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  • 201.
    Barchéus, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap (stängd 20130101).
    Whose sky is it?2008Inngår i: Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1750-9637, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 46-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutions as diverse as governmental agencies, professional interest groups, airline companies, air navigation service providers, universities, research institutes, and equipment and airframe manufacturers have all embarked on a joint venture to create and implement the new system. The thinking behind this development is that the current air traffic system too focused on reactive measures on a tactical scale and that this results in a sub-optimised flow management. To overcome this, the main thrust of the new development concentrates on Air Traffic Management (ATM), as opposed to Air Traffic Control (ATC). This requires that the future ATM be designed around the three basic pillars of aviation: Communication, Navigation and Surveillance and is called CNS/ATM.

  • 202.
    Barchéus, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Air Traffic Management and Future Technology: The Views of the Controllers2006Inngår i: Human Factors and Aerospace Safety, ISSN 1468-9456, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 1-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological innovations have the potential to resolve airspace capacity problems and improve communications, but will undoubtedly change the routines and work content of humans in the system. This study examines what the introduction of new technologies will mean to air traffic controllers in terms of their future roles and areas of responsibility. To complement earlier simulation work, exploratory interviews were conducted with 22 European air traffic controllers. Results show that most controllers have a positive view on new technology such as automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast and cockpit displays of traffic information, but emphasize the need for supporting procedures, training and a user-centered design process. Respondents also highlighted the importance of retaining voice communication because of its effortless handling.

  • 203.
    Barchéus, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Ulfvengren, Pernilla
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Communication enablers for delegation: A relational model for the new ATM system2010Inngår i: Proceedings for Human-Computer Interaction in Aerospace HCI, New York: ACM Press, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the aviation community faces the application of new technology with possibly changing relations between pilots and controllers,there is a need for models describing the situation regarding division of tasks and responsibilities. The current paper proposes amodel for describing the distribution of roles between controller and pilot. Observations of current and simulated future scenariosgive a largely sequential order for separation tasks. A model of automation is applied to describe the relation between controllersand pilots through all scenarios from Free Flight to remote operations (UAS). Conclusions include a need for more flexiblecommunication to allow appropriate handling of emerging cognitive functions.

  • 204.
    Barchéus, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Ulfvengren, Pernilla
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Rignér, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    In Need of a Model for Complexity Assessment of Highly Automated Human Machine Systems2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Current methodologies in engineering relying on strict boundary definitions in order to be comprehensible are generally cost efficient and effective within those boundaries. However, in operational settings systems tend to operate outside those defined borders. The trend of coupling systems in greater constellations will increase the interactions between different systems and thus increase the non-defined behavior even further. Thus, there is a need to define new methods and models that to a larger extent allow the existence of non-nominal system behavior. The main goal of the present research is to improve system performance, by developing tool/model to assess important aspects of complexity which will improve design for operability (McDonald et al., 2009). The purpose of this paper is to identify relevant aspects for analysis in relation to complexity and Human Factors in an ATM future highly automated system. The present paper presents some existing models and principles in complexity theory related to socio-technical systems. The result expands on these to form a set of requirements for future model development.

  • 205.
    Barinaga, Ester
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.). Stanford University, United States .
    'Cultural diversity' at work: 'National culture' as a discourse organizing an international project group2007Inngår i: Human Relations, ISSN 0018-7267, E-ISSN 1741-282X, Vol. 60, nr 2, s. 315-340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research to date concurs in maintaining that performance of nationally homogeneous workgroups differs if compared to heterogeneous ones. Yet, results are mixed on the relationship between cultural diversity and workgroup outcomes. The article argues that cultural differences are given explanatory authority, cultural diversity acquiring a positivist status, and group members being treated as 'dopes of their culture'. An alternative approach is to conceive 'cultural diversity' and 'national culture' as discursive resources used by group members in everyday group life. The author followed an international project group for over 17 months,observing how group members discussed and made sense of what went on. Findings suggest that the way members in international project groups use the 'national/cultural' discourse plays a crucial role in the organization of the project. More specifically, results demonstrate that group members shaped and developed their international project in important ways by using the discourses on 'national culture' and 'cultural diversity' to excuse confusion and misunderstanding, to position themselves vis-à-vis the group, to justify decisions and to give the group a raison d'être. Implications are drawn concerning the need for researchers to acknowledge actors' space for choice in group-life.

  • 206.
    Barinaga, Ester
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.). Stanford University, United States.
    The information society: A global discourse and its local translation into regional organizational practices2008Inngår i: Management Practices in High-Tech Environments, IGI Global, 2008, s. 18-41Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The discourse on the information society is characterised by a democratic ideal of "general access." In this chapter, we follow the transformation of such an ideal as the discourse of the information society is translated by the Swedish parliament and implemented in a high-tech region north of Stockholm. We will see that as the discourse is being implemented, it incorporates ethnic categorical boundaries that structure the region and segregates the community where it is being implemented. The main argument of the chapter is that categorical inequalities are embedded in the economic rationality/business logic that structures the discourse on the information society, resulting in socioeconomic, geographic, and technological segregation.

  • 207.
    Barzenji, Swara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Andersson, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Kunskap och lärande mellan projekt: Project Knowledge Management Office2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens kunskapsintensiva verksamheter finns det ett växande behov av att ta tillvara, sprida och skapa kunskap och lärande mellan projekt. Samtidigt har det blivit vanligare att verksamheten bedrivs i projektform, där arbetet sker i tidsgränsade projekt mot uppställda mål. Traditionellt sätt har projekt betraktats som engångsföreteelse som inte kommer att upprepas.  Enligt den tanken finns ingen eller litet möjlighet till kunskapsspridning och lärande mellan projekten. Idag ses arbetet med kunskap och lärande mellan projekt som en möjlighet och även som en förutsättning för att verksamheten ska överleva på en alltmer konkurrensutsatt marknad. Detta konstaterande leder till uppsatsens syfte vilket är att beskriva kunskap och lärande mellan projekt och att emballera samt distribuera den vidare till framtida projekt.

     

    Empirin bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer hos sex projektverksamheter som utförts för att få en helhetsbild av verkligheten. Empirin tillsammans med teori och litteraturstudier är underlag till uppsatsens analys, där en funktion för kunskap och lärande mellan projekt diskuteras.  I analysen beskrivs varför det behövs en funktion och hur den påverkar ledningen, projekten och verksamheten som helhet.

