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  • 201.
    Cruz, Juan S.
    et al.
    Universe Origins Group and CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Niedermann, Florian
    Stockholm University, Hannes Alfvéns väg 12, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sloth, Martin S.
    Universe Origins Group and CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Cold New Early Dark Energy pulls the trigger on the H 0 and S 8 tensions: a simultaneous solution to both tensions without new ingredients2023In: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, E-ISSN 1475-7516, Vol. 2023, no 11, article id 033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we show that the Cold New Early Dark Energy (Cold NEDE) model in its original form can solve both the Hubble tension and the S 8 tension without adding any new ingredients at the fundamental level. So far, it was assumed that the trigger field in the Cold NEDE model is completely subdominant. However, relaxing this assumption and letting the trigger field contribute a mere 0.5% of the total energy density leads to a resolution of the S 8 tension while simultaneously improving it as a solution to the H 0 tension. Fitting this model to baryonic acoustic oscillations, large-scale-structure, supernovae (including a SH0ES prior), and cosmic microwave background data, we report a preferred NEDE fraction of f NEDE = 0.134+0.032-0.025 (68% C.L.), lifting its Gaussian evidence for the first time above 5σ (up from 4σ when the trigger contribution to dark matter is negligible). At the same time, we find the new concordance values H 0 = 71.71 ± 0.88 km sec-1 Mpc-1 and S 8 = 0.793 ± 0.018. Excluding large-scale structure data and the SH0ES prior, both Gaussian tensions are reduced below the 2σ level.

  • 202.
    Cuartero, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Colozza, Noemi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Fernandez-Perez, Bibiana M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Crespo, Gaston A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Why ammonium detection is particularly challenging but insightful with ionophore-based potentiometric sensors - an overview of the progress in the last 20 years2020In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 145, no 9, p. 3188-3210Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The monitoring of ammonium ion concentration has gained the attention of researchers from multiple fields since it is a crucial parameter with respect to environmental and biomedical applications. For example, ammonium is considered to be a quality indicator of natural waters as well as a potential biomarker of an enzymatic byproduct in key physiological reactions. Among the classical analytical methods used for the detection of ammonium ions, potentiometric ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have attracted special attention in the scientific community because of their advantages such as cost-effectiveness, user-friendly features, and miniaturization ability, which facilitate easy portable measurements. Regarding the analytical performance, the key component of ISEs is the selective receptor, labelled as an ionophore in ISE jargon. Indeed, the preference of an ionophore for ammonium amongst other ions (i.e., selectivity) is a factor that primarily dictates the limit of detection of the electrode when performing measurements in real samples. A careful assessment of the literature for the last 20 years reveals that nonactin is by far the most employed ammonium ionophore to date. Despite the remarkable cross-interference of potassium over the ammonium response of nonactin-based ISEs, analytical applications comprising water quality assessment, clinical tests in biological fluids, and sweat monitoring during sports practice have been successfully researched. Nevertheless, there is evident difficulty in the determination of close-to-micromolar levels of ammonium in real samples with a significant potassium background level (i.e., millimolar concentration). This fact has fostered the search for a large variety of ammonium ionophores over the years, which are critically inspected herein. Overall, we provide an easily readable state of the art accompanied by a comprehensive description of other types of ammonium electrodes, including commercially available units. We conclude that newer breakthroughs are still required in the field to reach the desired analytical applications.

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  • 203.
    Cuba-Gyllensten, Illapha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Philips Research Europe, High Tech. Campus 34, 5656AE, Eindhoven, Netherlands; ACTLab., Signal Processing Systems, TU Eindhoven, 5600MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    Philips Research Europe, High Tech. Campus 34, 5656AE, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Bonomi, Alberto Giovanni.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Amft, O.
    ACTLab., Signal Processing Systems, TU Eindhoven, 5600MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Removing respiratory artefacts from transthoracic bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements2013In: XV International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) & XIV Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2013, Vol. 434, no 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transthoracic impedance spectroscopy (TIS) measurements from wearable textile electrodes provide a tool to remotely and non-invasively monitor patient health. However, breathing and cardiac processes inevitably affect TIS measurements, since they are sensitive to changes in geometry and air or fluid volumes in the thorax. This study aimed at investigating the effect of respiration on Cole parameters extracted from TIS measurements and developing a method to suppress artifacts. TIS data were collected from 10 participants at 16 frequencies (range: 10 kHz - 1 MHz) using a textile electrode system (Philips Technologie Gmbh). Simultaneously, breathing volumes and frequency were logged using an electronic spirometer augmented with data from a breathing belt. The effect of respiration on TIS measurements was studied at paced (10 and 16 bpm) deep and shallow breathing. These measurements were repeated for each subject in three different postures (lying down, reclining and sitting). Cole parameter estimation was improved by assessing the tidal expiration point thus removing breathing artifacts. This leads to lower intra-subject variability between sessions and a need for less measurements points to accurately assess the spectra. Future work should explore algorithmic artifacts compensation models using breathing and posture or patient contextual information to improve ambulatory transthoracic impedance measurements.

  • 204. Cui, J. P.
    et al.
    Zhang, Y. L.
    Zhang, S.
    Wang, Yanzhao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Physics.
    alpha-decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei2018In: Physical Review C: Covering Nuclear Physics, ISSN 2469-9985, E-ISSN 2469-9993, Vol. 97, no 1, article id 014316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The alpha-decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei (SHN) with Z >= 104 are investigated by employing the effective liquid drop model (ELDM). By comparison between the calculated half-lives and the experimental ones, it is shown that the ELDM is a successful model to reproduce the experimental half-lives of SHN. Within the ELDM the alpha-decay half-lives of Z = 118-120 isotopes are predicted by inputting the alpha-decay energy (Q(alpha)) values extracted from the newest Weizsacker-Skyrme-4 (WS4) model, the finite-range droplet model (FRDM), the Kourra-Tachibaba-Uno-Yamada (KTUY) formula, and the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubovmean field with the D1S Gogny force (GHFB). It is found that the shell effects at N = 178 and 184 are evident by analyzing the Q(alpha) values and half-lives versus the neutron number N. Because the WS4 Q(alpha) values have the smallest rms deviation, the predicted alpha-decay half-lives could be more accurate than the ones of other models, which will be helpful for future experiments.

  • 205. Cui, K.
    et al.
    Wang, L.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Qin, Y.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zheng, L.
    An all-digital phase-locked-loop with a robustness enhanced dual-mode DCO2017In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 312-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An all-digital-phase-locked-loop (ADPLL) with a dual-mode Class-A/Class-C Digital-controlled-oscillator (DCO) is presented in this letter. During the start-up phase, the DCO operates in the Class-A mode with increasing tail current. A low-power amplitude-to-pulse-converter (APC) is proposed to detect the oscillating amplitude of the DCO. After the start-up, the DCO switches to the Class-C mode with reduced tail current, resulting in better phase noise and lower power consumption. The ADPLL with the proposed DCO is implemented in a 65-nm CMOS technology. The Class-C mode DCO exhibits a phase noise of −123.3 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset with a 2.7-GHz carrier frequency. Measured results show about a 2.9-dB phase noise improvement at 1-MHz offset among the tuning range of 2.5–2.9 GHz, compared to the Class-A DCO under the same power consumption. The figure-of-merit (FOM) and FOM including the tuning range (FOMT) of the DCO is 188.7 and 192.1, respectively.

  • 206.
    Cui, Yanxia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP. Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering and Beckman Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana−Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States § Department of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Chin.
    Fung, Kin Hung
    Xu, Jun
    Ma, Hyungjin
    Jin, Yi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Fang, Nicholas X.
    Ultrabroadband Light Absorption by a Sawtooth Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab2012In: Nano Letters, ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1443-1447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an ultrabroadband thin-film infrared absorber made of sawtoothed anisotropic metamaterial. Absorptivity of higher than 95% at normal incidence is supported in a wide range of frequencies, where the full absorption width at half-maximum is about 86%. Such property is retained well at a very wide range of incident angles too. Light of shorter wavelengths are harvested at upper parts of the sawteeth of smaller widths, while light of longer wavelengths are trapped at lower parts of larger tooth widths. This phenomenon is explained by the slowlight modes in anisotropic metamaterial waveguide. Our study can be applied in the field of designing photovoltaic devices and thermal emitters.

