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  • 201. Wang, D Y
    et al.
    Huang, G L
    Falthammar, C G
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Alfvénlaboratoriet. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Blomberg, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Alfvénlaboratoriet. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Song, L T
    Nonlinear kinetic Alfven wave with Poisson equation correction in the low aurora1996Inngår i: Astrophysics and Space Science, ISSN 0004-640X, E-ISSN 1572-946X, Vol. 240, nr 2, s. 175-186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear kinetic Alfven waves where beta much less than m(e)/m(i), have been solved both with and without the Poisson equation correction. It is found that the ratio of the perpendicular electric field and magnetic field, and the ratio of parallel and perpendicular electric field increase with deepening of the depressive density soliton. The former ratio may be larger than the Alfven velocity in the case of a large amplitude solitary kinetic Alfven wave. The Poisson equation correction is important for the nonlinear kinetic Alfven wave propagating along the magnetic field, which solves a puzzle of Sagdeev potential to approach infinity in the limit of K-x --> 0. This correction causes the solitary KAW possessing an electrostatic character along the direction of wave moving frame. These results have been compared with the observations from the Freja satellite in the low aurora.

  • 202.
    Wang, Rongsheng
    et al.
    Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Geophys & Planetary Sci, CAS Key Lab Geospace Environm, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Quanming
    Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Geophys & Planetary Sci, CAS Key Lab Geospace Environm, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Nakamura, Rumi
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Baumjohann, Wolfgang
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Huang, Can
    Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Geophys & Planetary Sci, CAS Key Lab Geospace Environm, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Russell, Christopher T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Pollock, Craig J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Gershman, Dan
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Wang, Shui
    Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Geophys & Planetary Sci, CAS Key Lab Geospace Environm, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Giles, Barbara
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    An Electron-Scale Current Sheet Without Bursty Reconnection Signatures Observed in the Near-Earth Tail2018Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, nr 10, s. 4542-4549Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of a current sheet as thin as the electron scale are extremely rare in the near-Earth magnetotail. By measurement from the novel Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in the near-Earth magnetotail, we identified such an electron-scale current sheet and determined its detailed properties. The electron current sheet was bifurcated, with a half-thickness of nine electron inertial lengths, and was sandwiched between the Hall field. Because of the strong Hall electric field, the super-Alfvenic electron bulk flows were created mainly by the electric field drift, leading to the generation of the strong electron current. Inevitably, a bifurcated current sheet was formed since the Hall electric field was close to zero at the center of the current sheet. Inside the electron current sheet, the electrons were significantly heated while the ion temperature showed no change. The ions kept moving at a low speed, which was not affected by this electron current sheet. The energy dissipation was negligible inside the current sheet. The observations indicate that a thin current sheet, even as thin as electron scale, is not the sufficient condition for triggering bursty reconnection.

  • 203. Wang, Rongsheng
    et al.
    Lu, Quanming
    Nakamura, Rumi
    Baumjohann, Wolfgang
    Russell, C. T.
    Burch, J. L.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Wang, Shui
    Giles, Barbara
    Gershman, Dan
    Interaction of Magnetic Flux Ropes Via Magnetic Reconnection Observed at the Magnetopause2017Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, nr 10, s. 10436-10447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the high-resolution field and plasma data obtained from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission at the magnetopause, a series of three flux transfer events was observed one after another inside southward ion flows, without time gap between any two successive flux ropes. Using the plasma measurements, the current densities within the flux ropes were studied in detail. The currents within the first two flux ropes, dubbed Fr1 and Fr2, were composed of a series of well-separated filamentary currents. The thickness of the filamentary currents and the gap between them were sub ion scale, occasionally dropped down to electron scale. In the third flux rope Fr3 which was closest to the expected reconnection X line, the current displayed a singular compact current layer, was ion scale in width and concentrated on its center. Considering the location of the flux ropes relative to the reconnection X line, we suggested that the current density could be a singular structure when the flux rope was just created and then fragmented into a series of filamentary currents as time. By examining the interregions between Fr1 and Fr2, and between Fr2 and Fr3, reconnection was only confirmed to occur between Fr2 and Fr3 and no reconnection signature was found between Fr1 and Fr2. It seems that magnetic field compression resulted from collision of two neighboring flux ropes is one necessary condition for the occurrence of the coalescence.

