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  • 201.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Odeck, James
    Welde, Morten
    Spelar samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet någon roll för infrastrukturbeslut?: En jämförelse mellan Sverige och Norge2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 15-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige och Norge använder samhällsekonomiska analyser för att prioritera mellan infrastrukturinvesteringar – eller säger sig åtminstone göra det. Vi analyserar nationella infrastrukturplaner från de två länderna för att undersöka om samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet spelar någon roll för vilka investeringar som väljs och om andra faktorer spelar roll. I den norska infrastrukturplanen 2014–23 verkar inte samhällsekonomisk effektivitet ha påverkat regeringens eller trafikverkens beslut överhuvudtaget. I den svenska infrastrukturplanen 2010–21 verkar effektivitet ha haft viss påverkan på trafikverkens investeringsförslag, men en närmast försumbar betydelse för regeringens beslut. I bägge länderna ökar sannolikheten att en investering genomförs om regeringen har högt väljarstöd i regionen.

  • 202.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Technical University of Denmark, Denmark .
    Response time patterns in a stated choice experiment2015In: Journal of Choice Modelling, ISSN 1755-5345, E-ISSN 1755-5345, Vol. 14, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how response times vary between unlabelled binary choice occasions in a stated choice (SC) experiment, with alternatives differing with respect to in-vehicle travel time and travel cost. The pattern of response times is interpreted as an indicator of the cognitive processes employed by the respondents when making their choices. We find clear signs of reference-dependence in response times in the form of a strong gain-loss asymmetry. Moreover, different patterns of response times for travel time and travel cost indicate that these attributes are processed in different ways by respondents. This may be of particular relevance for choice experiments in the transportation field, where the travel time attribute is central.

  • 203.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Catching the tail: Empirical Identification of Value of time Distribution2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2011, Vol. 46, no 2Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Catching the tail: Empirical identification of the distribution of the value of travel time2012In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 378-391Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    On the income elasticity of the value of travel time2012In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 368-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport infrastructure is long-term and in appraisal it is necessary to value travel timesavings for future years. This requires knowing how the value of time (VTT) will develop over time as incomes grow. This paper investigates if the cross-sectional incomeelasticity of the VTT is equal to inter-temporal income elasticity. The study is based ontwo identical stated choice experiments conducted with a 13. year interval. Results indicate that the relationship between income and the VTT in the cross-section has remained unchanged over time. As a consequence, the inter-temporal income elasticityof the VTT can be predicted based on cross-sectional income elasticity. However, theincome elasticity of the VTT is not a constant but increases with income. For this reason, the average income elasticity of the VTT in the cross-sections has increased between the two survey years and can be expected to increase further over time. 

  • 206.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Fung, Chau Man
    Proost, Stef
    Optimal prices and frequencies for buses in Stockholm2017In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 9, p. 20-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many public transport services are heavily subsidized. One of the main justifications is the expected beneficial effect on road congestion. Stockholm introduced congestion pricing in 2006 and the effects on car and public transport demand were carefully monitored. The change in prices provides unique estimates on price-and cross-price elasticities. This paper uses these data to model how the optimal pricing, frequency, bus size and number of bus lanes for a corridor depends on the presence of congestion pricing for cars. Results show that the presence of road pricing makes the current subsidies for peak bus trips too high. However, the major welfare benefits of re-optimizing the current bus supply stem from a decrease in frequencies during the off-peak period and the use of larger buses.

  • 207.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hamilton, Carl J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Papaix, Claire
    Factors driving public support for road congestion reduction policies: Congestion charging, free public transport and more roads in Stockholm, Helsinki and Lyon2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 78, p. 452-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an across-the-board survey conducted among residents of Stockholm, Helsinki and Lyon, we explore the opinions on three policy measures to combat road congestion: congestion charging, free public transport and building more roads. The support for the two latter policies is substantially higher than the support for congestion charging, which is only supported by a majority in Stockholm. Self-interest is important for the formation of the opinion to all three policies. However, fundamental values and general political views, indicated by four attitudinal factors, are even more important in forming opinions towards the three transport policies. Of all attitudinal factors, the one indicating environmental concern most influences the support for all policies. Equity concerns, however, increase the support for free public transport and opposition to taxation increases the support for building more roads. Our results further suggest that the opinions towards free public transport and building more roads can be mapped along the left right political axis, where Environment and Equity are to the left and Pricing and Taxation are to the right. However, the opinion towards congestion charging cuts right through the political spectrum. The impact of the fundamental values and self-interest variables are similar for Stockholm and Helsinki, indicating that even if experience increases the overall support for charging, it does not change the relative strength of different political arguments to any major extent.