  • 207.
    DaCosta, R. S.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lundberg, E.
    KTH.
    Constantinou, P.
    KTH.
    Asplund, A.
    KTH.
    Wilson, B. C.
    KTH.
    Ponten, F.
    KTH.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH.
    Andersson, H.
    KTH.
    A novel confocal fluorescence MACROscope for high-throughput quantitative imaging of protein expression in cellular microarrays for biomarker and drug-target discovery2006In: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, ISSN 1535-9476, E-ISSN 1535-9484, Vol. 5, no 10, p. S168-S168Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Dahl, S.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    What can the body movements reveal about a musician’s emotional intention?2003In: Proc of SMAC 03, Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, 2003, Vol. 2, p. 599-602Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music has an intimate relationship with motion in several aspects. Obviously, movements are required to play an instrument but musicians move also their bodies in a way not directly related to note production. In order to explore to what extent emotional intentions can be conveyed through musicians’ movements only, video recordings of a marimba player performing the same piece with the intentions Happy, Sad, Angry and Fearful, were recorded. 20 observers watched the video clips, without sound, and rated both the perceived emotional content as well as movement cues. The videos were presented in four viewing conditions, showing different parts of the player. The observers’ ratings for the intended emotions showed that the intentions Happiness, Sadness and Anger were well communicated, while Fear was not. The identification of the intended emotion was only slightly influenced by the viewing condition, although in some cases the head was important. The movement ratings indicate that there are cues that the observer use to distinguish between intentions, similar to the cues found for audio signals in music performance. Anger was characterized by large, fast, uneven, and jerky movements; Happy by large and somewhat fast movements, Sadness by small, slow, even and smooth movements.

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  • 209.
    Dahlberg, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Kolitsidas, Christos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Mattsson, M.
    Silver, Gustaf
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Björkqvist, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Jonsson, B. Lars G.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    A Novel 32 Port Cube MIMO Combining Broadside and Endfire Radiation Patterns for Full Azimuthal Coverage - A Modular Unit Approach for a Massive MIMO System2017In: 2017 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1641-1642Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a novel 32 antenna port multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO)-cube. The total volume of the cube is 320 x 320 x 120 mm(3) . On two faces, endfire radiating linear tapered slot antennas (LTSAs) are placed and on the remaining sides, a mix of both LTSAs and broadside patch antennas are placed. In total 16 LTSAs and 8 dual polarized patches are used. The LTSA is designed to operate at the GSM and 3G bands, from 1.7 to 2.3 GHz. A corrugation pattern is introduced along the edges of the LTSAs covering one face to increase directivity and decrease sidelobes. The LTSAs are placed in two different orientations in order to receive two polarisations. The patch antenna is dual band and dual polarized. It operates in the frequency bands 2.4-2.5 and 5.45-5.6 GHz where Wi-Fi communication is made. The spatial placement, with antennas on all sides of the cuboid, ensures full azimuthal coverage despite the high directivity of the antennas. Using different antennas on different faces of the cube further optimizes the volume efficiency of the cube for azimuthal coverage.

  • 210.
    Damiati, Laila A.
    et al.
    Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia;Centre for the Cellular Microenvironment, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Damiati, Safa A.
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Damiati, Samar
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Developments in the use of microfluidics in synthetic biology2022In: New Frontiers and Applications of Synthetic Biology, Elsevier BV , 2022, p. 423-435Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomimetics aims to copy and imitate natural elements and systems in a simpler form to overcome the limitations of complex biological elements and systems. The construction of biomimetic platforms to investigate physiological conditions requires an understanding of the native structure of cells and tissues and their interactions. Thus synthetic biology effectively connects biology and engineering. The engineering of custom cells/organs involves the construction of seminatural models that either perform existing functions in a modified manner or perform functions that do not exist naturally. In addition to providing an understanding of biological approaches, artificial models allow the mimicking of human physiology and diseases, facilitating the discovery of new drugs. Microfluidics is one of the most advanced technologies that allow the studying, mimicking, and manipulation of biological behaviors. Microfluidic devices are miniaturized devices that are functionally integrated on a single platform. The continuous development of microfluidic technology has led to the generation of artificial cells/organs that are based on in vivo mimetic models. Hence, it offers promising approaches for drug analysis, investigation of diseases and toxicity pathways, and construction of artificial models and even synthetic cell/organ chassis. This chapter presents microfluidic innovations for cell-like and organ-like architectures that were developed to simplify the complex networks of cells and organs. The merging of synthetic biology and microfluidics has led to the successful generation of artificial cells and organ-on-a-chip models. These biomimetic microfluidic environments have reduced the technical difficulties that acted as obstacles to studying cellular biology, have allowed the investigation of cell-cell, cell-tissue, and organ-like interfaces, and have aided the discovery of new therapeutic agents. 

  • 211.
    Damiati, Safa A.
    et al.
    King Abdulaziz Univ, Fac Pharm, Dept Pharmaceut, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Damiati, Samar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. King Abdulaziz Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Biochem, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Microfluidic Synthesis of Indomethacin-Loaded PLGA Microparticles Optimized by Machine Learning2021In: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, E-ISSN 2296-889X, Vol. 8, article id 677547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several attempts have been made to encapsulate indomethacin (IND), to control its sustained release and reduce its side effects. To develop a successful formulation, drug release from a polymeric matrix and subsequent biodegradation need to be achieved. In this study, we focus on combining microfluidic and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, alongside using biomaterials, to generate drug-loaded polymeric microparticles (MPs). Our strategy is based on using Poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as a biodegradable polymer for the generation of a controlled drug delivery vehicle, with IND as an example of a poorly soluble drug, a 3D flow focusing microfluidic chip as a simple device synthesis particle, and machine learning using artificial neural networks (ANNs) as an in silico tool to generate and predict size-tunable PLGA MPs. The influence of different polymer concentrations and the flow rates of dispersed and continuous phases on PLGA droplet size prediction in a microfluidic platform were assessed. Subsequently, the developed ANN model was utilized as a quick guide to generate PLGA MPs at a desired size. After conditions optimization, IND-loaded PLGA MPs were produced, and showed larger droplet sizes than blank MPs. Further, the proposed microfluidic system is capable of producing monodisperse particles with a well-controllable shape and size. IND-loaded-PLGA MPs exhibited acceptable drug loading and encapsulation efficiency (7.79 and 62.35%, respectively) and showed sustained release, reaching approximately 80% within 9 days. Hence, combining modern technologies of machine learning and microfluidics with biomaterials can be applied to many pharmaceutical applications, as a quick, low cost, and reproducible strategy.

  • 212.
    Damiati, Safa A.
    et al.
    King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Dept Pharmaceut, Fac Pharm, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia..
    Rossi, Damiano
    Blacktrace Holdings Ltd, Dolomite Microfluid, Royston SG8 5TW, England..
    Jönsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering. Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability at KTH, Stockholm. Sweden.
    Damiati, Samar
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science. King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Fac Sci, Dept Biochem, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Artificial intelligence application for rapid fabrication of size-tunable PLGA microparticles in microfluidics2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 19517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, synthetic polymeric particles were effectively fabricated by combining modern technologies of artificial intelligence (AI) and microfluidics. Because size uniformity is a key factor that significantly influences the stability of polymeric particles, therefore, this work aimed to establish a new AI application using machine learning technology for prediction of the size of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles produced by diverse microfluidic systems either in the form of single or multiple particles. Experimentally, the most effective factors for tuning droplet/particle sizes are PLGA concentrations and the flow rates of dispersed and aqueous phases in microfluidics. These factors were utilized to develop five different and simple in structure artificial neural network (ANN) models that are capable of predicting PLGA particle sizes produced by different microfluidic systems either individually or jointly merged. The systematic development of ANN models allowed ultimate construction of a single in silico model which consists of data for three different microfluidic systems. This ANN model eventually allowed rapid prediction of particle sizes produced using various microfluidic systems. This AI application offers a new platform for further rapid and economical exploration of polymer particles production in defined sizes for various applications including biomimetic studies, biomedicine, and pharmaceutics.