  • 204.
    Wilder, F. D.
    et al.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Campus Box 392, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Campus Box 392, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Ahmadi, N.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Campus Box 392, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Eriksson, S.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Campus Box 392, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Phan, T. D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Campus Box 392, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Shuster, J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Rager, A. C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Catholic Univ Amer, Dept Phys, Washington, DC 20064 USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Plaschke, F.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Uppsala, Sweden..
    The Role of the Parallel Electric Field in Electron-Scale Dissipation at Reconnecting Currents in the Magnetosheath2018Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, nr 8, s. 6533-6547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale satellites of reconnecting current sheets in the magnetosheath over a range of out-of-plane "guide" magnetic field strengths. The currents exhibit nonideal energy conversion in the electron frame of reference, and the events are within the ion diffusion region within close proximity (a few electron skin depths) to the electron diffusion region. The study focuses on energy conversion on the electron scale only. At low guide field (antiparallel reconnection), electric fields and currents perpendicular to the magnetic field dominate the energy conversion. Additionally, electron distributions exhibit significant nongyrotropy. As the guide field increases, the electric field parallel to the background magnetic field becomes increasingly strong, and the electron nongyrotropy becomes less apparent. We find that even with a guide field less than half the reconnecting field, the parallel electric field and currents dominate the dissipation. This suggests that parallel electric fields are more important to energy conversion in reconnection than previously thought and that at high guide field, the physics governing magnetic reconnection are significantly different from antiparallel reconnection.

  • 205. Wilder, F. D.
    et al.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Eriksson, S.
    Phan, T. D.
    Burch, J. L.
    Ahmadi, N.
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Newman, D. L.
    Trattner, K. J.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Giles, B. L.
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Magnes, W.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Khotyaintsev, Yu-V.
    Multipoint Measurements of the Electron Jet of Symmetric Magnetic Reconnection with a Moderate Guide Field2017Inngår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 118, nr 26, artikkel-id 265101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) satellites of the electron jet in a symmetric magnetic reconnection event with moderate guide field. All four spacecraft sampled the ion diffusion region and observed the electron exhaust. The observations suggest that the presence of the guide field leads to an asymmetric Hall field, which results in an electron jet skewed towards the separatrix with a nonzero component along the magnetic field. The jet appears in conjunction with a spatially and temporally persistent parallel electric field ranging from -3 to -5 mV/m, which led to dissipation on the order of 8 nW/m(3). The parallel electric field heats electrons that drift through it, and is associated with a streaming instability and electron phase space holes.

  • 206. Wilder, F. D.
    et al.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Goldman, M. V.
    Newman, D. L.
    Malaspina, D. M.
    Jaynes, A. N.
    Schwartz, S. J.
    Trattner, K. J.
    Burch, J. L.
    Argall, M. R.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Marklund, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Le Contel, O.
    Mirioni, L.
    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Russell, C. T.
    Pollock, C. J.
    Giles, B. L.
    Plaschke, F.
    Magnes, W.
    Eriksson, S.
    Stawarz, J. E.
    Sturner, A. P.
    Holmes, J. C.
    Observations of whistler mode waves with nonlinear parallel electric fields near the dayside magnetic reconnection separatrix by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission2016Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, nr 12, s. 5909-5917Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We show observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission of whistler mode waves in the Earth's low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) during a magnetic reconnection event. The waves propagated obliquely to the magnetic field toward the X line and were confined to the edge of a southward jet in the LLBL. Bipolar parallel electric fields interpreted as electrostatic solitary waves (ESW) are observed intermittently and appear to be in phase with the parallel component of the whistler oscillations. The polarity of the ESWs suggests that if they propagate with the waves, they are electron enhancements as opposed to electron holes. The reduced electron distribution shows a shoulder in the distribution for parallel velocities between 17,000 and 22,000 km/s, which persisted during the interval when ESWs were observed, and is near the phase velocity of the whistlers. This shoulder can drive Langmuir waves, which were observed in the high-frequency parallel electric field data.

