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  • 201. Kukk, E.
    et al.
    Riu, J. R. I.
    Stankiewicz, M.
    Hatherly, P. A.
    Erman, P.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fysik.
    Winiarczyk, P.
    Huttula, M.
    Aksela, S.
    Dissociation of deuteromethane following carbon 1s core ionization2002Inngår i: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 66, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy-resolved electron-ion coincidence spectra of the deuteromethane molecule were measured following ionization by narrow-band synchrotron radiation. The ion mass spectra were recorded in coincidence with the outer and inner valence photoelectrons and with the normal Auger electrons from the decay of the carbon 1s core hole. Complementary noncoincidence ion mass spectra were measured below and above the C 1s threshold. The fragmentation patterns of the singly and doubly ionized deuteromethane under different ionization conditions are examined. Carbon core ionization is shown to open new photodissociation pathways not available in the valence ionization photon energy regime. With the aid of ab initio quantum chemistry calculations, a two-step model of the dissociation following core ionization is proposed, showing a good agreement with the experimental findings.

  • 202.
    Kuldkepp, Matias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Hawkes, N. C.
    Schunke, B.
    Accurate polarization measurements with a dual photoelastic modulator2005Inngår i: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 44, nr 28, s. 5899-5904Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of the polarization effects in multimirror experiments by using a dual photoelastic modulator are described. The effect of single and multiple mirrors in polarization measurements in two and three dimensions is discussed, and experimental results show how symmetrical placement of mirrors in three-dimensional geometry can eliminate changes in the polarization. Calibration procedures for a dual photoelastic modulator and potential error sources such as misalignment of analyzer, signal dc offset, and neglect of aperture size are presented. Mirror-surface evolution and how it can disturb the polarization measurement are also addressed.

  • 203.
    Kuldkepp, Matias
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fysik.
    Hawkes, N.C.
    Schunke, B.
    First mirror contamination studies for polarimetry motional Stark effect measurements for ITER2004Inngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 75, s. 3446-3448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor will need to guide the light through a labyrinth of mirrors to provide neutron shielding. Knowledge of how the mirrors change the polarization is essential for accurate determination of the q profile. The optical properties of the plasma facing mirror are also expected to change with time due to deposition/erosion. For the purpose of examining this experimentally a detector system, identical to the JET MSE system, using twin photoelastic modulators was constructed. Measurements have been performed on freshly prepared mirrors, on mirrors after exposure to plasmas in Tore Supra, and labyrinth designs. The result shows a significant effect on the optical properties and demonstrate the need for in situ monitoring. The measured properties of the labyrinth closely follow the Mueller matrix formalism. With a correct choice of material the angle change introduced by the four mirrors furthest away from the plasma will be below 1 degrees.

  • 204.
    Kuldkepp, Matias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Walsh, M.J.
    Carolan, P. G.
    Conway, N. J.
    Hawkes, N. C.
    McCone, J.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Wearing, G.
    Motional Stark effect diagnostic pilot experiment for MAST2006Inngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 77, nr 10, s. 10E905-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting the motional Stark effect (MSE) in the low magnetic fields of spherical tokamaks such as MAST is complicated by the Doppler smearing of the relatively closely spaced Stark components. Extensive modeling of MSE spectra and the subsequent polarized fraction (similar to 20%) of spectrally filtered light and signal to noice ratios have been performed taking account of real experimental conditions including neutral beam parameters, port sizes, optical losses, filter characteristics, etc. A design is selected which uses high throughput interference filters (0.1 nm bandpass ) for separation of the spectral components. An accuracy of similar to 0.5 degrees S compared with typically 15 degrees is estimated for field angle measurements. The design allows for early implementation, starting with a pilot two chord system, and for an economic expansion to a multiplicity of chords. Matching the Doppler shifted D-alpha from the beam neutrals will be accomplished by a combination of filter selection and fine-tuning of the beam voltage. Avoiding filter tuning in the design greatly simplifies the diagnostic. Calibration results of the diagnostic support the calculations.

  • 205.
    Kuldkepp, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Cecconello, Marco
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Dux, R.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Measurements and modeling of transport and impurity radial profiles in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch2006Inngår i: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 13, nr 9, s. 092506-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell , Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4x10(10) cm(-3) for a central electron density of 1x10(13) cm(-3). Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20 m(2) s(-1) yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor similar to 2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge.

  • 206.
    Kuldkepp, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Drake, James
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Method for measuring radial impurity emission profiles using correlations of line integrated signals2006Inngår i: Review of scientific instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, Vol. 77, nr 4, s. 043508-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method of determining radial impurity emission profiles is outlined. The method uses correlations between line integrated signals and is based on the assumption of cylindrically symmetric fluctuations. Measurements at the reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R show that emission from impurities expected to be close to the edge is clearly different in raw as well as analyzed data to impurities expected to be more central. Best fitting of experimental data to simulated correlation coefficients yields emission profiles that are remarkably close to emission profiles determined using more conventional techniques. The radial extension of the fluctuations is small enough for the method to be used and bandpass filtered signals indicate that fluctuations below 10 kHz are cylindrically symmetric. The novel method is not sensitive to vessel window attenuation or wall reflections and can therefore complement the standard methods in the impurity emission reconstruction procedure.

  • 207.
    Kuldkepp, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fysik.
    Gravestijn, Robert
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fysik.
    Cecconello, Marco
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Rachlew, E.lisabeth
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fysik.
    A Spectroscopic Method To Determine Changes In The Temperature Profile2003Inngår i: 30th EPS Conference on Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys / [ed] R. Koch, S. Lebedev, Mulhouse: European Physical Society , 2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 208.
    Kuldkepp, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Brunsell, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Cecconello, Marco
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    First Results The Radial 5-Channel Spectrometer On EXTRAP T2RManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 209.
    Kuldkepp, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Corre, Yann
    Brunsell, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Cecconello, Marco
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Oxygen impurity profile studies in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch2005Inngår i: 32nd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2005, EPS 2005, Held with the 8th International Workshop on Fast Ignition of Fusion Targets: Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 2005, s. 413-416Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 210.
    Kumar, M.
    et al.
    Aix Marseille Univ, PIIM, CNRS, Marseille, France..
    Pardanaud, C.
    Aix Marseille Univ, PIIM, CNRS, Marseille, France..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    Identification of BeO and BeOxDy in melted zones of the JET Be limiter tiles: Raman study using comparison with laboratory samples2018Inngår i: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 17, s. 295-301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Beryllium oxide (BeO) and deuteroxide (BeOxDy) have been found on the melted zone of a beryllium tile extracted from the upper dump plate of JET-ILW (2011-2012 campaign). Results have been obtained using Raman microscopy, which is sensitive to both the chemical bond and crystal structure, with a micrometric lateral resolution. BeO is found with a wurtzite crystal structure. BeOxDy is found as three different types which are not the beta-phase but behaves as molecular species like Be(OD)(2), O(Be-D)(2) and DBeOD. The presence of a small amount of trapped D2O is also suspected. Our results therefore strongly suggest that D trapping occurs after melting through the formation of deuteroxides. The temperature increase favors the formation of crystal BeO which favors deuterium trapping through OD bonding.