  • 208.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Harry, Flam
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Jan-Eric, Nilsson
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. VTI.
    Infrastrukturbeslut måste grundas på samhällsekonomiska kalkyler: DN Debatt2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-02-17Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 209.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Harry, Flam
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    Nästan alla stora byggen av järnvägar är olönsamma: DN Debatt2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no Jan 28, 2016Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 210.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Long term social benefits of rail transit: Case study of the Stockholm Metro2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    Samhällsekonomin på spåret – en ESO-rapport om att räkna på tunnelbanan2012Book (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Samhällsekonomin på spåret: en ESO-rapport om att räkna på tunnelbanan2012Report (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The long term social benefits of transit2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard CBA is often criticised for not taking land use effects induced by transport investments and wider economic benefits into account. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the size of these effects using the Stockholm Metro built in the 1950’s, the largest urban rail investment in Sweden, as a case study. We find that benefits of the Metro increase 60 percent due to long term land use adjustments. Wider economic benefits increase the benefit by 17 percent.We show that the Stockholm Metro was socially beneficial to build according to present standard methods, even without taking land use effects and wider economic benefits into account. Hence, the anecdote that the Metro of Stockholm had not been built if CBA had been a part of the appraisal seems to be false.

  • 214.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The long term social benefits of urban transit investments: A CBA of the Stockholm Metro2012In: Kuhmo Nectar Conference and SummerSchool on Transportation Economics 2012 -Annual conference of the ITEA: Book of Abstracts, 2012, p. 131-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) has been a fundament of appraisal in Northern European Countries for decades and is becoming increasingly important in Sweden (Eliasson and Lundberg, 2011). Still, the CBA methodology is a relatively young tool and has been developed for evaluation of smaller infrastructure objects. Also proponents of the CBA method recognise some methodological problems (see for instance Mackie and Preston (1998)), in particular of large infrastructure investments. Uncertainty in CBA outcome was recently discussed by the OECD Forum for infrastructure issues, International Transport Forum. To undermine the trust in CBA as an accurate decision support, it is often stated in the Swedish debate that the Stockholm Metro, build in the 1950’s and now central for the functioning of the traffic system and commuting, would not have shown a positive CBA outcome if the present methods and tools had been available at the time. The purpose of this paper is to perform an ex-post cost benefit analysis of the Metro system, the largest urban rail investment in Sweden. The Stockholm Metro has a track length of 105 kilometres, of which 62 kilometres are in tunnels, with a total of 100 stations spread over three lines. The application of CBA to an investment of the size of the Stockholm Metro illustrates clearly that there are certain benefits that may not be sufficiently well captured in standard CBA: land-use benefits, labour market benefits and benefits arising from increased capacity in the road and public transit network. In this paper we try to assess the size of the external labour market effects and land-use effects in the Stockholm Metro case.

  • 215.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, R. Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Almstrom, Peter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System analysis and economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Land-use impacts in transport appraisal2014In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 47, p. 82-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard cost-benefit analysis (CBA) does not take into account induced demand due to relocation triggered by infrastructure investments. Using an integrated transport and land-use model calibrated for the Stockholm region, we explore whether this has any significant impact on the CBA outcome, and in particular on the relative ranking of rail and road investments. Our results indicate that induced demand has a larger impact on the benefit of rail investments than on the benefit of road investments. The effect on the relative ranking is still limited for two reasons. First, the number of houses that are built over 20 30 years is limited in comparison to the size of the existing housing stock. Second, the location of most of the new houses is not affected by any single infrastructure investment, since the latter has a marginal effect on total accessibility in a city with a mature transport system. A second aim of this paper is to investigate the robustness of the relative CBA ranking of rail and road investments, with respect to the planning policy in the region 25 years ahead. While the results suggest that this ranking is surprisingly robust, there is a tendency that the net benefit of rail investments is more sensitive to the future planning policy than road investments. Our results also underscore that the future land-use planning in the region in general has a considerably stronger impact on accessibility and car use than individual road or rail investments have.

