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  • 201.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, SE 581 95, Sweden.
    Mats, Gustafsson
    VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, SE 581 95, Sweden.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, SE 581 95, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University, Lund, SE 221 00, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christian
    Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, SE 106 91, Sweden.
    Norman, Michael
    Stockholm Environment and Health Administration, SLB-analysis, Stockholm, SE 104 20, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Sjövall, Bill
    Stockholm Environment and Health Administration, SLB-analysis, Stockholm, SE 104 20, Sweden.
    Road tunnels - particle properties, wet and dry conditions2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 202.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Coupmodel: Model use, calibration, and validation2012Inngår i: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Transactions, ISSN 2151-0032, E-ISSN 2151-0040, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 1335-1344Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Coup Model has been developed to represent a platform with various modules that can be linked together for the user's specific application. This article provides a review of the model development, calibration procedures, and previous applications. For each application, the user can select different modules and specify how they should be linked. In the next step, appropriate inputs to run the model are specified based on the choice of modules. By offering water, heat, tracer, chloride, nitrogen, and carbon modules, the CoupModel allows the user to simulate a wide range of soil-plant-atmosphere interactions for any terrestrial ecosystem. The spatial distribution is lumped or distributed to any user-defined scale, and the temporal resolution is from minutes to hundreds of years. The platform allows the user to specify inputs as (1) forcing time series, (2) simple predefined patterns of variation by parameter functions, or (3) dynamic parameters that change value at specified dates during the simulation. Output variables from simulations can be compared with any independent measurement either as a time series or as a single value. The performance is expressed using conventional statistical indicators or as log likelihood sums. Simulations are made as single runs to represent a unique input or as a multiple series of simulations based on random or systematic sampling of parameter values. Parameters can also represent an object that is a collection of different parameters to represent a particular system, such as a soil profile. Two possible approaches may be used for calibration: Bayesian or generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE). The former uses a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to sample among parameter values based on predefined error parameters for estimation of log likelihoods. Experience has shown that one can learn both how to improve measurements and how to understand the importance of model structural errors by using uncertainty-based calibration methods. The major advantage of GLUE compared to Bayesian calibration is that the learning process is simple and flexible. Bayesian calibration requires Gaussian distributions of residuals, which in many cases are not justified, and also requires careful consideration of error functions prior to the simulations. Although in some applications with a single output variable the Bayesian method is most suitable, for many multiple-criteria problems the flexibility of the GLUE approach is favored over the elegance of the Bayesian framework.

  • 203.
    Johansson, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
     Sustainicle TM: How to Manage Sustainability within Product Development at Saab Automobile AB2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Saab vehicles are recognised for being innovative, technically advanced, safe, with superior driving performance and with a characteristic design. Today the company has the broadest product portfolio ever. Saab has come to a point where there is a need for a strategic assessment of how to manage the environmental impacts and social concerns as well as to start earn profit to become a long term sustainable company. The Vehicle Development Process is the vital nerve when developing a new car and the Product Profile is the specification of requirements, it has today seven areas and sustainability could become the eight. 

     

    The aim of this thesis is to identify and establish the most relevant sustainability areas and indicators within the Vehicle Development Process at Saab Automobile AB. These sustainability areas and indicators will be put into context to develop the overall sustainability within Saab Automobile.

     

    The research approach in this study is qualitative due to the fact that the information needed is difficult to quantify. To be able to obtain the needed information for this thesis a benchmarking study was made as well as interviews with experts besides the interviews within Saab Automobile. A disadvantage with the chosen method could be that the comparability with other studies decreases. It would probably be possible to use some of the findings within other companies.

     

    Today Saab Automobile has no published Sustainability Report, even though a small chapter is included in the Spyker Cars Annual Report. The main findings in this study are the sustainability areas and indicators. The five identified and established sustainability areas are; Design for Sustainability, Sustainable Supply Chain, CSR, Sustainable Innovation and Sustainable Value Chain. Also are 23 potential sustainability indicators proposed for Saab. The ambition to include these areas in the Product Profile is one step towards sustainability. This is still a limited approach that seems to be doing things right (efficiency) more than doing the right things (effectiveness). Based on the sustainability areas, indicators and the benchmarking study is a new sustainability strategy proposed for Saab.

  • 204.
    Jonsson, Daniel K.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Situations of opportunity for infrasystems: understanding and pursuing change towards environmental sustainability2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Infrasystems are the large technical systems in society delivering water and electricity, making communications and transports possible, managing the gathering and treatment of refuse and sewage, and many other services. Infrasystems mean welfare, convenience and economic growth, but also considerable environmental impacts.

    The overall aim of this thesis is to contribute to the development of aspects and prerequisites of infrasystem change in a sustainable direction, by way of elaborating conceptual knowledge. The first main point of departure is the concept of infrasystem, and the related approach Large Technical Systems (LTS), primarily associated the field of history of technology. A key feature is to highlight a socio-technical systems perspective, rather than separating technology from social and institutional aspects.

    The second main point of departure is the change perspective Situations of Opportunity (SITOP), which is a draft theory developed within a research programme at the Royal Institute of Technology. SITOP set out from the notion that the possibility to implement changes in a sustainable direction is greater than average at certain moments in time. A situation of opportunity is associated with a prehistory, limiting the field of options for the actors utilising a formative moment.

    When SITOP, LTS and other related socio-technical perspectives are cross-fertilised some directions of where to look for future situations of opportunity for infrasystem change in a sustainable direction can be pointed out, e.g. in connection with certain problems or crises in the systems’ development. On the one hand different aspects on how to widen the field of options are discussed, e.g. to promote inter-sectorial actor networks, to identify system synergies and social innovations (paper 1-3), and to highlight services and functions rather than sectors and technology (paper 2). On the other hand, in order to approach the great changes needed in the context of sustainable development, the socio-technical regimes of today have to undergo major alterations, which probably presupposes new sets of actors and actor networks. A more moderate view however, is to seek positive synergies between everyday decision- and policy-making and the long-term striving for sustainable development. Issues often considered as necessities, e.g. renovations of old buildings, or building more roads to moderate congestion – ‘what must be done’ – should be combined with ‘what should be done’, e.g. implementing energy saving solutions in the built environment, or reducing society’s transport dependency. The array of conceivable combinations widens the field of options.

    The results also concern indirect effects of infrasystems, which might contribute to processes evaluating fields of options. Infrastructure investments affect activity patterns and the built environment (paper 4). Moreover infrasystems are associated with indirect energy use (paper 5).

    The conceptual views presented in this thesis are no immediate means, ready to be used in concrete infrasystem management, but can in the steps that follow primary policy-making support the process of finding out when to implement change, and moreover assessing plausible solutions. In other words – identify situations of opportunity and explore the field of options.

  • 205.
    Jonsson, Daniel K.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). Swedish Defence Research Agency,Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lundqvist, Per G.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    Energy at your service: highlighting energy usage systems in the context of energy efficiency analysis2011Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 355-369Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing energy efficiency has for a long time been identified as an important means of mitigating climate change. However, the full potential for technical energy efficiency has seldom been fully exploited. The traditional approach in energy systems analysis and policy is still largely supply-orientated, i.e. focusing on the management of energy conversion, production and distribution, and final use of energy in the form of energy carriers. This paper contributes to previous discussions on how to highlight and explore the user side in the analysis of energy systems in an efficiency context. The energy usage systems approach, including end-use technologies and the production of service demanded by a human activity system, is used to promote a dynamic bottom-up perspective on energy. In determining the possible potential for change by increasing energy efficiency, the demand for energy should not be considered synonymous with the demand for neither energy carriers, nor the measurable service volumes (such as kilometres travelled, square metre conditioned space, etc.), without considering the sociocultural context in which the service is being used or called upon. In summary, the predominant paradigm dealing with the energy system as a technical system managing resources and providing energy carriers should thus be complemented with the view of a socio-technical system facilitating and/or managing the services.

