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  • 201.
    Khoshkar, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Opportunities and challenges for inte-gration of green qualities in the densification of regional cores of Stockholm.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Urban densification is claimed to enhance sustainability of cities, with the primary aim of centralizing services and reducing urban land take. Hence, urban densification is expected to reduce car dependencies, facilitate walking, biking and public transport; and protect rural green spaces. However, densification can pose threats to the green spaces and green qualities within urban areas, which is often overlooked in planning. A significant challenge for planners is implementing densification projects while also providing sufficient urban green spaces with green qualities. This paper examines three cases in the Stockholm region, wherein the Stockholm Regional Planning Office has plans to densify, so to reduce social and environmental pressures from the inner Stockholm region. A case study research was conducted with semi-structured interviews, field visits, and literature reviews as the primary means of data collection. This study identified the challenges confronted by municipal planners when incorporating sustainability in planning by enhancing, preserving, or integrating green qualities in the urban densification plans. A few challenges included lack of collaboration, professional barriers, and lack of knowledge on green qualities amongst others. The interviews revealed the use of impact assessment (IA) tools such as EIA and SEA were not being used to their fullest potential when planning for green qualities in the densification plans. This thesis analyzes the findings from the interviews and identifies opportunities to improve IA tools for sustainable planning; thereby developing a framework for using these tools in order to integrate green qualities in the municipal densification projects as well as address the identified challenges.

  • 202. Khoshkhoo, Y.
    et al.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Irannejad, P.
    Khalili, A.
    Rahimi, H.
    Calibration of an energy balance model to simulate wintertime soil temperature, soil frost depth, and snow depth for a 14year period in a highland area of Iran2015Inngår i: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 119, s. 47-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically-based heat and mass transfer model, CoupModel, is calibrated to simulate wintertime soil temperature, soil frost depth, and snow depth for a 14-year period in a highland area of Iran. A Monte Carlo based approach is used for calibration process based on subjective performance criteria. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the model were performed by selecting 30 parameters and the model was run using 22,000 samples taken from the uncertainty range of the parameters. By using the Nash-Sutcliffe Index to evaluate the performance of the model and applying a cutoff threshold for the performance to snow depth and soil temperature, 161 behavioral simulations were recognized and considered as the accepted ensemble to represent the field conditions. Sensitivity analysis of the model revealed some parameters associated with soil evaporation, soil hydraulic properties, and snow modeling as sensitive and highly important parameters. Uncertainty analysis of the model for wintertime soil temperatures showed a reasonable agreement between simulations and observations in most cases. However, a systematic error occurred at some periods because of high uncertainty of the actual snow density and details of snow melting. Uncertainties were also due to the simplified model assumptions regarding snow thermal properties and temperature within snow cover. The snow depth at the accumulation and melting stages were described well by the model in most cases.

  • 203.
    Kibria, M.G.
    et al.
    Kansas State University, USA.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hossain, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Datta, Saugata
    Kansas State University.
    Arsenic mitigation by developing a tool based on gray and brown sediment solid phase characterization2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) poses the greatest hazard towards drinking water quality in Bangladesh. Tubewell drinking water is one of the main sources for household based water options in rural Bangladesh. Our study area is in Matlab Upazila, in Bangladesh. The local drillers in this area are the only ones who have been utilized by the community to identify safe aquifer depths. The overall objective of this and the SASMIT project is to develop a community based initiative for sustainable As mitigation by developing a sediment color based tool for the local drillers prioritizing on the hydrogeological and geochemical investigations as to (a) why red/brown to off-white sediments produces As-safe water but contains high Mn; (b) as to why light gray sediment produce low As and Mn free water; and (c) why dark gray sediments produce high As bearing water. Shallow tubewells excepting those installed within off-white sediments are mostly contaminated with high As. High Mn in many wells is also an additional problem in some shallow aquifer depths. In our field studies we find the wells installed within light grey medium sand the As concentration was found below 50μg/L and Mn is within WHO guideline value of 0.4 mg/L.

    This study focuses on the adsorption behavior of oxidized reddish-red-brown sediments from Matlab region, and their capacity to attenuate As. Sediment extractions indicate a relatively low amount of As in the oxidized sediments. Reductive dissolution of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides and release of its adsorbed As is considered to be the principal mechanism responsible for mobilization of As. Groundwater abstracted from oxidized reddish sediments, in contrast to reducing grayish sediments, contains significantly lower amount of dissolved As and can be a source of safe water. This study describes the lithofacies, mineralogy and results of adsorption experiments on the sediments within ~85m depth and establishes a relationship between aqueous and solid phase geochemistry along these intermediate depths of the aquifer.

    Core samples have been analyzed by petrographic microscopy, microtopography and distribution of elements within sediment grains by FESEM-EDX and clay and bulk mineralogy by XRD. Synchrotron aided μXANES and μXRD studies conducted for solid state As speciation (As3+ and As5+) in different depth core samples. The projected outcome is to incorporate detailed sediment characteristics of the different aquifers including all possible color variations available in the exploited intermediate depths within Matlab. This study would have a wider implication towards a broader scale regional remediation project that incorporates the enquiry of efficiency of sediment color as a simple and easy tool for identifying safe aquifers in major As risk prone areas. Knowing sediments more accurately would also enrich and strengthen the field based tools for identifying As-safe and As-Mn safe aquifers for tubewell installation.

  • 204.
    Kleja, Dan B.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nakata, Satomi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Ingmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Silver(I) Binding Properties of Organic Soil Materials Are Different from Those of Isolated Humic Substances2016Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, nr 14, s. 7453-7460Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The solubility of silver(I) in many soils is controlled by complexation reactions with organic matter. In this work we have compared the ability of isolated humic and fulvic acids to bind silver(I) with that of mor and peat materials. One new data set for Suwannee River Fulvic Acid was produced, which was consistent with published data sets for isolated fulvic and humic acids. The ability of soil materials to bind silver(I) was studied as a function of pH in the range 2.5-5.0, at a wide range of silver(I)-to-soil ratios (10(-4.2) - 10(-1.9) mol kg(-1)). By calibrating the Stockholm Humic Model on the humic and fulvic acids data sets, we showed that binding of silver(I) to both types of soil materials was much stronger (up to 2 orders of magnitude) than predicted from the silver(I) binding properties of the isolated humic materials. Thus, the approach taken for many other metals, that is, to model solubility in soils by using metal and proton binding parameters derived from isolated humic and fulvic acids, cannot be used for silver(I). One possible explanation for the discrepancy could be that silver(I) predominately interacted with various biomolecules in the soil samples, instead of humic- and fulvic-acid type materials.

  • 205. Kumanova, X.
    et al.
    Marku, S.
    Fröjdö, S.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Recharge and sustainability of a coastal aquifer in northern Albania2014Inngår i: Hydrogeology Journal, ISSN 1431-2174, E-ISSN 1435-0157, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 883-892Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The River Mati in Albania has formed a coastal plain with Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. The outer portion of the plain is clay, with three underlying aquifers that are connected to an alluvial fan at the entry of the river into the plain. The aquifers supply water for 240,000 people. Close to the sea the aquifers are brackish. The brackish water is often artesian and found to be thousands of years old. Furthermore, the salinity, supported by delta O-18 results, does not seem to be due to mixing with old seawater but due to diffusion from intercalated clay layers. Heavy metals from mines in the upstream section of River Mati are not an immediate threat, as the pH buffering of the river water is good. Moreover, the heavy metals are predominantly found in suspended and colloidal phases. Two sulphur isotope signatures, one mirroring seawater sulphate in the brackish groundwater (delta S-34 > 21 aEuro degrees) and one showing the influence of sulphide in the river and the fresh groundwater (delta S-34 < 10 aEuro degrees), indicate that the groundwater in the largest well field is recharged from the river. The most serious threat is gravel extraction in the alluvial fan, decreasing the hydraulic head necessary for recharge and causing clogging of sediments.

  • 206. Kumanova, Xhume
    et al.
    Leka, Gjovalin
    Nilsson, Bertil
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Assessing the mobility of metals in an aquatic environment: River Fani and River Mati, Albania2015Inngår i: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 74, nr 7, s. 6293-6301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport of metals was investigated at 15 sites in the River Fani and the River Mati in N. Albania. There are numerous abandoned copper mine sites and one active mine upstream in the River Fani catchment. Upstream in the Mati catchment, there is a large chromium smelter and several chromium mines. Water samples and sediment samples were collected at all the sites. Moreover, the water samples at a number of the sites were fractionated by filtering and by dialysis to assess in which form the metals were transported. There was a relatively larger abundance of metals in the suspended (unfiltered water) and colloidal phases (filtered by 0.2-um filters). Metal concentrations in water and in sediments decreased rapidly downstream away from point sources, approaching background levels within 10 km, indicating that the larger fractions could settle in the sediments. The River Mati recharges a large coastal aquifer via an alluvial fan at the entrance into the coastal plain. There does not seem to be any risk of metals appearing in the groundwater, as the transport mode is that of largely suspended and colloidal matter. The offshore metals in the Adriatic Sea are likely to be flushed out during rainy seasons with high discharge. The bioavailability of the metals is likely to be low except for just downstream of point sources. In view of the relatively large fractions of metals found in the suspended and colloidal phases, the establishment of sedimentation basins downstream point sources would decrease the export to the rivers.