  • 211. Kwak, Sehyun
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Jonsson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Bayesian electron density inference from JET lithium beam emission spectra using Gaussian processes2017Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, nr 3, artikkel-id 036017Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A Bayesian model to infer edge electron density profiles is developed for the JET lithium beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) system, measuring Li I (2p-2s) line radiation using 26 channels with similar to 1 cm spatial resolution and 10 similar to 20 ms temporal resolution. The density profile is modelled using a Gaussian process prior, and the uncertainty of the density profile is calculated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme. From the spectra measured by the transmission grating spectrometer, the Li I line intensities are extracted, and modelled as a function of the plasma density by a multi-state model which describes the relevant processes between neutral lithium beam atoms and plasma particles. The spectral model fully takes into account interference filter and instrument effects, that are separately estimated, again using Gaussian processes. The line intensities are inferred based on a spectral model consistent with the measured spectra within their uncertainties, which includes photon statistics and electronic noise. Our newly developed method to infer JET edge electron density profiles has the following advantages in comparison to the conventional method: (i) providing full posterior distributions of edge density profiles, including their associated uncertainties, (ii) the available radial range for density profiles is increased to the full observation range (similar to 26 cm), (iii) an assumption of monotonic electron density profile is not necessary, (iv) the absolute calibration factor of the diagnostic system is automatically estimated overcoming the limitation of the conventional technique and allowing us to infer the electron density profiles for all pulses without preprocessing the data or an additional boundary condition, and (v) since the full spectrum is modelled, the procedure of modulating the beam to measure the background signal is only necessary for the case of overlapping of the Li I line with impurity lines.

  • 212.
    Kwak, Sehyun
    et al.
    JET, Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Consortium, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol, Dept Nucl & Quantum Engn, Daejeon 34141, South Korea..
    Svensson, J.
    JET, Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Consortium, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-17491 Greifswald, Germany.;Teilinst Greifswald, Max Planck Inst Plasmaphys, D-17491 Greifswald, Germany..
    Ghim, Y. -c.
    JET, Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Consortium, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol, Dept Nucl & Quantum Engn, Daejeon 34141, South Korea..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bayesian modelling of the emission spectrum of the Joint European Torus Lithium Beam Emission Spectroscopy system2016Inngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 87, nr 2, artikkel-id 023501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A Bayesian model of the emission spectrum of the JET lithium beam has been developed to infer the intensity of the Li I (2p-2s) line radiation and associated uncertainties. The detected spectrum for each channel of the lithium beam emission spectroscopy system is here modelled by a single Li line modified by an instrumental function, Bremsstrahlung background, instrumental offset, and interference filter curve. Both the instrumental function and the interference filter curve are modelled with non-parametric Gaussian processes. All free parameters of the model, the intensities of the Li line, Bremsstrahlung background, and instrumental offset, are inferred using Bayesian probability theory with a Gaussian likelihood for photon statistics and electronic background noise. The prior distributions of the free parameters are chosen as Gaussians. Given these assumptions, the intensity of the Li line and corresponding uncertainties are analytically available using a Bayesian linear inversion technique. The proposed approach makes it possible to extract the intensity of Li line without doing a separate background subtraction through modulation of the Li beam.

  • 213.
    Kwiatkowski, R.
    et al.
    NCBJ, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Jonsson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    NCBJ, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland.;Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    et al.,
    CeBr3-based detector for gamma-ray spectrometer upgrade at JET2017Inngår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 123, s. 986-989Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the important techniques used at JET for studying fast ions is based on measurements of gamma rays which are produced as a result of nuclear reactions between ions and plasma impurities. The intense neutron and gamma-ray fluxes expected during a DT campaign impose dew requirements on detector characteristics used in such experiments. In addition to good energy resolution, detectors must also be characterized by a high signal-to-noise ratio and allow to perform measurements at high counting rate about 1 Mcps. The scintillators which fulfill these requirements are, among others, LaBr3:Ce, already tested at JET, and CeBr3 with a scintillation decay time of similar to 20 ns. We report on measurements which were performed with a detector module equipped with a 3" x 3" CeBr3 scintillator and with an active voltage divider AVD@NCBJ, designed and constructed at NCBJ. Standard gamma -ray sources, as well as a PuBe source, were used for measurements. The comparison of measured and Monte Carlo simulated spectra is also presented.

  • 214.
    Lahtinen, A.
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Deuterium retention in the divertor tiles of JET ITER-Like wall2017Inngår i: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, s. 655-661Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Divertor tiles removed after the second JET ITER-Like Wall campaign 2013-2014 (ILW-2) were studied using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Measurements show that the thickest beryllium (Be) dominated deposition layers are located at the upper part of the inner divertor and are up to similar to 40 mu m thick at the lower part of Tile 0 exposed in 2011-2014. The highest deuterium (D) amounts (>8 . 10 18 at./cm(2)), in contrast, were found on the upper part of Tile 1 (2013-2014), where the Be deposits are similar to 10 mu m thick. D was mainly retained in the near-surface layer of the Be deposits but also deeper in tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) layers of the marker coated tiles, especially at W-Mo layer interfaces. D retention for the ILW-2 divertor tiles is higher than for the first campaign 2011-2012 (ILW-1) and probable reasons for the difference are that SIMS measurements for the ILW-2 samples were done deeper than for the ILW-1 samples, some of the tiles were exposed during both ILW-1 and ILW-2 and therefore had a longer exposure time, and the differences between ILW-1 and ILW-2 campaigns e.g. in strike point distributions and injected powers.

  • 215. Laksman, J.
    et al.
    Kooser, K.
    Levola, H.
    Itälä, E.
    Ha, D. T.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Kukk, E.
    Dissociation Pathways in the Cysteine Dication after Site-Selective Core Ionization2014Inngår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 118, nr 40, s. 11688-11695Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A photoelectronionion coincidence experiment has been carried out on the amino acid molecule cysteine after core-ionization of the O 1s, N 1s, C 1s, and S 2p orbitals. A number of different dissociation channels have been identified. Some of them show strong site-selective dependence that can be attributed to a combination of nuclear motion in the core-ionized state and Auger processes that populate different final electronic states in the dication.

  • 216.
    Lasa, A.
    et al.
    Annan organisation.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Annan organisation.
    et al.,
    ERO modeling and sensitivity analysis of locally enhanced beryllium erosion by magnetically connected antennas2018Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 1, artikkel-id 016046Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments at JET showed locally enhanced, asymmetric beryllium (Be) erosion at outer wall limiters when magnetically connected ICRH antennas were in operation. A first modeling effort using the 3D erosion and scrape-off layer impurity transport modeling code ERO reproduced qualitatively the experimental outcome. However, local plasma parameters-in particular when 3D distributions are of interest-can be difficult to determine from available diagnostics and so erosion / impurity transport modeling input relies on output from other codes and simplified models, increasing uncertainties in the outcome. In the present contribution, we introduce and evaluate the impact of improved models and parameters with largest uncertainties of processes that impact impurity production and transport across the scrape-off layer, when simulated in ERO: (i) the magnetic geometry has been revised, for affecting the separatrix position (located 50-60 mm away from limiter surface) and thus the background plasma profiles; (ii) connection lengths between components, which lead to shadowing of ion fluxes, are also affected by the magnetic configuration; (iii) anomalous transport of ionized impurities, defined by the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, has been revisited; (iv) erosion yields that account for energy and angular distributions of background plasma ions under the present enhanced sheath potential and oblique magnetic field, have been introduced; (v) the effect of additional erosion sources, such as charge-exchange neutral fluxes, which are dominant in recessed areas like antennas, has been evaluated; (vi) chemically assisted release of Be in molecular form has been included. Sensitivity analysis highlights a qualitative effect (i.e. change in emission patterns) of magnetic shadowing, anomalous diffusion, and inclusion of neutral fluxes and molecular release of Be. The separatrix location, and energy and angular distribution of background plasma fluxes impact erosion quantitatively. ERO simulations that include all features described above match experimentally measured Be I (457.3 nm) and Be II (467.4 nm) signals, and erosion increases with varying ICRH antenna's RF power. However, this increase in erosion is only partially captured by ERO's emission measurements, as most contributions from plasma wetted surfaces fall outside the volume observed by sightlines.