  • 207. Wilder, F. D.
    et al.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Newman, D. L.
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Trattner, K. J.
    Goldman, M. V.
    Eriksson, S.
    Jaynes, A. N.
    Leonard, T.
    Malaspina, D. M.
    Ahmadi, N.
    Schwartz, S. J.
    Burch, J. L.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Argall, M. R.
    Giles, B. L.
    Phan, T. D.
    Le Contel, O.
    Graham, D. B.
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Russell, C. T.
    Magnes, W.
    Plaschke, F.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    The nonlinear behavior of whistler waves at the reconnecting dayside magnetopause as observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission: A case study2017Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, nr 5, s. 5487-5501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We show observations of whistler mode waves in both the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) and on closed magnetospheric field lines during a crossing of the dayside reconnecting magnetopause by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission on 11 October 2015. The whistlers in the LLBL were on the electron edge of the magnetospheric separatrix and exhibited high propagation angles with respect to the background field, approaching 40°, with bursty and nonlinear parallel electric field signatures. The whistlers in the closed magnetosphere had Poynting flux that was more field aligned. Comparing the reduced electron distributions for each event, the magnetospheric whistlers appear to be consistent with anisotropy-driven waves, while the distribution in the LLBL case includes anisotropic backward resonant electrons and a forward resonant beam at near half the electron-Alfvén speed. Results are compared with the previously published observations by MMS on 19 September 2015 of LLBL whistler waves. The observations suggest that whistlers in the LLBL can be both beam and anisotropy driven, and the relative contribution of each might depend on the distance from the X line.

  • 208. Wilder, F. D.
    et al.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Schwartz, S. J.
    Newman, D. L.
    Eriksson, S.
    Stawarz, J. E.
    Goldman, M. V.
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Gershman, D. J.
    Malaspina, D. M.
    Holmes, J. C.
    Sturner, A. P.
    Burch, J. L.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Marklund, Göran T.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Khotyaintsev, Y.
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Russell, C. T.
    Pollock, C. J.
    Giles, B. L.
    Dorrelli, J. C.
    Avanov, L. A.
    Patterson, W. R.
    Plaschke, F.
    Magnes, W.
    Observations of large-amplitude, parallel, electrostatic waves associated with the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability by the magnetospheric multiscale mission2016Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, nr 17, s. 8859-8866Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On 8 September 2015, the four Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft encountered a Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetopause near the dusk flank. The spacecraft observed periodic compressed current sheets, between which the plasma was turbulent. We present observations of large-amplitude (up to 100 mV/m) oscillations in the electric field. Because these oscillations are purely parallel to the background magnetic field, electrostatic, and below the ion plasma frequency, they are likely to be ion acoustic-like waves. These waves are observed in a turbulent plasma where multiple particle populations are intermittently mixed, including cold electrons with energies less than 10 eV. Stability analysis suggests a cold electron component is necessary for wave growth.