  • 207.
    Larsolle, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hannrup, Björn
    Skogforsk.
    Jönsson, Mari
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Nordström, Maria
    Skogforsk.
    Olsson, Bengt
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rudolphi, Jörgen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Strömgren, Monica
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Modellbaserat beslutsstöd för stubbskörd [Model based decision support for stump harvest, in Swedish]2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a decision support model for tree stump harvest was developed. The model takes into account four criteria: economy, energy and climate, biodiversity, and land and water. The value of each individual tree stump was calculated separately for each criterion. The four criteria values were then weighed together into a final suitability score for stump harvest. The final suitability score decided whether the decision support model recommended harvest of each individual tree stump or not. Data from the harvester collected at final felling was used as input to the decision support model. For each stump the values used in the model was dry mass, stump diameter, tree species and position. In addition, the harvesters log track was used as a basis for localising the terrain roads within the stand. Other geographical data used was elevation data, presence of objects with special value for biodiversity and land/water, such as key biotopes, open water and moist soil. A special study was conducted to estimate the soil stability from a topographical wetness index.The decision support model was evaluated on an existing felling 2010 in Northern Uppland. The area was 45 hectares with about 26 000 stumps. The result of the decision support model showed that general economic parameters had the greatest impact in both sensitivity and scenario analysis. The most important variable was the price for stump biomass at road side. The decision support model results left continuous areas of the stand with all stumps unharvested. The reason for this was the economy criterion's sensitivity to the local amount of stump withdrawal per hectare. Low stump withdrawal gave high harvesting costs. In that economy was the only criterion which motivated stump harvest, the model never suggested harvesting a stump unless surrounding stumps were harvested too.There is potential for developing this decision support model further using updated knowledge and examining the impact of different criteria on the final model result. The decision support model has good opportunities to serve as a comprehensive planning basis in order to ensure sustainable stump harvest.

  • 208. Larsson, M. A.
    et al.
    Baken, S.
    Smolders, E.
    Cubadda, F.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag2015Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 296, s. 158-165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800mgVkg-1) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment.

  • 209. Larsson, Maja A.
    et al.
    Baken, Stijn
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hadialhejazi, Golshid
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Smolders, Erik
    Vanadium bioavailability and toxicity to soil microorganisms and plants2013Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 32, nr 10, s. 2266-2273Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium, V, is a redox-sensitive metal that in solution, under aerobic conditions, prevails as the oxyanion vanadate(V). There is little known regarding vanadium toxicity to soil biota, and the present study was set up to determine the toxicity of added vanadate to soil organisms and to investigate the relationship between toxicity and vanadium sorption in soils. Five soils with contrasting properties were spiked with 7 different doses (3.2-3200mgVkg(-1)) of dissolved vanadate, and toxicity was measured with 2 microbial and 3 plant assays. The median effective concentration (EC50) thresholds of the microbial assays ranged from 28mg added V kg(-1) to 690mg added V kg(-1), and the EC50s in the plant assays ranged from 18mg added V kg(-1) to 510mg added V kg(-1). The lower thresholds were in the concentration range of the background vanadium in the untreated control soils (15-58mgVkg(-1)). The vanadium toxicity to plants decreased with a stronger soil vanadium sorption strength. The EC50 values for plants expressed on a soil solution basis ranged from 0.8mgV L-1 to 15mgV L-1 and were less variable among soils than corresponding values based on total vanadium in soil. It is concluded that sorption decreases the toxicity of added vanadate and that soil solution vanadium is a more robust measure to determine critical vanadium concentrations across soils. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2266-2273. (c) 2013 SETAC

  • 210.
    Larsson, Maja A.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci,Uppsala.
    D'Amato, Marilena
    Italian Natl Hlth Inst, Rome.
    Cubadda, Francesco
    Italian Natl Hlth Inst, Rome.
    Raggi, Andrea
    Italian Natl Hlth Inst, Rome.
    Oborn, Ingrid
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala and World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Nairobi.
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala and Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Gothenburg.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden, Uppsala.
    Long-term fate and transformations of vanadium in a pine forest soil with added converter lime2015Inngår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 259, s. 271-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A field-trial with different application rates of converter lime (0.2, 0.7 and 1.0 kg m(-2)) was set up in a pine forest stand in southern Sweden in 1984. The lime contained 14.6 g kg(-1) vanadium. The aim with this study was to evaluate the vanadium concentration and speciation in the soil 26 years after application. Samples of the organic mar layer and the mineral soil were analyzed separately. The vanadium concentration decreased with soil depth, from 680 to 8 mg kg(-1) soil. Analysis by vanadium K-edge}CANES spectroscopy showed that vanadium(IV) was the predominant species in the mar layer. Further, iron and/or aluminum (hydr)oxides were important sorbents for vanadium(V) in the mineral soil. The spedation of dissolved vanadium, as determined by HPLC-ICP-MS, was dominated by vanadium(V), which is considered the most toxic vanadium species. However, the vanadium sorption capacity of the soil was sufficient to reduce the total bioavailable vanadium below phytotoxic levels. By combining two different vanadium spedation methods, this study was able to conclude that vanadium speciation in soils is governed by soil properties such as pH, organic matter content and the content of metal (hydr)oxides, but not by the vanadium species added to the soil.

  • 211. Larsson, Maja A.
    et al.
    Hadialhejazi, Golshid
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Vanadium sorption by mineral soils: Development of a predictive model2017Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 168, s. 925-932Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxicity of vanadium in soils depends on its sorption to soil components. Here we studied the vanadate(V) sorption properties of 26 mineral soils. The data were used to optimise parameters for a Freundlich equation with a pH term. Vanadium K-edge XANES spectroscopy for three selected soils confirmed that the added vanadate(V) had accumulated mostly as adsorbed vanadate(V) on Fe and Al hydrous oxides, with only minor contributions from organically complexed vanadium(IV). Data on pH-dependent V solubility for seven soils showed that on average 0.36 H+ accompanied each V during adsorption and desorption. The resulting model provided reasonable fits to the V sorption data, with r2 &gt; 0.99 for 20 of 26 soils. The observed KdS value, i.e. the ratio of total to dissolved V, was strongly dependent on V addition and soil; it varied between 3 and 4 orders of magnitude. The model was used to calculate the Freundlich sorption strength (FSS), i.e. the amount of V sorbed at [V] = 2.5 mg L−1, in the concentration range of observed plant toxicities. A close relationship between FSS and oxalate-extractable Fe and Al was found (r2 = 0.85) when one acidic soil was removed from the regression. The FSS varied between 27 and 8718 mg V kg−1, showing that the current environmental guidelines can be both under- and overprotective for vanadium.

  • 212.
    Le Bourhis, Jean-Marie
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Carbon Accounting of Transportation Infrastructure.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is one of the most important challenges society is facing. Climate change is mainly due to the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) by humans.

    The transportation sector plays a major role in the release of GHG. However, little effort has been made worldwide for decreasing transportation emissions.

    Accounting for transportation emissions has become a great concern. SETEC International is one of the leading engineering groups for the design of transportation infrastructure in France. Through this Master’s Thesis, SETEC wanted to develop a carbon accounting tool for calculating GHG emissions from three types of infrastructures: road, railway and airport.

    This Thesis explains how the carbon accounting tool was designed in order to take into consideration most of the GHG emissions caused by transportation infrastructures. Carbon accounting of an infrastructure aims to determine the elements that emit the most GHG so that design recommendations can be made and the carbon footprint of the infrastructure reduced.

  • 213.
    Levi, Lea
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Center for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Applied Hydraulics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy, University of Split, Split, Croatia.
    Data-driven analysis of water and nutrient flows: Case of the Sava River Catchment and comparison with other regions2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing human population and demands for food, freshwater and energy are causing extensive changes in the water and biogeochemical cycles of river catchments around the world. Addressing and investigating such changes is particularly important for transboundary river catchments, where they impose additional risk to a region’s stability. This thesis investigates and develops data-driven methodologies for detecting hydro-climatic and nutrient load changes and their drivers with limited available data and on different catchment scales. As a specific case study, we analyze the Sava River Catchment (SRC) and compare its results with other world regions. A past–present to future evaluation of hydro-climatic data is done on the basis of a water balance approach including analysis of historic developments of land use and hydropower development data and projections of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) output. Using observed water discharge and nutrient concentration data, we propose a novel conceptual model for estimating and spatially resolving total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) input and delivery-retention properties for a river catchment and its nested subcatchments, as well as detection of nutrient hotspots. The thesis identifies hydroclimatic change signals of hydropower-related drivers and finds consistency with other world regions. The proposed nutrient screening methodology provides a good distinction between human-related nutrient inputs and landscape-related transport influences on nutrient loading at subcatchment to catchment scale. A cross-regional comparison of the SRC data with the Baltic region shows similarity between nutrient-relevant indicators and driving socio-economic and hydro-climatic conditions. The study highlights a number of complexities with regard to CMIP5 model representation of water fluxes. The large intermodel range of CMIP5 future projections of fluxes calls for caution when using individual model results for assessing ongoing and future water and nutrient changes.