  • 216.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Jonsson, R. Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    An ex-post CBA for the Stockholm Metro2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 70, p. 135-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs an ex-post cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the Metro system in Stockholm built in the 1950s. We find that the Metro was socially beneficial and that the largest benefit of the Metro is its capacity, making it possible for many people to travel to and from the city center. We also assess the significance of the wider economic impacts due to labor market distortions and the land-use effects in the case of the Stockholm Metro. The wider economic impacts increase the consumer surplus with 48%, and the yearly income in the county with 1.5%. A land-use model is used to simulate how the land-use has been influenced by the Metro over the years 1956-2006. This simulation indicates that the historical centralized planning of housing along transit corridors has developed the region into a more dispersed region than if the market forces had ruled. The simulation also suggests that the land-use impact from the investment itself is small, but that the land-use impact from the planning accompanying the decision to build the Metro has been substantial.

  • 217.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kristofferesson, Ida
    Sweco.
    The gothenburg congestion charge. Effects, design and politics2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 75, p. 134-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the traffic effects of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013. The system is similar to the system introduced in Stockholm in 2006; both are designed as time-of-day dependent cordon pricing systems. We find that many effects and adaptation strategies are similar to those found in Stockholm, indicating a high transferability between smaller and larger cities with substantial differences in public transport use. However, there are also important differences regarding some of the effects, the accuracy of the model forecasts and public support arising from different topologies, public transport use, congestion levels and main objectives communicated to the public. Finally, the Gothenburg case suggests that whether congestion charges are introduced or not depends on the support among the political parties, and that this is determined primarily by the prevailing institutional setting and power over revenues, and to a lower extent by the public support, and benefits from congestion reduction.

  • 218.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Estimating welfare effects of congestion charges in real world settings2011In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 219.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. VTI Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    The Swedish congestion charges: Ten years on2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 107, p. 35-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-of-day dependent cordon-based congestion charging systems were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, and in Gothenburg in 2013. The Stockholm system was significantly extended in 2016, and the peak charge has been increased in the two cities. This paper analyses the effects of the first decade with the Swedish congestion charges, specifically effects of the system updates, and draws policy lessons for the years to come. Should we introduce congestion charges in more cities? Should we extend the systems that we have? We synthesize previous research findings and focus on the long-term effects that have varied over time including the recent years: the price elasticities on the traffic volume across the cordon, the revenue and system operating cost, the public and political support, and consequences for the transport planning process. We also explore the effects on peak and off-peak, and different types of traffic (trucks, company cars and private passenger cars), because of access to novel data that make this analysis possible. We find that the price elasticities have increased over time in Stockholm, but decreased in Gothenburg. We find that the public support increased in the two cities after their introduction until the systems were revised; since then, the public support has declined in both cities. We find that the price elasticity was substantially lower when the charging levels were increased, and when the Stockholm system was extended, than when the charges were first introduced, a likely reason being that the most price-sensitive traffic was already priced off-the road at the introduction.

  • 220.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Welfare effects of Stockholm congestion charges using dynamic network assignment2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, Glasgow, UK, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the standard textbook analysis, drivers as a group will be worse off with congestion charging if not compensated by revenues. This result is confirmed by an analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme using a static model with homogenous users. However, both this static model and the standard textbook analysis omit three important factors: taste heterogeneity, effects of charges on the larger network arising from less blocking back of upstream links and behavioural adjustments in the temporal dimensions. Taking account of these factors, using a dynamic model with heterogeneous users in a large-scale network, we find that drivers as a group benefit directly from the charging scheme in Stockholm. This paper investigates the importance of the three factors omitted in the standard textbook and the static model analysis in the Stockholm case, finding that all three add significantly to the benefit of the charges.

  • 221.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Welfare effects of Stockholm congestion charges using dynamic network assignment2012In: Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 91st Annual Meeting, Washington D.C. USA, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the standard textbook analysis, drivers as a group will be worse off with congestion charging if not compensated by revenues. This result is confirmed by an analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme using a static model with homogenous users. However, both this static model and the standard textbook analysis omit three important factors: taste heterogeneity, effects of charges on the larger network arising from less blocking back of upstream links and behavioural adjustments in the temporal dimensions. Taking account of these factors, using a dynamic model with heterogeneous users in a large-scale network, we find that drivers as a group benefit directly from the charging scheme in Stockholm. This paper investigates the importance of the three factors omitted in the standard textbook and the static model analysis in the Stockholm case, finding that all three add significantly to the benefit of the charges.