  • 209. Yamauchi, M.
    et al.
    Andersson, L.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Ohtani, S.
    Clemmons, J.
    Wahlund, J. E.
    Eliasson, L.
    Lundin, R.
    Acceleration signatures in the dayside boundary layer and the cusp2001Inngår i: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part C: Solar, Terrestial & Planetary Science, ISSN 1464-1917, E-ISSN 1873-4685, Vol. 26, nr 03-jan, s. 195-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Freja data show various electron acceleration signatures in the cusp and the dayside boundary layer: (1) time dispersive super-Alfvénic electrons followed by strong wave activity which accompanies transient downward super-thermal electron burst in both the boundary layer and the cusp; (2) quasi-stationary bidirectional electron burst coinciding with localized intense field-aligned current in the boundary layer; (3) downgoing electron burst without visible time dispersion in the cusp; and (4) thermal electrons accelerated by electrostatic potential in both the boundary layer and the cusp. The first and last signatures are different between two regions for typical energies and fluxes, and these differences probably reflect the different auroral emission in the cusp proper (red) and the boundary layer (green). Contributions of these electrons to the large-scale field-aligned currents are also different between two regions. The dispersed electron burst is probably accelerated within 1 Re above the ionosphere. From this result we believe that the cusp red aurora is caused mainly by accelerated electrons, but not by the smoothly entering magnetosheath electrons without acceleration. This also requires revisions of flux transfer event models for the structured cusp red aurora.

  • 210. Yamauchi, M.
    et al.
    Brandt, P. C.
    Ebihara, Y.
    Dandouras, I.
    Nilsson, H.
    Lundin, R.
    Reme, H.
    Vallat, C.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Balogh, A.
    Daly, P. W.
    Source location of the wedge-like dispersed ring current in the morning sector during a substorm2006Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 111, nr A11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 211. Yamauchi, M.
    et al.
    Dandouras, I.
    Daly, P. W.
    Stenberg, G.
    Frey, H. U.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Ebihara, Y.
    Nilsson, H.
    Lundin, R.
    Reme, H.
    Andre, M.
    Kronberg, E. A.
    Balogh, A.
    Henderson, M.
    Magnetospheric solitary structure maintained by 3000 km/s ions as a cause of westward moving auroral bulge at 19 MLT2009Inngår i: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, nr 7, s. 2947-2969Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the evening equatorial magnetosphere at about 4 R-E geocentric distance and 19 MLT, the four Cluster spacecraft observed a solitary structure with a width of about 1000 similar to 2000 km in the propagation direction. The solitary structure propagates sunward with about 5 similar to 10 km/s carrying sunward electric field (in the propagation direction) of up to about 10 mV/m (total potential drop of about 5 similar to 10 kV), depletion of magnetic field of about 25%, and a duskward E x B convection up to 50 km/s of He+ rich cold plasma without O+. At the same time, auroral images from the IMAGE satellite together with ground based geomagnetic field data showed a westward (sunward at this location) propagating auroral bulge at the magnetically conjugate ionosphere with the solitary structure. The solitary structure is maintained by flux enhancement of selectively 3000 km/s ions (about 50 keV for H+, 200 keV for He+, and 750 keV for O+). These ions are the main carrier of the diamagnetic current causing the magnetic depletion, whereas the polarization is maintained by different behavior of energetic ions and electrons. Corresponding to aurora, field-aligned accelerated ionospheric plasma of several keV appeared at Cluster from both hemispheres simultaneously. Together with good correspondence in location and propagation velocity between the auroral bulge and the solitary structure, this indicates that the sunward moving auroral bulge is caused by the sunward propagation of the solitary structure which is maintained by energetic ions. The solitary structure might also be the cause of Pi2-like magnetic variation that started simultaneously at Cluster location.