  • 214.
    Levi, Lea
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Applied Hydraulics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy, University of Split, Split, Croatia.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Data-driven analysis of nutrient inputs and transfer through nested catchmentsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A data-driven screening methodology is developed for estimating nutrient inputs, deliveries and retentions in catchments with measured water discharges and nutrient concentrations along the river network. The methodology is also specifically applied to the Sava River Catchment (SRC), a major transboundary catchment in the Southeast Europe. A characteristic regional value emerges for nutrient input per unit area of around 30 T/yr/km2 for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and 2 T/yr/km2 for total phosphorus (TP) in the relatively large nested catchments (>40 000 km2) of the SRC; fluctuating values are obtained for smaller nested catchments (of around 10 000 km2). The applied methodology also identifies hotspot catchments for nutrient input per unit area, in the range of 158 T/yr/km2 for DIN and 13 T/yr/km2 for TP, within the SRC. Furthermore, relative nutrient delivery is found to be scale-dependent, exhibiting power-law decay with increasing catchment area, with exponents of around 1.4-1.7 for both DIN and TP. At the largest catchment scale with available data within the SRC the relative delivery is around 0.08 for DIN and 0.03 for TP. Overall, the SRC nutrient data show similar nutrient relations to driving hydro-climatic conditions (runoff for nutrient loads) and socio-economic conditions (population density and farmland share for nutrient concentrations) as in the compared Baltic region.

  • 215.
    Levi, Lea
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Applied Hydraulics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy, University of Split, Split, Croatia..
    Destouni, Georgia
    Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Multi-model projections of future hydro-climatic and nutrient-load evolution in the Sava River CatchmentManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The direct output of the multi-model ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercompariosn Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) for the Sava River Catchment shows high uncertainty of hydro-climatic changes for the two future scenarios but exhibits overall agreement with the direction of the changes with results of some previous studies conducted for the SRC. Of particular importance are runoff changes induced by climate change as they might influence nutrient pollution in the catchment and as such cause water quality issues on a subcatchment to catchment scale. Such changes might have impact not only for the waters of the SRC but also the Danube River Catchment and the Black Sea. As none of the models shows to out-perfom any other model in reproducing observed temperature and water fluxes or their changes, nutrient yield calculation based on the ensemble mean and particular models show wide range of results and make any possible conclusions challenging and potentially misleading.

  • 216.
    Levi, Lea
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. University of Split, Croatia.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University.
    Andričević, Roko
    University of Split, Croatia.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Hydroclimatic change driven by land-water-use developments:the case oftransboundary Sava River Catchment, South Eastern Europe2013Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing human demands for water, food and energy have led to extensive use and modification of world waterbodies, for instance by construction of dams, reservoirs and channels for hydropower purposes. In this studywe use the transboundary Sava River Catchment (SRC) in South Eastern Europe, as field case for investigatinglong-term hydroclimatic changes and their relation to regional hydropower and associated land-water-usedevelopments. We find sustained increase in average annual evapotranspiration, and decrease in average annualrunoff and temporal runoff variability as hydropower production increased in the SRC parts with the greatest suchdevelopments during the 20th century. Purely climate-driven estimates of change in evapotranspiration and runoffcannot capture these changes, which are apparently related to the land and water use changes associated withhydropower development. Direct comparisons with corresponding results from other world regions and globalestimates show consistent cross-regional results, supporting generalization of obtained specific numerical resultsand the used analysis approach on different scales and across different parts of the world.With regard to specific results, the estimated average increase of actual evapotranspiration by hydropowerrelated/reflected land-water-use changes in SRC (sub)catchments with considerable hydropower developmentis 37 mm/year (for their average annual hydropower production of 217 MWh/km2). This result is for instanceconsistent with a corresponding estimate of evapotranspiration increase by Destouni et al (2012) of 57 mm/year(for their investigated Swedish hydropower catchments with average annual hydropower production of 322MWh/km2).The SRC case study, of an area of recent political and social instability with less than ideal conditions regardingenvironmental monitoring, represents a methodological success by showing that, even in such a complicatedpart of the world, relevant data series can be compiled for detecting and recognizing hydro-climatic changes andtheir possible land-water-use drivers. The used catchment-wise methodological approach offers opportunities forimproved assessment of drivers and hydro-climatic changes across different scales, and for further development ofclimate and Earth system models based on this improved knowledge.

  • 217.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Förbehandling av bioslam för ökad biogasproduktion och Uppgradering av biogas2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förbehandling av bioslam för ökad biogasproduktion

    Eftersom bioslam från aktivslamsteget i reningsprocessen ger en lägre metanproduktion än primärslam bör förbehandlingen ske på bioslam. Effekten av olika förbehandlingsmetoder är dock svårbedömd och ofta erhålls inget positivt energiutbyte då energin av ökad produktion av biogas kan vara mindre än tillförd energi vid behandlingen. Vissa förbehandlingsmetoder som ozonering kan vid överdosering oxidera substrat och ge minskad biogasproduktion

     

    Litteraturstudien kompletterades med mätning av biometanpotential efter förbehandling av bioslam (Khayi, 2014). Som förbehandlingsmetoder valdes frysning (djupfryst och lättfryst) och uppvärmning. Vid 35 dagars rötning producerade djupfryst slam 221 Nml CH4/g VS, lättfryst 115 Nml CH4/g VS, det uppvärmt 181 Nml CH4/g VS och det obehandlade (referens) 148 Nml CH4/g VS (Nml, normalmilliliter är gasvolym omräknad till en atmosfärs tryck). Djupfrysning och uppvärmning ökade biogasproduktionen medan lättfrysning gav minskad biogasproduktion.

     

    Uppgradering av biogas

    Vid uppgradering separeras koldioxid från biogasen varvid metangas erhålles.  Uppgradering kan ske genom att koldioxiden absorberas av ett fast (PSA-teknik med zeoliter eller aktivt kol) eller flytande medium (vattenskrubber, polyetylenglykol eller monoetanolamin) eller med membranteknik. Investeringskostnaden för uppgradering är starkt beroende av storleken på anläggningen snarare än av vilken teknik som används, men vid små är investeringskostnaden för membranteknik något lägre.

     

    Genom intern metananrikning i rötkammaren kan metanhalten i den producerade biogasen ökas. Detta åstadkommes genom att koldioxid avdrivs från slam som sedan återförs till rötkammaren.

  • 218.
    Levlin, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Fosforåtervinning från avloppsrening med sidoströmshydrolys2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fosfor kan utvinnas från sidoströmshydrolys i reningsverk med biologisk fosforavskiljning. Lösligt fosfat frigörs vid hydrolys av returslam som är anaerob behandling där kolkälla framställs av slammet. Olika varianter för återvinnning från sidoström är t.ex. PhoStrip-processen, där fosfor utvinns från returslammet av fosforrikt slam från aktivslamprocesser med biologisk fosforreduktion. Ett annat alternativ är att återvinna fosfor från en sidoström som tas ut från den anaeroba delen av aktivslamprocessen, där fosfor har frigjorts till lösningen. Fosforåtervinning från fosforrik partiell sidoström beräknas ge en fosforåtervinning på 60-65%. Försök har utförts med slam från sidoströmshydrolys vid en process med biologisk fosforavskiljning. Efter separation av vattenfasen fälldes fosforn dels med magnesium och dels med kalcium vilket gav en utfällning av fosfor på 79 – 100 %. Vid fällning med magnesium bildades struvit (MgNH4PO4), och med kalcium kalciumfosfat (Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6). Analys av slam före (100 mg P/l) och efter slamhydrolysen visar att 20 % fosfor 20 mg P/l frigörs till vattenfasen. 124 ton fosfor i inkommande avlopp och 20 % frigöring av fosfor vid slamhydrolysen borde ge en fosforåtervinningspotential på 25 ton. Dock, med ett flöde av 54 m3/h genom slamhydrolysen blir fosforåtervinningspotential 9,5 ton per år.

  • 219. Li, Bo
    et al.
    Zhao, Zhihong
    Jiang, Yujing
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Contact mechanism of a rock fracture subjected to normal loading and its impact on fast closure behavior during initial stage of fluid flow experiment2015Inngår i: International journal for numerical and analytical methods in geomechanics (Print), ISSN 0363-9061, E-ISSN 1096-9853, Vol. 39, nr 13, s. 1431-1449Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast closure of rock fractures has been commonly observed in the initial stage of fluid flow experiments at environmental temperatures under low or moderate normal stresses. To fully understand the mechanisms that drive this fast closure, the evolution of local stresses acting on contacting asperities on the fracture surfaces prior to fluid flow tests needs to be evaluated. In this study, we modeled numerically the asperity deformation and failure processes during initial normal loading, by adopting both elastic and elastic-plastic deformation models for the asperities on a real rock fracture with measured surface topography data, and estimated their impact on initial conditions for fluid flow test performed under laboratory conditions. Compared with the previous models that simulate the normal contact of a fracture as the approach of two rigid surfaces without deformations, our models of deformable asperities yielded smaller contact areas and higher stresses on contacting asperities at a given normal stress or normal displacement. The results show that the calculated local stresses were concentrated on the contacts of a few major asperities, resulting in crushing of asperity tips. With these higher contact stresses, however, the predicted closure rates by pressure solution are still several orders of magnitude lower than that of the experimental measurements at the initial stage of fluid flow test. This indicates that single pressure solution may not likely to be the principal compaction mechanism for this fast closure, and that the damages on contacting asperities that occur during the initial normal loading stage may play an important role.