  • 206.
    Jonsson, Daniel K.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Östensson, Malin
    Dreborg, Karl Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Energy and Security in Long-Term Defence Planning: Scenario Analysis for the Swedish Armed Forces2009Inngår i: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, Vol. 18, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The competition for energy resources, as well as the closely related climate change problems, imply a number of global security consequences. A methodology to include energy aspects in long-term defence planning, based on broad civilian scenario approaches, is proposed. The study has been carried out by the Swedish Defence Research Agency, as commissioned by the Swedish Armed Forces, resulting in a number of future mission scenarios highlighting e.g. new challanges and tasks, as well as the need for new capabilities and equipment.

  • 207.
    Juston, John
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Water and Carbon Balance Modeling: Methods of Uncertainty Analysis2010Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How do additional data of the same and/or different type contribute to reducing model parameter and predictive uncertainties? This was the question addressed with two models – the HBV hydrological water balance model and the ICBM soil carbon balance model – that were used to investigate the usefulness of the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method for calibrations and uncertainty analyses.  The GLUE method is based on threshold screening of Monte Carlo simulations using so-called informal likelihood measures and subjective acceptance criterion. This method is highly appropriate for model calibrations when errors are dominated by epistemic rather than stochastic uncertainties.  The informative value of data for model calibrations was investigated with numerous calibrations aimed at conditioning posterior parameter distributions and boundaries on model predictions.  The key results demonstrated examples of: 1) redundant information in daily time series of hydrological data; 2) diminishing returns in the value of continued time series data collections of the same type; 3) the potential value of additional data of a different type; 4) a means to effectively incorporate fuzzy information in model calibrations; and 5) the robustness of estimated parameter uncertainty for portability of a soil carbon model between and tropical climate zones.  The key to obtaining these insights lied in the methods of uncertainty analysis used to produce them.  A paradigm for selecting between formal and informal likelihood measures in uncertainty analysis is presented and discussed for future use within a context of climate related environmental modeling.

  • 208.
    Juston, John
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Andrén, Olof
    Department of Soil and Environment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Department of Soil and Environment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Uncertainty analyses for calibrating a soil carbon balance model to agricultural field trial data in Sweden and Kenya2010Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 221, nr 16, s. 1880-1888Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    How do additional data of the same and/or different type contribute to reducing model parameter and predictive uncertainties? Most modeling applications of soil organic carbon (SOC) time series in agricultural field trial datasets have been conducted without accounting for model parameter uncertainty. There have been recent advances with Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analyses in the field of hydrological modeling that are applicable, relevant and potentially valuable in modeling the dynamics of SOC. Here we employed a Monte Carlo method with threshold screening known as Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) to calibrate the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (ICBM) to long-term field trail data from Ultuna, Sweden and Machang'a, Kenya. Calibration results are presented in terms of parameter distributions and credibility bands on time series simulations for a number of case studies. Using these methods, we demonstrate that widely uncertain model parameters, as well as strong covariance between inert pool size and rate constant parameters, exist when root mean square simulation errors were within uncertainties in input estimations and data observations. We show that even rough estimates of the inert pool (perhaps from chemical analysis) can be quite valuable to reduce uncertainties in model parameters. In fact, such estimates were more effective at reducing parameter and predictive uncertainty than an additional 16 years time series data at Ultuna. We also demonstrate an effective method to jointly, simultaneously and in principle more robustly calibrate model parameters to multiple datasets across different climatic regions within an uncertainty framework. These methods and approaches should have benefits for use with other SOC models and datasets as well.

  • 209.
    Juston, John M.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    DeBusk, Thomas A.
    Evidence and implications of the background phosphorus concentration of submerged aquatic vegetation wetlands in Stormwater Treatment Areas for Everglades restoration2011Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 47, s. W01511-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The limits of phosphorus (P) removal from the 18,120 ha Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs) for Everglades restoration depend largely on the performance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) wetlands, as SAV treatment cells now provide final stage treatment for 85% of the STA project. A long-term internal P profile in STA-2 cell 3 (STA2C3), one of the longest-running and best performing SAV cells, demonstrated no further net removal in the back quarter of the cell once total P (TP) levels approached 15 mu g L-1. Inflow-outflow performance data from STA2C3 were analyzed at monthly and annual scales and were pooled with data from an additional eight STA SAV treatment cells. The pooled data allowed inference of background TP concentrations in SAV treatment cells using existing Bayesian methods. Results showed a central tendency of 16 mu g L-1(13 - 17, 90% bounds), insensitivity to P loads less than similar to 1.7 g m(-2) yr(-1), and interannual variability outside these bounds. Internal data from the STA2C3 profile provided validation. Background P concentrations of 7 and 6 mu g L-1 were identified for dissolved organic and particulate P fractions in the data pool, respectively, again similar to values in the STA2C3 gradient. Existing simulation modeling approaches for STA evaluations were identified as ineffective at or near background TP concentrations. Instead, we use an empirical and probabilistic approach based on full-scale data from STAs that produces annual risk of exceedance statistics and is easy to update. The current analysis suggests tangible risks for exceeding proposed annual discharge criteria from the STAs in the range of 16-20 mu g L-1.

  • 210.
    Juston, John
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Seibert, Jan
    Department of Geography, University of Zürich, Switzerland, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Per-Olof
    Artesia Groundwater Consulting, Täby, Sweden.
    Temporal sampling strategies and uncertainty in calibrating a conceptual hydrological model for a small boreal catchment2009Inngår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 23, nr 21, s. 3093-3109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    How much data is needed for calibration of a hydrological catchment model? In this paper we address this question by evaluating the information contained in different subsets of discharge and groundwater time series for multi-objective calibration of a conceptual hydrological model within the framework of an uncertainty analysis. The study site was a 5.6-km(2) catchment within the Forsmark research site in central Sweden along the Baltic coast. Daily time series data were available for discharge and several groundwater wells within the catchment for a continuous 1065-day period. The hydrological model was a site-specific modification of the Conceptual HBV model. The uncertainty analyses were based on a selective Monte Carlo procedure. Thirteen subsets of the complete time series data were investigated with the idea that these represent realistic intermittent sampling strategies. Data Subsets included split-samples and various combinations of weekly, monthly, and quarterly fixed interval subsets, as well as a 53-day 'informed observer' Subset that utilized once per month samples except during March and April-the months containing large and often dominant snow melt events-when sampling was once per week. Several of these subsets, including that of the informed observer, provided very similar constraints on model calibration and parameter identification as the full data record, ill terms of credibility bands on simulated time series, posterior parameter distributions, and performance indices calculated to the full dataset. This result Suggests that hydrological sampling designs can, at least in some cases, be optimized. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 211. Kannisto, H.
    et al.
    Karatzas, Xanthias
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Edvardsson, J.
    Pettersson, Lars J.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Ingelsten, H. H.
    Efficient low temperature lean NOx reduction over Ag/Al2O3-A system approach2011Inngår i: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, ISSN 0926-3373, E-ISSN 1873-3883, Vol. 104, nr 1-2, s. 74-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on lean NOx reduction (LNR) by n-octane using silver-alumina based catalysts, with the addition of hydrogen. The work takes a system approach, where parameters such as temperature, reformate gas composition, fuel penalty and realistic monolith samples are considered. The LNR catalyst samples were prepared by impregnation and sol-gel methods and the NOx reduction performance was characterized by flow-reactor experiments, where realistic engine-out gas compositions were used. The hydrogen feed over the LNR catalyst samples was determined via data achieved by autothermal reforming experiments over a rhodium based catalyst, using real diesel as feedstock. The LNR catalyst samples generally show an enhanced NOx reduction when hydrogen is added to the gas feed. In particular, a 2 wt% silver-alumina sample with the addition of minute amounts of platinum, shows a high increase in NOx reduction when hydrogen is added to the feed. The addition of CO, a potential poison in the reaction and a by-product from the reforming, did not show any significant effect on the LNR catalyst performance at the conditions used. This is beneficial, since it renders a CO clean-up step in the reformer system unneeded. Ammonia formation is discussed in terms of a possible dual-SCR system. Finally, the fuel penalty for hydrogen production and hydrocarbon addition is taken into consideration. It is found that an addition of 1000 ppm H-2 leads to unacceptable fuel penalties.

