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  • 201.
    Wagner, Joachim
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana University, Lueneburg.
    Geluebcke, John P. Weche
    Access to finance, foreign ownership and foreign takeovers in Germany2015Inngår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 47, nr 29, s. 3092-3112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With this article we present the first microeconometric analysis of the impact of a foreign acquisition on the target firm's access to finance. By using a large database of German firms, we furthermore investigate for the first time the link between foreign ownership and access to finance in Germany, one of the world's leading target countries for FDI. We use newly available comprehensive panel data that we constructed from information collected by the German statistical offices and from credit rating scores supplied by the leading German credit rating agency. We find foreign-owned firms in German manufacturing on average to show slightly more financing restrictions than domestically owned enterprises, but this very small difference diminishes once unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account. We further demonstrate that one reason for this finding is the preference of foreign investors for targets with relatively low creditworthiness. Although the likelihood of a foreign acquisition appears to be correlated with credit rating, there is no impact of foreign takeovers on the credit constraints of the target firms ex post and therefore no support for the hypothesis that foreign takeovers ease financial frictions.

  • 202.
    Wagner, Joachim
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. Leuphana Univ Lueneburg, Germany.
    Geluebcke, John P. Weche
    Risk or Resilience?: The Role of Trade Integration and Foreign Ownership for the Survival of German Enterprises During the Crisis 2008-20102014Inngår i: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, ISSN 0021-4027, Vol. 234, nr 6, s. 757-774Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first study of the link between internationalization and firm survival during the 2008/2009 crisis in Germany, a country which was hit relatively lightly compared to other countries. Moreover, it is the first study which looks at the role of importing, exporting and FDI simultaneously in the context of a global economic recession. We use a tailor-made representative dataset that covers all enterprises from the manufacturing sector with at least 20 employees. Our most striking result is to demonstrate the disadvantage of exporting for the chances of survival of a firm during the crisis in western Germany. Importing instead reveals a positive correlation with survival and firms that both export and import do not show a different exit risk relative to non-traders. A plausible explanation is that in a global recession, deteriorating markets abroad cause demand losses for exporters and improved conditions on factor markets which result in an advantage for firms sourcing from factor markets abroad. Two-way traders do not show a link with exit risk, supporting the idea that they were able to outweigh their losses from exporting with their gains from importing, in what could be called an export-import hedge. Furthermore, we cannot support the hypothesis that foreign multinationals are more volatile during times of economic crisis.

  • 203. Åstebro, Thomas
    et al.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS.
    Does academic entrepreneurship pay?2013Inngår i: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 281-311Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the private returns for academics that start new businesses. Total earnings for the universe of 478 individuals working at Swedish universities who quit to become full-time entrepreneurs between 1999 and 2008 are compiled. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis of entrepreneurial returns to include capital gains. Entrepreneurship for academics appears a gradual process and episodic. Earnings are similar before and after becoming an entrepreneur, and dividends and capital gains are inconsequential. But the income risk is more than three times higher in entrepreneurship.

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