  • 220.
    Li, Wen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Improvement of Biological Processes of Inland Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis gives an account for various aeration schemes that are utilized in conventional activated sludge treatment process in a wastewater treatment plant. By altering between different aeration schemes, the project aimed at reducing energy consumption along with maintaining the treatment performance at the plant. A series of experiments on the treatment performance over several different aeration schemes thus has been conducted on site at Solviken in Mora, Sweden.

    The project is basically a case study where no parameters were manually controlled except for the aeration schemes at the plant. Energy consumption reduction is logically relative to the ratio between aeration and non-aeration intervals. Several criteria were tested in regards to the treatment performance, including pH value, organic matters, phosphorus substances and microorganisms.

    The study has come up with a superior aeration scheme for the plant, as well as indicated processes that can be improved at the plant.

  • 221.
    Lin, Daorui
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Global Sensitivity of Water Quality Modeling in the Gulf of Finland.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Gulf of Finland is the most eutrophied water body in the Baltic Sea, which is mainly caused by nutrient loads produced by human activities in its surrounding cities. In order to solve this environmental problem, a computational model based on the understanding the relations between eutrophication, water quality and sediments is needed to forecast the water quality variance in response to the natural and anthropogenic influences. A precise water quality model can be useful to assist the policy making in the Gulf of Finland, and even for the whole Baltic Sea.

    Kiirikki model, as one of these models describing the water quality of Baltic Sea in response of water quality variance, is a sediment and ecosystem based model, treating different sub-basins and layers as boxes. This study aims to assess the parameters’ sensitivity level on the scale of the Gulf of Finland. Firstly, the Morris sampling strategy is applied to generate economic OAT (One factor At a Time) samples before screening 50 out of 100 trajectories with distance as large as possible. In order to assess their sensitivity, index and indicator are needed. EE (elementary effect) is adopted to be the assessment index and four core eutrophication indicators from HELCOM 2009a are to be analyzed.

    By comparing the (σ,μ) and (σ,μ*) plots of each parameters’ EE values (σ is standard deviation, μ is mean value and μ* is the absolute mean value), some parameters are identified as potential sensitive parameter, such as the minimum biomass of cyanobacteria (Cmin), critical point of CO2 flux (CCr), the optimal temperature for detritus phosphorous mineralization (Toptgamma), maximum loss rate of algae (RAmax), optimal temperature for the growth of other algae (ToptmuA), Coefficient for temperature limiting factor for the growth of cyanobacteria (aTmuC), half-saturation coefficient of radiation for cyanobacteria (KIC) and so on. In contrast, the other parameters are ruled out as having very low values in terms of σ, μ and μ*. This is because the feature of Morris sampling strategy makes it easier to achieve high variance of the outputs, resulting into generally higher σ.

    Therefore, further investigation with different strategies is needed after the initial screening of the non-sensitive parameters in this study.

  • 222.
    Lindell, Greta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    MKB för små verksamheter och markingrepp i praktiken.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetets syfte är att utreda vilka krav som ställs på MKB-förfarandet för mindre verksamheter rörande ingrepp i mark. Examensarbetet skall också utmynna i en lathund för upprättande av MKB för denna typ av verksamhet. Svensk lagstiftning och internationellt erkänd god sed identifieras. Tre stycken MKB för mindre verksamheter eller åtgärder av denna typ analyseras utifrån Svensk lag och god sed. Detta för att utreda hur MKB för små verksamheter som gör ingrepp i mark i praktiken utförs. Resultatet av analysen visar att dessa MKB uppfyller Svensk lag men inte kan anses vara den MKB som god sed föreskriver. Lathunden som också är ett resultat av examensarbetet ska hjälpa till vid upprättandet av MKB för att kunna göra en hög kvalitativ MKB som inte bara är en pappersprodukt utan även ett användbart verktyg.

  • 223.
    Lindholm, Linda
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Inhibition of phosphorus release from sediments of Lake Erhai through argon oxygen decarburisation slag (AOD) and electric arc furnace slag (EAF) capping.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of eutrophication in lakes and the open seas has been largely the result of phosphorus (P) that accumulate in the sediment. Eutrophication occurs mainly in the waters in densely populated coastal areas and agricultural dominated areas and occurs when an excess of nutrients reach the soil and water. In situ capping is a proven method to inhibit P and is the method used in this study. A capping is placed on the polluted sediment surface to physically isolate it and reduce the release of P and prevent resuspension, i.e. suspension of already precipitated P. The possibility of inhibiting P by using sediment capping and the reactive filter materials (sorbents) argon oxygen decarburisation (AOD) slag in particle size fractions 0-0.5 mm and 2-8 mm and electric arc furnace (EAF) slag in particle size fraction 1-2.36 mm, have been investigated.

    Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), also called orthophosphates, were the main species of P investigated in this study. A total of three studies were conducted in Lake Erhai in Dali China, during April 2016. One pre-study was conducted at ten different sites in the lake, which aimed to find the most P polluted site. This site was chosen for the main study. The main study aimed to investigate if the aforementioned sorbents managed to absorb  orthophosphates after contact with lake sediment for seven days. The post-study was conducted to see if the sorbents themselves released any orthophosphates into the water. The water samples were tested for pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen (DO) before and after contact with lake sediment. The slag materials and lake sediment were studied with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to detect elements and compounds.

    Obtained results showed that the AOD slag (0-0.5 mm) could absorb 96% of the orthophosphates. However, both the AOD slag (2-8 mm) and EAF slag (1-2.36 mm) showed an increase of orthophosphates in the water after contact with lake sediment. The XRD analysis showed contents of silica (Si) and calcium (Ca) compounds in all of the slag materials, which was expected due to the configuration of these materials. The ICP analysis showed that 2% P was absorbed by the EAF (1-2.36 mm) slag, but there were no absorption by the AOD (0-0.5 mm) or AOD (2-8 mm) slag.

    The conclusion from this study is that AOD slag (0-0.5 mm) can be used successfully in P remediation projects because it absorbs 96% of the orthophosphates. The results are consistent with previous results from (Zuo et al., 2015) and (Renman et al., 2013).

  • 224.
    Linzbach, Antonia-Maria
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Coastal erosion on Vestpynten, Svalbard; Engineering measures for shore protection.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the processing of 3D Laser measurements from Vestpynten, Svalbard to find out the erosion pattern at the site as a basis for the design of an appropriated shore protection suggestion and also to evaluate the applicability of 3D laser measurement systems in Arctic environments.

    3D laser measurements would be interesting for the analysis of areas with limited  accessibility, since 3D laser measurement allows very precise recordings of the landscape/ surfaces without the need of accessing the investigation area.

    Based on the processed pictures and further erosion analysis the thesis suggests an erosion protection design for Vestpynten, based on geosynthetics. This was found to be necessary, since the road connecting Bjørndalen to Longyearbyen is at Vestpynten only a few meters away from the edge of the instable, eroding cliff. The suggested geosynthetic protection design is expected to be appropriate in terms of ecological and economical requirements of the site.

  • 225.
    Liu, Yihong
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Characterization of Stormwater Runoffs from Five Different Types of Wastes.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater falling on outdoor waste disposal areas becomes polluted via contact with waste materials. It contains various pollutants. On the basis of the present study, stormwater runoffs from five different types of waste disposal sites have been collected and characterized in two modern waste management centers where several waste management activities are carried out. Mean values and 90% confidence intervals of nutrients, eight types of trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Zn, As, Cu), petroleum oils, BOD, TOC, PH, dissolved oxygen, Cl, and conductivity were all calculated. Of many investigated stormwater quality parameters, runoff from certain areas showed measured values above the limits for direct discharge into recipients at Löt waste management center. The pollutants transported by stormwater represent a significant threat to the environment and possible treatment methods were analyzed.

    A high variability of stormwater runoff quality was found not only among different waste disposal sites, but also in data measured at the same waste disposal site of different sampling events. Sampling experiences and analyzed results indicate that the frequent changes in activities carried out on waste disposal sites, the sampling time in each sampling event, weather conditions, the amount of waste dust on sites surfaces, and waste characteristics all have impacts on the amount of pollutants transported by stormwater. Besides, a simply designed stormwater sedimentation experiment was conducted along with this study and it proved to be very effective for the removal of suspended soils and particle-associated pollutants.

  • 226.
    Lundgren, Kajsa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Samuelsson, Henny
    Stockholm Vatten och Avfall, City of Stockholm.
    Planning support for reducing risks related to flooding in the Stockholm Region2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The urbanization trend during the last decades have several environmental impacts, particularly associated with increasing runoff and flood hazard, and decreasing water quality. These topics have been investigated all around the world, but relatively little is known about the impacts of urban development at the early stage of the urban planning in cities. This project aims to develop planning support tools for addressing impacts of different urbanization patterns in alternative planning scenarios on surface water within the City of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden.