  • 217.
    Lawson, K. D.
    et al.
    EUROfus Consortium, JET, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;UKAEA, CCFE, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Vallejos Olivares, Pablo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Y.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res NCBJ, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    Population modelling of the He II energy levels in tokamak plasmas: I. Collisional excitation model2019Inngår i: Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, ISSN 0953-4075, E-ISSN 1361-6455, Vol. 52, nr 4, artikkel-id 045001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Helium is widely used as a fuel or minority gas in laboratory fusion experiments, and will be present as ash in DT thermonuclear plasmas. It is therefore essential to have a good understanding of its atomic physics. To this end He II population modelling has been undertaken for the spectroscopic levels arising from shells with principal quantum number n = 1-5. This paper focuses on a collisional excitation model; ionisation and recombination will be considered in a subsequent article. Heavy particle collisional excitation rate coefficients have been generated to supplement the currently-available atomic data for He II, and are presented for proton, deuteron, triton and alpha-particle projectiles. The widely-used criterion for levels within an n shell being populated in proportion to their statistical weights is reassessed with the most recent atomic data, and found not to apply to the He II levels at tokamak densities (10(18)-10(21) m(-3)). Consequences of this and other likely sources of errors are quantified, as is the effect of differing electron and ion temperatures. Line intensity ratios, including the so-called 'branching ratios' and the fine-structure beta(1), beta(2), beta(3), and gamma ratios, are discussed, the latter with regard to their possible use as diagnostics.

  • 218.
    Lehnen, M.
    et al.
    EUROfus Consortium, JET, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Forsch Zentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;ITER Org, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    et al.,
    Radiation asymmetries during the thermal quench of massive gas injection disruptions in JET2015Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 55, nr 12, artikkel-id 123027Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation asymmetries during disruption mitigation by massive gas injection (MGI) can result in substantial first wall heat loads in ITER and have, therefore, to be minimised. This paper gives a first analysis of the relation between the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities governing the thermal quench (TQ) and the toroidal distribution of the radiated power during MGI experiments at JET. It is found that the radiation asymmetry is closely linked to the toroidal phase of the n = 1 mode. The mode phase, on the other hand, is influenced by the injection itself, with the O-point of the mode being displaced towards the injection location. The development of a m = 1 component during the TQ has been identified from temperature and soft x-ray measurements. The observations suggest that the TQ mechanism during MGI is the same as for density limit disruptions. High energy plasmas show a much smaller peaking compared to Ohmically heated plasmas. Neon injection has the tendency towards lower radiation peaking compared to argon injection.

  • 219.
    Lengar, Igor
    et al.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Reactor Phys Dept, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.;Culham Sci Ctr, JET, EUROfus Consortium, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Lengar, I.
    Slovenian Fus Assoc SFA, Jozef Stefan Inst, Reactor Phys Dept, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Radiation damage and nuclear heating studies in selected functional materials during the JET DT campaign2016Inngår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 109, s. 1011-1015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Deuterium-Tritium campaign (DTE2) is planned at JET in the next years, with a proposed 14 MeV neutron budget of 1.7 x 10(21), which is nearly an order of magnitude higher than any previous DT campaigns. The neutron and gamma ray fields inside the JET device during DT plasma operations at specific locations have previously been evaluated. It is estimated that a total neutron fluence on the first wall of JET of up to 10(20) n/m(2) could be achieved, which is comparable to the fluence occurring in ITER at the end of life in the rear part of the port plug, where several diagnostic components will be located. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the radiation damage and nuclear heating in selected functional materials to be irradiated at JET during DT plasma operation. These quantities are calculated with the use of the MCNP6 code and the FISPACT II code. In particular the neutron and gamma ray fields at specific locations inside the JET device, dedicated to material damage studies, were characterized. The emphasis is on a potential longterm irradiation station located close to the first wall at outboard midplane, offering the opportunity to irradiate samples of functional materials used in ITER diagnostics, to assess the degradation of the physical properties. The radiation damage and the nuclear heating were calculated for selected materials irradiated in these positions and for the neutron flux and fluence expected in DTE2. The studied candidate functional materials include, among others, Sapphire, YAG, ZnS, Spinel, Diamond. In addition the activation of the internal irradiation holder itself was calculated with FISPACT. Damage levels in the range of 10(-5) dpa were found. 2016 EURATOM.

  • 220.
    Lengar, Igor
    et al.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon, Oxon, England.;Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova Cesta 39, Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    Activation material selection for multiple foil activation detectors in JET TT campaign2018Inngår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 136, s. 988-992Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the preparation for the Deuterium-Tritium campaign, JET will operate with a tritium plasma. The T + T reaction consists of two notable channels: (1) T + T -> He-4 + 2n, (2) T + T -> He-5 + n -> He-4 + 2n. The reaction channel (1) is the reaction with the highest branching ratio and a continuum of neutron energies being produced. Reaction channel (2) produces a spectrum with a peak at 8.8 MeV. A particular problem is the ratio between the individual TT reaction channels, which is highly dependent on the energy of the reacting tritium ions. There are very few measurements on the TT spectrum and the study at JET would be interesting. The work is focused on the determination of the spectral characteristics in the TT plasma discharges, especially on the presence of the 8.8 MeV peak, a consequence of channel (2) of the TT reaction. The possibility to use an optimized set of activation materials in order to target the measurement of the 8.8 MeV peak is studied. The lower limit of detection for the channel (2) ratio within the TT reaction is estimated and the influence of DT source neutrons, which are a consequence of deuterium traces in the plasma, is investigated.

  • 221.
    Lennholm, M.
    et al.
    European Commiss, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium.;JET, Culham Sci Ctr, Exploitat Unit, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;JET, EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;European Commiss, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Jonsson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    et al.,
    Real time control developments at JET in preparation for deuterium-tritium operation2017Inngår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 123, s. 535-540Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust high performance plasma scenarios are being developed to exploit the unique capability of JET to operate with Tritium and Deuterium. In this context, real time control schemes are used to guide the plasma into the desired state and maintain it there. Other real time schemes detect undesirable behaviour and trigger appropriate actions to assure the best experimental results without unnecessary use of the limited neutron and Tritium budget. This paper discusses continuously active controllers and event/threshold detection algorithms triggering a variety of actions. Recent advances include: (i) Control of the degree of plasma detachment via impurity injection; (ii) ELM frequency control via gas/Pellet injection; (iii) Sawtooth pacing using ICRH modulation, (iv) control of the Hydrogen to Deuterium isotope ratio through gas injection and (v) the determination that a discharge is not evolving as desired, triggering a cascade of actions attempting to stop the plasma rapidly and safely, eventually triggering massive gas injection if a disruption is deemed unavoidable. For high power Deuterium-Tritium operation these control schemes need to be integrated into the plasma scenarios ensuring that they are mutually compatible.

  • 222. Lerche, E.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Jonsson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Sawtooth pacing with on-axis ICRH modulation in JET-ILW2017Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, nr 3, artikkel-id 036027Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel technique for sawteeth control in tokamak plasmas using ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) has been developed in the JET-ILW tokamak. Unlike previous ICRH methods, that explored the destabilization of the internal kink mode when the radio-frequency (RF) wave absorption was placed near the q = 1 surface, the technique presented here consists of stabilizing the sawteeth as fast as possible by applying the ICRH power centrally and subsequently induce a sawtooth crash by switching it off at the appropriate instant. The validation of this method in JET-ILW L-mode discharges, including preliminary tests in H-mode plasmas, is presented.

