not only predicts the majority class (polar narcotics) well but also the other three classes (weak acid respiratory uncouplers, pro-electrophiles and soft electrophiles) of toxic action despite the severely skewed distribution among the four investigated classes. Furthermore, the investigation also highlights the merits of using ensemble (or consensus) modelling as an alternative to the more traditional development of a single model in order to promote robustness and accuracy with respect to the predictive capability for the derived model.

  • 231.
    Nugroho, Hari
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Afghani, Gamaludin Al
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Hodosi, Georg
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Rusu, Lazar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Key factors in managing IT outsourcing relationships2013In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1865-0929, E-ISSN 1865-0937, Vol. 278, p. 58-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationship management in IT Outsourcing (ITO) is today an important concern in many organizations. In the review of research literature regarding relationship management in IT outsourcing we have found a lot research on best practices but not on key factors. Therefore our research goal has looked to find the key factors in managing IT outsourcing relationships that are including the best practices in ITO relationships. The results of this research has due to a list of six key factors that includes the best practices that were elicited from the IT outsourcing relationships research and which were applied in the case of three organizations in Sweden. The analysis of the results has shown both deviations as well as compliances between the theory and practices, but also deviations between the views of these key factors in the studied organizations.

  • 232.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Kajko-Mattsson, Mira
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Communicating risk information in agile and traditional environments2007In: SEAA 2007: 33rd EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, Proceedings / [ed] Muller, P; Liggesmeyer, P; Maehle, E, 2007, p. 401-408Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structured and disciplined communication is a prerequisite for the effective management of risks. In this paper, we investigate what risk management information is communicated in traditional and agile development environments. Our goal is to find out whether there is any difference in the way risks are communicated. We do this by studying the management of risk information within three Canadian organizations. Our results show that there are few differences between the information as communicated in these traditional and agile environments.

  • 233.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Kajko-Mattsson, Mira
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Degree of agility in pre-implementation process phases2008In: Making Globally Distributed Software Development A Success Story / [ed] Wang, Q; Pfahl, D; Raffo, DM, 2008, Vol. 5007, p. 234-245Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the degree of agility in the pre-implementation software process phases within three Canadian organizations. Our results show that although the organizations studied have adopted an agile process, they still do substantial amount of planning upfront, which is typical for heavyweight processes. They claim that this planning is obligatory for carrying out subsequent development effectively.

  • 234.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Kajko-Mattsson, Mira Miroslawa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Agile implementation phase in two Canadian organizations2008In: ASWEC 2008: 19TH AUSTRALIAN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS, LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2008, p. 86-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the status of the agile implementation phase within two Canadian organizations. We do this by comparing current agile process models to the industrial practice. Our results show that the organizations studied have adopted most of the activities as suggested in the agile models. However, they had to make some revisions, due to the fact that some of the guidelines as provided by the agile models were unclear, conflicting, ambiguous or they were simply missing.

  • 235.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Kajko-Mattsson, Mira Miroslawa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Integrating risk management with software development: State of practice2008In: IMECS 2008: INTERNATIONAL MULTICONFERENCE OF ENGINEERS AND COMPUTER SCIENTISTS, HONG KONG: INT ASSOC ENGINEERS-IAENG , 2008, p. 878-884Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the state of practice of integrating risk management with software development in 37 software organizations. We do this by using a set of evaluation criteria covering various process integration aspects. Our results recognize that process integration in this domain is still in its infancy. There is a great need for process integration and process integration models within the industry studied.

  • 236.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Kajko-Mattsson, Mira Miroslawa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Outlining a Model Integrating Risk Management and Agile Software Development2008In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 34TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND ADVANCED APPLICATIONS, LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2008, p. 476-483Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies show that the agile development models implement very few risk management practices. In this paper, we present and evaluate a model integrating the risk management and agile processes. The results show that the model provides a valid solution to address the lack of risk management, however, only in certain types of agile projects.

  • 237.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Kajko-Mattsson, Mira Miroslawa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Software Risk Management: Practice Contra Standard Models2007In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH CHALLENGES IN INFORMATION SCIENCE: RCIS 2008 / [ed] Rolland C; Collard M; Pastor O; Flory A; Cavarero JL, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2007, p. 65-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the compliance of risk management models with the industrial practice and vice versa. In this paper, we compare the industrial risk management practice against a risk management model that we have synthesized from a set of current risk management models. This comparison has resulted in several discrepancies observed. As a result, this paper suggests a list of issues that need to be addressed in both the industrial and standard models.