    With the help of urban planners at the municipality, alternative future urban scenarios will be created and assessed from a hydro-meteorological risk assessment perspective. The scenarios will include alternative development patterns for buildings, infrastructure and supply of several regulating and cultural ecosystem services. For the water-related risk assessment, a hydrological model will be set up and validated using available data for a selected catchment that is affected by the scenarios. This will then be used to assess the impacts of the scenarios on the hydrological response and its implications. In the end, the results are expected to contribute to identifying how localization and type of different ecosystem services in the urban planning can be employed as nature-based solutions for hydro-meteorological risk reduction and climate adaptation.

  • 227.
    Lundgren, Monia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    From Food to Fuel: The Swedish Resource Efficiency Dilemma.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The EU has embarked on a resource efficiency trajectory in order to solve resource scarcity and general sustainability issues. The conversion of food waste into fuel is considered resource efficient as it makes use of resources that would otherwise be discarded. On the other hand, the food sector affects the environment substantially as it is inherently resource intensive and excessive. The purpose of the study was to assess how resource efficient the food waste substrate (feedstock for energy production) is from a life-cycle perspective. The study also aimed to determine if associated Swedish incentives and current market signals promote resource efficiency in Sweden. The food waste substrate has a complex life-cycle and current analyses neglect crucial life-cycle impacts. This makes resource efficiency difficult to determine in absolute terms. The first resource efficiency principle, that promotes the use of fewer inputs, becomes questionable as the food waste substrate has twice as many input stages in comparison to the food crop substrate. The second principle, stating that the food waste substrate should contribute to a low-carbon economy, also falls short due to a calculation method that neglects crucial emission stages. Due to the absent life-cycle perspective, crucial environmental impacts associated with food production are neglected. This affects the achievement of the Swedish Generation Goal and environmental quality objectives. The study concludes that the food waste substrate should undergo a thorough life-cycle analysis. Furthermore, it should be compared to other biofuel options in order to determine degree of resource efficiency. Only then can an appropriate set of EU and national policy measures be instated to safeguard scarce resources and promote a sustainable agriculture and energy sector.

  • 228.
    Madani, Erik MirHadi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jansson, Per Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Babelon, Ian
    Northumbria Univ, Dept Architecture & Built Environm, Ellison Pl, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Differences in water balance between grassland and forest watersheds using long-term data, derived using the CoupModel2018Inngår i: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 72-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To quantify the role of land cover during a period of climate change, the runoff response is studied for Plynlimon in Wales, UK. The main objective was two-fold: (i) to create a protocol for modeling water balance on a daily basis; and (ii) to describe the extent to which the impact of land-use changes can be identified and supported by the long-term monitoring data of runoff from two neighboring watersheds with different land covers. The process-oriented CoupModel platform was used to set up the model with a well-defined uncertainty for selected parameters. The behavioral ensembles were applied to simulated daily discharge data for the period of 1992-2010 using subjective criteria to reduce the prior 35,000 candidates with a random uniform distribution of 40 parameters. The accepted ensemble was reduced to 100 candidates by accepting the best root-mean-square error (RMSE) on the accumulated residuals during the simulation period. Similar good performance for the entire period and both watersheds was obtained. The differences in interception evaporation accounted for the most important differences between forest and grassland. The obtained residual demonstrated that changes in the forest cover had an impact on the water balance during the first part of the simulation period.

  • 229.
    Madani, Hadi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Application of reservoir simulation and flow routing models to the operation of multi-reservoir system in terms of flood controlling and hydropower’s regulation.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Dams are amongst the most important components of water resource systems. In many places the water regulated by and stored in dams is essential to meet the development objectives of water supply, flood control, agriculture (i.e. irrigation and livestock), industry, energy generation and other sectors. Previous studies (Gourbesvive, 2008) indicate that in the next 30 years water use will increase by 50% in the world. By 2025 about 4 billion people will live under conditions of severe water stress. Continuous deterioration in water quality in most developing countries is additional challenge. Therefore, development of priority water infrastructures and improvements of water management have essential and complementary roles in contributing to sustainable growth and energy reduction in developing countries like Sweden. One way of improving water management is through increasing the efficiency of utilization of dam reservoirs (Bosona, 2010).

    Reservoir operation is a complex task involving numerous hydrological, technical, economical, environmental, institutional and political considerations. There is no general algorithm that covers all type of reservoir operation problems. The choice for techniques usually depends on the reservoir specific system characteristics, data availability, the objectives specified and the constraints imposed.

    Goal of the mathematical modelling and simulation of a physical system is to provide the user with the relevant information used in design and/or management decision-making. However, in the absence of adequate foresight and planning for adverse impacts, past dam construction has often resulted in devastating effects for ecosystems and the livelihoods of affected communities.

    In this project with Hec-ResSim simulation model four reservoirs in Ore River Basin and 3 reservoirs in Lule River Basin in different location in Sweden are considered and by new operation rules, model is simulated. With consideration of two high floods event model is calibrated and new operation rules for flood control and hydropower melioration was rendered and suggested.

  • 230.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Ammonium removal from municipal wastewater with application of ion exchange and partial nitritation/Anammox process2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater with application of Anammox process offers cost reduction, especially if it is combined with maximal use of organic content of wastewater for biogas production. In this study a new technology is proposed, which is based on ammonium concentration from municipal wastewater by ion exchange followed by biological removal of ammonium from the concentrated stream by partial nitritation/Anammox process. In experiments on ammonium concentration four the most common ion exchange materials were tested in packed bed columns, namely strong and weak acid cation exchange resins, natural and synthetic zeolites. Experiments with synthetic wastewaters with different content and municipal wastewater showed that strong acid cation resin is the most suitable for ammonium concentration from municipal wastewater due to its high exchange capacity and fast regeneration. Since NaCl was used for regeneration of ion exchange materials, spent regenerant had elevated salinity. Experiments with activity determination showed that both nitritation and Anammox bacteria are inhibited by NaCl, where effect on Anammox bacteria is more severe. Adaptation of partial nitritation/Anammox biomass was studied using two strategies of salinity increase and it was possible to adapt the biomass to NaCl content of 10-15 g/L. The technology was tested in batch mode using strong acid cation resin for ammonium concentration from pretreated municipal wastewater, and partial nitritation/Anammox biomass for nitrogen removal from concentrated stream. It was shown that it is possible to remove 99.9% of ammonium from wastewater with ion exchange while increasing concentration of ammonium in spent regenerant by 18 times. Up to 95% of nitrogen from spent regenerant was removed by partial nitritation/Anammox biomass in batch tests. Moreover, possibilities of integrati on of the technology into municipal wastewater treatment technology, challenges and advantages were discussed.

     

  • 231.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Anammox-based systems for nitrogen removal from mainstream municipal wastewater2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater with the application of deammonification process offers an operational cost reduction, especially if it is combined with a maximal use of organic content of wastewater for biogas production. In this thesis, two approaches for integration of the deammonification process into the municipal wastewater treatment scheme were studied.

    The first approach is based on ammonium concentration from municipal wastewater by ion exchange followed by biological removal of ammonium from the concentrated stream by deammonification process. Experiments with synthetic and real municipal wastewater showed that strong acid cation resin is suitable for ammonium concentration due to its high exchange capacity and fast regeneration. Since NaCl was used for regeneration of ion exchange materials, spent regenerant had elevated salinity. The deammonification biomass was adapted to NaCl content of 10-15 g/L by step-wise salinity increase. The technology was tested in batch mode with 99.9 % of ammonium removal from wastewater with ion exchange and up to 95 % of nitrogen removal from spent regenerant by deammonification process.

    The second studied approach was to apply anammox process to low-concentrated municipal wastewater in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) system without a pre-concentration step. After a 5 months period of transition to mainstream wastewater the pilot plant was operated during 22 months and stable performance of one-stage deammonification was proven. Clear advantage of IFAS system was shown. The highest stable nitrogen removal efficiency of 70 % and a nitrogen removal rate of 55 g N/(m3·d) was reached. Moreover, the influence of operation conditions on competition between ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was studied by literature review, batch tests and continuous pilot plant operation.

  • 232.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. ] Lviv Polytech Natl Univ, Dept Ind Ecol & Sustainable Environm Management, Ukraine.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Malovanyy, Myroslav
    Ammonium removal by partial nitritation and Anammox processes from wastewater with increased salinity2015Inngår i: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 595-604Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is dedicated to the biological treatment of wastewater with increased salinity using a combination of partial nitritation and Anammox processes. Two one-stage deammonification moving bed biofilm reactors were operated with the increase in NaCl concentration every two weeks by 5 and 2.5 g/L. The strategy with a step of 5 g/L of salinity increase led to complete inhibition of the process at the salinity level of 15 g/L. The strategy with a step of 2.5 g/L gave possibility to adapt bacteria to the elevated salinity. After reaching the salinity level of 10 g NaCl/L, the reactor was operated during 92 days with a nitrogen removal rate of 0.39 +/- 0.19 g N/(m(2)center dot day) (0.078 +/- 0.038 kg N/m(3)center dot day) and an average nitrogen removal efficiency of 59%. It was shown that conductivity cannot be used for monitoring the process when a reactor is treating wastewater with increased salinity, whereas pH can be correlated to effluent ammonium concentration regardless of wastewater salinity.