  • 212.
    Yao, S. T.
    et al.
    Shandong Univ, Inst Space Sci, Shandong Prov Key Lab Opt Astron & Solar Terr Env, Weihai, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Space Sci Ctr, State Key Lab Space Weather, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Shi, Q. Q.
    Shandong Univ, Inst Space Sci, Shandong Prov Key Lab Opt Astron & Solar Terr Env, Weihai, Peoples R China..
    Yao, Z. H.
    UCL, Mullard Space Sci Lab, London, England.;Univ Liege, STAR Inst, Lab Phys Atmospher & Planetaire, Liege, Belgium..
    Li, J. X.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Atmospher & Ocean Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Yue, C.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Atmospher & Ocean Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Tao, X.
    Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Geophys & Planetary Sci, CAS Key Lab Geospace Environm, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Degeling, A. W.
    Shandong Univ, Inst Space Sci, Shandong Prov Key Lab Opt Astron & Solar Terr Env, Weihai, Peoples R China..
    Zong, Q. G.
    Peking Univ, Sch Earth & Space Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, X. G.
    Harbin Inst Technol, Dept Phys, Harbin, Heilongjiang, Peoples R China..
    Tian, A. M.
    Shandong Univ, Inst Space Sci, Shandong Prov Key Lab Opt Astron & Solar Terr Env, Weihai, Peoples R China..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Zhou, X. Z.
    Peking Univ, Sch Earth & Space Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Guo, R. L.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geol & Geophys, Key Lab Earth & Planetary Phys, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Rae, I. J.
    UCL, Mullard Space Sci Lab, London, England..
    Fu, H. S.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, H.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Phys Dept, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA..
    Li, L.
    Harbin Inst Technol, Dept Phys, Harbin, Heilongjiang, Peoples R China..
    Le Contel, O.
    Univ Paris Sud, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Plasmas, Observ Paris,Ecole Polytech,CNRS,UMR7648, Paris, France..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Pollock, C. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Waves in Kinetic-Scale Magnetic Dips: MMS Observations in the Magnetosheath2019Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 523-533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Kinetic scale magnetic dips (KSMDs), with a significant depression in magnetic field strength, and scale length close to and less than one proton gyroradius, were reported in the turbulent plasmas both in recent observation and numerical simulation studies. These KSMDs likely play important roles in energy conversion and dissipation. In this study, we present observations of the KSMDs that are labeled whistler mode waves, electrostatic solitary waves, and electron cyclotron waves in the magnetosheath. The observations suggest that electron temperature anisotropy or beams within KSMD structures provide free energy to generate these waves. In addition, the occurrence rates of the waves are higher in the center of the magnetic dips than at their edges, implying that the KSMDs might be the origin of various kinds of waves. We suggest that the KSMDs could provide favorable conditions for the generation of waves and transfer energy to the waves in turbulent magnetosheath plasmas. Plain Language Summary The Earth's magnetosheath is a turbulent plasma environment where energy conversion, particle acceleration, and mass and momentum transport take place. Many of these key processes involve kinetic-scale physics. However, in-depth studies from previous missions are limited by their lower spacecraft data resolution. The recent Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission provides us with a large amount of high-temporal cadence data for studying kinetic-scale physics in the magnetosheath. In this study, we report whistler mode waves, electrostatic solitary waves and electron cyclotron waves within kinetic-scale magnetic dips (KSMDs) that can be generated in the turbulent magnetosheath. These waves could be excited by electron temperature anisotropy or beams. As is well known, plasma waves are important processes in converting energy, accelerating and scattering electrons and ions, and modifying the distributions of charged particles. If plasma instabilities develop within the KSMDs, the resulting waves could absorb free energy from plasma particles and may propagate out of the KSMDs. Thus, our discoveries could significantly advance the understanding of energy conversion and dissipation for kinetic-scale turbulence. This study provides a new reference not only for observations in space physics but also for related basic plasma theories and numerical simulations.