  • 212. Kantarelis, E.
    et al.
    Donaj, Pawel
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik.
    Zabaniotou, A.
    Sustainable valorization of plastic wastes for energy with environmental safety via High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) and High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG)2009Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 167, nr 1-3, s. 675-684Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study the energetic valorization of electric cable shredder residues (mixed plastics) has been investigated. Thermochemical conversion by means of High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG) and High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) was studied. The effects of temperature and reaction time - process parameters - were investigated. Comparison of the results showed that HTSG seems a more suitable process in terms of produced syngas quality (64%. v/v and 13 MJ/Nm(3)) than HTP because of higher H-2 yield and lower tar content.

  • 213.
    Karami, Peyman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik. CBI, Swedish Cement.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsteknik.
    A comparative study of the environmental impact of Swedish residential buildings with vacuum insulation panels2015Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 109, s. 183-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large part of the energy consumption in the European Union member states is related to space heating, a significant share of which is due to transmission losses through the building envelope. Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs), with unique thermal insulation properties, do therefore provide an interesting alternative for the building industry. This paper presents the results of a life cycle analysis (LCA) study that compares the environmental impact of three hypothetical buildings, a standard residential building, a regular well-insulated building and a building insulated with VIPs. The environmental impact includes the global warming potential (GWP) and the primary energy (PE) use, from the material production stage to the building operational phase (50 years). The cradle-to-gate environmental impact categories of ozone depletion potential (ODP), acidification potential (AP) and eutrophication potential (EP) of all building components are also assessed. The study shows a comparatively lower operational energy for the VIP insulated building and a relatively lower total greenhouse gas emission as well as the possibility to save significant living space. The results also show that the VIPs have measurable environmental impact during the product stage while the core material of the VIPs has considerable impact on the results.

  • 214.
    Karatzas, Xanthias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Nilsson, Marita
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Dawody, Jazaer
    Lindström, Bard
    Pettersson, Lars J.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Characterization and optimization of an autothermal diesel and jet fuel reformer for 5 kW(e) mobile fuel cell applications2010Inngår i: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 156, nr 2, s. 366-379Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper describes the characterization of an autothermal reformer designed to generate hydrogen by autothermal reforming (ATR) from commercial diesel fuel (similar to 10 ppm S) and jet fuel (similar to 200 ppm S) for a 5 kW(e) polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Commercial noble metal-based catalysts supported on 900 cpsi cordierite monoliths substrates were used for ATR with reproducible results. Parameters investigated in this study were the variation of the fuel inlet temperature, fuel flow and the H2O/C and O-2/C ratios. Temperature profiles were studied both in the axial and radial directions of the reformer. Product gas composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was concluded from the experiments that an elevated fuel inlet temperature (>= 60 degrees C) and a higher degree of fuel dispersion, generated via a single-fluid pressurized-swirl nozzle at high fuel flow, significantly improved the performance of the reformer. Complete fuel conversion, a reforming efficiency of 81% and an H-2 selectivity of 96% were established for ATR of diesel at P=5kW(e), H2O/C = 2.5, O-2/C = 0.49 and a fuel inlet temperature of 60 degrees C. No hot-spot formation and negligible coke formation were observed in the reactor at these operating conditions. The reforming of jet fuel resulted in a reforming efficiency of only 42%. A plausible cause is the coke deposition, originating from the aromatics present in the fuel, and the adsorption of S-compounds on the active sites of the reforming catalyst. Our results indicate possibilities for the developed catalytic reformer to be used in mobile fuel cell applications for energy-efficient hydrogen production from diesel fuel.

  • 215.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Interactive Institute Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Social practices, households, and design in the smart grid2015Inngår i: ICT Innovations for Sustainability, Springer International Publishing , 2015, s. 351-365Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable effort is put into the design and development of cleaner and more efficient energy systems. In this paper, we describe the problems arising when these systems are designed from a top-down technological perspective and when much development fails to account for the complex processes involved since people and their practices are key parts of transitioning to new systems. The transition to a smart grid not only demands new technologies, but is also fundamentally dependent on households taking on a role as co-managers of the energy system. The chapter illustrates how the emerging research field of “sustainable interaction design” may play a role in supporting these roles and in shaping sustainable practices.

  • 216.
    Kayol, Bassam
    et al.
    KTH.
    Abu-Ghunmi, Diana
    Abu-Ghunmi, Lina
    Archenti, Andreas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Nicolescu, Mihai
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Larkin, Charles
    Corbet, Shaen
    An economic index for measuring firm's circularity: The case of water industry2019Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, ISSN 2214-6350, E-ISSN 2214-6369, Vol. 21, s. 123-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition toward circular-economy model is a must to sustain the planet sources. Under circular economy model wastewater is transformed from a ste into a resource. Therefore, a comprehensive circular economy dex; the Circonomics Index, is proposed to measure circularity of stewater industry. The component indicators of the index are linked rectly to the three Rs; reduce, reuse and recycle, of circular onomy. The novelty of the proposed Index is that it uses objectively nstructed weights that reflect the environmental benefits of the eatment process, and the index captures the reuse and recycling ficiency of an WWTP, which reflect the specific nature of wastewater. e findings show that treatment technology is a major factor in termining the production efficiency, reuse rate and recycling rformance of a WWTP. The results of using the Circonomics Index have ofound implication for policy makers to speed up the process of moving a circular economy.

  • 217. Kennedy, Christopher
    et al.
    Steinberger, Julia
    Gasson, Barrie
    Hansen, Yvonne
    Hillman, Timothy
    Havranek, Miroslav
    Pataki, Diane
    Phdungsilp, Aumnad
    Dhurakij Pundit Univ, Dept Energy Management, Bangkok 10210, Thailand.
    Ramaswami, Anu
    Villalba Mendez, Gara
    Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Cities2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 19, s. 7297-7302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The world's population is now over 50% urban, and cities make an important contribution to national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Many cities are developing strategies to reduce their emissions. Here we ask how and why emissions differ between cities. Our study often global cities shows how a balance of geophysical factors (climate, access to resources, and gateway status) and technical factors (power generation, urban design, and waste processing) determine the GHGs attributable to cities. Within the overall trends, however, there are differences between cities with more or less public transit while personal income also impacts heating and industrial fuel use. By including upstream emissions from fuels, GHG emissions attributable to cities exceed those from direct end use by up to 25%. Our findings should help foster intercity learning on reducing GHG emissions.

  • 218. Kennedy, Christopher
    et al.
    Steinberger, Julia
    Gasson, Barrie
    Hansen, Yvonne
    Hillman, Timothy
    Havranek, Miroslav
    Pataki, Diane
    Phdungsilp, Aumnad
    Dhurakij Pundit Univ, Dept Energy Management, Bangkok 10210, Thailand.
    Ramaswami, Anu
    Villalba Mendez, Gara
    Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities2010Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, nr 9, s. 4828-4837Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the methodology and data used to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions attributable to ten cities or city-regions: Los Angeles County, Denver City and County, Greater Toronto, New York City, Greater London, Geneva Canton, Greater Prague, Barcelona, Cape Town and Bangkok. Equations for determining emissions are developed for contributions from: electricity; heating and industrial fuels; ground transportation fuels; air and marine fuels; industrial processes; and waste. Gasoline consumption is estimated using three approaches: from local fuel sales; by scaling from regional fuel sales; and from counts of vehicle kilometres travelled. A simplified version of an intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) method for estimating the GHG emissions from landfill waste is applied. Three measures of overall emissions are suggested: (i) actual emissions within the boundary of the city; (ii) single process emissions (from a life-cycle perspective) associated with the city's metabolism; and (iii) life-cycle emissions associated with the city's metabolism. The results and analysis of the study will be published in a second paper.