     

    Slutsatsen presenterar ett projektkontor som riktar sig mot kunskap och lärande mellan projekt för användning i medelstora projektverksamheter. Projektkontoret är en central opartisk enhet mellan projekt och ledning. Medarbetarna i projektkontoret medverkar vid projektens tollgates, beslutspunkterna under projektets livscykel samt utför en projektutvärdering vid projektets avslutning. Projektkontoret ska dokumentera information och kunskap som ska användas i andra pågående eller i framtida projekt. Uppsatsen avslutas med en diskussion om rekommendationer och implementering i en projektverksamhet samt författarnas reflektioner.

  • 208.
    Basha, Ari
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    Toweny, Mostafa
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    Implementing Lean Production: A pre study conducted at Strålfors Svenska AB2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The concept Lean Production has nowadays become an accepted paradigm in several industries and it has become a fundamental part of manufacturing companies, as it seeks to reduce waste and deliver a high customer value. Lean Production is a technique that is a highly efficient manufacturing practice that helps organizations to carry on a competitive advantage. The concept works as a system of methods and measures which when combined have the potential to carry about a lean manufacturing.

    The objective of this research is to investigate how Strålfors Svenska Card can succeed in carrying out changes in their production in order to reduce waste, with reference to Lean Production. The study starts with a brief historical review about lean production, which is followed by a theoretical framework with useful concepts to adapt. The theoretical frameworks used in this research are: Lean House, “4P” Model, Lead the Change, Culture, Processes and Performance Measurements. The main research question of this thesis is: What are the main barriers for a successful lean implementation in Strålfors Svenska AB? Subsequently, the main research question was broken down to four sub questions. These are: How developed and mature in the organization are process methods? How are performance measurements employed? Which role does standardization, such as availability of tools, have? Which role do soft aspects, such as culture and values, play in understanding concepts? 

    Strålfors Svenska Card has to build a good platform in order to success with their implementation of lean production. Moreover, it means that the organization has to focus on developing necessary critical factors that are in the guideline with lean production. The researchers has used observations, interviews, surveys and value stream mapping in order to collect necessary data. 

  • 209.
    Basir, Nada
    et al.
    Schulich School of Business, York University, Canada.
    Beyhaghi, Mehdi
    College of Business, University of Texas at San Antonio, USA.
    Mohammadi, Ali
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    The Fate of Patents: An Exploratory Analysis of Patents as Signals of Reputational Advantage2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the reputation literature and signaling theory, this article builds on work that looks at patents as reputation signals.We build a multi-industry database of patents that expire due to lack of maintenance fee payments and test for a relationship between these patents and the firm’s IPO date.We find a significant and positive relationship between the likelihood of patents expiring due to lack of maintenance fee payments and the time to IPO. We also find that patents associated with firms which are not venture capital backed,are more likely to expire. Our findings suggest that patents that are used for signaling intentions are more likely to be underutilized.Implications for research and policy are discussed.

  • 210.
    Basu, Ankur
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    ABC Enabled Life Cycle Costing - A strategic decision making tool for CAPEX investments: A new model of a forward looking LCCA evolving it from a tactical to a strategic decision making tool2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Life Cycle Costs has for long been confined to the corners of the engineering department as a simple backward looking tool to understand direct costs at machine level from a very constricted operational perspective. It was and is still being just used as a reference when the question of purchase of similar machines or lines come up in the future to get a ballpark idea of the direct costs to estimate an overall budget for the purchase to be proposed to the higher management. But this approach has greatly limited the scope of Life Cycle Costing which as the name suggests has a much broader implication dealing with the entire life cycle of a machine, a line, a product or a service and could be a potent aid in decision making at various time horizons of a product or service life cycle.

     

    This thesis is aimed at presenting and illustrating one such approach that can bridge the gap between past and future costs, engineering and management decisions, and direct and overhead resource usage. To do that, we have taken two well-known concepts, Activity-Based

    Costing and LCC, and merged the best parts while adding the usage of Monte Carlo simulations, uncertainty, and some additional insight. The result is an approach that is flexible, highly effective, and efficient for most cost management considerations (including LCC) and that can handle risk and uncertainty in a credible fashion. This is evident both from its theoretical foundations and also from the detailed case study provided in this thesis document. The applicability has been tested in an automotive component manufacturing giant,  in their headquarters in Italy. The thesis tends to research in scientific light the current applicability of the Life Cycle Costing and its relation to decision making and strives to broaden the scope of Life Cycle costing to a potent cost management tool which will have a strong effect on the process of strategic capital expenditure decision making and can be used in various significant areas of cost assessment. The breadth of the model enables it to be applied to cost estimations from the earliest levels of development of a product or service i.e. the concept and design phase in an all-encompassing manner considering all form of costs related to the product or service starting from the earliest costs of concept development and research to every other costs that the product or service is destined to incur in its life cycle be it direct or indirect costs with potentially analyzing all contingent costs that might arise due to risks through significant uncertainty and risk analysis in a structured framework powered by the Monte Carlo Simulation. Thus this model could unequivocally standout as an all in one solution for cost management including Life Cycle Costing in its ambit while also pitching important inputs for strategic decision making process of capital investment which tend to have very significant long term organizational implications.

  • 211.
    Batlle Linares, Oriol
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    International Competitiveness of Wind Power Industry:: the case of GAMESA Corp. S.A2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The modern lifestyle is highly dependent on the electricity consumption, which demand is expected to continue growing worldwide, especially in those developing areas where the whole economy is transforming. Until now, most of this electricity demand had been supplied through the combustion of fossil fuels or nuclear power. But the utilization of these energy sources to power the human activity is unsustainable because of limitless of the resources and the hazardous emissions and wastes that they generate. That is why since few decades ago thewind power became one of the best-positioned renewable energy in terms of costs effectiveness as a viable alternative to the energetic model based on pollutant fossil fuels. This technology was firstly developed and implemented on those countries with a traditional environmental conscientiousness, but as the global warming issue increased new countries were interested to use wind power as a clean and sustainable energy source. The growing wind power demand of developing countries has changed in few years the entire industry, because new local manufacturers have appeared thanks to the government renewable policy, which main objective is to develop a strong domestic wind power industry capable of lead the world transformation to a clean energy model. The thesis defines the most commons renewable energy policies, and focus in the policy used in China with the aim to analyze if it is promoting or damaging the expansion of wind power use because of the priority is protect its own domestic wind power industry from international firms. The conclusions are that those protectionist policies are useful in the early stage of the industry development but the government must know the exact moment in which these subsidies and supporting mechanisms become counterproductive. If those are used during a prolonged period, then companies become dependent on subsidies and don’t act like in free markets where the innovation is the key to gain and maintain sustainable competitive advantage.