  • 238.
    Näckros, Kjell
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Learning security through computer games: Studying user behavior in a real-world situation2007In: Fifth World Conference on Information Security Education: Proceedings of the IFIP TC11 WG 11.8, WISE 5, 19 to 21 June 2007, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York, USA, International Federation for Information Processing, 2007, p. 95-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how learning material in the form of computer games in the area of ICT security affect ICT security usage. The findings from a conducted user-study show that computer games can be efficient learning environments when using security tools in terms of accessibility, safety, and speed. By replicating an earlier usability study, in which the participants utilised security tools to send and receive encrypted emails, the practical consequences of learning via a Game-Based Instruction were evaluated; the findings show that none of the participants who were given the chosen computer game as an instruction before the actual assignment did make any serious error when applying their security knowledge in contrast to the participants who did not receive any instruction in forehand. They also finished the assignment faster than the corresponding participants. To be able to evaluate the "practical knowledge" acquired, a model for Vital Security Functions was created that allows for comparison of security usage between high-level security applications.

  • 239.
    Odelstad, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Many-Sorted Implicative Conceptual Systems2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A theory of many-sorted implicative conceptual systems (abbreviated msic-systems) is presented. Examples of msic-systems include legal systems, normative systems, systems of rules and instructions, and systems expressing policies and various kinds of scientific theories. In computer science, msic-systems can be used in, for instance, legal information systems, decision support systems, and multi-agent systems. In the thesis, msic-systems are studied from a logical and algebraic perspective aiming at clarifying their structure and developing effective methods for representing them. Of special interest are the most narrow links or joinings between different strata in a system, that is between subsystems of different sorts of concepts, and the intermediate concepts intervening between such strata. Special emphasis is put on normative systems, and the role that intermediate concepts play in such systems, with an eye on knowledge representation issues. Normative concepts are constructed out of descriptive concepts using operators based on the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions. An abstract architecture for a norm-regulated multi-agent system is suggested, containing a scheme for how normative positions will restrict the set of actions that the agents are permitted to choose from. Technical results inlude a characterization of an msic-system in terms of the most narrow joinings between different strata, characterization of the structure of the most narrow joinings between two strata, conditions for the extendability of intermediate concepts, and finally, a specification of the conditions such that the Boolean operations on intermediate concepts will result in intermediate concepts and characterization of most narrow joinings in terms of weakest grounds and strongest consequences.

  • 240. Oulasvirta, A.
    et al.
    Tamminen, S.
    Höök, Kristina
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Comparing two approaches to context: Realism and constructivism2005In: Critical Computing - Between Sense and Sensibility: Proceedings of the 4th Decennial Aarhus Conference, 2005, p. 195-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few years, there have been debates over what is context and how computers should act upon it. Two disparate camps of thought can be recognized. First, Realism, having its roots in natural sciences, believes that contexts exist out there and that, if properly instrumented and programmed, computers can correctly recognize and adapt to them. Second, Constructivism, having its roots in human and social sciences, believes that contexts are human creations, mental and social, and that computers ought to provide resources for managing them. We reveal some fundamental differences between the two in three different application domains. We show that despite the deep-going controversies, both camps benefit from considering the alternative approach and a middle ground can be found.