  • 222.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Welfare effects of Stockholm congestion charges using dynamic network assignment2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference and the Summer School, Stockholm, Sweden, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the standard textbook analysis, drivers as a group will be worse off with congestion charging if not compensated by revenues. This result is confirmed by an analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme using a static model with homogenous users. However, both this static model and the standard textbook analysis omit three important factors: taste heterogeneity, effects of charges on the larger network arising from less blocking back of upstream links and behavioural adjustments in the temporal dimensions. Taking account of these factors, using a dynamic model with heterogeneous users in a large-scale network, we find that drivers as a group benefit directly from the charging scheme in Stockholm. This paper investigates the importance of the three factors omitted in the standard textbook and the static model analysis in the Stockholm case, finding that all three add significantly to the benefit of the charges.

  • 223.
    Büttner, Janett
    et al.
    OBIS partners.
    Petersen, Tom
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Optimising Bike Sharing in European Cities - A Handbook2011Report (Other academic)
  • 224.
    Carbajo Fuertes, Eduardo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Combination of travel time and delay measurements in an urban traffic controller: A case study of Zuidas2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing traffic volume in the urban areas is leading to a series of negative effects such

    as congestion or emission of air pollutants. The city of Amsterdam is no exception to this

    trend and a sustainable solution is sought in the area of Traffic Management and Intelligent

    Transportation Systems. The goal of this study is to develop a traffic management strategy

    that enhances the traffic performance in distributor roads (Plus Network Auto in Amsterdam)

    during saturated conditions (AM and PM peak). After the analysis of the current state of

    the traffic management in the municipality of Amsterdam, an opportunity has been detected

    in which a combination of the different systems in place can be used to improve the traffic

    performance of the local road network. Travel time and delay measurements retrieved from

    inductive-loop detectors, automatic number plate recognition cameras and floating car data

    are used in a top-level urban traffic controller that combines the traffic responsiveness of a

    vehicle-actuated controller with the effective coordination of a fixed-time controller. The

    proposed controller can act locally when the delay measurements show congestion at a single

    intersection or along the whole corridor when the average speed drops below a specified

    threshold. A microscopic simulation model of the Zuidas district for the year 2030 and the PM

    peak has been used to evaluate the proposed top-level controller compared to the currently

    used vehicle-actuated controller and the coordinated fixed-time controller. The results show

    that the average speed in the main corridor has been increased by 28,5% and meets the

    desired speed set by the municipality for the Plus Network Auto. Overall delays at the

    intersections are reduced in average by 11,60% while the effect on the public transport modes

    remains similar. However, the coordinated fixed-time controller has shown even a better

    performance than the proposed top-level controller, for which a series of recommendations

    have been issued.

  • 225.
    Casanueva, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Krishna, Visakh V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jönsson, R.
    NTnet AB, Malmö, Sweden .
    Nelldal, Bo Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Payload optimization of articulated wagons considering train length and vehicle dynamic behaviour2016In: Civil-Comp Proceedings, ISSN 1759-3433, Vol. 110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Capacity4Rail EU project aims are improving the competitiveness and reliability of rail freight in order to make it more attractive for modern, more sophisticated market requirements. The work described in this paper, focuses on novel vehicle designs that can account for a higher payload per meter, both from the payload optimization and the vehicle dynamic response point of view. We analyze an articulated spine wagon composed of five car bodies and six bogies, of which four of them are shared between two car bodies. In the work package, there has been an effort to look into the implications of these very long wagons in all aspects of freight operation, and this paper focuses on two of these aspects: the gain in payload by using different configurations, and the analysis of the dynamic response of the running gear. The conclusion is that, from vehicle performance point of view, it is worth exploring the possibility of increasing payload by slightly reducing the dynamic behavior of the system, as the twelve-axle vehicle is much more flexible when it comes to modern multimodal transportation. © Civil-Comp Press, 2016.