  • 212.
    Batlle, Oriol
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell dynamik.
    International Competitiveness of the wind power industry: The case of Gamesa S.A.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The modern lifestyle is highly dependent on the electricity consumption, which demand is expected to continue growing worldwide, especially in those developing areas where the whole economy is transforming. Until now, most of this electricity demand had been supplied through the combustion of fossil fuels or nuclear power. But the utilization of these energy sources to power the human activity is unsustainable because of limitless of the resources and the hazardous emissions and wastes that they generate. That is why since few decades ago the wind power became one of the best-positioned renewable energy in terms of costs effectiveness as a viable alternative to the energetic model based on pollutant fossil fuels. This technology was firstly developed and implemented on those countries with a traditional environmental conscientiousness, but as the global warming issue increased new countries were interested to use wind power as a clean and sustainable energy source. The growing wind power demand of developing countries has changed in few years the entire industry, because new local manufacturers have appeared thanks to the government renewable policy, which main objective is to develop a strong domestic wind power industry capable of lead the world transformation to a clean energy model.

    The thesis defines the most commons renewable energy policies, and focus in the policy used in China with the aim to analyze if it is promoting or damaging the expansion of wind power use because of the priority is protect its own domestic wind power industry from international firms. The conclusions are that those protectionist policies are useful in the early stage of the industry development but the government must know the exact moment in which these subsidies and supporting mechanisms become counterproductive. If those are used during a prolonged period, then companies become dependent on subsidies and don’t act like in free markets where the innovation is the key to gain and maintain sustainable competitive advantage.

  • 213.
    BATSIS, JIMMI
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    EKBERG, MARTIN
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Balancing between explorativeand exploitative tasks: Being both creative andefficient in R&D2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens snabba och föränderliga marknad kräver ett allt större fokus på kreativitet och  innovation. Detta sätter press på organisationer att följa denna trend om de vill förbli konkurrenskraftiga på marknaden. Men då marknaden har blivit mer global och konkurrensen har hårdnat har det även varit ett ständigt fokus på effektiviseringar och minskade kostnader. Balansen mellan en kreativ och effektiv organisation är kopplad till balansen mellan utforskande och exploaterande uppgifter. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hur denna balans påverkar en processtyrd FoU organisation på individnivå. Dessutom var det av intresse att undersöka hur denna balans påverkar kreativiteten hos individerna inom organisationen.

    Data samlades in med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer på det studerade objektet. Scanias FoU avdelning. Intervjuerna genomfördes främst på UTM, den enhet som arbetar med materialteknologi och företagsstandarder på Scania.

    Studien visar att balansen mellan utforskande och exploaterande uppgifter påverkar organisationen inom fem huvudområden, Kortsiktigt fokus, Flexibilitet, Lärande, Interaktion och Proaktivitet. Dessa områden har sedan visat sig ha en inverkan på kreativiteten på olika sätt. Från dessa resultat har en modell skapats som betecknas Kreativitets Dilemmat. Resultaten tyder på att ambidexteritet är ett sätt att närma sig problemet, eftersom det kommer att underlätta för individer som lider balansen mellan utforskande och  exploaterande uppgifter. Dessutom har flera implikationer gällande ledarskap föreslagits som tillsammans utgör grunden för vad ledare bör prioritera för att möjliggöra en innovativ  organisation, möjliggör ett kreativt klimat, vårda kreativitet och innovation samt motivera, utbilda och ge insikt. 

  • 214. Baum, Christopher F.
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Nationalekonomi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Larijani, Pardis Nabavi
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Stephan, Andreas
    A new approach to estimation of the R&D-innovation-productivity relationship2017Inngår i: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 26, nr 1-2, s. 121-133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply a generalized structural equation model approach to the estimation of the relationship between R&D, innovation and productivity that focuses on the potentially crucial heterogeneity across sectors. The model accounts for selectivity and handles the endogeneity of this relationship in a recursive framework which allows for feedback effects from productivity to future R&D investment. Our approach enables the estimation of the different equations as one system, allowing the coefficients to differ across sectors, and also permits us to take cross-equation correlation of the errors into account. Employing a panel of Swedish manufacturing and service firms observed in three consecutive Community Innovation Surveys in the period 2008-2012, our full-information maximum likelihood estimates show that many key channels of influence among the model's components vary meaningfully in their statistical significance and magnitude across six different sectors based on the OECD classification on technological and knowledge intensity. These results cast doubt on earlier research which does not allow for sectoral heterogeneity.

  • 215.
    Baum, Christopher F.
    et al.
    Boston Coll, Boston, MA USA.;DIW, Berlin, Germany..
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.). ..
    Nabavi, Pardis
    Minist Finance, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Innovation strategies, external knowledge and productivity growth2019Inngår i: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 348-367Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies firms ' capability to recombine internal and local knowledge. It measures the outcome in terms of total productivity growth. Using Swedish data on commuting time for face-to-face contacts across all 290 municipalities, we employ a time-sensitive approach for calculating localized knowledge within a municipality and and its close neighbors. Internal knowledge is captured by register data on firms' innovation intensity. The two sources of knowledge are modeled in a production function setting by discrete composite variables with different combinations of input factors. Applying the model on Swedish firm level panel data, we find strong evidence of differences in the capacity to benefit from external knowledge among persistent innovators, temporary innovators and non-innovators. The results are consistent regardless of whether innovation efforts are measured in terms of the frequency of patent applications or the level of R&D investment.