  • 213.
    Damiati, Samar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Institute for Synthetic Bioarchitectures, Department of Nanobiotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, Austria.
    Acoustic Biosensors for Cell Research2021In: Handbook of Cell Biosensors, Springer Nature , 2021, p. 537-568Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing inspiration from nature and applying natural principles can support the continuous improvement of sensing technologies in various fields, such as medicine, pharmacy, and environmental applications. It is difficult to directly connect a sensing system to a complex biological system. Thus, finding a suitable technique that simplifies and interprets complicated biological information to generate readable signals is in high demand. Acoustic technology appears to be a promising sensing model. The monitoring of the biochemical processes or the quantification of a captured analyte can be performed utilizing acoustic wave devices that rely on gravimetric sensing of materials adsorbed onto the sensor surface. Considering nature as a toolkit that provides individual puzzle pieces that can be assembled carefully into a sensory system offers a rich source to build selective and sensitive biosensors. The natural toolbox includes biological components such as DNA, RNA, sugar, amino acids, proteins, and lipids, in addition to nonbiological components such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and metals. These molecules can be assembled together onto piezoelectric substrates to enhance the functionality of fabricated acoustic devices. This chapter has classified acoustic biosensors into four classes for various cell applications. First, lipid membrane-based biosensors are biomimetic models constructed by natural biological materials to simplify the complexity of biological cell membranes and enable investigations of membrane proteins in a native-like environment. These bioarchitectures also offer a good opportunity to investigate the interactions of lipids and proteins under controlled conditions. Second, whole cell-based biosensors are fabricated to enable investigations of cellular behaviors such as cell adhesion and cell-substrate interactions. Third, detection biosensors are also attracting attention due to their high sensitivity, ability to track cells in real time without labeling, and ability to differentiate between viable and nonviable cells. Finally, recent advancements in the fabrication of acoustic biosensors have enabled cells themselves to act as biosensors to detect analytes. All designed acoustic platforms are aimed at studying the cell, the basic unit of life, from different perspectives. The facts discussed in this chapter are based on phenomena that cannot be visualized by the eye, such as cellular interactions, or factors present in such small quantities, but they can be heard by tracking their acoustic sounds.

  • 214.
    Damiati, Samar
    KTH.
    In Situ Microfluidic Preparation and Solidification of Alginate Microgels2020In: Macromolecular Research, ISSN 1598-5032, E-ISSN 2092-7673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomimetic fabrication of alginate beads has promising applications in the field of synthetic bioarchitecture. Combining microfluidic technology with in situ gelation enables the creation of alginate microgels with precisely tunable size, as well as allowing control of the crosslinking process. Owing to the wide range of applications of alginate microgel beads, this study aimed to develop various microfluidic models for the generation of such beads by investigating the influence of several parameters on their morphologies and dispersity. Four types of glass microfluidic chips with flow focusing or co-flowing droplet generators were used to continuously form alginate droplets, with the possibility of either internal or external alginate gelation by a cross-linking agent supplied by a microfluidic channel. In all four models, alginate was used at a fixed concentration, Span 80 was used as a surfactant to improve the long-term stability of the beads, either mineral oil or oleic acid was used as a continuous phase, and either calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium chloride (CaCl2) was used as a crosslinking agent. The generated beads exhibited various architectures, including individual monodisperse or polydisperse beads, small clusters, and multicompartment systems. The results of the study revealed the importance of microfluidic design and gelation strategy for the generation of stable polymeric architectures. The current study proposes a simple user’s guide to create alginate microgels in various architectures. The fabricated biomimetic models in the form of polymeric-based vesicles can be further exploited in several applications, including cell-like structures, tissue engineering, and cell and drug encapsulation. Additional investigations will be needed, however, to improve these models so that they more closely resemble the natural structures of cells and tissues. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]. 

  • 215.
    Damiati, Samar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. King Abdulaziz Univ, Dept Biochem, Fac Sci, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Sci Life Lab, Div Nanobiotechnol, S-17121 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sopstad, Sindre
    Univ South Eastern Norway, Fac Technol Nat Sci & Maritime, Dept Microsyst, N-3184 Borre, Norway..
    Peacock, Martin
    Zimmer & Peacock Ltd, Royston SG8 9JL, England..
    Akhtar, Ahmad Saleem
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Pinto, Ines Fernandes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Soares, Ruben R. G.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Flex Printed Circuit Board Implemented Grapene-Based DNA Sensor for Detection of SARS-CoV-22021In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 13060-13067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the COVID-19 outbreak was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020, ongoing efforts have been made to develop sensitive diagnostic platforms. Detection of viral RNA provides the highest sensitivity and specificity for detection of early and asymptomatic infections. Thus, this work aimed at developing a label-free genosensor composed of graphene as a working electrode that could be embedded into a flex printed circuit board (FPCB) for the rapid, sensitive, amplification-free and label-free detection of SARS-CoV-2. To facilitate liquid handling and ease of use, the developed biosensor was embedded with a user-friendly reservoir chamber. As a proof-of-concept, detection of a synthetic DNA strand matching the sequence of ORF1ab was performed as a two-step strategy involving the immobilization of a biotinylated complementary sequence on a streptavidin-modified surface, followed by hybridization with the target sequence recorded by the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) technique in the presence of a ferro/ferricyanide redox couple. The effective design of the sensing platform improved its selectivity and sensitivity and allowed DNA quantification ranging from 100 fg/mL to 1 mu g/mL. Combining the electrochemical technique with FPCB enabled rapid detection of the target sequence using a small volume of the sample (5-20 mu L). We achieved a limit-of-detection of 100 fg/mL, whereas the predicted value was similar to 33 fg/mL, equivalent to approximately 5 x 10(5) copies/mL and comparable to sensitivities provided by isothermal nucleic acid amplification tests. We believe that the developed approach proves the ability of an FPCB-implemented DNA sensor to act as a potentially simpler and more affordable diagnostic assay for viral infections in Point-Of-Care (POC) applications.

  • 216. Danielsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Tebani, Abdellah
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Department of Metabolic Biochemistry, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France; Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, CHU Rouen, INSERM U1245, Rouen, France.
    Zhong, Wen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fagerberg, Linn
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Systems Biology.
    Brusselaers, Nele
    Hård, Anna-Lena
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Systems Biology.
    Hellström, Ann
    Blood protein profiles related to preterm birth and retinopathy of prematurity2021In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 217.
    David, Deepthi Anna
    et al.
    Department of Applied Chemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, 682022, India; Materials Science and NanoEngineering Lab (MSNE-Lab), Department of Polymer Science and Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, 682022, India.
    Jabeen Fatima, M. J.
    Materials Science and NanoEngineering Lab (MSNE-Lab), Department of Polymer Science and Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, 682022, India.
    Khan, Abdullah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Joy, Roshny
    Materials Science and NanoEngineering Lab (MSNE-Lab), Department of Polymer Science and Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, 682022, India.
    Thakur, Vijay Kumar
    Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Centre, SRUC, Parkgate, Barony Campus, DGI 3NE Dumfries, Edinburgh, UK.
    Ruiz-Rosas, Ramiro Rafael
    Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Andalucía Tech., Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29010, Málaga, Spain, Campus de Teatinos s/n.
    Ozden, Shemus
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08540, USA; Aramco Americas, Aramco Research Center-Houston, 16300 Park Row, Houston, TX, 77084, USA, 16300 Park Row.
    Raghavan, Prasanth
    Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Centre, Scotland’s Rural College, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK; Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University (GNU), 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju, 52828, Republic of Korea, 501 Jinju-daero; Department of Polymer Science and Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, 682022, India.
    Porous Carbon Materials and Their Composites for Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding: The State-of-the-Art of Technologies2023In: Materials Horizons: From Nature to Nanomaterials, Springer Nature , 2023, p. 669-702Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Portable gadgets and electronic devices are pervasive in any modern society today. However, these devices transmit electromagnetic radiations in radio frequency range called electromagnetic interference (EMI) which interfere with other electronic technologies. One of the most common hazards of EMI is the harm it can cause to medical devices and make them unreliable. Apart from this, EMI may affect the human tissue as well as can ignite flammables if not shielded. Hence, it is necessary to develop a material to absorb these EM waves. EMI shielding blocks radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation and can reduce the coupling of radio waves, electromagnetic fields, and electrostatic fields. EMI shielding depends mainly on electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability of shield material, the frequency of radiation. EMI shielding mainly involves three mechanisms: reflection, absorption, and multiple reflection. Reflection is often known as the primary mechanism for EMI where the shield material should possess mobile charge carriers such as electrons or holes, which interact with the EM field in the radiation. Since metals have more free electrons, they attenuate EM radiation significantly by reflection. For shielding by absorption, the shield should possess either electrical or magnetic dipoles, which interact with incoming EM radiation and help in the attenuation of EM radiation by absorption. Materials having a high dielectric constant, such as zinc oxide or barium titanate, may provide electric dipoles, while materials having a high magnetic permeability, such as ferrite or nickel, may offer magnetic dipoles. Multiple reflections also help in the attenuation of EM radiation. There are variety of materials employed for the fabrication of EMI shielding application including metals, polymers, carbon, ceramics, and their composite materials. Among these materials, the demand of carbon materials and their composites is growing for EMI shielding. Carbon materials are more attractive over metals which are by far the most common materials for this application, due to their oxidation resistance, chemical and thermal stability as well as lower density, and high dielectric loss properties. Since last two decades, among other 1D and 2D carbon-based materials; 3D porous graphite and amorphous carbon have been successfully developed, and their microwave absorption performance has been tested by many researchers. This chapter summarizes the state-of-the-art technological advanced in the area of EMI shielding with the focus on carbon and carbon-based composites.