  • 226.
    Castellano Cantó, Lorenzo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Ladaria Escolano, Enrique
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Technical analysis of the transportation and management of waste system within the Stockholm-Mälaren Region, Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

     

     

     

     

      

       

        

      

         

  • 227.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    An Agent-Based Approach for Modeling Real-Time Travel Information in Transit Systems2014In: 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AMBIENT SYSTEMS, NETWORKS AND TECHNOLOGIES (ANT-2014), THE 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (SEIT-2014), 2014, Vol. 32, p. 744-749Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time travel information (RTI) systems are rapidly developed and deployed worldwide using the abundance of instantaneous data and dissemination means. This paper presents a framework for a multi-agent simulation model that emulates the generation and dissemination of RTI. The evolution of transit reliability influences both the performance of RTI generation schemes and the potential benefits that such information could yield. An iterative within-day network loading and a day-to-day learning process represent both service provider and service user ability to apply and adapt their strategies based on past performance and predictions. A case study illustrates model capabilities by applying BusMezzo, an agent-based simulation model of vehicles and travellers. The proposed model facilitates the analysis of alternative prediction schemes as well as the impact of their provision on system performance. 

  • 228.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Determinants of Bus Riding Time Deviations: On the Mutual Relation between Driver Behavior and Transit PerformanceIn: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Dynamic Modeling of Transit Operations and Passenger Decisions2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis and evaluation of transit operations and control, in particular  in the context of Advanced Public Transport System (APTS) requires the dynamic  modeling of the transit system. A dynamic transit simulation model has to  capture the interactions between three main components: passengers, transit  operations and traffic dynamics at the network level. BusMezzo is a dynamic  transit analysis and evaluation tool that represents timetables, vehicle  scheduling, control and management strategies, real-time information and  adaptive passenger choices. Individual passengers carry out a sequence of  boarding, walking and alighting decisions along their journey. The model had  been applied for the evaluation of holding control strategies and information  provision scenarios.

  • 230.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Dynamic Modelling of Transit Operations and Passenger Decisions2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient and reliable public transport systems are fundamental in promoting green growth developments in metropolitan areas. A large range of Advanced Public Transport Systems (APTS) facilitates the design of real-time operations and demand management. The analysis of transit performance requires a dynamic tool that will enable to emulate the dynamic loading of travelers and their interaction with the transit system.

    BusMezzo, a dynamic transit operations and assignment model was developed to enable the analysis and evaluation of transit performance and level of service under various system conditions and APTS. The model represents the interactions between traffic dynamics, transit operations and traveler decisions. The model was implemented within a mesoscopic traffic simulation model. The different sources of transit operations uncertainty including traffic conditions, vehicle capacities, dwell times, vehicle schedules and service disruptions are modeled explicitly.

    The dynamic path choice model in BusMezzo considers each traveler as an adaptive decision maker. Travelers’ progress in the transit system consists of successive decisions that are defined by the need to choose the next path element. The evaluations are based on the respective path alternatives and their anticipated downstream attributes. Travel decisions are modeled within the framework of discrete random utility models. A non-compensatory choice-set generation model and the path utility function were estimated based on a web-based survey.

    BusMezzo enables the analysis and evaluation of proactive control strategies and the impacts of real-time information provision. Several experiments were conducted to analyze transit performance from travelers, operator and drivers perspectives under various holding strategies. This analysis has facilitated the design of a field trial of the most promising strategy. Furthermore, a case study on real-time traveler information systems regarding the next vehicle arrival time investigated the impacts of various levels of coverage and comprehensiveness. As passengers are more informed, passenger loads are subject to more fluctuation due to the traveler adaptations.

  • 231.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Dynamic transit operations tool with passenger route choice2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 232.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Dynamic Transit Supply and Demand Modeling2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Effektivisering av busstrafik genom BuzMezzo2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 234.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Multi-agent transit operations and assignment model2013In: Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier, 2013, p. 809-814Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit systems exercise complex dynamics and evolve through the interaction of various agents. The analysis of transit performance requires emulating the dynamic loading of travellers and their interaction with the underlying transit system. Multi-agent simulations aim to mimic the emergence of global spontaneous order from numerous inter-dependent local decisions. This paper presents a framework for a multi-agent transit operations and assignment model which captures supply uncertainties and adaptive user decisions. An iterative day-to-day learning process consisting of a within-day dynamic network loading loop simulates the interaction between transit supply and demand. The model requires the development and integration of several modules including traffic simulation, transit operations and control, dynamic path choice model and real-time information generator. BusMezzo, a transit simulation model, is used as the platform for implementation.