  • 223. Levola, H.
    et al.
    Kooser, K.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Nõmmiste, E.
    Kukk, E.
    Fragmentation of thymidine induced by ultraviolet photoionization and thermal degradation2013Inngår i: International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 1387-3806, E-ISSN 1873-2798, Vol. 353, s. 7-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation of gas phase thymidine at different temperatures was studied with vacuum ultraviolet radiation and time-of-flight spectroscopy. Partial ion yield measurements were carried out in order to study the appearance energies of thymidine and its main fragments. The appearance energies of thymidine and its deoxyribose- and thymine-based fragments were determined to be 8.39, 8.77 and 8.81 eV, independently of temperature. The thermal decomposition of the sample was observed to start around 138-139 C and it was explained by the breakage of the glycosidic bond, accompanied by hydrogen transfer from the deoxyribose ring to the thymine base.

  • 224. Levola, Helena
    et al.
    Itala, Eero
    Schlesier, Kim
    Kooser, Kuno
    Laine, Sanna
    Laksman, Joakim
    Ha, Dang Trinh
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Tarkanovskaja, Marta
    Tanzer, Katrin
    Kukk, Edwin
    Ionization-site effects on the photofragmentation of chloro- and bromoacetic acid molecules2015Inngår i: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 92, nr 6, artikkel-id 063409Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation of gas-phase chloro-and bromoacetic acid samples, particularly its dependency on the atomic site of the initial core ionization, was studied in photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence (PEPIPICO) measurements. The fragmentation was investigated after ionizing carbon 1s and bromine 3d or chlorine 2p core orbitals. It was observed that the samples had many similar fragmentation pathways and that their relative weights depended strongly on the initial ionization site. Additional Auger PEPIPICO measurements revealed a clear dependence of fragment pair intensities on the kinetic energy of the emitted Auger electrons. The modeled and measured Auger electron spectra indicated that the average internal energy of the molecule was larger following the carbon 1s core-hole decay than after the decay of the halogen core hole. This difference in the internal energies was found to be the source of the site-dependent photofragmentation behavior.

  • 225. Liang, Y.
    et al.
    Koslowski, H. R.
    Thomas, P. R.
    Nardon, E.
    Alper, B.
    Andrew, P.
    Andrew, Y.
    Arnoux, G.
    Baranov, Y.
    Becoulet, M.
    Beurskens, M.
    Biewer, T.
    Bigi, M.
    Crombe, K.
    De La Luna, E.
    de Vries, P.
    Fundamenski, W.
    Gerasimov, S.
    Giroud, C.
    Gryaznevich, M. P.
    Hawkes, N.
    Hotchin, S.
    Howell, D.
    Jachmich, S.
    Kiptily, V.
    Moreira, L.
    Parail, V.
    Pinches, S. D.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Zimmermann, O.
    Active control of type-I edge-localized modes with n=1 perturbation fields in the JET tokamak2007Inngår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 98, nr 26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Type-I edge-localized modes (ELMs) have been mitigated at the JET tokamak using a static external n=1 perturbation field generated by four error field correction coils located far from the plasma. During the application of the n=1 field the ELM frequency increased by a factor of 4 and the amplitude of the D-alpha signal decreased. The energy loss per ELM normalized to the total stored energy, Delta W/W, dropped to values below 2%. Transport analyses shows no or only a moderate (up to 20%) degradation of energy confinement time during the ELM mitigation phase.

  • 226. Liang, Y.
    et al.
    Koslowski, H. R.
    Thomas, P. R.
    Nardon, E.
    Jachmich, S.
    Alper, B.
    Andrew, P.
    Andrew, Y.
    Arnoux, G.
    Baranov, Y.
    Becoulet, M.
    Beurskens, M.
    Biewer, T.
    Bigi, M.
    Crombe, K.
    De La Luna, E.
    de Vries, P.
    Eich, T.
    Esser, H. G.
    Fundamenski, W.
    Gerasimov, S.
    Giroud, C.
    Gryaznevich, M. P.
    Harting, D.
    Hawkes, N.
    Hotchin, S.
    Howell, D.
    Huber, A.
    Jakubowski, M.
    Kiptily, V.
    Kreter, A.
    Moreira, L.
    Parail, V.
    Pinches, S. D.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Schmitz, O.
    Zimmermann, O.
    Active control of type-I edge localized modes on JET2007Inngår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 49, nr 12B, s. B581-B589Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational domain for active control of type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) with an n = 1 external magnetic perturbation field induced by the ex-vessel error field correction coils on JET has been developed towards more ITER-relevant regimes with high plasma triangularity, up to 0.45, high normalized beta, up to 3.0, plasma current up to 2.0 MA and q(95) varied between 3.0 and 4.8. The results of ELM mitigation in high triangularity plasmas show that the frequency of type-I ELMs increased by a factor of 4 during the application of the n = 1 fields, while the energy loss per ELM, Delta W/W, decreased from 6% to below the noise level of the diamagnetic measurement (<2%). No reduction of confinement quality (H98Y) during the ELM mitigation phase has been observed. The minimum n = 1 perturbation field amplitude above which the ELMs were mitigated increased with a lower q(95) but always remained below the n = 1 locked mode threshold. The first results of ELM mitigation with n = 2 magnetic perturbations on JET demonstrate that the frequency of ELMs increased from 10 to 35 Hz and a wide operational window of q95 from 4.5 to 3.1 has been found.

  • 227. Likonen, J.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Deuterium trapping and release in JET ITER-like wall divertor tiles2016Inngår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T167, artikkel-id 014074Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A selected set of samples from JET-ILW divertor tiles exposed in 2011-2012 has been analysed using thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). The highest amount of deuterium was found on the regions with the thickest deposited layers, i.e. on the horizontal (apron) part and on the top part of Tile 1, which resides deep in the scrape-off layer. Outer divertor Tiles 6, 7 and 8 had nearly an order of magnitude less deuterium. The co-deposited layers on the JET tiles and the W coatings contain C, O and Ni impurities which may change the desorption properties. The D-2 signals in the TDS spectra were convoluted and the positions of the peaks were compared with the Be and C amounts but no correlations between them were found. The remaining fractions of D in the analysed samples at ITER baking temperature 350 degrees C are rather high implying that co-deposited films may be difficult to be de-tritiated.