  • 216. Bauner, D.
    et al.
    Fones-Sundell, M.
    Njau, K. N.
    Walsh, T.
    Cerin, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.). Umeå School of Business, Sweden .
    Financing and investment for sugar cane and bioenergy in Africa2013Inngår i: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness: The Role of Sugar Cane in Africa, Taylor & Francis, 2013, s. 390-415Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 217.
    Bauner, David
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Entrepreneurship in a Routinized Regime: Catalytic Suppliers in Environmental Product InnovationInngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 218.
    Bauner, David
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Global innovation vs. local regulation: introduction of automotive emission control in Sweden and Europe2007Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, ISSN 1466-2132, E-ISSN 1741-511X, Vol. 7, nr 1/2, s. 244-272Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing effects of pollution in larger cities in Europe in the 1960s spurred investigations into the sources of pollution and the means for its reduction. One important source of pollution was found to be the increasing fleet of passenger cars. In difference to a common description like "strict vehicle emission regulations were established in EU and EFTA countries in 1995", this paper shows the mosaic of arguments and technical capabilities resulting in a staged development, in stark contrast to an in theory unanimous desire to reduce air pollution in Europe. It shows that multiple agendas of equal proportion reduction of oil consumption, improving air quality and sustaining regional or national industrial sectors may slow or halt regulations that were successfully introduced elsewhere.

  • 219.
    Bauner, David
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    International private and public reinforcing dependencies for the innovation of automotive emission control systems in Japan and USA2011Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 375-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of the 1970s, the economies of USA and Japan were growing fast and environmental pollution was increasing to alarming levels. As passenger car emissions were found to be significant and rapidly increasing, their reduction was specially targeted. Following a bill passed by US Congress in 1968, requirements were set in 1970 for the vehicle manufacturers to reduce the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) with 90% by 1975, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with 90% by 1976. These requirements were soon adapted to the Japanese regulatory framework, and were known in both countries as the "Muskie Act" or "Muskie Law" after the senator who developed the original bill. The new requirements spurred tremendous research and development efforts. Car manufacturers and research institutions in USA, Japan and Europe investigated and developed alternative solutions, including gas turbine and steam engine vehicles. California, the USA state with the most severe air quality problems and the only state at the time allowed to establish more strict requirements than federal regulation, established requirements implying the use of oxidation catalysts in 1975 and three-way catalysts (TWC's) in 1977. Japan as a nation adopted similar requirements 1976 and 1978. Export of cars from Japan to USA increased rapidly. The rest of USA adopted emission standards similar to California's only in 1981, timing USA vehicle sales rebound after the energy crisis and grave economic downturn. Strict requirements were thus established only after more than a decade of civic and legal processes between federal authorities, the car manufacturers and NGO's. The history of vehicle development is one of cooperation and competition. This paper argues that the international cooperation on different levels of society (government, industry and science) together with commercial competition between the two countries was strong, continuous and instrumental in enabling the development of technology, appropriate regulation and infrastructural changes and thus created a market for cleaner cars and effectively reduced emissions from the growing vehicle fleet. In other words, the introduction of TWCs was reinforced by the simultaneous development of mitigating technology in two car producing countries competing for market space.

  • 220.
    Bauner, David
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Avd.).
    Kappa/Cover essay: Towards a sustainable automotive industry: experiences from thedevelopment of emission control systemsManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 221.
    Bauner, David
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell dynamik.
    Towards a sustainable automotive industry: experiences from the development of emission control systems2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    From the mid-1970s and on, the contribution to air pollution of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from gasoline passenger cars in the developed world has been reduced through co-evolution of regulation and commercial introduction of catalytic emission control technology, now part of hundreds of millions of cars, trucks and buses worldwide.

    This dissertation is a disaggregated study of the global introduction of catalytic emission control technology as a measure to reduce local air pollution. The introduction of the “three-way” catalyst for gasoline passenger cars is studied for four countries. Present innovation in diesel engine emission control is studied. Technological change is analyzed regarding the process of innovation, the innovation system and its stakeholders. Results are evaluated for implications for innovation and regulatory policy for coming environmental challenges.

    Automotive catalysis is an example of environmentally motivated innovation, including problem definition, public regulation, corporate market and non-market strategies, invention, variety, selection, technology transfer, mass diffusion and the ongoing coevolution of emission-abating policies and technical development.

    Common denominators for successful technological or market innovations is a participatory dialogue around structured and tiered regulatory roadmaps, international competition, support by international networks and conducive local public opinion. The near-global introduction of the three-way catalyst was complex and highly dependent on local context and conditions, suggesting that any general “global” innovation and regulation strategy to address present and future local or global problems must be reviewed with an understanding of local barriers and drivers for environmentally motivated innovation.

    Given the stakeholders and technical challenges of different technological regimes to mitigate climate change, it is concluded that increased fuel efficiency and the introduction of plug-in hybrids are possible trajectories for sustainable mobility.

  • 222.
    Bauner, David
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell dynamik (Stängd 20130101).
    Iida, Norimasa
    Keio Univ. Dept Syst Design Engn, Japan.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell dynamik (Stängd 20130101).
    Evolving Technological Systems for Diesel Engine Emission Control: Balancing GHG and Local Emissions,2009Inngår i: Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, ISSN 1618-954X, E-ISSN 1618-9558, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 339-365Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Triad-North America, Japan and Europe-now addresses diesel vehicle emissions by requiring 40-80% reductions from new heavy-duty trucks and passenger car diesels. The requirements imply introduction of new technology and fuels stepwise during 2005-2012 that will leave emissions from new diesel vehicles on par with the levels of gasoline passenger cars. This paper studies the recent development of diesel engine emission control in response to new regulation. The role for Swedish actors, including two of the world's major truck manufacturers, is especially studied. The increasingly global Technological System for diesel engine emission control is compelled to manage further reductions of nitrogen oxides emissions and fuel consumption and CO2, the balance of which has been the subject of several large legal disputes. Swedish OEMs are at present split into two technological sub-trajectories, while the future may be multi-pronged and include new engine types and fuels. Interestingly, similar commercial advantages that were sought by the pioneers introducing advanced feedback loop catalysis in gasoline cars in the 1970s are now sought by some heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers by conversely avoiding the mainstream-Selective catalytic reduction-solution. Incremental innovation is the new radical.