  • 218.
    de Jong, Gerard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. University of Leeds, United Kingdom .
    Freight Service Valuation and Elasticities2013In: Modelling Freight Transport, Elsevier, 2013, p. 201-227Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, plans for transport infrastructure projects and transport policy measures are evaluated ex ante using cost-benefit analysis. This requires a conversion of benefits and disbenefits that by their nature are not in money units into money. Important examples are the transport time benefits and transport time variability benefits. A secondary practical reason to undertake freight service valuation studies is that some components of freight transport models need a conversion factor from outside the model, because it is not possible, inefficient or inconsistent (with regards to other components) to estimate the conversion factor within the model component itself. In this chapter we will discuss the methods that can be used to derive such values and we provide an overview of outcomes.The main use of elasticities is in high-level models, to get a first impression of the likely impacts of some policy measure. In this chapter, we will review the outcomes of the elasticity literature, distinguishing transport cost and time elasticities.

  • 219.
    de Jong, Gerard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. University of Leeds, United Kingdom .
    Mode Choice Models2013In: Modelling Freight Transport, Elsevier, 2013, p. 117-141Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many freight transport flows, several modes (e.g. road, rail, inland waterway transport) are available. Mode choice models try to explain the allocation of a given total freight transport demand to these modes. The explanatory variables usually include transport time and cost, but there can be other influences as well (such as transport time reliability). This chapter provides a review of the basic disaggregate choice theory in the context of freight mode choice. It also discusses choice in freight transport that are sometimes included together with mode choice in joint models. Practical examples are provided of aggregate and disaggregate mode choice models and joint models.

  • 220.
    de Jong, Gerard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Vierth, Inge
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Tavasszy, L.
    Ben-Akiva, M.
    Recent developments in national and international freight transport models within Europe2013In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 347-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past decade has seen many new freight transport models for use in transport planning by public authorities. Some of these models have developed new concepts, such as logistics modules, inclusion of transshipments, storage and sourcing and the determination of shipment size. This paper provides a review of the European literature on freight transport models that operate at the national or international level and have been developed since 2004. The introduction of elements of logistics thinking is identified as a common theme in recently developed models, and further worked out. Furthermore, ideas on what might be the next key developments in freight transport modelling are presented.

  • 221. de Rivero Vaccari, J. P.
    et al.
    Mim, Carsten
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Structural Biotechnology.
    Hadad, R.
    Cyr, B.
    Stefansdottir, Thorunn Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Keane, R. W.
    Mechanism of action of IC 100, a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody targeting apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC)2023In: Translational Research: The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, ISSN 1931-5244, E-ISSN 1878-1810, Vol. 251, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes of the innate immune response that recognize a diverse range of intracellular sensors of infection or cell damage and recruit the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) into an inflammasome signaling complex. The recruitment, polymerization and cross-linking of ASC is upstream of caspase-1 activation and interleukin-1β release. Here we provide evidence that IC 100, a humanized IgG4κ monoclonal antibody against ASC, is internalized into the cell and localizes with endosomes, while another part is recycled and redistributed out of the cell. IC 100 binds intracellular ASC and blocks interleukin-1β release in a human whole blood cell inflammasome assay. In vitro studies demonstrate that IC 100 interferes with ASC polymerization and assembly of ASC specks. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed that IC 100 has broad tissue distribution, crosses the blood brain barrier, and readily penetrates the brain and spinal cord parenchyma. Confocal microscopy of fluorescent-labeled IC 100 revealed that IC 100 is rapidly taken up by macrophages via a mechanism utilizing the Fc region of IC 100. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments and confocal immunohistochemistry showed that IC 100 binds to ASC and to the atypical antibody receptor Tripartite motif-containing protein-21 (TRIM21). In A549 WT and TRIM21 KO cells treated with either IC 100 or IgG4κ isotype control, the levels of intracellular IC 100 were higher than in the IgG4κ-treated controls at 2 hours, 1 day and 3 days after administration, indicating that IC 100 escapes degradation by the proteasome. Lastly, electron microscopy studies demonstrate that IC 100 binds to ASC filaments and alters the architecture of ASC filaments. Thus, IC 100 readily penetrates a variety of cell types, and it binds to intracellular ASC, but it is not degraded by the TRIM21 antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization pathway. 

  • 222.
    De Tomasi, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Phys, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Khaymovich, Ivan M.
    SU Nordita; Max Planck Inst Phys Komplexer Syst, Nothnitzer Str 38, D-01187 Dresden, Germany.;Russian Acad Sci, Inst Phys Microstruct, GSP-105, Nizhnii Novgorod 603950, Russia.;Stockholm Univ, Nordita, Hannes Alfvens Vag 12, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Non-Hermitian Rosenzweig-Porter random-matrix ensemble: Obstruction to the fractal phase2022In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 106, no 9, article id 094204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the stability of nonergodic but extended (NEE) phases in non-Hermitian systems. For this purpose, we generalize the so-called Rosenzweig-Porter random-matrix ensemble, known to carry a NEE phase along with the Anderson localized and ergodic ones, to the non-Hermitian case. We analyze, both analytically and numerically, the spectral and multifractal properties of the non-Hermitian case. We show that the ergodic and localized phases are stable against the non-Hermitian nature of matrix entries. However, the stability of the fractal phase depends on the choice of the diagonal elements. For purely real or imaginary diagonal potential, the fractal phase is intact, while for a generic complex diagonal potential the fractal phase disappears, giving way to a localized one.

  • 223.
    De Tomasi, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080, USA.
    Khaymovich, Ivan M.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Nordita SU; Stockholm University, Hannes Alfvéns väg 12, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, GSP-105, Russia.
    Non-Hermiticity induces localization: Good and bad resonances in power-law random banded matrices2023In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 108, no 18, article id L180202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The power-law random banded matrix (PLRBM) is a paradigmatic ensemble to study the Anderson localization transition (AT). In d dimensions, the PLRBMs are random matrices with algebraic decaying off-diagonal elements Hnm∼1/|n-m|α, having AT at α=d. In this work, we investigate the fate of the PLRBM to non-Hermiticity (nH). We consider the case where the random on-site diagonal potential takes complex values, mimicking an open system, subject to random gain-loss terms. We understand the model analytically by generalizing the Anderson-Levitov resonance counting technique to the nH case. We identify two competing mechanisms due to nH: favoring localization and delocalization. The competition between the two gives rise to AT at d/2≤α≤d. The value of the critical α depends on the strength of the on-site potential, like in Hermitian disordered short-range models in d>2. Within the localized phase, the wave functions are algebraically localized with an exponent α even for α<d. This result provides an example of non-Hermiticity-induced localization and finds immediate application in phase transitions driven by weak measurements.

  • 224.
    Deegalla, Sampath
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Boström, Henrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Reducing high-dimensional data by principal component analysis vs. random projection for nearest neighbor classification2006In: Publications of the Finnish Artificial Intelligence Society, 2006, p. 23-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The computational cost of using nearest neighbor classification often prevents the method from being applied in practice when dealing with high-dimensional data, such as images and micro arrays. One possible solution to this problem is to reduce the dimensionality of the data, ideally without loosing predictive performance. Two different dimensionality reduction methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and random projection (RP), are compared w.r.t. the performance of the resulting nearest neighbor classifier on five image data sets and two micro array data sets. The experimental results show that PCA results in higher accuracy than RP for all the data sets used in this study. However, it is also observed that RP generally outperforms PCA for higher numbers of dimensions. This leads to the conclusion that PCA is more suitable in time-critical cases (i.e., when distance calculations involving only a few dimensions can be afforded), while RP can be more suitable when less severe dimensionality reduction is required. In 6 respectively 4 cases out of 7, the use of PCA and RP even outperform using the non-reduced feature set, hence not only resulting in more efficient, but also more effective, nearest neighbor classification.