  • 213. Yordanova, E.
    et al.
    Voros, Z.
    Varsani, A.
    Graham, D. B.
    Norgren, C.
    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.
    Vaivads, A.
    Eriksson, E.
    Nakamura, R.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Marklund, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Magnes, W.
    Baumjohann, W.
    Fischer, D.
    Plaschke, F.
    Narita, Y.
    Russell, C. T.
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Le Contel, O.
    Pollock, C.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Giles, B. J.
    Burch, J. L.
    Avanov, L. A.
    Dorelli, J. C.
    Gershman, D. J.
    Paterson, W. R.
    Lavraud, B.
    Saito, Y.
    Electron scale structures and magnetic reconnection signatures in the turbulent magnetosheath2016Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, nr 12, s. 5969-5978Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Collisionless space plasma turbulence can generate reconnecting thin current sheets as suggested by recent results of numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission provides the first serious opportunity to verify whether small ion-electron-scale reconnection, generated by turbulence, resembles the reconnection events frequently observed in the magnetotail or at the magnetopause. Here we investigate field and particle observations obtained by the MMS fleet in the turbulent terrestrial magnetosheath behind quasi-parallel bow shock geometry. We observe multiple small-scale current sheets during the event and present a detailed look of one of the detected structures. The emergence of thin current sheets can lead to electron scale structures. Within these structures, we see signatures of ion demagnetization, electron jets, electron heating, and agyrotropy suggesting that MMS spacecraft observe reconnection at these scales.

  • 214. Zhang, Y. C.
    et al.
    Lavraud, B.
    Dai, L.
    Wang, C.
    Marchaudon, A.
    Avanov, L.
    Burch, J.
    Chandler, M.
    Dorelli, J.
    Duan, S. P.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Gershman, D. J.
    Giles, B.
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Paterson, W.
    Russell, C. T.
    Schiff, C.
    Tang, B. B.
    Torbert, R.
    Quantitative analysis of a Hall system in the exhaust of asymmetric magnetic reconnection2017Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, nr 5, s. 5277-5289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking advantage of high-resolution measurements from the MMS mission, we find evidence for a complete Hall system in the exhaust of asymmetric magnetic reconnection 40 Di downstream of the X line. The investigation of the fine structure of the Hall system reveals that it displays features in the exhaust similar to those reported previously in the ion diffusion region by simulations and observations. This finding confirms the importance of particle-scale processes in the reconnection exhaust as well. On the magnetospheric side of the exhaust, electrons are strongly accelerated by parallel electric fields. This process significantly contributes to feed the Hall current system, resulting in a nonnegligible Hall magnetic field signature on this side despite an otherwise lower density. Calculation of the induced out-of-plane magnetic field by in-plane currents (based on Biot-Savart law) provides direct quantitative evidence for the process of Hall magnetic field generation by the Hall current system. A strong normal Hall electric field is present only on the magnetospheric side of the exhaust region, consistent with previous works. Multipoint data analysis shows that the ion pressure gradient in the ion momentum equation produces this Hall electric field. This global pattern of the Hall system can be explained by kinetic Alfvén wave theory.

  • 215. Zhong, Z. H.
    et al.
    Tang, R. X.
    Zhou, M.
    Deng, X. H.
    Pang, Y.
    Paterson, W. R.
    Giles, B. L.
    Burch, J. L.
    Tobert, R. B.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Evidence for Secondary Flux Rope Generated by the Electron Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in a Magnetic Reconnection Diffusion Region2018Inngår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 120, nr 7, artikkel-id 075101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary flux ropes are suggested to play important roles in energy dissipation and particle acceleration during magnetic reconnection. However, their generation mechanism is not fully understood. In this Letter, we present the first direct evidence that a secondary flux rope was generated due to the evolution of an electron vortex, which was driven by the electron Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in an ion diffusion region as observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The subion scale (less than the ion inertial length) flux rope was embedded within the electron vortex, which contained a secondary electron diffusion region at the trailing edge of the flux rope. We propose that intense electron shear flow produced by reconnection generated the electron Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex, which induced a secondary reconnection in the exhaust of the primary X line and then led to the formation of the flux rope. This result strongly suggests that secondary electron Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is important for reconnection dynamics.