  • 228. Litaudon, X.
    et al.
    Arnoux, G.
    Beurskens, M.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Challis, C. D.
    Crisanti, F.
    DeVries, P. C.
    Giroud, C.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Rimini, F. G.
    Andrew, Y.
    Ariola, M.
    Baranov, Yu F.
    Brix, M.
    Buratti, P.
    Cesario, R.
    Corre, Y.
    De La Luna, E.
    Fundamenski, W.
    Giovannozzi, E.
    Gryaznevich, M. P.
    Hawkes, N. C.
    Hobirk, J.
    Huber, A.
    Jachmich, S.
    Joffrin, E.
    Koslowski, H. R.
    Liang, Y.
    Loarer, Th
    Lomas, P.
    Luce, T.
    Mailloux, J.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Mazon, D.
    McCormick, K.
    Moreau, D.
    Pericoli, V.
    Philipps, V.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Reyes-Cortes, S. D. A.
    Saibene, G.
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Voitsekovitch, I.
    Zabeo, L.
    Zimmermann, O.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Development of steady-state scenarios compatible with ITER-like wall conditions2007Inngår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 49, nr 12B, s. B529-B550Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A key issue for steady-state tokamak operation is to determine the edge conditions that are compatible both with good core confinement and with the power handling and plasma exhaust capabilities of the plasma facing components (PFCs) and divertor systems. A quantitative response to this open question will provide a robust scientific basis for reliable extrapolation of present regimes to an ITER compatible steady-state scenario. In this context, the JET programme addressing steady-state operation is focused on the development of non-inductive, high confinement plasmas with the constraints imposed by the PFCs. A new beryllium main chamber wall and tungsten divertor together with an upgrade of the heating/fuelling capability are currently in preparation at JET. Operation at higher power with this ITER-like wall will impose new constraints on non-inductive scenarios. Recent experiments have focused on the preparation for this new phase of JET operation. In this paper, progress in the development of advanced tokamak (AT) scenarios at JET is reviewed keeping this long-term objective in mind. The approach has consisted of addressing various critical issues separately during the 2006-2007 campaigns with a view to full scenario integration when the JET upgrades are complete. Regimes with internal transport barriers (ITBs) have been developed at q(95) similar to 5 and high triangularity, 3 (relevant to the ITER steady-state demonstration) by applying more than 30 MW of additional heating power reaching beta(N) similar to 2 at B(o) similar to 3.1 T. Operating at higher 6 has allowed the edge pedestal and core densities to be increased pushing the ion temperature closer to that of the electrons. Although not yet fully integrated into a performance enhancing ITB scenario, Neon seeding has been successfully explored to increase the radiated power fraction (up to 60%), providing significant reduction of target tile power fluxes (and hence temperatures) and mitigation of edge localized mode (ELM) activity. At reduced toroidal magnetic field strength, high beta(N) regimes have been achieved and q-profile optimization investigated for use in steady-state scenarios. Values of beta(N) above the 'no-wall magnetohydrodynamic limit' (beta(N) similar to 3.0) have been sustained for a resistive current diffusion time in high-delta configurations (at 1.2 MA/1.8 T). In this scenario, ELM activity has been mitigated by applying magnetic perturbations using error field correction coils to provide ergodization of the magnetic field at the plasma edge. In a highly shaped, quasi-double null X-point configuration, ITBs have been generated on the ion heat transport channel and combined with 'grassy' ELMs with similar to 30 MW of applied heating power (at 1.2 MA/2.7 T, q(95) similar to 7). Advanced algorithms and system identification procedures have been developed with a view to developing simultaneously temperature and q-profile control in real-time. These techniques have so far been applied to the control of the q-profile evolution in JET AT scenarios.

  • 229. Litaudon, X.
    et al.
    Becoulet, A.
    Crisanti, F.
    Wolf, R. C.
    Hellsten, T.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fysik.
    et al,
    Progress towards steady-state operation and real-time control of internal transport barriers in JET2003Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 43, nr 7, s. 565-572Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In JET, advanced tokamak research mainly focuses on plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs) that are strongly influenced by the current density profile. A previously developed optimized shear regime with low magnetic shear in the plasma centre has been extended to deeply negative magnetic shear configurations. High fusion performance with wide ITBs has been obtained transiently with negative central magnetic shear configuration: H-IPB98(y,H-2) similar to 1.9, beta(N) = 2.4 at I-p = 2.5 MA. At somewhat reduced performance, electron and ion ITBs have been sustained in full current drive operation with 1 MA of bootstrap current: H-IPB98(y,H-2) similar to 1, beta(N) = 1.7 at I-p = 2.0 MA. The ITBs were maintained for up to 11 s for the latter case. This duration, much larger than the energy confinement time (37 times larger), is already approaching a current resistive time. New real-time measurements and feedback control algorithms have been developed and implemented in JET for successfully controlling the ITB dynamics and the current density profile in the highly non-inductive current regime.

  • 230. Litaudon, X.
    et al.
    Bizarro, J. P. S.
    Challis, C. D.
    Crisanti, F.
    De Vries, P. C.
    Lomas, P.
    Rimini, F. G.
    Tala, T. J. J.
    Akers, R.
    Andrew, Y.
    Arnoux, G.
    Artaud, J. F.
    Baranov, Yu F.
    Beurskens, M.
    Brix, M.
    Cesario, R.
    De La Luna, E.
    Fundamenski, W.
    Giroud, C.
    Hawkes, N. C.
    Huber, A.
    Joffrin, E.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Reyes-Cortes, S. D. A.
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Zimmermann, O.
    Jet Efda contributors,
    Prospects for steady-state scenarios on JET2007Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 47, nr 9, s. 1285-1292Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 2006 experimental campaign, progress has been made on JET to operate non-inductive scenarios at higher applied powers (31 MW) and density (n(1) similar to 4 x 10(19) m(-3)), with ITER-relevant safety factor (q(95) similar to 5) and plasma shaping, taking advantage of the new divertor capabilities. The extrapolation of the performance using transport modelling benchmarked on the experimental database indicates that the foreseen power upgrade (similar to 45 MW) will allow the development of non-inductive scenarios where the bootstrap current is maximized together with the fusion yield and not, as in present-day experiments, at its expense. The tools for the long-term JET programme are the new ITER-like ICRH antenna (similar to 15 MW), an upgrade of the NB power (35 MW/20s or 17.5 MW/40s), a new ITER-like first wall, a new pellet injector for edge localized mode control together with improved diagnostic and control capability. Operation with the new wall will set new constraints on non-inductive scenarios that are already addressed experimentally and in the modelling. The fusion performance and driven current that could be reached at high density and power have been estimated using either 0D or 1-1/2D validated transport models. In the high power case (45 MW), the calculations indicate the potential for the operational space of the non-inductive regime to be extended in terms of current (similar to 2.5 MA) and density (n(1) > 5 x 10(19) m(-3)), with high beta(N) (beta(N) > 3.0) and a fraction of the bootstrap current within 60-70% at high toroidal field (similar to 3.5 T).

  • 231. Lloyd, B.
    et al.
    Akers, R. J.
    Alladio, F.
    Andrew, Y.
    Appel, L. C.
    Applegate, D.
    Axon, K. B.
    Ben Ayed, N.
    Bunting, C.
    Buttery, R. J.
    Carolan, P. G.
    Chapman, I.
    Ciric, D.
    Connor, J. W.
    Conway, N. J.
    Cox, M.
    Counsell, G. F.
    Cunningham, G.
    Darke, A.
    Delchambre, E.
    Dendy, R. O.
    Dowling, J.
    Dudson, B.
    Dunstan, M.
    Field, A. R.
    Foster, A.
    Gee, S.
    Garzotti, L.
    Gryaznevich, M. P.
    Gurchenko, A.
    Gusakov, E.
    Hawkes, N. C.
    Helander, P.
    Hender, T. C.
    Hnat, B.
    Howell, D. F.
    Joiner, N.
    Keeling, D.
    Kirk, A.
    Koch, B.
    Kuldkepp, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Lisgo, S.
    Lott, F.
    Maddison, G. P.
    Maingi, R.
    Mancuso, A.
    Manhood, S. J.
    Martin, R.
    McArdle, G. J.
    McCone, J.
    Meyer, H.
    Micozzi, P.
    Morris, A. W.
    Muir, D. G.
    Nelson, M.
    O'Brien, M. R.
    Patel, A.
    Pinches, S.
    Preinhaelter, J.
    Price, M. N.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    Roach, C. M.
    Rozhansky, V.
    Saarelma, S.
    Saveliev, A.
    Scannell, R.
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Shevchenko, V.
    Shibaev, S.
    Stammers, K.
    Storrs, J.
    Surkov, A.
    Sykes, A.
    Tallents, S.
    Taylor, D.
    Thomas-Davies, N.
    Turnyanskiy, M. R.
    Urban, J.
    Valovic, M.
    Vann, R. G. L.
    Volpe, F.
    Voss, G.
    Walsh, M. J.
    Warder, S. E. V.
    Watkins, R.
    Wilson, H. R.
    Wisse, M.
    Overview of physics results from MAST2007Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 47, nr 10, s. S658-S667Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Substantial advances have been made on the Mega AmpÚre Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The parameter range of the MAST confinement database has been extended and it now also includes pellet-fuelled discharges. Good pellet retention has been observed in H-mode discharges without triggering an ELM or an H/L transition during peripheral ablation of low speed pellets. Co-ordinated studies on MAST and DIII-D demonstrate a strong link between the aspect ratio and the beta scaling of H-mode energy confinement, consistent with that obtained when MAST data were merged with a subset of the ITPA database. Electron and ion ITBs are readily formed and their evolution has been investigated. Electron and ion thermal diffusivities have been reduced to values close to the ion neoclassical level. Error field correction coils have been used to determine the locked mode threshold scaling which is comparable to that in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. The impact of plasma rotation on sawteeth has been investigated and the results have been well-modelled using the MISHKA-F code. Alfvén cascades have been observed in discharges with reversed magnetic shear. Measurements during off-axis NBCD and heating are consistent with classical fast ion modelling and indicate efficient heating and significant driven current. Central electron Bernstein wave heating has been observed via the O-X-B mode conversion process in special magnetically compressed plasmas. Plasmas with low pedestal collisionality have been established and further insight has been gained into the characteristics of filamentary structures at the plasma edge. Complex behaviour of the divertor power loading during plasma disruptions has been revealed by high resolution infra-red measurements.