  • 225.
    Deka, Shankar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Narayanan, Sriram S.K.S.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Vaidya, Umesh
    Clemson University, Dept. of Mechanical Engr., Clemson, SC.
    Path-Integral Formula for Computing Koopman Eigenfunctions2023In: 2023 62nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 6641-6646Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is about the computation of the principal spectrum of the Koopman operator (i.e., eigenvalues and eigenfunctions). The principal eigenfunctions of the Koopman operator are the ones with the corresponding eigenvalues equal to the eigenvalues of the linearization of the nonlinear system at an equilibrium point. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a novel approach for computing the principal eigenfunctions using a path-integral formula. Furthermore, we provide conditions based on the stability property of the dynamical system and the eigenvalues of the linearization towards computing the principal eigenfunction using the path-integral formula. Further, we provide a Deep Neural Network framework that utilizes our proposed path-integral approach for eigenfunction computation in high-dimension systems. Finally, we present simulation results for the computation of principal eigenfunction and demonstrate their application for determining the stable and unstable manifolds and constructing the Lyapunov function.

  • 226. Dellaert, B. G. C.
    et al.
    Ettema, D. F.
    Lindh, C.
    KTH.
    Multi-faceted tourist travel decisions: A constraint-based conceptual framework to describe tourists' sequential choices of travel components2012In: Tourism Management, Taylor and Francis , 2012, p. 9-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assume that tourists' travel choices can be regarded as the outcome of a sequential scheduling process in which a number of decisions are scheduled over a longer period (e.g. varying from a few days to several months) and that those decisions take into account restrictions because of time and money budgets and coupling constraints caused by work, family and friendship-based relationships. Then, the specific contribution of this paper is to introduce a conceptual framework that allows one to analyze tourists' travel behavior that incorporates this type of temporal sequencing of multi-faceted travel decisions as well as relevant decision-making constraints. In line with most research on travel choice, our discussion will be restricted to holiday travel only. It should also be noted that though our analysis allows us to look at multiple facets within the trip choice, we focus on tourists' choices of single trips. Thus, we leave the extension of the proposed framework to include choices of multiple trips over longer periods of time for future research. 

  • 227.
    Dely, Hamza
    et al.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Cite, CNRS, Lab Phys, Ecole Normale Super, ENS, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Joharifar, Mahdieh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Photonics.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Photonics. RISE Res Inst Sweden, S-16440 Kista, Sweden..
    Gacemi, Djamal
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Cite, CNRS, Lab Phys, Ecole Normale Super, ENS, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Salgals, Toms
    Riga Tech Univ, Inst Telecommun, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia..
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Photonics.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Photonics.
    Bonazzi, Thomas
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Cite, CNRS, Lab Phys, Ecole Normale Super, ENS, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Rodriguez, Etienne
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Cite, CNRS, Lab Phys, Ecole Normale Super, ENS, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Todorov, Yanko
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Cite, CNRS, Lab Phys, Ecole Normale Super, ENS, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Vasanelli, Angela
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Cite, CNRS, Lab Phys, Ecole Normale Super, ENS, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Udalcovs, Aleksejs
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, S-16440 Kista, Sweden..
    Spolitis, Sandis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Riga Tech Univ, Inst Telecommun, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia..
    Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Riga Tech Univ, Inst Telecommun, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia..
    Ozolins, Oskars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Photonics. RISE Res Inst Sweden, S-16440 Kista, Sweden.;Riga Tech Univ, Inst Telecommun, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia..
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Photonics.
    Sirtori, Arlo
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Cite, CNRS, Lab Phys, Ecole Normale Super, ENS, F-75005 Paris, France..
    High bitrate data transmission in the 8-14 mu m atmospheric window using an external Stark-effect modulator with digital equalization2023In: Optics Express, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 7259-7264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High bitrate mid-infrared links using simple (NRZ) and multi-level (PAM-4) data coding schemes have been realized in the 8 pm to 14 pm atmospheric transparency window. The free space optics system is composed of unipolar quantum optoelectronic devices, namely a continuous wave quantum cascade laser, an external Stark-effect modulator and a quantum cascade detector, all operating at room-temperature. Pre- and post-processing are implemented to get enhanced bitrates, especially for PAM-4 where inter-symbol interference and noise are particularly detrimental to symbol demodulation. By exploiting these equalization procedures, our system, with a full frequency cutoff of 2 GHz, has reached transmission bitrates of 12 Gbit/s NRZ and 11 Gbit/s PAM-4 fulfilling the 6.25 % overhead hard-decision forward error correction threshold, limited only by the low signal-to-noise ratio of our detector.

  • 228.
    Deng, Xiaolong
    et al.
    Leibniz-Rechenzentrum, Boltzmannstr. 1, D-85748 Garching bei München, Germany, Boltzmannstr. 1.
    Khaymovich, Ivan M.
    Nordita SU.
    Burin, Alexander L.
    Department of Chemistry, School of Science & Engineering, https://ror.org/04vmvtb21 Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118, USA.
    Superdiffusion in a random two-dimensional system with time-reversal symmetry and long-range hopping2024In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 109, no 17, article id 174208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is recognized that Anderson localization takes place for all states at a dimension d less than or equal to 2, while delocalization is expected for hopping V(r) decreasing with the distance slower or as r-d, the localization problem in the crossover regime for the dimension d=2 and hopping V(r)â r-2 is not resolved yet. Following earlier suggestions we show that for the hopping determined by two-dimensional anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions in the presence of time-reversal symmetry there exist two distinguishable phases at weak and strong disorder. The first phase is characterized by ergodic dynamics and superdiffusive transport, while the second phase is characterized by diffusive transport and delocalized eigenstates with fractal dimension less than 2. The transition between phases is resolved analytically using the extension of scaling theory of localization and verified numerically using an exact numerical diagonalization.

  • 229.
    Derba-Maceluch, Marta
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Umeå Plant Sci Ctr, Dept Forest Genet & Plant Physiol, Umeå, Sweden..
    Sivan, Pramod
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Umeå Plant Sci Ctr, Dept Forest Genet & Plant Physiol, Umeå, Sweden.
    Donev, Evgeniy N.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Umeå Plant Sci Ctr, Dept Forest Genet & Plant Physiol, Umeå, Sweden..
    Gandla, Madhavi Latha
    Umeå Univ, Dept Chem, Umeå, Sweden..
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Enhet Produktionssystem & Mat, Växjö, Sweden..
    Vaasan, Rakhesh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience.
    Heinonen, Emilia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience. AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Dept Chem, Div Glycoscience, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Sanna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Umeå Plant Sci Ctr, Dept Forest Genet & Plant Physiol, Umeå, Sweden..
    Amini, Fariba
    Umeå Univ, Umeå Plant Sci Ctr, Dept Plant Physiol, Umeå, Sweden.;Arak Univ, Fac Sci, Biol Dept, Arak, Iran..
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Enhet Produktionssystem & Mat, Växjö, Sweden..
    Johansson, Ulf
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Tonnersjoheden Expt Forest, Simlangsdalen, Sweden..
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Dept Chem, Div Glycoscience, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå Univ, Umeå Plant Sci Ctr, Dept Plant Physiol, Umeå, Sweden..
    Hertzberg, Magnus
    SweTree Technol AB, Umeå, Sweden..
    Jonsson, Leif J.
    Umeå Univ, Dept Chem, Umeå, Sweden..
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Umeå Plant Sci Ctr, Dept Forest Genet & Plant Physiol, Umeå, Sweden..
    Impact of xylan on field productivity and wood saccharification properties in aspen2023In: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 14, article id 1218302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xylan that comprises roughly 25% of hardwood biomass is undesirable in biorefinery applications involving saccharification and fermentation. Efforts to reduce xylan levels have therefore been made in many species, usually resulting in improved saccharification. However, such modified plants have not yet been tested under field conditions. Here we evaluate the field performance of transgenic hybrid aspen lines with reduced xylan levels and assess their usefulness as short-rotation feedstocks for biorefineries. Three types of transgenic lines were tested in four-year field tests with RNAi constructs targeting either Populus GT43 clades B and C (GT43BC) corresponding to Arabidopsis clades IRX9 and IRX14, respectively, involved in xylan backbone biosynthesis, GATL1.1 corresponding to AtGALT1 involved in xylan reducing end sequence biosynthesis, or ASPR1 encoding an atypical aspartate protease. Their productivity, wood quality traits, and saccharification efficiency were analyzed. The only lines differing significantly from the wild type with respect to growth and biotic stress resistance were the ASPR1 lines, whose stems were roughly 10% shorter and narrower and leaves showed increased arthropod damage. GT43BC lines exhibited no growth advantage in the field despite their superior growth in greenhouse experiments. Wood from the ASPR1 and GT43BC lines had slightly reduced density due to thinner cell walls and, in the case of ASPR1, larger cell diameters. The xylan was less extractable by alkali but more hydrolysable by acid, had increased glucuronosylation, and its content was reduced in all three types of transgenic lines. The hemicellulose size distribution in the GALT1.1 and ASPR1 lines was skewed towards higher molecular mass compared to the wild type. These results provide experimental evidence that GATL1.1 functions in xylan biosynthesis and suggest that ASPR1 may regulate this process. In saccharification without pretreatment, lines of all three constructs provided 8-11% higher average glucose yields than wild-type plants. In saccharification with acid pretreatment, the GT43BC construct provided a 10% yield increase on average. The best transgenic lines of each construct are thus predicted to modestly outperform the wild type in terms of glucose yields per hectare. The field evaluation of transgenic xylan-reduced aspen represents an important step towards more productive feedstocks for biorefineries.