  • 219.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggteknik och design. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Hållbara byggnader.
    Durability Evaluation of Reinforced Glass-Flake Polyester Material Used in Rehabilitation of Sewer Lines in Buildings-Dataset2019Dataset
    Abstract [en]

    This dataset includes water absorption measurement data to support research findings in the article: ”Durability Evaluation of Reinforced Glass-Flake Polyester Material Used in Rehabilitation of Sewer Lines in Buildings" with the following abstract: The aging of sewer infrastructure in buildings is an ongoing problem, and total replacement of deteriorated pipelines is a difficult and costly process. Currently, different materials and methods are in use in alternative rehabilitations technologies. This work was conducted to study one of these materials, which is a glass-flake reinforced polyester polymeric system, during artificial aging to provide a better understanding of the material’s performance under operating conditions when it is regularly exposed to degrading factors such as high temperature and water. Aging of the material was studied in the lab by monitoring changes in the material when it was exposed to different temperatures (20°C, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C), both when immersed in water and under dry conditions. Changes in the material during aging were monitored by conducting different tests, including thermal and mechanical analysis, water absorption and microscopy. The results showed that a combination of aging in water and high temperature had a greater effect on the material compared to aging at high temperature in dry conditions. Mechanical testing showed that the flexural modulus and strength decreased by 50-58% and 42-58% respectively for material immersed in water for two months when compared to the material exposed to similar temperatures in air aging. Moreover, the differences between the flexural modulus and strength of the materials exposed to wet and dry conditions were higher under longer exposure times and exposure to higher temperatures. It was observed that the reduction in the flexural modulus and strength after six months of water aging was more significant at 80°C, where the decreases were 77% and 72%, respectively, in comparison with the material subjected to air aging. Thermal analysis revealed more changes in the material at 80°C than at other exposure temperatures, while water absorption results showed a larger and more rapid water uptake at higher temperatures.

    Although the measured properties were affected significantly when immersed in water at high temperatures, the material showed acceptable properties at lower exposure temperatures, such as 40°C, during a few months of artificial aging. Considering that the liner material bonded to the pipe is not immersed in water during operation but rather comes into contact with water only from one side, that the average temperature inside sewer pipes in buildings in Sweden is known to be 40°C and that the installed material, particularly in gravity sewers, will not be exposed to water constantly, it can be concluded that the material should work as expected during its service life. 

     

  • 220.
    KHARAZMI, PARASTOU
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Hållbara byggnader.
    Effect of heat and water aging on the durability of rubber-epoxy lining used for rehabilitation of sewer infrastructureInngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 221.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Greenhouse gas balances of molasses based ethanol in Nepal2011Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, nr 13, s. 1471-1485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) balances in production and use of molasses-based ethanol (EtOH) in Nepal. The total life cycle emissions of EtOH is estimated at 432.5 kgCO(2eq) m(-3) ethanol (i.e. 20.4 gCO(2eq) MJ(-1)). Avoided emissions are 76.6% when conventional gasoline is replaced by molasses derived ethanol. A sensitivity analysis was performed to verify the impact of variations in material and energy flows, and allocation ratios in the GHG balances. Market prices of sugar and molasses, amount of nitrogen-fertilizers used in sugarcane production, and sugarcane yield per hectare turn out to be important parameters for the GHG balances estimation. Sales of the surplus electricity derived from bagasse could reduce emissions by replacing electricity produced in diesel power plants. Scenario analysis on two wastewater processes for treatment of effluents obtained from ethanol conversion has also been carried out. If wastewater generated from ethanol conversion unit is treated in pond stabilization (PS) treatment process, GHG emissions alarmingly increase to a level of 4032 kgCO(2eq) m(-3) ethanol. Results also show that the anaerobic digestion process (ADP) and biogas recovery without leakages can significantly avoid GHG emissions, and improve the overall emissions balance of EtOH in Nepal. At a 10% biogas leakage, life cycle emissions is 1038 kgCO(2eq) m(-3) ethanol which corresponds to 44% avoided emissions compared to gasoline. On the other hand, total emissions surpass the level of its counterpart (i.e. gasoline) when the leakage of biogas exceeds 23.4%.

  • 222.
    Kholoma, Ezekiel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Fortification of soil-based wastewater treatment systems with versatile ubiquitous reactive media for enhanced removal of phosphorus and other pollutants2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about potential risks posed by discharge from small-scale wastewater treatment (SWT) systems to receiving water bodies have prompted robust enforcement of national discharge quality standards in rural areas of most developed countries. Consequently, communities in such places are in need of effective technologies with which to achieve compliance. Currently, reactive filter (RF) media are increasingly preferred over advanced alternatives, due mainly to their simplicity, affordability and proven potential. However, many of the field-tested filters are commercial products which are costly and scarce but also only capable of removing few contaminants they are engineered to target hence often requiring to be coupled with other treatment units to achieve full treatment. In the preliminary findings of this study, biochar (BC) was identified and thus suggested basing on existing literature, as a versatile ubiquitous low-cost material for treating wastewater. Its effectiveness in fortifying sand (Sa) and gas concrete (GC)-based SWT facilities was later demonstrated in long-term experiments using laboratory packed bed reactors and field constructed filter beds. The efficacy of SaBC and GCBC systems in reducing turbidity (>95%), DOC (60%; p<0.05) and PO43- (40-90%; p<0.05) was significantly higher than for their reference counterparts. Further, sorbed P was more leachable from Sa (11.2 mgkg-1) and SaBC (20.5 mgkg-1) filters but more extractable and hence plant-available in GC (65-91 mgkg-1). Therefore, the study concluded that fortification of soil-based systems with biochar filters may be a promising solution in enhancing performances of soil-based wastewater treatment systems, while P-rich RF media can act as a nutrient source for plants if recycled to agriculture.

  • 223. Komakech, A. J.
    et al.
    Banadda, N. E.
    Kinobe, J. R.
    Kasisira, L.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gebresenbet, G.
    Vinnerås, B.
    Characterization of municipal waste in Kampala, Uganda2014Inngår i: Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, ISSN 1096-2247, Vol. 64, nr 3, s. 340-348Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Kampala, Uganda, about 28,000 tons of waste is collected and delivered to a landfill every month. Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) records show that this represents approximately 40% of the waste generated in the city. The remaining uncollected waste is normally dumped in unauthorized sites, causing health and environmental problems. However, the organic fraction of domestic waste can provide an opportunity to improve livelihoods and incomes through fertilizer and energy production. This study characterized the municipal waste generated in Kampala and delivered to Kiteezi landfill between July 2011 and June 2012, that is, covering the dry and wet months. On each sampling day, waste was randomly selected from five trucks, sorted and weighed into different physical fractions. Samples of the organic waste from each truck were analyzed for total solids, major nutrients, and energy content. During the wet months, the waste consisted of 88.5% organics, 3.8% soft plastics, 2.8% hard plastics, 2.2% paper, 0.9% glass, 0.7% textiles and leather, 0.2% metals, and 1.0% others. During the dry months, the waste consisted of 94.8% organics, 2.4% soft plastics, 1.0% hard plastics, 0.7% papers, 0.3% glass, 0.3% textile and leather, 0.1% metals, and 0.3% others. The organic waste on average had a moisture content of 71.1% and contained 1.89% nitrogen, 0.27% phosphorus, and 1.95% potassium. The waste had an average gross energy content of 17.3 MJ/kg. It was concluded that the organic waste generated can be a suitable source of some plant nutrients that are useful especially in urban agriculture. Implications: The result of the waste characterization in Kampala was found to be significantly different from that obtained for other Sub-Saharan African (SSA) cities, showing that studies assuming average values for the waste fractions are likely to result in erroneous results. Furthermore, no reduction in organic fraction of the waste was noticed when compared with a study done two decades ago in spite of greatly improved economic status of Kampala city, a finding that is not in agreement with several other similar studies done for other SSA cities.