  • 235.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherland.
    Real-Time Predictions for Light Rail Train Systems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport operations are subject to inherent uncertainty. Instantaneous vehicle positioning data facilitates the development of prediction schemes that could improve the accuracy and reliability of real-time information (RTI). There is lack of research on RTI for Light rail train (LRT) systems. LRT are characterized by driving regimes that depend on rolling stock and infrastructure specifications. This paper develops and tests two prediction schemes for rail-bound systems which are based on constructing link-specific speed profiles. The prediction schemes are applied for a LRT line in Bergen, Norway. The performance of the currently deployed scheme and alternative schemes is compared using 6 months empirical vehicle positioning data. The results indicate that the proposed methods improve the reliability of the prediction scheme and increase the share of errors smaller than 1 minute to 89%, up to par with metro systems. 

  • 236.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands .
    Regularity-driven bus operation: Principles, implementation and business models2014In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, p. 223-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service reliability is a key determinant of public transport performance. In the context of high-frequency urban lines, irregular service results with long waiting times, bunched vehicles, long delays, uneven passenger loads, poor capacity utilization and higher operational costs. Field experiments were conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, in order to test the feasibility and implications of a regularity-driven operation scheme designed to mitigate bus bunching and facilitated by a real-time control strategy. This paper investigates alternative service indicators and business models that could best support the long-term implementation of operation geared towards better regularity performance. A paradigm shift towards regularity-based service evidently requires the consideration of a series of measures along the service chain as it involves a paradigm shift in production planning, operations, control center and performance monitoring.

  • 237.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    RETT2 Final Report: A Field Test for Service Regularity Improvement2012Report (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    RETT3 Final Report: A Field Test for Service Regularity Improvement2013Report (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    The robustness value of public transport development plans2016In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 51, p. 236-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investments in transport are increasingly motivated by the need to improve its robustness the capacity to absorb disturbances with a minimal impact on system performance. Nonetheless, there is lack of knowledge on how to assess and quantify the robustness value of new investments. This study investigates the robustness of alternative public transport networks by assessing the consequences of link failures on network performance. A full-scan disruption impact analysis is performed and its implications on passenger's group composition and travel time losses are analysed for a public transport development plan in Stockholm, Sweden. The results suggest that as a result of the development plan, the robustness of the case study network will improve in terms of average performance deterioration as well as worst case scenario for all performance indicators. Neglecting abnormal operations in project appraisal can potentially lead to the underestimation of its benefits. Moreover, the critical links in each network are identified and impact disparity is investigated. The analysis method presented in this study can support the consideration of development plan impacts on network robustness in the strategic planning process. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 240.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Topological evolution of a metropolitan rail transport network: The case of Stockholm2017In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 62, p. 172-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of transport networks is the outcome of a large number of infrastructure investment decisions taken over a long time span. Network indicators are widely used for characterizing transport network topology and its performance as well as provide insights on, possible developments. Little is known however on how rail bound public transport networks and their network indicators have evolved into their current form. This study conducts a longitudinal analysis of the topological evolution of a multimodal rail network by investigating the dynamics of its topology for the case of Stockholm in 1950-2025. The starting year marks the opening of the metro system while the end year is set to mark the completion of the current development plan. Based on a compilation of network topology and service properties, a year-on-year analysis of changes in global network efficiency and directness as well as local nodal centrality were conducted. Changes in network topology exhibit smooth long-term technological and spatial trends as well as the signature of top-down planning interventions. Stockholm rail network evolution is characterized by contraction and stagnation periods followed by network extensions and is currently undergoing a considerable densification, marking a shift from peripheral attachment to preferential attachment.

  • 241.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    Delft University, Netherlands.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Evolution of Satisfaction with Public Transport and Its Determinants in Sweden Identifying Priority Areas2015In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2538, p. 86-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring and analysing satisfaction with public transport services facilitates service performance monitoring, market analysis, benchmarking and the identification of priority areas. The systematic and regular collection of information concerning satisfaction enables to investigate how passengers’ satisfaction as well as its determinants changes over time. These changes may be driven by changes in service quality or shifts in passengers’ expectations and preferences. This study analyses how satisfaction with public transport and its determinants evolved over time in Sweden in the years 2001-2013. The determinants of satisfaction are identified based on a factor analysis and the estimation of multivariate satisfaction models. The superposition of our findings culminates in a dynamic passenger satisfaction priority map which allows identifying priority areas based on observed trends in satisfaction with service attributes and their respective importance. The deterioration of overall satisfaction with public transport in Sweden in recent years is driven by a decrease in satisfaction with customer interface and length of trip time. These two service aspects as well as operation were found key determinants of overall satisfaction which users consistently rate among the least satisfactory. The results of this study are instrumental in supporting service providers in designing measures that will foster satisfaction in the future.