  • 241. Ouyang, C.
    et al.
    Dumas, M.
    Wohed, Petia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    The business process execution language2010In: Modern Business Process Automation: YAWL and its Support Environment / [ed] Arthur H. M. Hofstede, Wil M. P. Aalst, Michael Adams, Nick Russell, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 385-400Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of commercial tools for workflow and business process management that have emerged over the past two decades is considerable. In the past, lack of standardization led to a situation where each of these tools implemented a different language. As shown by the tool evaluations undertaken using the workflow patterns, many of these languages suffered from clear limitations in terms of their expressiveness and suitability to capture nontrivial business processes. By now, industry consolidation has rendered most of these languages obsolete. In parallel, standardization efforts initiated by tool vendors have led to the definition of two standard languages for capturing business processes, namely the Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) and the Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL or BPEL for short). BPMN is a business processmodeling notation intended to facilitate communication between domain analysts and to support decision-making based on techniques such as cost analysis, scenario analysis, and simulation. BPMN models are not meant to be directly executable, although they may serve as input to software development projects. A comparison between BPMN and YAWL and a method for mapping BPMN diagrams into YAWL nets are given in Chap. 13. Meanwhile, BPEL is a language for defining executable business processes. In this respect, it can be seen as competing in the same space as YAWL. Yet, the original motivation and design of YAWL are very different from those of BPEL, and this fact transpires in profound differences between these two languages. BPEL is intended to support the definition of a class of business processes known as Web service orchestrations. In a Web service orchestration, one service (the orchestrator) interacts with a number of other services. The focus of BPEL is therefore on capturing interactions between a given process and a set of partners (represented as Web services). The logic of the interactions is described as a composition of communication actions (send, receive, send/receive, etc.). These communication actions are interrelated by control-flow dependencies expressed through constructs corresponding to parallel, sequential, and conditional execution, event, and exception handling.

  • 242. Perjons, E.
    et al.
    Wangler, B.
    Wäyrynen, Jaana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Åhlfeldt, R.-M.
    Introducing a process manager in healthcare: An experience report2005In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 45-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To be efficient and patient focused, healthcare units need to be process oriented and integrated with the processes and IT systems of other healthcare units. A process manager facilitates integration of different systems by using graphical and executable process models. The process manager also communicates directly with healthcare personnel via desktop computers and mobile devices. This article reports on a Swedish project where a prototype system was developed and tested with several healthcare units. The experience shows several advantages and opportunities. For example, current information about patients can be transferred automatically between healthcare units; resource intensive manual tasks can be replaced with automated tasks; and long-term process monitoring and quality assessment can be enabled. However, introducing a process manager requires attention to issues of security, ethics and legality. Healthcare units may also show differences in security awareness and IT maturity, which could obstruct the introduction of a process manager.

  • 243.
    Perjons, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Wangler, B.
    Åhlfeldt, R.-M.
    Efficient and secure process and IT integration in healthcare using process manager technology2005In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Business Informatics Research, BIR 2005, University of Skövde , 2005, no 2, p. 87-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method based on process manager technology for making all actors (humans or information systems) involved in healthcare processes to communicate along these processes. The method utilizes straightforward and yet executable process diagrams. Furthermore, the paper suggests a number of additional features to the method that may cater for the representation of security and quality requirements, as well as enhanced efficiency of the healthcare processes.

  • 244. Popova, Iskra
    et al.
    Popov, Oliver
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Software and Computer Systems, SCS.
    Modeling and Simulation Training for Undergraduate Students2010In: Eurosim 2010: proceedings of the 7th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation, September 6-10, 2010, Prague, Czech Republic. Vol. 2, Full papers (CD), Prague: Czech Technical University , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Påhlman, Mona
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Riabacke, Ari
    A study on framing effects in risk elicitation2005In: / [ed] Mohammadian, M, 2005, p. 689-694Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision analysis tools are an effective way of structuring complex decision situations. However, their failure to incorporate reliable methods for elicitation is a shortcoming that needs to be dealt with. Since different elicitation methods have shown to yield different results, it is important to more thoroughly emphasize on aspects that can reduce biased results. The development of methods that explicitly recognize,framing problems and aim to reduce these effects are needed. This study deals with framing problems within elicitation and how to reduce discrepancies between normative and descriptive. behaviour in elicited risk data., The results indicate that the extra transitional state in one of the presentation formats, here referred to as Trade for, generated data that deviated more from normative rules when participants experienced gain prospects. On the other hand, for loss prospects the format more in line with normative rules depended on the presentation order of probabilities.

  • 246.
    Qureshi, Muhammad Sohail
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Measuring Efficacy of Information Security Policies: A Case Study of UAE based company2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays information security policies are operative in many organizations. Currently few organizations take the pain of verifying the efficacy of these policies. Different standards and procedures exist about methods of measuring efficacy of information security policies. Choosing and implementing them depends mainly on the key performance indicators (KPIs) and key risk indicators (KRIs) of any particular organization. This thesis is a case study of an organization in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The basic aim of the research is to inquire and analyze how the efficacy of the implemented security policies is being measured in this particular organization and to propose a method which is more suitable to the needs of organization. The research is based on theoretical study, an interview and a questionnaire. The results of this thesis indicate that there are no formal mechanisms for measuring the efficacy of information security policies in the organization under consideration. Moreover the employees of the organization are also not much satisfied with information security awareness in the company, which can be another reason for ensuring that the efficacy is measured on regular basis. Therefore, a technique from ISO27004 has been used to demonstrate how this efficacy can be measured. It is a step by step procedure for which the information has been extracted from the interview and survey questionnaire responses.