  • 223.
    Bauner, David
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell dynamik.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell dynamik.
    Nya emissionskrav för dieselmotorer: en katalysator för svensk industri?2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 224. Bazzazian, N.
    et al.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Nationalekonomi.
    The effect of employer prominence on employee entrepreneurship2012Inngår i: Academy of Management 2012 Annual Meeting, AOM 2012, Academy of Management , 2012, s. 1720-1725Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 225.
    Bea, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Automated Take-ups: The effects of replacing a manual operation for  anautomated financial system within Clearing Services2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Within the banking industry many tasks, that previousrelied upon by manual labour is continuously being exchangedfor automated solutions. With the update in themethod of performing services through advanced software,benefits such as decrease in cost, increase in handling capacityor decrease in management delay come into focus.In the sector of Clearing Services the automation of simulatingrisk and clearing trades is being less of a questionand more of a requirement, since an increase in demand forderivatives clearing is expected. With this as a focus pointthis research project studied the potential effects that achange from manual to automation might present. To alsograsp a better understanding of the future market and competitivepotential the current situation on the market wasalso researched, where regulation proved itself as one ofthe motivating factors behind an increased activity. Thestudy concluded not only a decrease in cost, handling delayand increase in clearing capacity, but also future requirementfor implementation if any sustainable positionamongst market competition is to be expected. In additionthe resources that are relieved from the performing simulationsand take-ups would be able to focus on projects thatwould increase product value for the customer.

  • 226.
    BEDNARCIK ABDULHADI, EMMA
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    VITEZ, MARINA
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    The Ownership Structure Dilemma and its Implications on the Transition from Small-Scale to Large-Scale Electric Road Systems2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is written on behalf of KTH Royal Institute of Technology and the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The study investigates how infrastructure ownership could affect the transition from small-scale to large-scale electric road systems (ERS) and how infrastructure ownership affects the foreseen future roles of the ERS stakeholders. The authors have used a qualitative research method, including a literature study within the areas of infrastructure transitions and infrastructure ownership and a case study on ERS. Conclusions are based on the chosen theoretical framework and the empirical findings from conducted interviews within the following stakeholder segments; agencies, electric utilities, road carriers, construction firms and road power technology firms.

    The transport system is a large sociotechnical system, which is characterized by a high level of complexity, capital intensity and asset durability which makes it difficult to accomplish radical system transitions. Political regulations and progressive environmental targets have created a demand for new solutions within the transport system. One widely discussed, possible solution is ERS, which are considered to be beneficial from both an environmental and socio-economic perspective. The main identified barriers for a transition to ERS are related to the complex system design. Further, the matter of how the ERS infrastructure should be owned and financed remains unclear.

    It will be argued that the government needs to play a key role, both as a coordinator and financier, during the initial phase of an ERS expansion. In order to obtain a high level of competence, which is considered as vital, it is important with close cooperation between different public and private stakeholders and to have a procurement process which is strongly focused on functionality. The authors suggest that in order to decrease system complexity and increase stakeholder cooperation, cross-sectorial system suppliers should be formed. During an initial deployment of ERS towards a national system, it is suggested to only have one cross-sectorial system supplier which manages the constructions and operations of ERS, in order to decrease complexity and increase knowledge. As the system and technology matures and knowledge regarding ERS has been established, it is suggested by the authors to introduce competition at the cross-sectorial system supplier level nationally.

    There are many barriers for public private partnerships (PPP) during an initial expansion phase of ERS due to large investments, immature technology and the necessity for an overall control of a large-scale system. In addition, early investments in a large-scale system is considered as unattractive among private actors due to the high risks. However, it will be argued that PPP structures or private ownerships are suitable in closed systems as the level of complexity is lower. These systems should be subsidized by the government as they will drive innovation and stimulate the development. Depending on the degree of capital intensity and governmental regulations, PPP structures could become suitable also in a national system, when the system has matured. The suggested stakeholder structure with cross-sectorial system suppliers facilitates for a possible future PPP structure.

  • 227.
    Beheshti, Hooshang
    et al.
    Department of Management, Radford University.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell marknadsföring.
    The benefits of e-business adoption: an empirical study of Swedish SMEs2007Inngår i: Service Business, ISSN 1862-8516, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 233-245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The global nature of business today and the advances in information and communications technologies have compelled corporations to employ emerging technologies in order to remain competitive. In recent years electronic business has been adopted by many corporations to improve operational efficiency, profitability, and to strengthen their competitive position. This study examines the impact of web-based e-business on the small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in Sweden. The analyses of data collected for this study provide valuable information to the executives of manufacturing and service SMEs. The findings show that the SMEs in the sample have benefited from e-business implementation in both operational and performance areas of their organization.

  • 228.
    BEITE BÖRJESON, LINA
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell marknadsföring.
    ROGBERG, FRIDA
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell marknadsföring.
    Important Aspects when Taking Software as a Service to Market: A multi-case study in the ICT industry2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The information and communication technology industry is constantly affected by rapid changes and new development in technology. During the recent years there is an emerging trend within IT outsourcing where scalable and flexible IT enabled capabilities are delivered as a service over the Internet, called cloud computing. Software as a Service (SaaS) is one of the most adopted cloud service models, which is a software distribution model where applications are hosted by a SaaS provider and made available to the customer over a network.

    Tieto is present in this fast changing industry and has recognized a need to move into the cloud in order to stay competitive and meet their customers’ requests. Tieto’s department Energy Utilities wants to transform their broad portfolio of different software solutions to a SaaS delivery model. This transition will affect Tieto’s sales strategies, both in terms of pricing and marketing, and they will face challenges when changing to a SaaS delivery model. Hence, this master thesis aimed to determine important aspects when a company is changing software to a SaaS delivery model, where focus was on pricing and marketing strategies for SaaS.

    The objective was accomplished by conducting a case study that involved a qualitative data  ollecting method. Interviews were conducted from three different perspectives: from external SaaS providers, internally at Tieto as well as from a customer point of view.

    Conclusions from this thesis, was that important aspects when marketing SaaS involved:  managing the customers’ preconceptions, handling the impact of irrational factors,  nderstanding customer need and have the capability to guide and advise customers when purchasing a SaaS solution. The empirical findings showed that a value-based pricing approach was the most common strategy, using a user-based charging method and a model with different levels of subscriptions. The customers expressed that the price level was not the determining factor; instead the difference between the price level and the potential revenue generated from the SaaS solution was of importance. Furthermore, transparency and clearness are desirable conditions in a SaaS pricing model. Several challenges have been identified when transforming software to a SaaS delivery model, where multi-tenancy, security, pricing and standardization were the most common ones.