  • 216. Zhou, M.
    et al.
    Ashour-Abdalla, M.
    Berchem, J.
    Walker, R. J.
    Liang, H.
    El-Alaoui, M.
    Goldstein, M. L.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Marklund, Göran T.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Wilder, F. D.
    Russell, C. T.
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Zhao, C.
    Paterson, W. R.
    Giles, B. L.
    Pollock, C. J.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Burch, J. L.
    Dorelli, J. C.
    Gershman, D. J.
    Avanov, L. A.
    Lavraud, B.
    Chandler, M. O.
    Observation of high-frequency electrostatic waves in the vicinity of the reconnection ion diffusion region by the spacecraft of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission2016Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, nr 10, s. 4808-4815Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of high-frequency electrostatic waves in the vicinity of the reconnection ion diffusion region on the dayside magnetopause. The ion diffusion region is identified during two magnetopause crossings by the Hall electromagnetic fields, the slippage of ions with respect to the magnetic field, and magnetic energy dissipation. In addition to electron beam modes that have been previously detected at the separatrix on the magnetospheric side of the magnetopause, we report, for the first time, the existence of electron cyclotron harmonic waves at the magnetosheath separatrix. Broadband waves between the electron cyclotron and electron plasma frequencies, which were probably generated by electron beams, were found within the magnetopause current sheet. Contributions by these high-frequency waves to the magnetic energy dissipation were negligible in the diffusion regions as compared to those of lower-frequency waves.

  • 217. Zhou, M.
    et al.
    Berchem, J.
    Walker, R. J.
    El-Alaoui, M.
    Deng, X.
    Cazzola, E.
    Lapenta, G.
    Goldstein, M. L.
    Paterson, W. R.
    Pang, Y.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Lavraud, B.
    Liang, H.
    Russell, C. T.
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Zhao, C.
    Giles, B. L.
    Pollock, C. J.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Marklund, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Wilder, F. D.
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Burch, J. L.
    Coalescence of Macroscopic Flux Ropes at the Subsolar Magnetopause: Magnetospheric Multiscale Observations2017Inngår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 119, nr 5, artikkel-id 055101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report unambiguous in situ observation of the coalescence of macroscopic flux ropes by the magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) mission. Two coalescing flux ropes with sizes of similar to 1 R-E were identified at the subsolar magnetopause by the occurrence of an asymmetric quadrupolar signature in the normal component of the magnetic field measured by the MMS spacecraft. An electron diffusion region (EDR) with a width of four local electron inertial lengths was embedded within the merging current sheet. The EDR was characterized by an intense parallel electric field, significant energy dissipation, and suprathermal electrons. Although the electrons were organized by a large guide field, the small observed electron pressure nongyrotropy may be sufficient to support a significant fraction of the parallel electric field within the EDR. Since the flux ropes are observed in the exhaust region, we suggest that secondary EDRs are formed further downstream of the primary reconnection line between the magnetosheath and magnetospheric fields.

  • 218.
    Zhou, M.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Berchem, J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Walker, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    El-Alaoui, M.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Goldstein, M. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Space Sci Inst, Boulder, CO USA..
    Lapenta, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Math, Ctr Plasma Astrophys, Leuven, Belgium..
    Deng, X.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Li, J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Atmospher & Ocean Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Le Contel, O.
    Univ Paris Sud, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Lab Phys Plasmas,Ecole Polytech,Observ Paris, Paris, France..
    Graham, D. B.
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lavraud, B.
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, UPS,CNES, Toulouse, France..
    Paterson, W. R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Zhao, C.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Marklund, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Magnetospheric Multiscale Observations of an Ion Diffusion Region With Large Guide Field at the Magnetopause: Current System, Electron Heating, and Plasma Waves2018Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, nr 3, s. 1834-1852Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations of a reconnecting current sheet in the presence of a weak density asymmetry with large guide field at the dayside magnetopause. An ion diffusion region (IDR) was detected associated with this current sheet. Parallel current dominated over the perpendicular current in the IDR, as found in previous studies of component reconnection. Electrons were preferentially heated parallel to the magnetic field within the IDR. The heating was manifested as a flattop distribution below 400eV. Two types of electromagnetic electron whistler waves were observed within the regions where electrons were heated. One type of whistler wave was associated with nonlinear structures in E-|| with amplitudes up to 20mV/m. The other type was not associated with any structures in E-||. Poynting fluxes of these two types of whistler waves were directed away from the X-line. We suggest that the nonlinear evolution of the oblique whistler waves gave rise to the solitary structures in E-||. There was a perpendicular super-Alfvenic outflow jet that was carried by magnetized electrons. Intense electrostatic lower hybrid drift waves were localized in the current sheet center and were probably driven by the super-Alfvenic electron jet, the velocity of which was approximately equal to the diamagnetic drift of demagnetized ions. Our observations suggest that the guide field significantly modified the structures (Hall electromagnetic fields and current system) and wave properties in the IDR.