  • 230. Derix, Christian
    et al.
    Izaki, Åsmund
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Spatial computing for the new organic2013In: Architectural Design, ISSN 0003-8504, E-ISSN 1554-2769, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 231. Derksen, R. H.
    et al.
    Wang, K.
    Networking and Transmission Laboratory, Acreo AB, Electrum 236, Kista, SE-164 40, Sweden;Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, Kista, SE-164 40, Sweden; Beijing Institute of Technology, 5 South Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081, China.
    Li, J.
    Djupsjöbacka, A.
    Jacobsen, G.
    Chacinski, Marek
    KTH.
    Westergren, Urban
    KTH.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH.
    Hurm, V.
    Makon, R. E.
    Driad, R.
    Walcher, H.
    Rosenzweig, J.
    Steffan, A. G.
    Mekonnen, G. G.
    Bach, H. -G
    Schubert, C.
    Setting the stage for 100GbE serial standard - The HECTO project2010In: World Telecommunications Congress 2010, WTC 2010, VDE Verlag GmbH , 2010, p. 118-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard for 100GbE will be adopted in 2010, defining transmission via 4 x 25 Gbit/s. A solution employing 1 x 100 Gbit/s would be cheaper - if the appropriate integrated components were available. These components now have been developed in the project HECTO. The project is shortly described and the main results are presented: the achieved performance of the components itself and the achieved system performance in a field trial. The complete ETDM system with monolithically integrated transmitter and receiver modules featured BER performance below standard FEC threshold (2 - 10 -3 ) in a field-link transmission with 112 Gbit/s over 42 km standard single-mode fibre.

  • 232. Di Siena, A.
    et al.
    Görler, T.
    Doerk, H.
    Bilato, R.
    Citrin, J.
    Johnson, T.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES). VR Association.
    Schneider, M.
    Poli, E.
    Non-Maxwellian fast particle effects in gyrokinetic GENE simulations2018In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 25, no 4, article id 042304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast ions have recently been found to significantly impact and partially suppress plasma turbulence both in experimental and numerical studies in a number of scenarios. Understanding the underlying physics and identifying the range of their beneficial effect is an essential task for future fusion reactors, where highly energetic ions are generated through fusion reactions and external heating schemes. However, in many of the gyrokinetic codes fast ions are, for simplicity, treated as equivalent-Maxwellian-distributed particle species, although it is well known that to rigorously model highly non-thermalised particles, a non-Maxwellian background distribution function is needed. To study the impact of this assumption, the gyrokinetic code GENE has recently been extended to support arbitrary background distribution functions which might be either analytical, e.g., slowing down and bi-Maxwellian, or obtained from numerical fast ion models. A particular JET plasma with strong fast-ion related turbulence suppression is revised with these new code capabilities both with linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. It appears that the fast ion stabilization tends to be less strong but still substantial with more realistic distributions, and this improves the quantitative power balance agreement with experiments. 

  • 233.
    Di Vecchia, Paolo
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Heissenberg, Carlo
    Stockholm Univ, Hannes Alfvens Vag 12, SE-11419 Stockholm, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Lagerhyddsvagen 1,Box 516, SE-75237 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Russo, Rodolfo
    Queen Mary Univ London, Ctr Res String Theory, Sch Phys & Astron, Mile End Rd, London E1 4NS, England..
    Veneziano, Gabriele
    CERN, Theory Dept, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.;Coll France, 11 Pl M Berthelot, F-75005 Paris, France..
    The eikonal approach to gravitational scattering and radiation at O(G(3))2021In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 7, article id 169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using N = 8 supergravity as a theoretical laboratory, we extract the 3PM gravitational eikonal for two colliding massive scalars from the classical limit of the corresponding elastic two-loop amplitude. We employ the eikonal phase to obtain the physical deflection angle and to show how its non-relativistic (NR) and ultra-relativistic (UR) regimes are smoothly connected. Such a smooth interpolation rests on keeping contributions to the loop integrals originating from the full soft region, rather than restricting it to its potential sub-region. This task is efficiently carried out by using the method of differential equations with complete near-static boundary conditions. In contrast to the potential-region result, the physical deflection angle includes radiation-reaction contributions that are essential for recovering the finite and universal UR limit implied by general analyticity and crossing arguments. We finally discuss the real emission of massless states, which accounts for the imaginary part of the 3PM eikonal and for the dissipation of energy-momentum. Adopting a direct approach based on unitarity and on the classical limit of the inelastic tree-level amplitude, we are able to treat N = 8 and General Relativity on the same footing, and to complete the conservative 3PM eikonal in Einstein's gravity by the addition of the radiation-reaction contribution. We also show how this approach can be used to compute waveforms, as well as the differential and integrated spectra, for the different radiated massless fields.

  • 234.
    Ding, Wei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. School of Material and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology; Bayan Obo multimetallic resource comprehensive utilization Key lab, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Li, Yan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Bayan Obo multimetallic resource comprehensive utilization Key lab, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology.
    Heat treatment, microstructure and mechanical properties of a C-Mn-Al-P hot dip galvanizing TRIP steel2016In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 674, p. 151-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat treatments of a hot dip galvanizing TRIP (Transformation induced plasticity) steel with chemical composition 0.20C-1.50Mn-1.2Al-0.07P(mass%) were performed in a Gleeble 3500 laboratory equipment. The heat treatment process parameters were varied to investigate the effect of intercritical annealing temperature as well as isothermal bainitic transformation (IBT) temperature and time, on the microstructure and the mechanical properties. The microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, while mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile testing. Furthermore, to generate a better understanding of the phase transformations during heat treatment, dilatometry trials were conducted. The desired microstructure containing ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and martensite was obtained after the heat treatments. It was further found that the IBT is critical in determining the mechanical properties of the steel, since it controls the fraction of bainite. With increasing bainite fraction, the fraction of retained austenite increases while the fraction of martensite decreases. The mechanical properties of the steel are excellent with a tensile strength above 780 MPa (expect in one case) and elongation above 22%.

  • 235.
    Dipasquale, C.
    et al.
    Institute for Renewable Energy, EURAC Research, Via A. Volta, 13A, Bolzano, I-39100, Italy.
    Fedrizzi, R.
    Institute for Renewable Energy, EURAC Research, Via A. Volta, 13A, Bolzano, I-39100, Italy.
    Bellini, A.
    Institute for Renewable Energy, EURAC Research, Via A. Volta, 13A, Bolzano, I-39100, Italy.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Environmental Technology and Management, Linköping University, s-581 83 Linköping, Sweden.
    Ochs, F.
    Unit for Energy Efficient Buildings, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 13, Innsbruck, A-6020, Austria.
    Bales, C.
    Energy Technology, Högskolan Dalarna, 791 88 Falun, Sweden.
    Database of energy, environmental and economic indicators of renovation packages for European residential buildings2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 203, article id 109427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the energy efficiency with a vast impact in the residential building stock requires retrofit solutions that can be exploited with respect to a wide range of different building typologies and climates. Several tools and methodologies are nowadays available both for the assessment of building demands and for the individuation of optimum retrofit solutions. However, they are usually either too complex to be adopted by professionals or, on the contrary, oversimplified to account for the full complexity of a deep envelope and HVAC system retrofit. In this context, this paper describes a methodology developed to generate reliable information on retrofit solutions for typical buildings in different climatic conditions. Detailed numerical models are used to simulate a number of combinations of envelope and HVAC systems retrofit measures and renewable energy integration. Energy performance results are gathered in a database that allows comparing solutions, spanning over a range of more than 250,000 combinations of building types, age of construction, climates, envelope performance levels and HVAC systems configurations. Economic feasibility is also derived for each of the combinations. In this way, the accurateness of a detailed and validated calculation is made available to assist during the decision making process, with minimum computational effort being required by professionals: the variety and density of evaluated combinations allows to easily assess the performance of a specific case by interpolating among instances previously assessed. The applicability of the results to different climates and similar building typologies is verified by a comparison of the database results with a specific case dynamic simulation.