  • 229. Bellini, E
    et al.
    Capalldo, G
    Edström, Anders
    Kaulio, Matti
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Raffa, M
    Ricciardi, Max
    Zollo, G
     Strategic Paths of Academic Spin-Offs: A Comparative Analysis of Italian and Swedish Cases1999Inngår i: Proceedings from the 44th ICSB Conference, Naples June 20-23., 1999Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 230. Bellini, E
    et al.
    Edström, A
    Kaulio, Matti
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Raffa, M
    Ricciardi, M
    Zollo, G
    Growth Patterns of Academic Spin-offs: A comparison between southern Italy and western Sweden. .2000Inngår i: Piccola Impresa – Small Business, nr 1, s. 17-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 231.
    Bender, Gerd
    et al.
    Ruhr-Universität Bochum.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell dynamik.
    Innovationen ohne Wissenschaft und Forschung2007Inngår i: Lowtech-Unternehmen am Hightech-Standort / [ed] Abel, J. & Hirsch-Kreinsen, H., Edition Sigma, 2007, s. 193-228Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 232.
    Bender, Gerd
    et al.
    Ruhr-Universität Bochum.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell dynamik.
    Non-science based innovativeness: On Capabilities relevant to generate profitable novelty2005Inngår i: Perspectives on Economic Political and Social Integration, ISSN 1233-6009, Vol. 11, nr 1/2, s. 123-170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point of the paper is the widely held assumption that the ability to permanently generate and market innovations is one major precondition to maintain competitiveness of European based units and thus to contribute to employment. The authors argue that R&D in the established sense is only one and mostly not the most important asset for an organisation's innovativeness. Drawing on the literature on dynamic capabilities a concept of innovation enabling capabilities is introduced. It is composed of two dimensions, transformative and configurational capabilities. The former focuses on the enduring ability of an organisation to transform globally available general knowledge into locally specific knowledge and competence, the latter on the enduring ability to synthesise novelty by creating new configurations of knowledge, artefacts and actors. Three specific aspects of configurational capabilities are established, cognitive: configuring distributed knowledge of different kind; organisational: configuring distributed actors and other repositories of knowledge and knowhow; and design: configuring functional features and solutions. The distinction between transformative and configurational capabilities is strictly analytical; empirically the two dimensions are tightly interwoven. And innovations require both. The different dimensions of innovation enabling capabilities are illustrated drawing on examples from a selection of company case studies conducted during the PILOT project.

  • 233.
    Bendl, Regine
    et al.
    Vienna University of Economics and Business.
    Holgersson, Charlotte
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Genus, organisation och ledning (stängd 20130101).
    Höök, Pia
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Genus, organisation och ledning (stängd 20130101).
    Meriläinen, Susan
    University of Lapland.
    Tienari, Janne
    Aalto University.
    ‘Doing’ Gender in Executive Search: A Cross-Cultural Comparison2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 234.
    Bendl, Regine
    et al.
    Vienna University of Economics and Business.
    Holgersson, Charlotte
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Genus, organisation och ledning (stängd 20130101).
    Meriäinen, Susan
    University of Lapland.
    Tienari, Janne
    Aalto University.
    No issue: Executive Search Consultants Reproducing White Male Dominance in Management2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 235.
    BENESYUK, OLHA
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Söder, Josefine
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Valuecreationinindustrysponsoreduniversitycompetitions: AcasestudyofCollaborativeUniversityCompetitions--‐participantsperspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today universities have taken on a “thirdmission”, besides teaching and research. The universities as knowledge producers have taken a larger role  in the economic development and there is an entrepreneurial academic trend going on.  In this paper we

    will go deeper in to one type of these entrepreneurial activities of the university: industry sponsored university competitions. The aim  is to investigate value  generated  for participants. This is done through a  case study of Collaborative University  Competitions (CUC) and our research question  is therefore: What type  of value is created,if  any, and how is it created  for  theuniversity participants in  a Collaborative University Competition? To  answer this question the qualitative study was  conducted. It consisted  of literature review on  related topics, ata  collection through semi structured interviews of the Lund university participants, and qualitative data analysis with the help of reviewed literature.

     

    Our findings suggest  that  the participants in a CUC

    receive different values  such as financial, social, organizational and intrinsic.  When we

    investigated how this  value is created three main categories were found:  collaborative

    activities, individual activities (for example individual work, weekly meetings), and other factors such as having a third party arranging the competition and team structure.

     

    Understanding what type of value that  is created and which activities contribute to its creation gives a better understanding of how  to manage barriers when the university collaborates with the industry. Our  findings can help other universities that  want to engage in similar  competitions to understand what value they may get. Also, the findings can  be used by   the university, industrial company or  intermediary organization to organize  the industry sponsored university competitions that create value  for university participants, not  only the company.

  • 236.
    BENGTSSON, ANDREAS
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    WAHLBERG, BENJAMIN
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    Strategic positioning within the Internet of Things: Matching Internal Core with the Economical Logic of a Business Ecosystem2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid advancements in Information and Communications Technology (ICT/ IT)   enablemore people and things to connect, where everything that can benefit from a connection will have one. The idea of an all-connected world offers huge opportunities for companies to take, but also challenges in terms of understanding its business characteristics.

    The purpose of this research was to find a strategic position within the emerging paradigm of Internet of Things (IoT), from an ICT enabler perspective. The purpose was satisfied by synthesizing an adequate theoretical framework from previous business research- comprising three main elements each forming separate research questions. The areas of focus have been The Environment of the firm, The Internal Core and Business model under an Ecosystem perspective. Building on this an empirical study has been performed through observations from seminars and unstructured and semi-structured interviews, so that to answer what characteristics IoT holds today and in which direction it is expected to develop. The characteristics have been matched with the internal core capabilities of our case study organization, and analyzed in conjunction with the economical logic of a Business Ecosystem.

    By using the concept of Value Design, as a Business Model extension suitable for an Ecosystem environment, we have been able to position the case study company within the emerging paradigm of IoT- where a collaborative approach, driving interoperability between different industry verticals is recommended. The findings are two-fold; on one hand we have successfully exemplified the use of the, prior to this research, untested concept of Value Design, while on the other provided a structured way to address how to position an ICT enabler in a market as complex and turbulent as the IoT has proven itself to be.