  • 224. Komakech, A. J.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jönsson, H.
    Vinnerås, B.
    Life cycle assessment of biodegradable waste treatment systems for sub-Saharan African cities2015Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 99, s. 100-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the waste collected in sub-Saharan African cities is biodegradable but it is usually dumped in landfills, creating environmental and health challenges for residents. However, there are biodegradable waste treatment methods that could mitigate these challenges. This study analysed anaerobic digestion, composting, vermicomposting and fly larvae waste treatments using life cycle assessment (LCA). The impact categories assessed were energy use, global warming and eutrophication potential. The results showed that anaerobic digestion performed best in all impact categories assessed. However, management of the anaerobic digestion process is critical and methane losses must be kept very small, as otherwise they will cause global warming.

  • 225.
    Koroma, Michael Samsu
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Estimating the Potential Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Current and Future Electric Passenger Cars2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The road transport sector is heavily dependent on fossil-fuel based technologies, and as a result, contribute a significant share towards climate change and other environmental problems. If the transport sector is to reduce its adverse impacts on climate change, then it requires a global shift towards low-carbon technologies. However, deploying these new technologies brings uncertainties regarding their environmental profile, hence, the need for applying a life cycle approach in evaluating their potential environmental impacts.

    This thesis aim to evaluate the potential life-cycle environmental impacts associated with travelling 1 km in a battery electric cars (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric cars (PHEV) operated in the EU at present-day, and in the future up till 2050.

    The study applied the life cycle assessment (LCA) and ReCiPe Midpoint (H) methodologies to assess and calculate the potential life cycle environmental impacts of all vehicle scenarios. The datasets of the vehicles have been modelled with a modular approach by linking together various vehicle components. The future time perspective based on two future scenarios; the Mod-RES, representing the reference future scenario and the High-RES representing a future ambitious policy scenario.  

    The EU28 electricity production based on Fichtner, et al. was used to model the use phase all vehicle scenarios. The result showed BEV performed best in indicators for global warming (GWP), ozone depletion and fossil resource scarcity. The thesis best estimate for GWP is 5.61E-2 kgCO2 eq resulting from the BEV_High-RES scenario; representing a decrease in GWP of around 80% and 69% when compared to the ICEV and the baseline BEV respectively. On the other hand, the baseline BEV performed worst in impact categories related to human toxicity and damage to ecosystems; the conventional gasoline car showed the lowest estimate for indicators on human toxicity, acidification and eutrophication as defined in the baseline scenario.

    Nonetheless, the future scenarios showed promising results for all technologies; as projections for stringent environmental regulations, ‘cleaner’ energy systems and continuous advancement in vehicle technologies offered a significant reduction in all impact categories. Notably, the BEV reduced its impact on toxicity categories to around 38% of the initial values for the baseline scanario. Results are strongly dependent on assumptions regarding the vehicle and battery lifetime, the use phase electricity source and the vehicle consumption. 

    The findings establish the significance of carrying out a full LCA, including future time perspective and assessing impact categories beyond climate change. Also, it underlined the suggestion that production of electric cars raised more concern for EVs than conventional cars; thus, the tendency for environmental problem-shifting and the need for policy-makers to recognise existing trade-offs. 

  • 226.
    Kramers, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    ICT Applications to Lower Energy Usage in the Already Built Environment2013Inngår i: Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference in Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB´12) / [ed] Anne Håkansson, Mattias Höjer, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 127-135Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT could play a role as a key enabler for decreasing energy usage in buildings. This study identifies, list and describe ICT applications that can reduce energy use in buildings without the need for refurbishment or extensive change. For each area of application, there is a study from the actor perspective to understand who can make use of the different ICT applications to influence energy usage.

  • 227.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Höjer, Mattias
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Lövehagen, Nina
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wangel, Josefin
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    ICT for Sustainable Cities: How ICT can support an environmentally sustainable development in cities2013Inngår i: ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 2013 / [ed] Lorenz M. Hilty, Bernard Aebischer, Göran Andersson, Wolfgang Lohmann, Zürich, 2013, s. 183-189Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we focus on the opportunities to use ICT to help cities reach their environmental targets and specifically how ICT can support reduction of energy use. We have developed an analytical framework to be able to identify ICT solutions opportunities that can support cities to decrease the energy use that origin from the inhabitants’ consumption in order to reach climate targets. We use a consumption perspective on energy and allocate all energy to the final consumers that are the individuals living in the city. The analytical framework can be used by city administrations and ICT solution companies for identification and mapping of ICT applications and solutions with opportunities for sustainable development in cities.

  • 228.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wangel, Josefin
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Planning for smart sustainable cities: Decisions in the planning process and actor networks2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have been ascribed an important role for decreasing energy use and mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in urban areas. Through automation, dematerialisation, persuasion and soft transformation ICT holds the potential of making urban life more sustainable, without cutting back in quality of life. To fully utilise the potential of ICT for sustainable cities there is a need to reconsider the design and technical specification of buildings and infrastructure systems, as well as what actors to involve in the planning and management of the city. A ubiquitous introduction of ICT for sustainability may also influence the spatial and institutional organisation of the city. In spite of this, there is little research on ICT for sustainable cities from the perspective of planning and governance. This paper aims to abate parts of this knowledge gap through exploring two aspects of planning that we see as crucial for a successful implementation of ICT for sustainable cities. The first of these aspects concerns when in the planning process decisions regarding ICT need to be taken. The second aspect deals with what actor networks are needed to implement the ICT solutions and how these can be managed, or meta-governed. These aspects are explored through literature studies, workshops and interviews with urban planners and other actors engaged in the Royal Seaport project in Stockholm, Sweden.

  • 229.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Governing the Smart Sustainable City: The case of the Stockholm Royal Seaport2016Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2016, Amsterdam: Atlantis Press , 2016, Vol. 46, s. 99-108Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to improve the understanding on how city administrations can integrate ICT solutions for urban sustainability into processes of planning, i.e. how to govern the Smart Sustainable City. The paper is based on a case study of how the City of Stockholm has worked with integrating ICT solutions in the urban development project the Stockholm Royal Seaport (SRS). Through interviews with city officials and analysis of planning and policy documents we track how ICT became a part of the environmental program for the SRS, how this type of technology is conceived in terms of relation to the planning and implementation of other urban technologies, as well as what expected effects are highlighted. For this specific case we also distil some general lessons learned regarding what worked well and what did not. Finally, we draw conclusions regarding how ICT and sustainability can be merged in the planning phase of new urban developments and, ultimately, how a city administration can govern a city towards a Smart Sustainable City. 

  • 230.
    Kulabako, Robinah
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Analysis of the impact of anthropogenic pollution on shallow groundwater in peri-urban Kampala2005Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation to assess the anthropogenic pollutant loads, transport and impact on shallow groundwater in one of Kampala’s peri-urban areas (Bwaise III Parish) was undertaken. Bwaise III is a densely populated informal settlement with a high water table (<1.5 m) and inadequate basic social services infrastructure (e.g, sanitation, safe water supply, roads, etc).

    Field surveys were undertaken to identify, locate and quantify various pollutant sources. Information on the usability and operational aspects of the excreta and solid waste management systems was obtained from consultations with the residents. Water from installed monitoring wells and one operational protected spring and wastewater (sullage) characteristics (quality, discharges for drains and spring, water levels for the wells) as well as soil characteristics (soil stratigraphy, physical and chemical) were determined through field and laboratory measurements. Laboratory batch experiments were undertaken to estimate phosphorus sorption potential of the soils.

    The results reveal that excreta disposal systems, solid waste and sullage are the major contributors to shallow groundwater contamination. High contaminant loads from these sources accumulate within the area resulting in widespread contamination. The water table responds rapidly to short rains (48hr) due to the pervious and shallow (<1 m) vadose zone, which consists of mostly organic fill material. Rapid water quality deterioration (increased thermotolerant coliforms, organic content in the form of total kjedahl nitrogen, phosphorus) following rains potentially follows from leaching, desorption and macropore flow. Spatial variation of the water quality in the area is largely related to anthropogenic activities within the vicinity of the well sources. Animal rearing, solid waste dumps and latrines are seen to result in increased localised microbial and organic content during the rains. The spring discharge with high nitrate levels does not respond to short rains suggesting that this source is fed by regional baseflow. The corresponding high microbial contamination in this case is a result of observed poor maintenance of the protection structure leading to direct ingress of contaminated surface runoff. Natural attenuation of contaminants is very limited. Estimated bacteria die-off rates are very low, about 0.01hr-1, suggesting a high risk for microbial contamination. The soils still have potential to retain additional phosphorus, whose sorption is largely a function of iron, available phosphorus and moisture content of the soils. This is also seen with the model results in which the phosphorus contaminant plume sticks to the surface irrespective of the rainfall infiltration rates. Simulation results show that continuous heavy intense rains (> 0.25mm/min) result in rapid flooding occurring within 1hr to 2 days. With lower rains, the water table does not rise to the surface, and no flooding takes place.