  • 232. Loarer, T.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Plasma isotopic changeover experiments in JET under carbon and ITER-like wall conditions2015Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 55, nr 4, artikkel-id 043021Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In JET-ILWisotopic plasma wall changeover experiments have been carried out to determine the amount of particles accessible by changing the plasma from H to D and from D to H. The gas balance analysis integrated over the experimental sessions show that the total amount of H or D removed from the wall is in the range of (1-3) x 10(22)D. For both changeover experiments, the respective plasma isotopic ratio behaviour is exactly the same as a function of the pulse number. After only 80 s of plasma (4 pulses), the plasma isotopic ratio is lower than 10%, below 4.5% after 13 pulses and then saturates around similar to 2-3%. In these conditions, the removal efficiency through plasma operation becomes very poor. The saturation of the plasma isotopic ratio in the range of 10% is also observed for the JET-C configuration although the amount of tritium retained in the vessel after the DT pulses was more than one order of magnitude compared to the retention observed with the JET-ILW. This demonstrates that the amount of particle recovery through plasma changeover is independent from the long term retention. Since this long term reservoir results from codeposition, these experiments suggest that there is a limited access to these codeposited particles by plasma isotopic changeover. Finally, in ITER, change over from D/T to H at the end of the discharge for possibly reducing the long term retention does not appear as a good strategy.

  • 233. Lomanowski, B. A.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Inferring divertor plasma properties from hydrogen Balmer and Paschen series spectroscopy in JET-ILW2015Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 55, nr 12, artikkel-id 123028Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A parametrised spectral line profile model is formulated to investigate the diagnostic scope for recovering plasma parameters from hydrogenic Balmer and Paschen series spectroscopy in the context of JET-ILW divertor plasmas. The separate treatment of Zeeman and Stark contributions in the line model is tested against the PPP-B code which accounts for their combined influence on the spectral line shape. The proposed simplified model does not fully reproduce the Stark-Zeeman features for the alpha and beta transitions, but good agreement is observed in the line width and wing profiles, especially for n > 5. The line model has been applied to infer radial density profiles in the JET-ILW divertor with generally good agreement between the D 5 -> 2, 5 -> 3, 6 -> 2, 7 -> 2 and 9 -> 2 lines for high recycling and detached conditions. In an L-mode detached plasma pulse the Langmuir probe measurements typically underestimated the density by a factor 2-3 and overestimated the electron temperature by a factor of 5-10 compared to spectroscopically derived values. The line model is further used to generate synthetic high-resolution spectra for low-n transitions to assess the potential for parameter recovery using a multi-parametric fitting technique. In cases with 4 parameter fits with a single Maxwellian neutral temperature component the D 4 -> 3 line yields the best results with parameter estimates within 10% of the input values. For cases with 9 parameter fits inclusive of a multi-component neutral velocity distribution function the quality of the fits is degraded. Simultaneous fitting of the D 3 -> 2 and 4 -> 3 profiles improves the fit quality significantly, highlighting the importance of complementary spectroscopic measurements for divertor plasma emission studies.

  • 234.
    Lovell, Jack
    et al.
    Univ Durham, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England.;Culham Sci Ctr, Culham Ctr Fus Energy, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    An FPGA-based bolometer for the MAST-U Super-X divertor2016Inngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 87, nr 11, artikkel-id 11E721Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new resistive bolometer system has been developed for MAST-Upgrade. It will measure radiated power in the new Super-X divertor, with millisecond time resolution, along 16 vertical and 16 horizontal lines of sight. The system uses a Xilinx Zynq-7000 series Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in the D-TACQ ACQ2106 carrier to perform real time data acquisition and signal processing. The FPGA enables AC-synchronous detection using high performance digital filtering to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio and will be able to output processed data in real time with millisecond latency. The system has been installed on 8 previously unused channels of the JET vertical bolometer system. Initial results suggest good agreement with data from existing vertical channels but with higher bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.

  • 235.
    Lungaroni, M.
    et al.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dept Ind Engn, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy..
    Peluso, E.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dept Ind Engn, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    On the potential of ruled-based machine learning for disruption prediction on JET2018Inngår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 130, s. 62-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last years, it has become apparent that detecting disruptions with sufficient anticipation time is an essential but not exclusive task of predictors. It is also important that the prediction is accompanied by appropriate qualifications of its reliability and it is formulated in mathematical terms appropriate for the task at hand (mitigation, avoidance, classification etc.). In this paper, a wide series of rule-based predictors, of the Classification and Regression Trees (CART) family, have been compared to assess their relative merits. An original refinement of the training, called noise-based ensembles, has allowed not only to obtain significantly better performance but also to increase the interpretability of the results. The final predictors can indeed be represented by a tree or a series of specific and clear rules. Such performance has been proved by analysing large databases of shots on JET with both the carbon wall and the ITER Like Wall. In terms of performance, the developed tools are therefore very competitive with other machine learning techniques, with the specificity of formulating the final models in terms of trees and simple rules.

  • 236. Maddison, G. P.
    et al.
    Brix, M.
    Budny, R.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fysik.
    Rapp, J.
    et al,
    Impurity-seeded plasma experiments on JET2003Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 49-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scaling to larger tokamaks of high confinement plasmas with radiating edges, induced by impurities, is being studied through internationally collaborative experiments on JET. In campaigns till the end of 2000, three different regimes have been explored. A small number of limiter L-mode discharges seeded with neon have most closely repeated the approach used on TEXTOR-94, but different collisionality and particle transport in JET impede central peaking of the density associated with improved confinement. Divertor L-modes at intermediate density, again with neon injection, have pursued transiently enhanced states found on DIII-D. Confinement up to H-mode quality, together with radiation fractions of approximate to40%, have briefly been obtained, though central Z(eff) quickly increases. Most effectively, neon and argon seeding of higher density ELMy H-modes formed mainly at low triangularity on the septum of the MkIIGB divertor, resembling a pumped-limiter arrangement, have been examined. Good confinement has been sustained at densities close to the Greenwald level in 'afterpuff' (AP) phases following the end of main gas fuelling, for little change of central Z(eff) but up to approximate to60% radiation. Outstanding normalized properties up to H-97 = 0.99 at f(Gwd) = 0.94 have thus been achieved, above the conventional H-mode density limit for diverted plasmas. Stationarity of states has also been extended to many energy confinement times by including low, extra gas inputs in the 'AP', suggestive of an optimized fuelling scheme. Further development in 2001 is reported separately in [1]. Accompanying ELMs are generally reduced in frequency though not evidently in size, electron pedestal pressure being almost unchanged from unseeded behaviour. There are indications of the most favourable impurity species scaling with plasma parameters, performance, radiation and its concentration within a mantle all increasing with argon compared to neon in JET. These benefits in terms of integrated properties are just as required for long burning pulses in ITER, supporting its use of a radiating mantle to assist not only power exhaust but performance too. Impurity-seeded H-modes can therefore contribute directly to next-step scenario development.