  • 237. Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Avd.).
    Manufacturing outsourcing and its effect on plant performance-lessons for KIBS outsourcing2009Inngår i: Journal of evolutionary economics, ISSN 0936-9937, E-ISSN 1432-1386, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 231-257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the proclaimed advantages and popularity of outsourcing manufacturing and knowledge-intensive business services, there are few and mainly contradictory studies of its short- and long-term effects. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the way in which outsourcing manufacturing and design work relates to performance at plant level. The study is based on a large-scale survey among a representative sample of Swedish engineering plants. The results show no significant effects from outsourcing manufacturing on plant operating performance. The paper further shows that investments in technological and organizational capabilities explain the improvements of performance to a significantly higher extent than does outsourcing. The problems of additional costs and managing dependencies when applying partial outsourcing and separating interdependent key processes provide important insights to the analysis on the effects of outsourcing knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS).

  • 238.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Niss, Camilla
    von Haartman, Robin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Avd.) (stängd 20130101). University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Combining Master and Apprentice Roles: Potential for Learning in Distributed Manufacturing Networks2010Inngår i: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 417-427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore possible effects for learning when a manufacturing plant takes a double role, as being both master plant and apprentice plant, in a globally distributed industrialization process. Industrialization is here understood as the process of preparing new products for volume manufacturing. Two research questions are addressed. The first is what characterizes the dual roles. The second concerns how the dual roles affect knowledge integration and learning processes, and whether this arrangement facilitates learning between master and apprentice. Based on a study of a global telecom equipment company, the paper provides insights into some of the challenges and effects of dynamic switching of roles. By separating the network function from the strategic role of the plant, the study identifies four options for learning. The case adds to the literature on learning in manufacturing networks and to previous research on how distributed processes affect innovation capability.

  • 239. Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Avd.).
    Low-Cost versus Innovation: Contrasting Outsourcing and Integration Strategies in Manufacturing2009Inngår i: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 35-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how two different outsourcing manufacturing strategies relate to plant performance and innovation capability when taking into account the organizational integration of design and manufacturing as well as product complexity. The study discriminates between low-cost-oriented outsourcing and innovation-oriented outsourcing. The empirical data used is based on a survey of 267 engineering firms, of which half have outsourced manufacturing. We found that the two outsourcing strategies do have different effects, which illustrates that outsourcing represents a trade-off between improving innovation capability and lowering costs. The study furthermore shows that manufacturing and supplier integration in product design processes is mainly beneficial when applying innovation-oriented outsourcing, and in particular when products and manufacturing processes are complex.

  • 240.
    BENGTSSON, LUDVIG
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    SKOG, PONTUS
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Improving business performance with organizational learning: A case study of factors affecting organizational learning and its relationship with business performance2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an intra-organizational case study which investigates the concept of organizational learning and its relationship with business performance. Furthermore, factors affecting organizational learning are explored. A mixed method approach is used, combining quantitative data from a survey instrument called the Strategic Learning Assessment Map (SLAM) with qualitative data from interviews and observations. This thesis shows that at the studied organization the organizational level knowledge stock has the highest association with business performance, followed by the group level knowledge stock. The individual level knowledge stock and misalignment does not achieve reasonable significance. When it comes to factors affecting organizational learning, Organizational culture and information processing capacity were identified as main barriers. Furthermore, individuals at the targeted organization acquire knowledge in informal ways and they learn routines over heuristics which also were identified as main factors affecting business performance.

  • 241.
    Bennerstedt, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik.
    Grelsson, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Spain's electricity market design: A case study2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Spain’s rapid implementation of renewable energy has been described as a success but thegovernmental cost associated to this rapid implementation has grown significantly. The purposeof this report is to investigate Spain’s electricity market, its current situation and present it, usingthe Swedish system as a reference.The report commences with a presentation of the Spanish and the Swedish electricity markets,followed by a chapter where they are compared. The renewable electricity production and theassociated development during the last decade is one focus of the comparison. The other focus ishow the costs of the subsidy systems have evolved and how they are connected to the differentenergy sources. Two sources, wind and solar, receives a higher interest than the others.Wind power shows a strong development in electricity production and contributes to asignificant part of the Spanish electricity mix. The costs of subsidies connected to the windpower reflect the produced electricity. Wind power in Sweden has had a rapid development overthe last two years and the subsidies costs are aligned with the electricity production through theuse of a quota system.There are great differences between the two countries regarding solar power. Sweden has hardlyany, while Spain has a noticeable contribution of electricity from solar power to its electricitymix. Solar power has an even more noticeable share in the Spanish subsidy system. The highsubsidies to solar power, which have not followed the reduced investment costs of equipment inrecent years, have led to a high degree of participation which has led to soaring costs for thesystem. Spain’s subsidy system is based on fixed earnings and variable costs and in combinationwith higher than expected costs, an annual deficit between the earnings and cost has been createdfor the government. This yearly deficit has increased and the Spanish government is now in debtto the five largest energy suppliers. The Swedish subsidy system carries its own costs and theSwedish government does not have a financial risk associated with the system.This study shows that the Spanish subsidy system has been too generous towards solar powerwhich is a large part, but not the only one, to the country’s huge deficit and debt. Sweden, withits quota system constructed without fixed earnings, does not risk creating a debt similar toSpain’s. Spain’s large part of wind power and how the volatile power is regulated could be ofinterest for Sweden which aims to increase its share of wind power in the future. This study findthe answer to how Spain copes with its high share of intermittent power production in that itaccepts a lower efficiency in its gas turbines in order to regulate the power output. Sweden, acountry without a large share of gas in its electricity mix, but with a large share of hydro power,uses its hydro capacity to regulate volatility in electricity system. Prior studies have already beenmade in this area with the result that 30 TWh of electricity from wind power, more thanSweden’s goal for 2020 regarding wind power, would be possible to regulate with the presentsystem each year.

  • 242.
    BENTAHAR, YOUNES
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    Robustness of IT Systems: An Analytical Study of What Impact Cloud Computing May Have on the Robustness2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle är IT en del av vardagen. Människor har blivit mer eller mindre beroende av den IT som finns, både i sitt privatliv och i sitt arbete. Ett IT system som inte fungerar som det ska, ställer till med stora problem för de människor och organisationer som förlitar sig på det. Därför är ett robust IT system något som blivit allt viktigare. IT industrin har under de senaste åren också genomgått stora förändringar i takt med det ökande användandet av molnbaserade tjänster.