  • 247. Recker, Jan
    et al.
    Wohed, Petia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Rosemann, Michael
    Representation theory versus workflow patterns - The case of BPMN2006In: Conceptual Modeling - ER 2006, Proceedings / [ed] Embley, DW; Olive, A; Ram, S, 2006, Vol. 4215, p. 68-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting an appropriate process modeling language forms an important task within business process management projects. A wide range of process modeling languages has been developed over the last decades, leading to an obvious need for rigorous theory to assist in the evaluation and comparison of the capabilities of these languages. While academic progress in the area of process modeling language evaluation has been made on at least two premises, Representation Theory and Workflow Patterns, it remains unclear how these frameworks relate to each other. We use a generic framework for language evaluation to establish similarities and differences between these acknowledged reference frameworks and discuss how and to what extent they complement respectively substitute each other. Our line of investigation follows the case of the popular BPMN modeling language, whose evaluation from the perspectives of Representation Theory and Workflow Patterns is reconciled in this paper.

  • 248. Riabacke, A.
    et al.
    Påhlman, Mona
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Larsson, A.
    A study about different strategies in risk elicitation2006In: Lect. Notes Eng. Comput. Sci., 2006, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study focusing on deviations from normative behavior in risk elicitation. Such deviations have implications on the process of eliciting reliable input data in applications of decision analysis. No existing elicitation method seems to be universally useful based on the findings made in this study. Since people obviously do not act in accordance with the normative rules, and different choice strategies have been identified, a prescriptive approach with individual assistance of the decision makers in the elicitation process thus seems to be necessary.

  • 249.
    Rosell, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Hassel, Martin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Kann, Viggo
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Global Evaluation of Random Indexing through Swedish Word Clustering Compared to the People’s Dictionary of Synonyms2009In: Proceedings of the International Conference RANLP-2009, 2009, p. 376-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of word space models is usually local in the sense that it only considers words that are deemed very similar by the model. We propose a global evaluation scheme based on clustering of the words. A clustering of high quality in an external evaluation against a semantic resource, such as a dictionary of synonyms, indicates a word space model of high quality. We use Random Indexing to create several different models and compare them by clustering evaluation against the People's Dictionary of Synonyms, a list of Swedish synonyms that are graded by the public. Most notably we get better results for models based on syntagmatic information (words that appear together) than for models based on paradigmatic information (words that appear in similar contexts). This is quite contrary to previous results that have been presented for local evaluation. Clusterings to ten clusters result in a recall of 83% for a syntagmatic model, compared to 34% for a comparable paradigmatic model, and 10% for a random partition.

  • 250. Roza, M.
    et al.
    Voogd, J.
    Giannoulis, Constantinos
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Towards a generic data information model for VV&A2008In: Simul. Interoperability Stand. Organ. - Simul. Interoperability Workshop Spring, Workshop Pap., 2008, p. 148-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Generic Methodology for Verification, Validation and Acceptance (GM-VV) is intended to provide a common generic framework for making formal and well balanced acceptance decisions on a specific usage of models, simulations and data. GM-VV will offer the international M&S community with a Verification, Validation (VV) and Acceptance methodology that consistently embraces a wide variety of M&S technologies and application domains. The GM-VV builds upon a triad of three pillars; the products, the organization and process pillar. At the centre of the products pillar stands the GM-VV data information model. The GM-VV data information model is the structural model for the GM-VV project memory approach. This project memory not only stores the GM-VV core products but also serve as the data and information source for generating these products. In this paper the formal specification of the GM-VV data information model and its underlying principles, concepts and methods are presented. The paper shows how this model is used in the GM-VV project memory approach to produce the core GM-VV products being: the acceptance plan, the verification & validation plan, the evidence, the verification &validation report, and the acceptance report.

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