  • 237. Malaquias, A
    et al.
    von Hellermann, M
    Tugarinov, S
    Lotte, P
    Hawkes, N
    Kuldkepp, Mattias
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fysik.
    Gorshkov, A
    Walker, C
    Costley, A
    Vayakis, G
    Active beam spectroscopy diagnostics for ITER: Present status (invited)2004Inngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 75, nr 10, s. 3393-3398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview is given of the present design of the active beam spectroscopy diagnostics for the ITER. Present spatial resolution and signal-to-noise indicate that, in principle, all proposed measurements are possible covering the entire plasma minor radius. Calculations show that the mirror based periscopes and the impurity coating of the first mirror affect the signal strength and the polarization characteristics of the measured spectra having an impact in the measurement accuracy. On-line calibration techniques and methods to access the first mirror status are addressed.

  • 238.
    Manas, P.
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, PIIM UMR7345, F-13397 Marseille, France..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    et al.,
    Gyrokinetic modeling of impurity peaking in JET H-mode plasmas2017Inngår i: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 24, nr 6, artikkel-id 062511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative comparisons are presented between gyrokinetic simulations and experimental values of the carbon impurity peaking factor in a database of JET H-modes during the carbon wall era. These plasmas feature strong NBI heating and hence high values of toroidal rotation and corresponding gradient. Furthermore, the carbon profiles present particularly interesting shapes for fusion devices, i.e., hollow in the core and peaked near the edge. Dependencies of the experimental carbon peaking factor (R/L-nC) on plasma parameters are investigated via multilinear regressions. A marked correlation between R/L-nC and the normalised toroidal rotation gradient is observed in the core, which suggests an important role of the rotation in establishing hollow carbon profiles. The carbon peaking factor is then computed with the gyrokinetic code GKW, using a quasi-linear approach, supported by a few non-linear simulations. The comparison of the quasi-linear predictions to the experimental values at mid-radius reveals two main regimes. At low normalised collisionality, nu*, and T-e/T-i < 1, the gyrokinetic simulations quantitatively recover experimental carbon density profiles, provided that rotodiffusion is taken into account. In contrast, at higher nu* and T-e/T-i > 1, the very hollow experimental carbon density profiles are never predicted by the simulations and the carbon density peaking is systematically over estimated. This points to a possible missing ingredient in this regime.

  • 239. Mantsinen, M. J.
    et al.
    Mayoral, M. L.
    Van Eester, D.
    Alper, B.
    Barnsley, R.
    Beaumont, P.
    Bucalossi, J.
    Coffey, I.
    Conroy, S.
    de Baar, M.
    de Vries, P.
    Erents, K.
    Figueiredo, A.
    Gondhalekar, A.
    Gowers, C.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Joffrin, E.
    Kiptily, V.
    Lamalle, P. U.
    Lawson, K.
    Lyssoivan, A.
    Mailloux, J.
    Mantica, P.
    Meo, F.
    Milani, F.
    Monakhov, I.
    Murari, A.
    Nguyen, F.
    Noterdaeme, J. M.
    Ongena, J.
    Petrov, Y.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Fysik.
    Riccardo, V.
    Righi, E.
    Rimini, F.
    Stamp, M.
    Tuccillo, A. A.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Zerbini, M.
    Localized bulk electron heating with ICRF mode conversion in the JET tokamak2004Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 33-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion cyclotron resonance frequencies (ICRF) mode conversion has been developed for localized on-axis and off-axis bulk electron heating on the JET tokamak. The fast magnetosonic waves launched from the low-field side ICRF antennas are mode-converted to short-wavelength waves on the high-field side of the He-3 ion cyclotron resonance layer in D and He-4 plasmas and subsequently damped on the bulk electrons. The resulting electron power deposition, measured using ICRF power modulation, is narrow with a typical full-width at half-maximum of approximate to30 cm (i.e. about 30% of the minor radius) and the total deposited power to electrons comprises at least up to 80% of the applied ICRF power. The ICRF mode conversion power deposition has been kept constant using He-3 bleed throughout the ICRF phase with a typical duration of 4-6 s, i.e. 15-40 energy confinement times. Using waves propagating in the counter-current direction minimizes competing ion damping in the presence of co-injected deuterium beam ions.

  • 240.
    Maslov, M.
    et al.
    United Kingdom Atom Energy Author, Culham Ctr Fus Energy, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    Observation of enhanced ion particle transport in mixed H/D isotope plasmas on JET2018Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 7, artikkel-id 076022Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle transport in tokamak plasmas has been intensively studied in the past, particularly in relation to density peaking and the presence of anomalous inward particle convection in L-and H-modes. While in the L-mode case the presence of the anomalous inward pinch has previously been unambiguously demonstrated, particle transport in the H-mode was unclear. The main difficulty of such studies is that particle diffusion and convection could not be measured independently in steady-state conditions in the presence of a core particle flux. Therefore, it is usually not possible to separate the transport effect(inward convection), from the source effect (slow diffusion of particles introduced to the plasma core by neutral beam injection heating). In this work we describe experiments done on JET with mixtures of two hydrogenic isotopes: H and D. It is demonstrated that in the case of several ion species, convection and diffusion can be separated in a steady plasma without implementation of perturbative techniques such as gas puff modulation. Previous H-mode density peaking studies suggested that for this relatively high electron collisionality plasma scenario, the observed density gradient is mostly driven by particle source and low particle diffusivity D < 0.5 * chi(eff). Transport coefficients derived from observation of the isotope profiles in the new experiments far exceed that value-ion particle diffusion is found to be as high as D >= 2 * chi(eff), combined with a strong inward convection. Apparent disagreement with previous findings was explained by significantly faster transport of ion components with respect to the electrons, which could not be observed in a single main ion species plasma. This conclusion is confirmed by quasilinear gyrokinetic simulations.

  • 241.
    Matos, Francisco A.
    et al.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Tecn, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Jonsson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    et al.,
    Deep learning for plasma tomography using the bolometer system at JET2017Inngår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 114, s. 18-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep learning is having a profound impact in many fields, especially those that involve some form of image processing. Deep neural networks excel in turning an input image into a set of high-level features. On the other hand, tomography deals with the inverse problem of recreating an image from a number of projections. In plasma diagnostics, tomography aims at reconstructing the cross-section of the plasma from radiation measurements. This reconstruction can be computed with neural networks. However, previous attempts have focused on learning a parametric model of the plasma profile. In this work, we use a deep neural network to produce a full, pixel-by-pixel reconstruction of the plasma profile. For this purpose, we use the overview bolometer system at JET, and we introduce an up-convolutional network that has been trained and tested on a large set of sample tomograms. We show that this network is able to reproduce existing reconstructions with a high level of accuracy, as measured by several metrics.