  • 233.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Malovanyy, Myroslav
    Ammoniumremoval by partial nitritation and Anammox processes from wastewater with increased salinityManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 234.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Lviv Polytech Natl Univ, Dept Ind Ecol & Sustainable Environm Management, Ukraine.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Malovanyy, Myroslav
    Combination of ion exchange and partial nitritation/Anammox process for ammonium removal from mainstream municipal wastewater2014Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 70, nr 1, s. 144-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a new technology of nitrogen removal from mainstream municipal wastewater is proposed. It is based on ammonium removal by ion exchange and regeneration of ion exchange material with 10-30 g/L NaCl solution with further nitrogen removal from spent regenerant by partial nitritation/Anammox process. Influence of regenerant strength on performance of ion exchange and biological parts of the proposed technology was evaluated. Moreover, the technology was tested in batch mode using pretreated municipal wastewater, strong acid cation (SAC) resin and partial nitritation/Anammox biomass. It was shown that with ion exchange it is possible to remove 99.9% of ammonium from wastewater while increasing the concentration of ammonium in spent regenerant by 18 times. Up to 95% of nitrogen from spent regenerant, produced by regeneration of SAC resin with 10 g/L NaCl solution, was removed biologically by partial nitritation/Anammox biomass. Moreover, the possibilities of integration of the technology into municipal wastewater treatment technology, and the challenges and advantages are discussed.

  • 235.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Sakalova, H.
    Yatchyshyn, Y.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Malovanyy, M.
    Concentration of ammonium from municipal wastewater using ion exchange process2013Inngår i: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 329, s. 93-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this study is concentration of ammonium from municipal wastewater using ion exchange process. Four types of ion exchange materials were tested in packed bed columns, namely strong and weak acid cation exchange resins and natural and synthetic zeolites. In total 23 runs of saturation and regeneration were done using synthetic wastewaters of different kinds and pretreated municipal wastewater. Due to its high exchange capacity and fast regeneration strong acid cation exchange resin was found to be the most suitable for ammonium concentration under condition that selectivity of ammonium removal is not of a main concern and it allows concentrating ammonium from 27 to 580mg NH4-N/L. If selective ammonium removal is required, natural zeolite should be used instead. Regeneration with 0.17M HCl and 0.17-0.51M NaCl was tested and suitability of different regenerants for different technologies of spent regenerant treatment was discussed. It was shown that electric conductivity measurements can be used for detection of breakthrough and estimation of ammonium concentration in outflow from an ion exchange column. Breakthrough curve fitting with Thomas and Adams-Bohart models was performed which gave information about the maximum exchange capacity of materials and kinetics of ion exchange.

  • 236.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Valhallavägen 81, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    Mainstream wastewater treatment in integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor by partial nitritation/anammox process2015Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 198, s. 478-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the system based on the combination of biofilm and activated sludge (IFAS - integrated fixed film activated sludge) was tested and compared with a system that relies only on biofilm (MBBR - moving bed biofilm reactor) for nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater by deammonification process. By introduction of suspended biomass into MBBR the nitrogen removal efficiency increased from 36 +/- 3% to 70 +/- 4% with simultaneous 3-fold increase of nitrogen removal rate. Results of batch tests and continuous reactor operation showed that organotrophic nitrate reduction to nitrite, followed by anammox reaction contributed to this high removal efficiency. After sCOD/NH4-N ratio decreased from 1.8 +/- 0.2 to 1.3 +/- 0.1 removal efficiency decreased to 52 +/- 4%, while still maintaining 150% higher removal rate, comparing to MBBR. Activity tests revealed that affinity of NOB to oxygen is higher than affinity of AOB with half-saturation constants of 0.05 and 0.41 mg/L, respectively.

  • 237.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Yang, Jingjing
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and partial nitritation/anammox moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for municipal wastewater treatment2015Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 180, s. 144-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the combination of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for mainstream wastewater treatment was tested. The competition between aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was studied during a 5 months period of transition from reject water to mainstream wastewater followed by a 16 months period of mainstream wastewater treatment. The decrease of influent ammonium concentration led to a wash-out of suspended biomass which had a major contribution to nitrite production. Influence of a dissolved oxygen concentration and a transient anoxia mechanism of NOB suppression were studied. It was shown that anoxic phase duration has no effect on NOB metabolism recovery and oxygen diffusion rather than affinities of AOB and NOB to oxygen determine the rate of nitrogen conversion in a biofilm system. Anammox activity remained on the level comparable to reject water treatment systems.

  • 238. Matthews, B.
    et al.
    Netherer, S.
    Katzensteiner, K.
    Pennerstorfer, J.
    Blackwell, E.
    Henschke, P.
    Hietz, P.
    Rosner, S.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Schume, H.
    Schopf, A.
    Transpiration deficits increase host susceptibility to bark beetle attack: Experimental observations and practical outcomes for Ips typographus hazard assessment2018Inngår i: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 263, s. 69-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The projected increase in the frequency and severity with which bark beetle disturbances occur is forecasted to be partially driven by increases in drought episodes. Drought is widely considered to predispose host conifer trees to bark beetle attack; however, experimental data supporting this hypothesis are scarce. This study revisits the Rosalia Roof Project, the first throughfall manipulation experiment to investigate how attack by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees is affected by drought stress. Using the in situ “attack box” method, this study explores whether increased host acceptance by I. typographus and/or reduced host defense against attack coincide with increased tree transpiration deficits (i.e. the reduction from a potential transpiration caused by soil water limitation). To estimate transpiration deficits of the respective control and drought stress-induced (full-cover) trees, sap flow measurements were combined with simulations from a simple forest water balance routine. The model, which was calibrated against in situ hydrological measurements, has been developed for a hazard rating tool (PHENIPS-TDEF) which simulates both potential I. typographus phenology and tree drought stress in Norway spruce stands. While host acceptance appeared unaffected by tree transpiration deficits, acute and chronic transpiration deficits did lead to reduced host defense. Full cover trees for instance, which experienced an estimated 93 mm transpiration deficit in the previous May-Sep, could only defend against <10% of the total individual attack attempts between spring and midsummer compared to the control trees which experienced a corresponding deficit of 9 mm and defended >70% of attacks. However, similar defended attack percentages on the full-cover and control trees during late summer demonstrate the difficulty in deriving simple stress proxy-infestation risk relationships. The experiment therefore highlights the utility and limitations of transpiration deficits within I. typographus disturbance models and hazard assessment tools, such as PHENIPS-TDEF. 

  • 239.
    Mazurek, Agnieszka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Nitrous oxide emissions from deammonification process under different operation conditions.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment plays significant role in the environmental protection. The process has direct impact on quality of air and water. All treated sewage reaches fresh water reservoirs as well as gasses escaping from the process are emitted to the atmosphere. Main aim of the thesis is to determine N2O emissions from partial nitritation/Anammox (deammonification process) in one-stage system applied in MBBR technology. Whole project was operated successfully on two pilot-scale reactors parallel, fed by the same reject water. Both reactors were filled to capacity of 200 L each, where 40% of the working volume was fulfilled by Kaldnes carriers suspended in liquid by mechanical stirrer. First reactor (R1) presented strategy of intermittent aeration with ratio (R=1/3) and stable DO concentration at amount of 1.5 mg O2/L, whereas second one (R2) operated in constant aeration with variable values of dissolved oxygen which differ in range of 1.0-2.5 mg O2/L. Every week analyses of ammonium and nitrogen forms were carried out in influent and effluent by Hach-Lange cuvettes. Results of measurements showed high NH4+-N removal efficiency of approximately 95% for R1 reactor and 86% for R2. During the process, the continuous measurement of nitrous oxide in gaseous and liquid phase was performed by Teledyne data logger and Unisense microsensor. Measurements during 4 months resulted in assessment of nitrous oxide emission tendency dependent on aeration system. The result from reactor R1 showed that 1.0-2.4% of N-load was emitted as N2O to the atmosphere, and 0.05-0.28% was released as dissolved N2O in outgoing water. Regarding reactor R2 tendency of nitrous oxide production is similar. Estimated emission of N2O in gaseous phase in reactor R2 is 1.4-2.0% of nitrogen load and 0.02-0.39% in liquid phase. All gathered results are shown in the appendix of the paper.

  • 240.
    Małoszewski, Kamil
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Application of on-line measurements and activity tests for the controlling and monitoring of the Nitritation/Anammox process.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Anammox process is continuously tested in order to obtain knowledge about its application in the main stream of sewage. The aim of this study is to improve the controlling and monitoring of the Nitritation/Anammox process by applying on-line measurement of physical parameters and activity tests of different groups of bacteria. Additionally, the concentration of ammonia in inflow was reduced to test the reaction of bacteria to a sudden change in the conditions which may occur in wastewater treatment plants. After five months of tests, favourable results were obtained. Achieved removal of NH4-N was good. On-line measurements proved to be an effective tool to monitor the process. This may show the way for further research and ultimately leading to an effective implementation of the process for the treatment of the main stream of wastewater.