  • 242.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Effect of real-time transit information on dynamic passenger path choice.2011In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, Vol. 2217, p. 46-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time information is increasingly being implemented in transit networks worldwide. The evaluation of the effect of real-time information requires dynamic modeling of transit operations and of passenger path choices. This paper presents a dynamic transit analysis and evaluation tool that represents time-tables, operation strategies, real-time information, adaptive passenger choices, and traffic dynamics at the network level. Transit path choices are modeled as a sequence of boarding, walking and alighting decisions that passengers undertake when carrying out their journey. The model is applied to the Metro network of Stockholm, Sweden area under various operating conditions and information provision scenarios, as a proof of concept. An analysis of the results indicates substantial path choice shifts and potential time savings associated with more comprehensive real-time information provision and transfer coordination improvements.

  • 243.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Evaluation of real-time holding strategies for improved bus service reliability2010In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, Madeira, Portugal, 2010, p. 718-723Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service reliability is one of the main measures of performance determining transit system level of service. Holding control strategies are a common transit operations practice aimed to reduce transit service unreliability by setting criteria for departure fromtime point stops. In order to adequately analyze the sources of uncertainty involved with transit performance, it is essential to model dynamically the interactions between traffic conditions, passenger demand and transit operations. BusMezzo, a transit simulation model has been developed on a platform of a mesoscopic traffic simulation model, which enables the representation of large-scale transit systems. The model implements severalreal-time holding strategies. It is used to evaluate the application of these strategies in areal-world high-demand bus line in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, under various scenarios. An analysis of the results suggests that a holding strategy based on the mean headway from the preceding bus and the next bus, restricted by a maximum allowableholding time, is especially efficient. 

  • 244.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris N.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Modeling real-time transit information and its impacts on travelers’ decisions2012In: Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board 91st Annual Meeting., 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 245.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Gkioulou, Zafeira
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Modelling the Impacts of Public Transport Reliability and Travel Information on Passengers’ Waiting Time Uncertainty2017In: EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, ISSN 2192-4376, E-ISSN 2192-4384, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport systems are subject to uncertainties related to traffic dynamic, operations, and passenger demand. Passenger waiting time is thus a random variable subject to day-to-day variations and the interaction between vehicle and passenger stochastic arrival processes. While the provision of real-time information could potentially reduce travel uncertainty, its impacts depend on the underlying service reliability, the performance of the prognosis scheme, and its perceived credibility. This paper presents a modeling framework for analyzing passengers’ learning process and adaptation with respect to waiting-time uncertainty and travel information. The model consists of a within-day network loading procedure and a day-to-day learning process, which are implemented in an agent-based simulation model. Each loop of within-day dynamics assigns travelers to paths by simulating the progress of individual travelers and vehicles as well as the generation and dissemination of travel information. The day-to-day learning model updates the accumulated memory of each traveler and updates consequently the credibility attributed to each information source based on the experienced waiting time. A case study in Stockholm demonstrates model capabilities and emphasizes the importance of behavioral adaptation when evaluating alternative measures which aim to improve service reliability.

  • 246.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Hartl, M.
    Modelling public transport on-board congestion: comparing schedule-based and agent-based assignment approaches and their implications2016In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 1209-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit systems are subject to congestion that influences system performance and level of service. The evaluation of measures to relieve congestion requires models that can capture their network effects and passengers' adaptation. In particular, on-board congestion leads to an increase of crowding discomfort and denied boarding and a decrease in service reliability. This study performs a systematic comparison of alternative approaches to modelling on-board congestion in transit networks. In particular, the congestion-related functionalities of a schedule-based model and an agent-based transit assignment model are investigated, by comparing VISUM and BusMezzo, respectively. The theoretical background, modelling principles and implementation details of the alternative models are examined and demonstrated by testing various operational scenarios for an example network. The results suggest that differences in modelling passenger arrival process, choice-set generation and route choice model yield systematically different passenger loads. The schedule-based model is insensitive to a uniform increase in demand or decrease in capacity when caused by either vehicle capacity or service frequency reduction. In contrast, nominal travel times increase in the agent-based model as demand increases or capacity decreases. The marginal increase in travel time increases as the network becomes more saturated. Whilst none of the existing models capture the full range of congestion effects and related behavioural responses, existing models can support different planning decisions.