  • 242.
    Matthews, G. F.
    et al.
    CCFE, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;JET, Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Consortium, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas Joe
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Energy balance in JET2017Inngår i: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, s. 227-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss results from the study of the energy balance in JET based on calculated heating energies, radiated energy from bolometry and tile calorimetry. Recent data enables us to be more confident in the numbers used and to exclude certain possibilities but the overall energy imbalance which typically amounts to 25% of total input remains unexplained. This shows that caution is required in interpreting fractional radiated powers which are commonly used to measure the effectiveness of impurity seeded scenarios at reducing divertor heat load.

  • 243. Matthews, G. F.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Melt damage to the JET ITER-like Wall and divertor2016Inngår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T167, artikkel-id 014070Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2014, JET completed a scoping study involving high power scenario development in preparation for DT along with other experiments critical for ITER. These experiments have involved intentional and unintentional melt damage both to bulk beryllium main chamber tiles and to divertor tiles. This paper provides an overview of the findings of concern for machine protection in JET and ITER, illustrating each case with high resolution images taken by remote handling or after removal from the machine. The bulk beryllium upper dump plate tiles and some other protection tiles have been repeatedly flash melted by what we believe to be mainly fast unmitigated disruptions. The flash melting produced in this way is seen at all toroidal locations and the melt layer is driven by j x B forces radially outward and upwards against gravity. In contrast, the melt pools caused while attempting to use MGI to mitigate deliberately generated runaway electron beams are localized to several limiters and the ejected material appears less influenced by j. x. B forces and shows signs of boiling. In the divertor, transient melting of bulk tungsten by ELMs was studied in support of the ITER divertor material decision using a specially prepared divertor module containing an exposed edge. Removal of the module from the machine in 2015 has provided improved imaging of the melt and this confirms that the melt layers are driven by ELMs. No other melt damage to the other 9215 bulk tungsten lamellas has yet been observed.

  • 244.
    Matthews, G. F.
    et al.
    Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    Dynamic power balance analysis in JET2017Inngår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, artikkel-id 014035Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The full scale realisation of nuclear fusion as an energy source requires a detailed understanding of power and energy balance in current experimental devices. In this we explore whether a global power balance model in which some of the calibration factors applied to the source or sink terms are fitted to the data can provide insight into possible causes of any discrepancies in power and energy balance seen in the JET tokamak. We show that the dynamics in the power balance can only be properly reproduced by including the changes in the thermal stored energy which therefore provides an additional opportunity to cross calibrate other terms in the power balance equation. Although the results are inconclusive with respect to the original goal of identifying the source of the discrepancies in the energy balance, we do find that with optimised parameters an extremely good prediction of the total power measured at the outer divertor target can be obtained over a wide range of pulses with time resolution up to similar to 25 ms.

  • 245. Mayer, M.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Erosion and deposition in the JET divertor during the second ITER-like wall campaign2017Inngår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, artikkel-id 014058Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Erosion of plasma-facing materials and successive transport and redeposition of eroded material are crucial processes determining the lifetime of plasma-facing components and the trapped tritium inventory in redeposited material layers. Erosion and deposition in the JET divertor were studied during the second JET ITER-like wall campaign ILW-2 in 2013-2014 by using a poloidal row of specially prepared divertor marker tiles including the tungsten bulk tile 5. The marker tiles were analyzed using elastic backscattering with 3-4.5 MeV incident protons and nuclear reaction analysis using 0.8-4.5 MeV He-3 ions before and after the campaign. The erosion/deposition pattern observed during ILW-2 is qualitatively comparable to the first campaign ILW-1 in 2011-2012: deposits consist mainly of beryllium with 5-20 at.% of carbon and oxygen and small amounts of Ni and W. The highest deposition with deposited layer thicknesses up to 30 mu m per campaign is still observed on the upper and horizontal parts of the inner divertor. Outer divertor tiles 5, 6, 7 and 8 are net W erosion areas. The observed D inventory is roughly comparable to the inventory observed during ILW-1. The results obtained during ILW-2 therefore confirm the positive results observed in ILW-1 with respect to reduced material deposition and hydrogen isotopes retention in the divertor.

  • 246.
    McClements, K. G.
    et al.
    Culham Sci Ctr, JET, EUROfus Consortium, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    Observations and modelling of ion cyclotron emission observed in JET plasmas using a sub-harmonic arc detection system during ion cyclotron resonance heating2018Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 9, artikkel-id 096020Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements are reported of electromagnetic emission close to the cyclotron frequency of energetic ions in JET plasmas heated by waves in the ion cylotron range of frequencies (ICRF). Hydrogen was the majority ion species in all of these plasmas. The measurements were obtained using a sub-harmonic arc detection system in the transmission lines of one of the ICRF antennas. The measured ion cyclotron emission spectra were strongly filtered by the antenna system, and typically contained sub-structure, consisting of sets of peaks with a separation of a few kHz, suggesting the excitation of compressional Alfven eigenmodes closely spaced in frequency. In most cases the energetic ions can be clearly identified as ICRF wave-accelerated He-3 minority ions, although in two pulses the emission may have been produced by energetic He-4 ions, originating from third harmonic ICRF wave acceleration. It is proposed that the emission close to the He-3 cyclotron frequency was produced by energetic ions of this species undergoing drift orbit excursions to the outer midplane plasma edge. Particle-in-cell and hybrid (kinetic ion, fluid electron) simulations using plasma parameters corresponding to edge plasma conditions in these JET pulses, and energetic particle parameters inferred from the cyclotron resonance location, indicate strong excitation of waves at multiple He-3 cyclotron harmonics, including the fundamental, which is identified with the observed emission. These results underline the potential importance of ICE measurements as a method of studying confined fast particles that are strongly suprathermal but have insufficient energies or are not present in sufficient numbers to excite detectable levels of gamma-ray emission or other collective instabilities.

  • 247.
    Meisl, G.
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    et al.,
    Simulating the nitrogen migration in Be/W tokamaks with WallDYN2016Inngår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T167, artikkel-id 014079Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The migration of wall material or seeding impurities plays an important role in the formation of mixed materials, the impurity contamination of the plasma and tritium retention. First, this work presents an improved model for the sputtering from mixed material surfaces in WallDYN. Second, we present dynamic SDTrimSP and WallDYN simulations of the nitrogen implantation in Be and the migration of nitrogen in tokamaks with a Be main wall. The simulations with the binary collision code SDTrimSP predict that N accumulates directly at the surface and that the Be erosion decreases with increasing N surface content. A first application of WallDYN to the nitrogen migration with an ITER-like wall indicates that the Be main wall may cause wall pumping of N by co-deposition with Be.

  • 248.
    Melero Garcia, Emilio
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabet
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Erman, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Kivimäki et al., Antti
    Fluorescence study of doubly excited states of molecular hydrogen2006Inngår i: Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, ISSN 0953-4075, E-ISSN 1361-6455, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 205-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Photodissociation of molecular hydrogen has been investigated by means of fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. Balmer-alpha emission from atomic hydrogen photofragments was collected in the 20-55 eV excitation energy range. Experimental data are interpreted in terms of excitation and fragmentation of neutral doubly excited states and excited ionic states with the aid of recent theoretical model calculation.

  • 249.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik. EURATOM-VR Association, Denmark .
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik. EURATOM-VR Association, Denmark .
    Brunsell, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet. EURATOM-VR Association, Denmark .
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet. EURATOM-VR Association, Denmark .
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet. EURATOM-VR Association, Denmark .
    Particle flux and surface interaction in EXTRAP T2R2007Inngår i: 34th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2007, EPS 2007 - Europhysics Conference Abstracts, European Physical Society , 2007, s. 347-350Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 250.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Cecconello, Marco
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Kuldkepp, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Atom- och molekylfysik.
    Brunsell, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Ion and mode rotation in the EXTRAP T2R device during discharges with and without the application of feedback control2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
2345678 201 - 250 of 448
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