  • 241.
    McGivney, Eric
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Comparison of UV-C and Vacuum- UV induced AOT on the acute mortality of microalgae.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced oxidation technology (AOT) has been used to destroy microorganisms in ballast water by breaking down the cell membranes. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of a ballast water treatment system that uses a combination of UV-C (λ=254 nm), Vacuum-UV (VUV; λ=185 nm) and photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO2) on a freshwater algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and a marine algae, Tetraselmis suecica. The coupling of a semiconductor, such as TiO2, with a UV source is known as an advanced oxidative technology (AOT). To test the effects of TiO2 and wave length on algae, dose-response experiments were conducted to determine the species median lethal dose (LC50) for each of the following treatments: UV-light emitted at 254 nm (UVλ=254 nm), UV-light emitted at 254 nm in the presence of TiO2 (AOTλ=254 nm), and UV-light emitted at λ=254 nm (90 %) and 185 nm (90 %) in the presence of TiO2 (AOTλ=185 + 254 nm). In both species, TiO2 significantly increased mortality, most likely due to the biologically harmful radicals generated at the TiO2 surface. The addition of the 185 nm wavelength significantly increased cell mortality in P. subcapitata, but not in T. suecica. Across all three treatments, P. subcapitata was more sensitive than T. suecica. The secondary purpose of this study was to assess the applicability of ImageJ, an image analysis software, for highthroughput data to analyze the effectiveness of ballast water treatment. ImageJ has been used to rapidly and accurately perform cell Live/Dead analysis; however, several hurdles were identified.

  • 242.
    McGivney, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Carnegie Mellon University, United States.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Effects of UV-C and Vacuum-UV TiO2 Advanced Oxidation Processes on the Acute Mortality of Microalgae2015Inngår i: Photochemistry and Photobiology, ISSN 0031-8655, E-ISSN 1751-1097, Vol. 91, nr 5, s. 1142-1149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced oxidation processes/technologies (AOT) that combine a semiconductor, such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), with a UV source have been used to eliminate microorganisms in various water treatment applications. To facilitate the applicability of this technique, the gain in efficiency from the semiconductor compared to the UV source alone with respect to different target organisms requires evaluation. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of TiO2 and UV wavelength on a freshwater alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and a marine alga, Tetraselmis suecica. For each species, dose-response experiments were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LC50) of the following treatments: UV light emitted with a peak of 254nm, UV light emitted with a peak of 254nm in the presence of TiO2 and UV light emitted with a peak of 254 and 185nm in the presence of TiO2. In both species, the presence of TiO2 significantly increased mortality. Across all three treatments, P.subcapitata was more sensitive than T.suecica; moreover, the addition of the 185nm wavelength significantly increased cell mortality in P.subcapitata but not in T.suecica.

  • 243.
    Megersa, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Evaluation of sorption behavior of two reactive filter materials using dual column laboratory investigation.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorous and nitrogen are vital elements for the well-being of biological life. Industrial discharges, waste water infiltration systems, conventional waste water collection and treatment systems, agricultural runoffs and landfill leachates had been emitting significant quantity of these nutrients into water bodies. These induced negative consequences to the environment including eutrophication of aquatic water bodies, toxicity to marine life and depletion of phosphate resources. Reactive filter technology is developed based on the need to remove and retain nutrients from waste water while improving the quality of effluents from emission sources. Reactive filter materials are used to build filter bed systems that treats domestic waste water, storm water, landfill leachates and contaminated subsurface water to the desired quality. In the past natural minerals such as zeolites and industrially produced polonite had been subject to laboratory study for the sorption of ammonium, heavy metals and phosphorous. The following paper is based on the results of experiment consisting of two columns packed with mordenite and polonite reactive materials filtering in series to reduce NH4 and PO4 content of a waste water. Septic tank effluent pre filtered using 0.45 μm filter is used as influent waste water into the dual columns. The dual column filtered a total of 24.07l s (372PV) and 23.42 ls (496PV) of the waste water. Sampling of the feed water and filtrates of both columns were done every second day with measurement of pH, conductivity and temperature. Analyzed samples confirmed that the dual column filtration resulted in re-moval efficiency of 84.39 % (PO4), 67.98 % (NH4) and -37.762.8 % (NOx). Filtration in the first (mordenite) column resulted in relatively larger proportion of the influent ammonium ion exchange than sorption of phosphate while the filtration in the second (polonite) column sorbed quite high amount of phosphorous than ammonium from effluent of the first column. Saturation of mordenite occurred faster even though there was sorption potential for few more of influent ammonium. All PO4 removal in mordenite column occurred above breakthrough condition. Polonite packed column was in a condition of a third of it’s saturation potential for PO4 removal at the end of the experiment. pH of samples was the parameter which is correlated significantly with filtration in polonite column than temperature and electrical conductivity. The performance of polonite was higher at higher pH than at lower pH. The mean concentrations of the dual column effluent were 0.77 mg-PO4/l and 11.13 mg-NH4/l. This is acceptable by the standards of environmental laws. The result of the experiment is valuable in prediction of performance and designing of real time filter bed.

  • 244.
    Metzger, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Technische Universität München, Chai. of Restoration EcologyFreising, Germany .
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Lohila, A.
    Aurela, M.
    Eickenscheidt, T.
    Belelli-Marchesini, L.
    Dinsmore, K. J.
    Drewer, J.
    van Huissteden, J.
    Droesler, M.
    CO2 fluxes and ecosystem dynamics at five European treeless peatlands - merging data and process oriented modeling2015Inngår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 125-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange of five different peatland systems across Europe with a wide gradient in land use intensity, water table depth, soil fertility and climate was simulated with the process oriented CoupModel. The aim of the study was to find out whether CO2 fluxes, measured at different sites, can be explained by common processes and parameters or to what extend a site specific configuration is needed. The model was calibrated to fit measured CO2 fluxes, soil temperature, snow depth and leaf area index (LAI) and resulting differences in model parameters were analyzed. Finding site independent model parameters would mean that differences in the measured fluxes could be explained solely by model input data: water table, meteorological data, management and soil inventory data. Seasonal variability in the major fluxes was well captured, when a site independent configuration was utilized for most of the parameters. Parameters that differed between sites included the rate of soil organic decomposition, photosynthetic efficiency, and regulation of the mobile carbon (C) pool from senescence to shooting in the next year. The largest difference between sites was the rate coefficient for heterotrophic respiration. Setting it to a common value would lead to underestimation of mean total respiration by a factor of 2.8 up to an overestimation by a factor of 4. Despite testing a wide range of different responses to soil water and temperature, rate coefficients for heterotrophic respiration were consistently the lowest on formerly drained sites and the highest on the managed sites. Substrate decomposability, pH and vegetation characteristics are possible explanations for the differences in decomposition rates. Specific parameter values for the timing of plant shooting and senescence, the photosynthesis response to temperature, litter fall and plant respiration rates, leaf morphology and allocation fractions of new assimilates, were not needed, even though the gradient in site latitude ranged from 48 degrees N (southern Germany) to 68 degrees N (northern Finland) differed largely in their vegetation. This was also true for common parameters defining the moisture and temperature response for decomposition, leading to the conclusion that a site specific interpretation of these processes is not necessary. In contrast, the rate of soil organic decomposition, photosynthetic efficiency, and the regulation of the mobile carbon pool need to be estimated from available information on specific soil conditions, vegetation and management of the ecosystems, to be able to describe CO2 fluxes under different conditions.

  • 245.
    Metzger, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Germany.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Peichl, Matthias
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Parameter interactions and sensitivity analysis for modelling carbon heat and water fluxes in a natural peatland, using CoupModel v52016Inngår i: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 9, nr 12, s. 4313-4338Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to previous peatland carbon dioxide (CO2) model sensitivity analyses, which usually focussed on only one or a few processes, this study investigates interactions between various biotic and abiotic processes and their parameters by comparing CoupModel v5 results with multiple observation variables. Many interactions were found not only within but also between various process categories simulating plant growth, decomposition, radiation interception, soil temperature, aerodynamic resistance, transpiration, soil hydrology and snow. Each measurement variable was sensitive to up to 10 (out of 54) parameters, from up to 7 different process categories. The constrained parameter ranges varied, depending on the variable and performance index chosen as criteria, and on other calibrated parameters (equifinalities). Therefore, transferring parameter ranges between models needs to be done with caution, especially if such ranges were achieved by only considering a few processes. The identified interactions and constrained parameters will be of great interest to use for comparisons with model results and data from similar ecosystems. All of the available measurement variables (net ecosystem exchange, leaf area index, sensible and latent heat fluxes, net radiation, soil temperatures, water table depth and snow depth) improved the model constraint. If hydraulic properties or water content were measured, further parameters could be constrained, resolving several equifinalities and reducing model uncertainty. The presented results highlight the importance of considering biotic and abiotic processes together and can help modellers and experimentalists to design and calibrate models as well as to direct experimental set-ups in peatland ecosystems towards modelling needs.