    Protection of the shallow groundwater in the area requires socio-technical measures targeting reduction of pollutant loads within the area as well as a wider spring catchment. Re-protection of the spring, coupled with awareness creation, should be immediately addressed so as to reduce microbial contamination. Community participation in solidwaste management should be encouraged. Resource recovery systems such as composting of the mostly organic waste and use of ecological sanitation toilet systems should be piloted in the area. Successful operation of the systems however depends on continuous sensitisation of the communities.

  • 231.
    Kulabako, Robinah
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Environmental sanitation situation and solute transport in variably saturated soil in peri-urban Kampala2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental sanitation situation in Kampala’s peri-urban areas was reviewed and investigated through field studies, structured interviews with personnel from key institutions and administration of questionnaires to households in a selected peri-urban settlement (Bwaise III Parish).  In this settlement, specific field and laboratory measurements were undertaken so as to create a better understanding of the environmental sanitation situation, anthropogenic pollution loads and their transport and impact (with a focus on Phosphorus) in Kampala’s Peri-urban areas in pursuit of interventions for improving the environmental sanitation and protecting the shallow groundwater resource there. The review revealed that the urban poor in Kampala, like elsewhere in developing countries, are faced with inadequate basic services caused by a combination of institutional, legal and socio-economic issues and that the communities’ coping strategies are in most cases detrimental to their health and well-being. Field surveys showed that excreta disposal systems, solid waste and greywater are major contributors to the widespread shallow groundwater contamination in the area. Field measurements revealed that the water table responds rapidly to short rains (48 h) due to the pervious (10-5-10-3 m/s) and shallow (<1 mbgl) vadose zone, which consists of foreign material (due to reclamation). This anthropogenically influenced vadose zone has a limited contaminant attenuation capacity resulting in water quality deterioration following rains. The only operational spring in the area is fed by regional baseflow meaning a wider protection zone. The spring discharge exhibited microbial quality deterioration after rains primarily as a result of poor maintenance of the protection structure. Subsurface phosphorus (P) transport mechanisms appeared to be a combination of adsorption, precipitation, leaching from the soil media and through macropore flow with the latter two playing an important role in the wet season. The Langmuir isotherm described the phosphorus sorption data well (R2³ 0.95) and the best prediction of Langmuir sorption maximum (Cmax) had organic carbon, Ca and available phosphorus and soil pH as significant predictors. Loosely bound P (NH4Cl-P) was the least fraction (<0.4% of total P) in all layers indicating a high binding capacity of P by the soils implying that the soils have a capacity to adsorb additional P loads. Simulation results from the preliminary numerical model built in this study based on field and laboratory measurements indicate that rainfall infiltration rates > 7x10-3 mm/s drive shallow groundwater contamination with higher intense rains of relatively longer duration (³ 70 mm within 48 h) reducing phosphorus transport. Sensitivity analysis of the model input with respect to how long it takes to pollute the subsurfacehad the phosphorus sorption coefficients as being more influential than the pore size and air entry values. There are however, key contrasts between the model simulations and field observations which are useful in guiding new efforts in data collection. The study reveals that intervention measures to improve the environmental sanitation and protect the shallow groundwater in the peri-urban settlements are of a multidisciplinary nature necessitating action research with community participation.

  • 232.
    Kulabako, Robinah N.
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mark- och vattenteknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Nalubega, Mai
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mark- och vattenteknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Characterization of peri-urban anthropogenic pollution in Kampala, Uganda2004Inngår i: WEDC International Conference on people centred approaches to water and environmental sanitation, 2004, s. 474-482Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 233. Kulabako, Robinah
    et al.
    Nalubega, Mai
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Shallow groundwater quality in peri-urban KampalaInngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 234.
    Kulabako, Robinah
    et al.
    Makerere University.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Nalubega, Mai
    Soutter, A. L.
    Hydrodynamic modelling of subsurface flow and contaminant transport in a Peri-urban settlement in KampalaInngår i: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 235.
    Kyambadde, Joseph
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Optimizing processes for biological nitrogen removal in Nakivubo wetland, Uganda2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of Nakivubo wetland (which has performed tertiary water treatment for Kampala city for the past 40 years) to respond to pollution and to protect the water quality of Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria was investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of Nakivubo wetland to remove nitrogen from the wastewater after its recent encroachment and modification, in order to optimize biological nitrogen removal processes using constructed wetland technology.

    Field studies were performed to assess the hydraulic loading, stability and water quality of this wetland. The distribution and activity of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in Nakivubo channel and wetland were also investigated, and the significance of the different matrices in biological nitrogen transformations within the two systems elucidated. Studies to optimize nutrient removal processes were carried out at pilot scale level both in container experiments and in the field using substrate-free constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum which were adapted to the local ecological conditions.

    Results showed that Nakivubo wetland performs tertiary treatment for a large volume of wastewater from Kampala city, which is characterised by large quantities of nutrients, organic matter and to a lesser extent metals. Mass pollutant loads showed that wastewater effluent from a sewage treatment plant constituted a larger proportion of nitrogen and phosphorus and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) discharged into the wetland. The upper section of Nakivubo wetland exhibited high removal efficiencies for BOD, whereas little or no ammonium-nitrogen and metals except Lead were removed by wetland. Studies further showed that nitrifying bacteria existed in the wetland but their activity was limited by oxygen depletion due to the high BOD in the wastewater and heterotrophic bacteria from the sewage treatment plant. Distributional studies indicated the presence of more AOB in surface sediments than the water column of the lower section of Nakivubo channel, an indication that nitrifiers settled with particulate matter prior to discharge into the wetland, and thus did not represent seeding of the wetland. The significant reductions in concentrations of BOD compared to ammonium and total nitrogen in the channel and wetland wastewater confirmed this finding. Whereas suspended nitrifiers upstream of Nakivubo channel equally influenced total nitrogen balance as those in surface sediments, epiphytic nitrification was more important than that of sediment/peat compartments in the wetland, and thus highlighted the detrimental impacts of wetland modification on the water quality Inner Murchison Bay and Lake Victoria as a whole.

    Performance assessment of pilot-scale container experiments and field-based CWs indicated highly promising treatment efficiencies, notably in papyrus-based treatments. Plant biomass productivity, nutrient storage, and overall system treatment performance were higher in papyrusbased constructed wetlands, and resulted in effluent that met national discharge limits. Thus, papyrus-based CWs were found to be operationally efficient in removing pollutants from domestic wastewater.

  • 236.
    Kyambadde, Joseph
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Kansiime, Frank
    Makerere University.
    Functional assessment of horizontal surface flow constructed wetlands receiving pre-treated domestic wastewater in Uganda.Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 237.
    Kyambadde, Joseph
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Kansiime, F.
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Distribution and activity of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in Nakivubo wastewater channel and wastewater treatment wetland,Uganda2006Inngår i: Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, ISSN 0323-4320, E-ISSN 1521-401X, Vol. 34, nr 1-2, s. 137-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pollution profiles of Nakivubo channel and wetland, and the spatial distribution of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and the corresponding ammonium-oxidation activities along Nakivubo channel and wetland are presented. A set of physico-chemical and biochemical variables was monitored, and numbers and activity of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the water, sediment and epiphyton were quantified to estimate their influence on the nitrification and nitrogen bio-conversions in general, and to determine the factors influencing the distribution of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in Nakivubo channel and wetland. Considerable numbers of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and ammonium-oxidation activities were found upstream of Nakivubo channel suggesting that the physico-chemical conditions were suitable for the survival of nitrifying bacteria. However, the longitudinal decline in numbers and activity of ammonium-oxidizers was probably due to (1) high biodegradable organic matter input which supported proliferation of heterotrophs, consuming the little available oxygen, (2) hydro-sedimentary conditions of the channel, (3) die-off due to presence of toxic and inhibitory chemicals and metal compounds. The removal of biochemical oxygen demand was significantly higher than that of nitrogen indicating lower self-purification efficiency for nitrogen. A comparison of the ammonium-oxidation activity of the different phases indicated that epiphytic nitrification was more important than that of sediment and water compartments of the wetland, whereas sediment and suspended nitrifiers were equally important for nitrification upstream of Nakivubo channel.