  • 219.
    Zhou, M.
    et al.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Deng, X. H.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Zhong, Z. H.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Pang, Y.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Tang, R. X.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    El-Alaoui, M.
    UCLA, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Walker, R. J.
    UCLA, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    UCLA, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Lapenta, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Math, Ctr Plasma Astrophys, Leuven, Belgium..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    UCLA, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Paterson, W. R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado LASP, Boulder, CO USA..
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Observations of an Electron Diffusion Region in Symmetric Reconnection with Weak Guide Field2019Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 870, nr 1, artikkel-id 34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft encountered an electron diffusion region (EDR) in a symmetric reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail. The EDR contained a guide field of about 2 nT, which was 13% of the magnetic field in the inflow region, and its thickness was about 2 local electron inertial lengths. Intense energy dissipation, a super-Alfvenic electron jet, electron nongyrotropy, and crescent-shaped electron velocity distributions were observed in association with this EDR. These features are similar to those of the EDRs in asymmetric reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Electrons gained about 50% of their energy from the immediate upstream to the EDR. Crescent electron distributions were seen at the boundary of the EDR, while highly curved magnetic field lines inside the EDR may have gyrotropized the electrons. The EDR was characterized by a parallel current that was carried by antiparallel drifting electrons that were probably accelerated by a parallel electric field along the guide field. These results reveal the essential electron physics of the EDR and provide a significant example of an EDR in symmetric reconnection with a weak guide field.

  • 220.
    Zhou, M.
    et al.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi, Peoples R China.;Nanchang Univ, Sch Environm & Chem Engn, Minist Educ, Key Lab Poyang Lake Environm & Resource Utilizat, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Huang, J.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi, Peoples R China.;Nanchang Univ, Sch Sci, Dept Phys, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Man, H. Y.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi, Peoples R China.;Nanchang Univ, Sch Sci, Dept Phys, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Deng, X. H.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Zhong, Z. H.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi, Peoples R China.;Nanchang Univ, Sch Resources Environm & Chem Engn, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Paterson, W. R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Rymd- och plasmafysik. Royal Inst Technol, SE-75121 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Khotyaintsev, Y. , V
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Electron-scale Vertical Current Sheets in a Bursty Bulk Flow in the Terrestrial Magnetotail2019Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 872, nr 2, artikkel-id L26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of multiple vertical current sheets (CSs) in a bursty bulk flow in the near-Earth magnetotail. Two of the CSs were fine structures of a dipolarization front (DF) at the leading edge of the flow. The other CSs were a few Earth radii tailward of the DF; that is, in the wake of the DF. Some of these vertical CSs were a few electron inertial lengths thick and were converting energy from magnetic field to plasma. The currents of the CSs in the DF wake were carried by electrons that formed flow shear layers. These electron-scale CSs were probably formed during the turbulent evolution of the bursty bulk flow and are important for energy conversion associated with fast flows.

2345 201 - 220 of 220
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