    Syftet med denna studie är att analysera vilken inverkan molntjänster kan ha på robustheten av IT system. Men även att förse organisationer med rekommendationer om hur de borde ställa upp sina IT system från ett robusthetsperspektiv. Analysen baseras på empiriska studier och logiskt resonemang och har utförts genom en fallstudie av Försvarsmakten. Studien grundar sig på en två-fasmetod som består av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ datainsamling.

    Resultaten indikerar att molntjänster i sig inte automatiskt gör IT systemen mer robusta, utan det molnleverantörens hjälp i både teknologi och expertis som spelar en avgörande roll för robustheten. En hybrid molnlösning som är en komposition av ett gemenskapsmoln och ett publikt moln är för närvarande ett rekommenderat alternativ. Den hybrida molnlösningen gör det möjligt att separera tjänsterna och placera tjänsterna med höga robusthetskrav i gemenskapsmolnet och tjänsterna med lägre robusthetskrav i det publika molnet. 

  • 243.
    Berg, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Yrkeskunnande och teknologi.
    Företagskulturers makt: överbrygga språkliga klyftor2008Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How do we work in projects that are expected to bridge cultural, social and historical boundaries? Is it possible to apply stated instructions across these boundaries so that, for example, the task of producing a requirement specification is interpreted in the same way by all the parties involved?

    In this thesis, the author takes a stand against his personal experience from such a trans-cultural project – a project in which he failed. A factor that made a strong contribution to this failure was the inability of the companies involved to manage the underlying complex of problems, problems associated with the philosophy of language. They possessed neither the knowledge nor the instruments to bridge the chasms of language. Essential reflection and analysis was replaced by the power language of the enterprise; individuals were singled out and held responsible, and the failure was relegated by definition to the level of personal issues.

    Experience does not automatically become knowledge; this is a process that requires reflection.

    The author suggests a number of ways of tackling communications problems among people who not only do not understand one another, but do not understand that they do not understand. The latter may mean that two people think that something is unambiguous, yet their interpretations diverge. This is when problems occur. Nobody has made a mistake – both parties have acted properly, they have even (perhaps) talked the matter through and reached agreement, yet the result still does not coincide with what they anticipated.

    A central concept is dialogue. Through its organised form, dialogue can make openings in problems that cut through cultural, social and historical boundaries. It is an approach that may be illustrated through authors and philosophers such as Witold Gombrowicz, Ludwik Fleck, Oscar Wilde, Joseph Conrad and Galileo Galilei.

    This study has its basis and its origins in the research area of Skills and Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (KTH).

  • 244.
    Berg, Kathrine
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Petersson, Elinor
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Seat belt and headrest adjustment: Increasing truck driver comfortability2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 245.
    Bergendahl, Adam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Jensen, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    The challenges of collaborative knowledge management: Why grassroots technology needs help from the top2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This single case study explores the adoption of a wiki knowledge management system at a mid-sized IT retailer and consultancy. In exploring what factors affect how and if employees interact with the wiki six key areas are identified as crucial to enabling successful knowledge transfers with such a system:

    1. Clearly linking the knowledge management to tangible business value

    2. Clarifying for users the purpose and usage of the wiki

    3. Aligning desired wiki use with the pre-existing corporate culture

    4. Verifying that employee incentives are aligned with desired behavior

    5. Making sure knowledge management is a part of existing processes

    6. Effectively using technology to aid the users

    Additionally the study includes a comparison with previously conducted studies on implementations of traditional non-collaborative knowledge management systems and finds a high degree of similarity with the issues that have previously been faced within the field. This thesis therefore argues that the new technology present in a wiki type system does not solve the pre-existing problems facing knowledge management practitioners. Instead, the same issues facing the implementation of any such system need to be resolved before the potential of a wiki knowledge management system can be realized.

  • 246.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell dynamik (Stängd 20130101).
    En myt att Sverige minskat utsläppen av växthusgaser2007Inngår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 2007-02-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 247.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jansson, Jan-Owen
    Linköpings universitet.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell dynamik.
    Fördubbla trängselskatten och slopa kringfartsleden2008Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 248.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell dynamik.
    Kan krishantering och klimatomställning kombineras?2009Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 1-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln diskuteras hur den kortsiktiga hanteringen av dagens kris kan kombineras med långsiktig klimatomställning. Omfattande konsumtionsstimulanser, som nu införs i allt fler länder, bidrar sannolikt till att förvärra de omvandlingsproblem som klimatkrisen aktualiserar. Med utgångspunkt i en klimatanpassad keynesmodell undersöker artikeln villkoren för en krispolitikmed dubbla ambitioner. Utmaningen här är att skapa en kombination av stödför uthållighetsskapande investeringar och uthållig konsumtion på bekostnad av klimatbelastande konsumtion för att både gynna sysselsättningen på kort siktoch påskynda den långsiktiga strukturomvandlingen. Artikeln ger exempel påhur en sådan politik kan bedrivas och visar att regeringens nuvarande politik pekar i en annan riktning.

  • 249.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell dynamik.
    Krispolitik för klimatomställning2008Inngår i: Tiden, ISSN 0040-6759, nr 6, s. 10-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 250.
    Berggren, Dennis
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Nationalekonomi.
    IPO Underpricing and tech valuation: An empirical study of the Swedish IPO market2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The closing price first day of trading has historically been found to exceed the offer price set in IPOs, implying that many issuing firms tend to leave money on the table in their IPO. This thesis examines the level of IPO underpricing in Sweden using unique data of IPO transactions on the largest Swedish stock exchanges during 2010-2016. It further discusses the valuation difficulties using the most common valuation methods for firms exhibiting characteristics commonly shared by technological firms.

    Univariate and multivariate tests confirm the existence of underpricing on Swedish stock exchanges during the period of study. Firms in the technological sector are found to experience both high average levels of underpricing and great variance in initial returns, suggesting potential difficulties valuing technological firms. Robust univariate tests do however not yield a significant result of greater variance in initial returns compared to rest of the sample. By using regression analysis, I find capital raised relative to market capitalization to have significant negative effect on initial returns.

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