  • 238.
    Kyambadde, Joseph
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Kansiime, Frank
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in substrate-free pilot constructed wetlands with horizontal surface flow in Uganda2005Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 165, nr 1-4, s. 37-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In constructed wetlands (CWs) with horizontal sub-surface flow, nutrient removal, especially phosphorus, is limited because the root biomass fills the pore spaces of the substrate (usually gravel), directing wastewater flow to deeper wetland media; plants are not regularly harvested; the litter formed by decomposing vegetation remains on the surface of the substrate and thus does not interact with the wastewater; and the substrate media often used provide only limited adsorption. Effective nutrient removal including rootzone oxidation, adsorption and plant uptake therefore requires sufficient interaction of wastewater with the treatment media. We assessed the feasibility of biological nutrient removal from wastewater using substrate-free CWs with horizontal flow, planted with two tropical macrophytes namely, Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum. The objectives were to evaluate the system treatment efficiency under semi-natural conditions, and to assess microbial and plant biomass contributions to nutrient removal in the CWs. Results showed high removal efficiencies for biochemical oxygen demand, ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) and phosphorus (P) fractions in papyrus-based CWs (68.6-86.5%) compared to Miscanthidium (46.7-61.1%) and unplanted controls (31.6-54.3%). Ammonium oxidizing bacteria in CW root-mats (108-109 cells/gram dry weight) and residual nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the water phase indicated active system nitrification. Papyrus showed higher biomass production and nutrient uptake, contributing 28.5% and 11.2%, respectively, of the total N and P removed by the system compared to 15% N and 9.3% P removed by Miscanthidium plants. Compared to literature values, nitrification, plant uptake and the overall system treatment efficiency were high, indicating a high potential of this system for biological nutrient removal from wastewaters in the tropics.

  • 239.
    Kyambadde, Joseph
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Kansiime, Frank
    Makerere University .
    Gumaelius, Lena
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    A comparative study of Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum-based constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in a tropical climate2004Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 475-485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The treatment efficiencies of constructed wetlands containing Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus) and Miscanthidium violaceum (K. Schum.) Robyns (synonymous with Miscanthus violaceum (K. Schum) Pilg.) were investigated in a tropical climate (Kampala, Uganda). Papyrus showed higher ammonium-nitrogen and total reactive phosphorus (TRP) removal (75.3% and 83.2%) than Miscanthidium (61.5% and 48.4%) and unplanted controls (27.9% ammonium-nitrogen). No TRP removal was detected in control effluent. Nutrients (N and P) were significantly higher (p < 0.015) in papyrus than Miscanthidium plant tissues. Plant uptake and storage was the major factor responsible for N and P removal in treatment line 2 (papyrus) where it contributed 69.5% N and 88.8% P of the total N and P removed. It however accounted for only 15.8% N and 30.7% P of the total N and P removed by treatment line 3 (Miscanthidium violaceum). In addition, papyrus exhibited a significantly larger (p = 0.000) number of adventitious roots than Miscanthidium. Nitrifying bacteria attached to papyrus (2.15 x 10(6) +/- 1.53 x 10(5) MPN/g DW) and Miscanthidium roots (1.30 x 10(4) +/- 8.83 x 10(2) MPN/g DW) and the corresponding nitrification activities were consistent with this finding. Epiphytic nitrifiers appeared more important for total nitrification than those in peat or suspended in water. Papyrus root structures provided more microbial attachment sites, sufficient wastewater residence time, trapping and settlement of suspended particles, surface area for pollutant adsorption, uptake, assimilation in plant tissues and oxygen for organic and inorganic matter oxidation in the rhizosphere, accounting for its high treatment efficiency.

  • 240.
    Kyambadde, Joseph
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Kansiime, Frank
    Makerere University.
    Gumaelius, Lena
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Hydraulic loading, stability and water quality of Nakivubo wetland, Uganda2004Inngår i: African Journal of Aquatic Science, ISSN 1608-5914, E-ISSN 1727-9364, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 213-220Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nakivubo wetland, which has performed tertiary water treatment for Kampala city for the past 40 years, is ecologically stressed by agricultural and infrastructural developments. Field studies were carried out to assess the hydraulic loading, pollution profile, stability and water quality of this wetland. The upper and lower Nakivubo wetland receive 4.13-7.66 x 104 and 3.50-10.32 X 104m3/day of water respectively, of which 48.3-57.9% of total hydraulic loading to the upper wetland was carried by sampling station S1. The influent water to the upper wetland had a total BOD5 and NH4-N loading ranging from 2.6-4.4 x 103kg BOD/day and 0.79-1.68 x 103kg NH4-N/day respectively. The National Water and Sewerage Corporation's effluent constituted a large proportion of BOD and NH4-N loading into Nakivubo wetland. Zinc, copper and chromium were detected in trace amounts at most sampling stations. However, lead was occasionally detected at Kibira channel (station S5) at a concentration of 0.4mg/l, which is higher than the permitted Ugandan discharge limit of 0.1mg/l (NEMA 1999). The wetland showed a very high removal efficiency for BOD, ranging from 77.4%-86.3%, compared to ammonium-N which ranged from -66.1% to 33.1% indicating limitations with the nitrification process. A low self-purification for zinc, copper and chromium was also observed in the upper Nakivubo wetland, possibly due to poor plant-wastewater interaction resulting from wetland drainage. In the lower Nakivubo wetland conductivity and dissolved oxygen were generally higher in papyrus- than in Miscanthidium-vegetated zones. However, the BOD and ammonium-N loadings did not vary significantly (P = 0.217 and P = 0.359 respectively) between the two vegetated zones.

  • 241.
    Larsen, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Corporate environmental strategies and education2005Inngår i: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 242.
    Larsen, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Innovation Processes and Environmental Planning: Science and Technology Policies in a Regional Context2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of environmental change and how it is influenced by innovation processes and advances in science and technology is multifaceted given the inherent uncertainty of the pace and direction of technology change, but also given the limits to anticipate future environmental effects of new technology.

    The doctoral thesis is organised in two parts. The covering essay constitutes the first part and is aimed at introducing the scope of the research; outlining theoretical perspectives and central concepts and positioning the research to other research studies. Reprints of the six papers included in the thesis comprise the second part of the thesis.

    The first aim of this doctoral thesis is to contribute to an increased understanding of the conditions for environmental policy and planning through innovation, science policy and technological change. Particular attention is paid to the institutional frameworks for policy processes, public-private interactive policy and strategic planning with futures studies. The second aim is to explore and analyse approaches applied for assessing the output, impact and structure of science in the area of strategic environmental research. This includes an examination of research assessment criteria and an analysis of knowledge networks in strategic environmental research, characterised by socio-economic expectations of generating innovations that benefit the environment through the industrial application of science. Four types of environmental planning are studied using a combined qualitative and quantitative research approach. These are corporate environmental planning, public environmental planning, strategic long-term planning, and strategic science planning targeting advances in science and technology to attain environmental objectives.

    The findings of the study show that institutional frameworks of science and technology policy affecting environmental planning are found in organisational forms, such as science parks, but also in institutions understood as values and norms of the science system. With an increased focus on assessment of research as well as future technology, the findings of the study also contributes by examining approaches applied for assessing the output, structure and impact of research, using bibliometrics and social network analysis in the area of strategic environmental research.