  • 246.
    Mieres Dinamarca, Francisco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Production, sorption and pathways for dissolved organic carbon flow in the Krycklan catchment.: Modelling with focus on the terrestrial forest ecosystem.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved Organic Carbon accounts for many different functions in the boreal forest ecosystem. It is the main vehicle for organic carbon transport from the litterfall to the forest soil profile and together with water drainage it can be transported to streams. In boreal forests, the DOC transport have gain attention because of recently documented rise in concentration. Several models have been proposed, first to gain understanding in the main cauces of this increase in concentration, and then to simulate the transport of DOC in the landscape.

    An exploratory work was made to identify the extent of physical control and hydrological pathways for DOC discharge and the long-term biological control over DOC production, transport in the soil profile and discharge in 2 different situations. A 22-year dataset from the Krycklan Catchment site was used. Meteorological data was used as driving variables to calibrate DOC concentration and runoff in a small catchment (Site C7). The CoupModel was set up to represent the described vegetation and documented soil characterization and then calibrated to fit the measured variables. A stepwise calibration process was preferred to promote the understanding of the different components of the landscape in the organic carbon cycle.

    Results point to soil heat and water transfer processes as the most relevant group to explain both water runnof and DOC discharge, with increasing relevance in the deeper layers, explaining up to 97% of short-term variability in DOC discharge for the 27-35 cm layer. Soil organic carbon pools showed to have relevance in organic carbon stock balance along the soil profile.

    Conclusions state that, In concordance with other authors, there is a hydrological primary control over DOC discharge, but that soil organics and especially vegetation perform a relevant role in long-term balance of the organic carbon cycle. Further studies with this model could include time-series of atmospheric deposition of Sulphur and nitrogen and running the model in cascade.

  • 247.
    Mika, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Evaluation of Nitration/Anammox process by bacterial activity tests.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Partial Nitritation/Anammox process (deammonification process), by which occurs oxidation of ammonium to nitrogen gas by autotrophic bacteria in anaerobic conditions, considered to be cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of nitrogen removal. Present research work focuses on achieving a high nitrogen removal degree, thanks to Anammox bacteria, while providing the best performance of the ongoing process. Integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor was supplied with the main stream of the wastewater after UASB reactor, characterized by low concentration of nitrogen and organic matter. The bacteria ability to accommodate, were tested in the biofilm and in the activated sludge, depending on the different stages in which the process were being conducted. Batch test, such as Specific Anammox Activity (SAA), Nitrate Uptake Rate (NUR) and Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR), were used for the evaluation of activity of various groups of bacteria. On the basis of laboratory analysis verified the values obtained from the batch tests. It was determined that a high degree of nitrogen removal (92% of NH4-N) was achieved thanks to the dominant activity of the Anammox bacteria, with low participation of other groups of bacteria. It was also proved, that Anammox bacteria activity were overwhelming in the biofilm. Dominant role of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) was associated with high activity of Anammox bacteria, which together satisfyingly out-competed Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB) and heterotrophic bacteria. It has been shown that Anammox bacteria quickly adapt to the new conditions and they are able to assume a dominant role, even in the case of inoculation of the reactor with the sludge from SBR. This allows conclude, that in the case of operational problems, the reactor can be supplied from another source, in order not to inhibit the process.

  • 248.
    Mir Rigau, Xavier
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Land Use Impact Assessment on the Nutrient Transport in the lake Mälaren.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm and its surroundings are facing strong urban changes and it is forecasted that the increase of population will be the principal driver for the urban regions surrounding the lake Mälaren in the next decades. A thorough regional and urban planning is needed in order to build a sustainable society and protect the environment. In this sense Coupled Human and Natural Systems (CHANS) are useful tools for the creation of future scenarios of how urbanization and landuse changes will impact the ecosystems and the water resources. This master thesis is focused on how population growth and landuse changes impact both the surface water discharges and the nutrient transport in the Norrström Drainage Basin. In this regard the different comprehensive plans of 26 municipalities in the Stockholm-Mälardalen region were studied in order to create a landuse evolution model until 2040. The impacts of the changes of urbanization on the surface waters and the nutrient transport were obtained using the PCRaster environmental modelling tool following the guidelines of the PolFlow model. The results show an increase of the built-up urban areas of a 25% by 2040. Regarding the increase of flow in the surface waters, the results show a very small increase in the flow, due to the large scale of the study area. Finally the results for the nutrient transport show an increase of the nutrient loads at the outlet of the lake Mälaren of 20% in the case of nitrogen and 15% for phosphorus.

  • 249. Mishra, Bhupendra K.
    et al.
    Dubey, Chandra S.
    Shukla, Dericks P.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Usham, Arnold L.
    Concentration of arsenic by selected vegetables cultivated in the Yamuna flood plains (YFP) of Delhi, India2014Inngår i: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 72, nr 9, s. 3281-3291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High Arsenic (As) concentrations have been reported in superficial water in the Yamuna flood plains (YFP), Delhi, which is being extensively used for agriculture. The concentration of As in some common vegetables such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (lady's finger), Solanum melongena (brinjal), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd), Raphanus sativus (radish), Zea mays (corn), and Luffa acutangula (ridge gourd) has been studied in this work. The range of As concentrations (dry weight) varies from 0.6 to 2.52 mg/kg with the highest accumulation of 2.52 mg/kg in radish followed by tomato (2.36 mg/kg). The order of As concentration in the decreasing order is R. sativus>S. lycopersicum>Z. mays>L. acutangula>L. siceraria>S. melongena>A. esculentus. Thus, As accumulation is the highest in roots and the lowest in least juicy fruits. The daily dietary intake of As through the consumption of various vegetables was also calculated. Though the mean As concentration was the highest in radish (2.52 mg/kg) but the highest amount of As is being consumed through tomato (0.383 mg/day), which is nearly three times the World Health Organization's provisional maximum tolerable daily intake limit of 0.126 mg/day for a 60 kg person. High concentration of As in vegetables grown in YFP, Delhi is being reported here. This high contamination is primarily due to the presence of As in irrigation water having its source from coal-based thermal power plants in the vicinity of the area. If not checked properly, it will pose a serious health risk to people living in these densely populated areas surrounding YFP.

  • 250.
    Molin, Elvira
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Vattenhastigheter & flöden i fiskvägar - En jämförande studie.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt miljöbalken är det förbjudet att skada vilt levande djur. Ska man bedriva vattenverksamhet där djurlivet påverkas måste åtgärder för att minimera den negativa påverkan vidtas. Hindras exempelvis fiskens vandring av verksamheten ska vandringen återskapas med hjälp av en fiskväg.

    Mätningar av vattenhastigheter i fiskvägar med flygelmätning och höjder med GPS-mätare har utförts i studieområden utvalda av företaget Norconsult. Flöden har beräknats med hjälp av resultatet från mätningarna och sedan jämförts med de framtagna värdena på flödena i förstudierna. Jämförelsen ska bidra till förbättring vid kommande konstruktioner.

    Olika fiskarters vandring och simförmåga har studerats för att kunna tolka resultatet av mätningarna. Arternas simförmåga är också grundläggande för utformningen av en fiskväg.

    Det finns många olika sorters fiskvägar, den här rapporten behandlar tre slitsrännor, i Arboga, Kallstena och Örebro, och ett omlöp i Örebro.

    Resultatet av mätningarna i fält stämde överens med förstudien i avseende på vattendjupen i både omlöpet och slitsrännorna. Vad gäller flödena var de uppmätta hastigheterna i slitsrännorna betydligt lägre än de i förstudien i Arboga och vid Örebro slott. Hastigheterna i omlöpet och slitsrännan i Kallstena stämde väl överens med tidigare utsago. I slitsrännan i Arboga mättes flödet till 0,55 m3/s att jämföra med förstudiens flöde på 0,8 m3/s vid samma vattennivåer uppströms. I Kallstena mättes flödet till 0,49 m3/s och skulle enligt förstudien vara 0,50 m3/s vid vinterläge. Slitsrännan vid slottet hade ett flöde på 0,20 m3/s och skulle vid samma uppströms vattennivå ha ett flöde på 0,40 m3/s enligt föstudien. Omlöpet vid Slussen i Örebro hade ett flöde vid inloppet på 0,20 m3/s ett något högre flöde än vad förstudien visar på med samma vattennivåer, vilket skulle vara 0,25 m3/s.

    De flöden som uppmätts i Arbogaån kan endast fiskar av medelstorlek och uppåt klara av. Hastigheterna i slitsrännan i Örebro var något lägre och små fiskar kan ta sig upp där. I omlöpet var det djupet som var kritiskt där måste man öka flödet om man vill att större fiskar ska passera. Mångfalden av mindre arter var däremot god.

    Fel i flygelmätningarna kan förekomma om exempelvis propellern ej varit riktad rakt mot strömmen. Kommer strömmen snett på flygelns vingar kommer den inte att snurra lika många varv som om strömmen kommit framifrån och efterföljande hastighetsberäkning blir missvisande.

    Resultatet visar på att det skulle vara önskvärt med mer utförliga mätningar, förslagsvis med en annan metod än flygel, exempelvis spårämnen. Ett ökat flöde i omlöpet skulle också vara att förespråka för större fiskar och kan genomföras med ett högre erosionsskydd längs med å-fåran.

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