  • 247.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Beyond a complete failure: The impact of partial capacity reductions on public transport network vulnerability2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disruptions often result with partial capacity reduction without resulting with a complete breakdown. This study aims to move beyond the analysis of complete failure by investigating the impacts of partial capacity reduction on public transport network performance. We analyse the relation between the extent of capacity reduction at the line level and its consequences on societal costs by performing a full network scan. This analysis framework is applied to planned temporary disruptions in the rapid public transport network in Stockholm, Sweden. Our results indicate that the network is highly vulnerable since it is characterized by greater negative impacts in a disproportional relation to the increase in the original capacity reduction. The non-linear properties of network effects and route choice result in non-trivial relation which carry implications on disruption management the deployment of mitigation measures.

  • 248.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Beyond a complete failure: The impact of partial capacity degradation on public transport network vulnerability2018In: Transportmetrica B: Transport Dynamics, ISSN 2168-0566, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 77-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disruptions in public transport networks (PTNs) often lead to partial capacity reductions rather than complete closures. This study aims to move beyond the vulnerability analysis of complete failures by investigating the impacts of a range of capacity reductions on PTN performance. The relation between network performance and the degradation of line or link capacities is investigated by establishing a vulnerability curve and related metrics. The analysis framework is applied to a full-scan analysis of planned temporary line-level capacity reductions and an analysis of unplanned link-level capacity reductions on the most central segments in the multi-modal rapid PTN of Stockholm, Sweden. The impacts of capacity reductions are assessed using a non-equilibrium dynamic public transport operations and assignment model. The nonlinear properties of on-board crowding, denied boarding, network effects and route choice result in non-trivial, generally convex, relations which carry implications on disruption planning and real-time management.

  • 249.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Dynamic Vulnerability Analysis of Public Transport Networks: Mitigation Effects of Real-Time Information2014In: Networks and Spatial Economics, ISSN 1566-113X, E-ISSN 1572-9427, Vol. 14, no 3-4, p. 435-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a dynamic and stochastic notion of public transport network vulnerability is developed. While previous studies have considered only the network topology, the granular nature of services requires a more refined model for supply and demand interactions in order to evaluate the impacts of disruptions. We extend the measures of betweenness centrality (often used to identify potentially important links) and link importance to a dynamic-stochastic setting from the perspectives of both operators and passengers. We also formalize the value of real-time information (RTI) provision for reducing disruption impacts. The developed measures are applied in a case study for the high-frequency public transport network of Stockholm, Sweden. The importance ranking of the links varies depending on the RTI provision scheme. The results suggest that betweenness centrality (passenger/vehicle flows) may not be a good indicator of link importance. The results of the case study reveal that while service disruptions have negative effects and RTI may have significant positive influence, counter examples also exist due to secondary spillover effects.

  • 250.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands .
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Planning for the Unexpected: The Value of Reserve Capacity for Public Transport Network Robustness2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 81, p. 47-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport networks (PTN) are subject to recurring service disruptions. Most studies of the robustness of PTN have focused on network topology and considered vulnerability in terms of connectivity reliability. While these studies provide insights on general design principles, there is lack of knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different strategies to reduce the impacts of disruptions. This paper proposes and demonstrates a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of a strategic increase in capacity on alternative PTN links to mitigate the impact of unexpected network disruptions. The evaluation approach consists of two stages: identifying a set of important links and then for each identified important link, a set of capacity enhancement schemes is evaluated. The proposed method integrates stochastic supply and demand models, dynamic route choice and limited operational capacity. This dynamic agent-based modelling of network performance enables to capture cascading network effects as well as the adaptive redistribution of passenger flows. An application for the rapid PTN of Stockholm, Sweden, demonstrates how the proposed method could be applied to sequentially designed scenarios based on their performance indicators. The method presented in this paper could support policy makers and operators in prioritizing measures to increase network robustness by improving system capacity to absorb unexpected disruptions.

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