  • 236.
    Dispenza, Clelia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry. Università Degli Studi di Palermo, Italy.
    Sabatino, M. A.
    Grimaldi, N.
    Mangione, M. R.
    Walo, M.
    Murugan, Eagambaram
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    On the origin of functionalization in one-pot radiation synthesis of nanogels from aqueous polymer solutions2016In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 2582-2591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation-engineered poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) nanogels are very interesting biocompatible nanocarriers for i.v. administration of therapeutics and contrast agents for bioimaging. The manufacturing process is fast and effective, it grants excellent control of particle size and simultaneous sterilization of the formed nanogels. Interestingly, primary amino groups and carboxyl groups, useful for (bio) conjugation, are also formed in a dose-dependent fashion. In this paper, by means of both numerical simulations and experiments, the origin of nanogel size control and functionalization is investigated. This understanding offers a new dimension for the design and production of radiation-sculptured multifunctional nanocarriers from aqueous solutions of polymers.

  • 237.
    Dofs, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Tho, Nguyen Xuan
    School of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam International School Park City Hanoi, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    The equation x(1)/x(2) + x(2)/x(3) + x(3)/x(4) + x(4)/x(1) = n2022In: International Journal of Number Theory, ISSN 1793-0421, Vol. 18, no 01, p. 75-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a subtle question as to when the Diophantine equation of the tittle has solutions in positive integers. Here, we show that the equation in the title does not have solutions in positive integers in the case that n is of the form n = 4q, where q(2) - 1 = 2(h)q(1), with h, q(1) is an element of Z(+), 2 vertical bar h, h >= 4, and 8 vertical bar q(1) + 1. We do this by explicitly calculating a Brauer-Manin obstruction to weak approximation on the elliptic surface defined by the title equation.

  • 238.
    Dong, H
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Chemistry.
    Pei, Z C
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Chemistry.
    Ramström, Olof
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Chemistry.
    Ester activation in nitrite-mediated carbohydrate epimerization2005In: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 230, p. U683-U683Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Donnay, Laura
    et al.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.;INFN, Sez Trieste, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste, Italy..
    Esmaeili, Erfan
    Inst Res Fundamental Sci IPM, Sch Phys, POB 193955531, Tehran, Iran..
    Heissenberg, Carlo
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Nordita, Hannes Alfvens vag 12, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    p-forms on the celestial sphere2023In: SciPost Physics, E-ISSN 2542-4653, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct a basis of conformal primary wavefunctions (CPWs) for p-form fields in any dimension, calculating their scalar products and exhibiting the change of basis between conventional plane wave and CPW mode expansions. We also perform the analysis of the associated shadow transforms. For each family of p-form CPWs, we observe the existence of pure gauge wavefunctions of conformal dimension increment = p, while shadow p-forms of this weight are only pure gauge in the critical spacetime dimension value D = 2p + 2. We then provide a systematic technique to obtain the large -r asymptotic limit near .Q based on the method of regions, which naturally takes into account the presence of both ordinary and contact terms on the celestial sphere. In D = 4, this allows us to reformulate in a conformal primary language the links between scalars and dual two-forms.

  • 240. Drets, G. A.
    et al.
    Liljenström, Hans
    KTH.
    Fingerprint Sub-Classification: A Neural Network Approach2022In: Intelligent Biometric Techniques in Fingerprint and Face Recognition, Informa UK Limited , 2022, p. 106-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The modern era in fingerprint identification began at the end of last century, with Sir Francis Galton and Juan Vucetich, and at the beginning of the present century with Sir Edward Henry. Fingerprints are commonly associated with law enforcement applications, like criminal identification, but recently their application has been extended to more popular areas, such as access control, driver license applications, and bank transactions. Due to the great variety of fingerprint patterns, the application of Henry’s definitions of core and delta, stated previously, is not straightforward. The FBI proposes more specialized rules for locating the SPs in different archetypes of fingerprints. Human fingerprints are the most widespread mean of person identification. The use of fingerprints in law enforcement applications deals with large databases, so classification aids to narrow the search space for further matching stage. The process of counting ridges between singular points core and delta is the basis for fingerprint subclassification. 

  • 241.
    Drozdz, Piotr
    et al.
    Inst High Pressure Phys PAS, CENTERA Labs, Warsaw, Poland..
    Campion, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Anoshkin, Ilia
    KTH.
    Xenidis, Nikolaos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Lioubtchenko, Dmitri, V
    Inst High Pressure Phys PAS, CENTERA Labs, Warsaw, Poland..
    W-band waveguide embedded nanofiber absorber2021In: 2021 46Th International Conference On Infrared, Millimeter And Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THZ), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel type of absorber integrate into a standard WR-10 metal waveguide of is developed and measured. The absorber is based on alumina nanofibers covered with single or multi- carbon layers. Employing this technique for the CNT based absorbers offers a material with micron scales-oriented 3D microstructures, that is hybrid alumina nanofibers covered with carbon layer. These microstructures result in a low level of reflectance and good absorbance at 75-110 GHz frequency band due to the highly porous and low conductivity.

  • 242.
    Du, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Åbom, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Karlsson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Knutsson, M.
    Modelling of Acoustic Resonators Using the Linearized Navier Stokes Equations2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To tune the acoustics of intake systems resonators are often used. A problem with this solution is that the performance of these resonators can be affected a lot by flow. First, for low frequencies (Strouhal-numbers) the acoustic induced vorticity across a resonator inlet opening will create damping, which can reduce the efficiency. Secondly, the vorticity across the opening can also change the end-correction (added mass) for the resonator, which can modify the resonance frequency. However, the largest problem that can occur is whistling. This happens since the vortex-sound interaction across a resonator opening for certain Strouhal-numbers will amplify incoming sound waves. A whistling can then be created if this amplified sound forms a feedback loop, e.g., via reflections from system boundaries or the resonator. To analyse this kind of problem it is necessary to have a model that allows for both sound and vorticity and their interaction. This means using a convected wave equation type of model is not sufficient. A better approach is to apply the linearized Navier Stokes equations, which will give a full model of the vortex-sound effects. In this paper an effort to apply this approach on a set of generic resonators is described. Besides the numerical results comparisons with experiments are also presented.

  • 243.
    Du, Yi Hsien
    et al.
    Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
    Moroz, Sergej
    Nordita SU.
    Nguyen, Dung Xuan
    Center for Theoretical Physics of Complex Systems, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34126, Korea.
    Son, Dam Thanh
    Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
    Noncommutative field theory of the Tkachenko mode: Symmetries and decay rate2024In: Physical Review Research, E-ISSN 2643-1564, Vol. 6, no 1, article id L012040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct an effective field theory describing the collective Tkachenko oscillation mode of a vortex lattice in a two-dimensional rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in the long-wavelength regime. The theory has the form of a noncommutative field theory of a Nambu-Goldstone boson, which exhibits a noncommutative version of dipole symmetry. From the effective field theory, we show that, at zero temperature, the decay width Γ of the Tkachenko mode scales with its energy E as Γ∼E3 in the low-energy limit. We also discuss the width of the Tkachenko mode at a small temperature.

  • 244.
    Du, Yuxuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Ravikumar Bandaru, Satya V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Villanueva, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Complementary Simulations to Determine Heat Transfer Coefficients and the Maximum Heat Flux in Multi-Nozzle Spray Cooling Experiments2022In: International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, Proceedings, ICONE, ASME International , 2022, Vol. 5, article id V005T05A002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For Light Water Reactor (LWR) safety, spray cooling during severe accidents is one of the promising approaches to achieve In-Vessel Retention of corium by External Reactor Vessel Cooling (IVR-ERVC). To study the efficiency of multi-nozzle spray cooling (nozzles of 2×3 matrix) on a downward-facing FeCrAl heated surface, a lab-scale experimental facility was built. It should be emphasized, however, that a direct measurement of Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) on the sprayed side is challenging due to the strong interference of water flow and intrusiveness of standard instrumentation methods. In this paper, a 3D numerical model has been established with the same geometric and material parameters as the foil sample in a multi-nozzle upward spray cooling. Given the experimental temperature profiles on the sample's dry side measured by an IR camera, the complementary numerical simulations have revealed the HTCs and corresponding temperature profiles on the sprayed side, which enabled the prediction of the maximum heat fluxes (MHFs). The maximum heat fluxes for the given spray cooling conditions can reach up to 3.25 MWm2, which is more than adequate for what is required for a successful IVR-ERVC for high-power reactors. At the same time, the maximum temperature on the dry side at the highest input power is still much lower than the expected failure temperature of the sample material.