  • 243.
    Larsen, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Knowledge hubs and co-authorship networks in development of nanostructures solar cell technology.2005Inngår i: Innovation Dynamic Regions and Regional Dynamics. / [ed] Karlsson, C., Stough, R., Andersson, Å..E. and Cheshire, P., Heidelberg: Springer Verlag , 2005Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 244.
    Larsen, Katarina
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Infrastruktur.
    Research assessment criteria and university-industry links in the social contract of applicable science: Experiences from funding of biomedical science andstrategic environmental research in Sweden and the UK2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with research assessment procedures adopted by funding agents that target research with industrial applications and close links to socio-economic goals. The funding bodies of research are confronted with a ‘cry for applicability’ although it is argued that research and innovation are highly uncertain activities where all applications of science cannot be foreseen. This paper argues that analysis research funding with a strong rationale for ‘applicable’ science (such as private non-profit and strategic research foundations) can contribute to an improved understanding of university-industry relations in research. The aim of this study is to address what characterises the research assessment criteria used by funding agents that target research with industrial application and close links to socio-economic goals.Special attention is paid to university-industry links in the social contract for ‘applicable’science in Sweden and the UK. Case studies from research funding in biomedical science and strategic environmental research are selected to address the assessment procedures and criteria that research-funding organisations use to assess prospects of successful application of science. A typology addressing views on university-industry relations is used to characterise the case studies. The study shows that the foundations and trusts are attributing value to university-industry interaction in research. Promotion of such links is focusing on aspects ofhuman resources, best practices and intellectual property in targeting socio-economic goals.

  • 245.
    Larsen, Katarina
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Infrastruktur.
    Science and technology parks and the integration of environmental policy2004Inngår i: Innovation, ISSN 1447-9338, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 294-305Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses processes of integration of environmental policy in science and technology parks (S&T parks). Drivers for environmental policy integration in two S&T park districts are explored in the framework of environmental policy opportunities, i.e. what opportunities of environmental policy integration that arise given characteristic features of the parks, such as spatial proximity, stakeholder interaction, and the park's role in regional innovation policy. The study focuses on ICT-companies and the environmental policy opportunities arising from vertical and horizontal interaction in the park context. Rather than assuming interaction by virtue of geographic proximity, the study shows that knowledge exchange on environmental aspects to some extent is localised within the park by exchange of best practices among individual firms as well by guidelines implemented at a park level. However, drivers promoting environmental management in ICT-companies are identified both at the firm level as well as in environmental regulation and customer demands.

  • 246.
    Larsen, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Westholm, Erik
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Department of Urban and Rural Development.
    Environmental scenarios and local-global level of communityengagement: Environmental justice, jams, institutions and innovation2011Inngår i: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 413-423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    National climate change policy currently operates on a continuum from the local community to the supra-national level. These initiatives include local deliberative processes of low-carbon futures as well as local-global interactions in ‘eco-innovation jam’ dialogues carried out in a virtual space, but founded on communicating with local stakeholder groups. Experiences from national processes and international examples of these structured dialogues of community engagement raise important questions of environmental justice and deliberative processes that facilitate participation by some groups, but perhaps also neglect others. This is particularly relevant since the environmental justice discourse traditionally frames environmental concerns in a place-bound manner that includes local responses to environmental questions. In this paper we argue the importance of local and global forums and deliberative processes for community engagement in order to incorporate stakeholders’ perceptions of future options for low-carbon living, travelling and consuming services and products. Important policy transformations in planning for low-carbon societies are outlined and results from cases are discussed. We conclude with three remarks about the importance of citizen participation for understanding local conditions for change, processes of localized internationalization, and new roles for nation states facing the climate change challenge. We also recognise the importance of the local and global level of deliberative processes targeting sustainable urban futures.

  • 247.
    Larsen, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    Technological innovation and transformation perspectives in environmental futures studies for transport and mobility2007Inngår i: International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy, ISSN 1740-2816, E-ISSN 1740-2824, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 95-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Futures studies such as technology foresight and backcasting are concerned with changes in society and technological transformation in a long-term perspective, but are also recognising the importance of today's choices in technology on future modes of production and consumption. Strategic planning and Technology Assessment (TA) are two areas where futures studies are used to explore alternative future scenarios in order to support decision-making processes. Hence, it is of importance to get a thorough understanding of assumptions made about environmental effects from new technology and drivers for change in futures studies. In this paper technological innovation and transformation perspectives in environmental futures studies are analysed. The aim is to explore the different roles of technology change in the development towards more environmentally sustainable transport in the future.

  • 248.
    Larsen, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Planning for ecological food and sustainable constructionInngår i: Planning Theory & Practice, ISSN 1464-9357, E-ISSN 1470-000XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 249.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    The Karma of Products: Exploring the Causality of Environmental Pressure with Causal Loop Diagram and Environmental Footprint2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pressures from consumer products and mechanisms of predetermination were examined in this thesis using causal loop diagram (CLD) and life cycle assessment (LCA) footprinting to respectively illustrate and provide some indicators about these mechanisms. Theoretical arguments and their practical implications were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis, using secondary and primary data. A study integrating theories from various research fields indicated that combining product-service system offerings and environmental policy instruments can be a salient aspect of the system change required for decoupling economic growth from consumption and environmental impacts. In a related study, modes of system behaviour identified were related to some pervasive sustainability challenges to the design of electronic products. This showed that because of consumption and investment dynamics, directing consumers to buy more expensive products in order to restrict their availability of money and avoid increased consumption will not necessarily decrease the total negative burden of consumption. In a study examining product systems, those of washing machines and passenger cars were modelled to identify variables causing environmental impacts through feedback loops, but left outside the scope of LCA studies. These variables can be considered in LCAs through scenario and sensitivity analysis. The carbon, water and energy footprint of leather processing technologies was measured in a study on 12 tanneries in seven countries, for which collection of primary data (even with narrow systems boundaries) proved to be very challenging. Moreover, there were wide variations in the primary data from different tanneries, demonstrating that secondary data should be used with caution in LCA of leather products. A study examining pre-consumer waste developed a footprint metric capable of improving knowledge and awareness among producers and consumers about the total waste generated in the course of producing products. The metric was tested on 10 generic consumer goods and showed that quantities, types and sources of waste generation can differ quite radically between product groups. This revealed a need for standardised ways to convey the environmental and scale of significance of waste types and for an international standard procedure for quantification and communication of product waste footprint. Finally, a planning framework was developed to facilitate inclusion of unintended environmental consequences when devising improvement actions. The results as a whole illustrate the quality and relevance of CLD; the problems with using secondary data in LCA studies; difficulties in acquiring primary data; a need for improved waste declaration in LCA and a standardised procedure for calculation and communication of the waste footprint of products; and systems change opportunities for product engineers, designers and policy makers.

  • 250.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Integrerad produktutveckling. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Moberg, Åsa
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Calculating the pre-consumer waste footprint: A screening study of 10 selected products2017Inngår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 65-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the total waste generated by the production of consumer goods can help raise awareness among policy-makers, producers and consumers of the benefits of closing loops in a future circular economy, avoiding unnecessary production and production steps and associated generation of large amounts of waste. In strict life cycle assessment practice, information on waste outputs from intermediate industrial processes of material and energy transformation is translated into and declared as potential environmental impacts, which are often not reported in the final results. In this study, a procedure to extract available intermediate data and perform a systematic pre-consumer waste footprint analysis was developed. The pre-consumer waste footprint concept was tested to analyse 10 generic products, which provided some novel and interesting results for the different product categories and identified a number of challenges that need to be resolved in development of the waste footprint concept. These challenges include standardised data declaration on waste in life cycle assessment, with a separation into waste categories illustrating the implicit environmental and scale of significance of waste types and quantities (e.g. hazardous waste, inert waste, waste for recycling/incineration) and establishment of a common definition of waste throughout sectors and nations.

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