  • 245.
    Dubrova, Elena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems, Electronic and embedded systems.
    Selander, G.
    Näslund, Mats
    KTH.
    Lindqvist, Fredrik
    KTH.
    Lightweight message authentication for constrained devices2018In: WiSec 2018 - Proceedings of the 11th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, p. 196-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Message Authentication Codes (MACs) used in today's wireless communication standards may not be able to satisfy resource limitations of simpler 5G radio types and use cases such as machine type communications. As a possible solution, we present a lightweight message authentication scheme based on the cyclic redundancy check (CRC). It has been previously shown that a CRC with an irreducible generator polynomial as the key is an -almost XOR-universal (AXU) hash function with = (m + n)/2n-1, where m is the message size and n is the CRC size. While the computation of n-bit CRCs can be efficiently implemented in hardware using linear feedback shift registers, generating random degree-n irreducible polynomials is computationally expensive for large n. We propose using a product of k irreducible polynomials whose degrees sum up to n as a generator polynomial for an n-bit CRC and show that the resulting hash functions are -AXU with = (m + n)k/2n -k. The presented message authentication scheme can be seen as providing a trade-off between security and implementation efficiency.

  • 246.
    Dunnett, Kirsty
    et al.
    Nordita SU; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Bartlett, P. A.
    Asking the next generation: The implementation of pre-university students' ideas about physics laboratory preparation exercises2018In: Physics Education, ISSN 0031-9120, E-ISSN 1361-6552, Vol. 53, no 1, article id 015016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It was planned to introduce online pre-laboratory session activities to a first-year undergraduate physics laboratory course to encourage a minimum level of student preparation for experiments outside the laboratory environment. A group of 16 and 17 year old laboratory work-experience students were tasked to define and design a pre-laboratory activity based on experiments that they had been undertaking. This informed the structure, content and aims of the activities introduced to a first year physics undergraduate laboratory course, with the particular focus on practising the data handling. An implementation study showed how students could try to optimise high grades, rather than gain efficiency-enhancing experience if careful controls were not put in place by assessors. However, the work demonstrated that pre-university and first-year physics students can take an active role in developing scaffolding activities that can help to improve the performance of those that follow their footsteps.

  • 247.
    Dusart, Philip
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Fagerberg, Linn
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Perisic, L.
    Civelek, M.
    Struck, Eike
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO). KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hedin, U.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Trégouët, D. -A
    Renné, T.
    Odeberg, Jacob
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO). Coagulation Unit, Centre for Hematology, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Butler, Lynn M.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO). Clinical Chemistry and Blood Coagulation, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 76, Stockholm, Sweden Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246, Hamburg, Germany.
    A systems-approach reveals human nestin is an endothelial-enriched, angiogenesis-independent intermediate filament protein2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 14668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed during embryonic development, but considered largely restricted to areas of regeneration in the adult. Here, we perform a body-wide transcriptome and protein-profiling analysis to reveal that nestin is constitutively, and highly-selectively, expressed in adult human endothelial cells (EC), independent of proliferative status. Correspondingly, we demonstrate that it is not a marker for tumour EC in multiple malignancy types. Imaging of EC from different vascular beds reveals nestin subcellular distribution is shear-modulated. siRNA inhibition of nestin increases EC proliferation, and nestin expression is reduced in atherosclerotic plaque neovessels. eQTL analysis reveals an association between SNPs linked to cardiovascular disease and reduced aortic EC nestin mRNA expression. Our study challenges the dogma that nestin is a marker of proliferation, and provides insight into its regulation and function in EC. Furthermore, our systems-based approach can be applied to investigate body-wide expression profiles of any candidate protein. 

  • 248. Dutta, Amit Kumar
    et al.
    Hari, K. V. S.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Hanzo, Lajos
    Minimum-Error-Probability CFO Estimation for Multiuser MIMO-OFDM Systems2015In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 64, no 7, p. 2804-2818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation in the context of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems over noisy frequency-selective wireless channels with both single- and multiuser scenarios. We conceived a new approach for parameter estimation by discretizing the continuous-valued CFO parameter into a discrete set of bins and then invoked detection theory, analogous to the minimum-bit-error-ratio optimization framework for detecting the finite-alphabet received signal. Using this radical approach, we propose a novel CFO estimation method and study its performance using both analytical results and Monte Carlo simulations. We obtain expressions for the variance of the CFO estimation error and the resultant BER degradation with the single- user scenario. Our simulations demonstrate that the overall BER performance of a MIMO-OFDM system using the proposed method is substantially improved for all the modulation schemes considered, albeit this is achieved at increased complexity.

  • 249.
    Ebert, Stephen
    et al.
    Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.
    Yan, Ziqi
    KTH. Nordita SU.
    Anisotropic compactification of nonrelativistic M-theory2023In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, Vol. 2023, no 11, article id 135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study a decoupling limit of M-theory where the three-form gauge potential becomes critical. This limit leads to nonrelativistic M-theory coupled to a non-Lorentzian spacetime geometry. Nonrelativistic M-theory is U-dual to M-theory in the discrete light cone quantization, a non-perturbative approach related to the Matrix theory description of M-theory. We focus on the compactification of nonrelativistic M-theory over a two-torus that exhibits anisotropic behaviors due to the foliation structure of the spacetime geometry. We develop a frame covariant formalism of the toroidal geometry, which provides a geometrical interpretation of the recently discovered polynomial realization of SL(2 , ℤ) duality in nonrelativistic type IIB superstring theory. We will show that the nonrelativistic IIB string background fields transform as polynomials of an effective Galilean “boost velocity” on the two-torus. As an application, we construct an action principle describing a single M5-brane in nonrelativistic M-theory and study its compactification over the anisotropic two-torus. This procedure leads to a D3-brane action in nonrelativistic IIB string theory that makes the SL(2 , ℤ) invariance manifest in the polynomial realization.

  • 250.
    Eckert, Johannes A.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, AIMES Ctr Advancement Integrated Med & Engn Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Solnavagen 9, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Dept Biol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Rosenberg, Ming
    Karolinska Inst, AIMES Ctr Advancement Integrated Med & Engn Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Solnavagen 9, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rhen, Mikael
    Karolinska Inst, AIMES Ctr Advancement Integrated Med & Engn Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Solnavagen 9, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Choong, Ferdinand X.
    Karolinska Inst, AIMES Ctr Advancement Integrated Med & Engn Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Solnavagen 9, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    KTH, Centres, Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences, AIMES. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Solnavagen 9, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    An optotracer-based antibiotic susceptibility test specifically targeting the biofilm lifestyle of Salmonella2022In: Biofilm, E-ISSN 2590-2075, Vol. 4, p. 100083-, article id 100083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimicrobial resistance is a medical threat of global dimensions. Proper antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for drug development, patient diagnosis and treatment is crucial to counteract ineffective drug use and resistance development. Despite the important role of bacterial biofilms in chronic and device-associated in-fections, the efficacy of antibiotics is determined using planktonic cultures. To address the need for antibiotics targeting bacteria in the biofilm lifestyle, we here present an optotracing-based biofilm-AST using Salmonella as model. Our non-disruptive method enables real-time recording of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components, providing specific detection of the biofilm lifestyle. Biofilm formation prior to antibiotic challenge can thus be confirmed and pre-treatment data collected. By introducing Kirby-Bauer discs, we performed a broad screen of the effects of antibiotics representing multiple classes, and identified compounds with ECM inhibitory as well as promoting effects. These compounds were further tested in agar-based dose-response biofilm-AST assays. By quantifying the ECM based on the amount of curli, and by visualizing the biofilm size and morphology, we achieved new information directly reflecting the treated biofilm. This verified the efficacy of several antibiotics that were effective in eradicating pre-formed biofilms, and it uncovered intriguing possible resistance mecha-nisms initiated in response to treatments. By providing deeper insights into the resistances and susceptibilities of microbes, expanded use of the biofilm-AST will contribute to more effective treatments of infections and reduced resistance development.

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