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  • 201.
    Hajian, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH.
    Lindström, Stefan B.
    Linköping University.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH.
    Hamedi, Mahiar M.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH.
    Understanding the Dispersive Action of Nanocellulose for Carbon Nanomaterials2017Ingår i: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 1439-1447Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims at understanding the excellent ability of nanocelluloses to disperse carbon nanomaterials (CNs) in aqueous media to form long-term stable colloidal dispersions without the need for chemical functionalization of the CNs or the use of surfactant. These dispersions are useful for composites with high CN content when seeking water-based, efficient, and green pathways for their preparation. To establish a comprehensive understanding of such dispersion mechanism, colloidal characterization of the dispersions has been combined with surface adhesion measurements using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) in aqueous media. AFM results based on model surfaces of graphene and nanocellulose further suggest that there is an association between the nanocellulose and the CN. This association is caused by fluctuations of the counterions on the surface of the nanocellulose inducing dipoles in the sp2carbon lattice surface of the CNs. Furthermore, the charges on the nanocellulose will induce an electrostatic stabilization of the nanocellulose–CN complexes that prevents aggregation. On the basis of this understanding, nanocelluloses with high surface charge density were used to disperse and stabilize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and reduced graphene oxide particles in water, so that further increases in the dispersion limit of CNTs could be obtained. The dispersion limit reached the value of 75 wt % CNTs and resulted in high electrical conductivity (515 S/cm) and high modulus (14 GPa) of the CNT composite nanopapers.

  • 202.
    Hajian, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Lindstrom, Stefan
    Linkoping Univ, Div Solid Mech, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Nanocellulose as dispersant for carbon nanotube suspensions2016Ingår i: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 251Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 203.
    Halonen, Helena
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Iversen, Tommy
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mercerized cellulose biocomposites: A study of influence of mercerization on cellulose supramolecular structure, water retention value and tensile properties2013Ingår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 57-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the effect of the mercerization degree on the water retention value (WRV) and tensile properties of compression molded sulphite dissolving pulp was evaluated. The pulp was treated with 9, 10, or 11 % aqueous NaOH solution for 1 h before compression molding. To study the time dependence of mercerization the pulp was treated with 12 wt% aqueous NaOH for 1, 6 or 48 h. The cellulose I and II contents of the biocomposites were determined by solid state cross polarization/magic angle spinning carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C NMR) spectroscopy. By spectral fitting of the C6 and C1 region the cellulose I and II content, respectively, could be determined. Mercerization decreased the total crystallinity (sum of cellulose I and cellulose II content) and it was not possible to convert all cellulose I to cellulose II in the NaOH range investigated. Neither increased the conversion significantly with 12 wt% NaOH at longer treatment times. The slowdown of the cellulose I conversion was suggested as being the result from the formation of cellulose II as a consequence of coalescence of anti-parallel surfaces of neighboring fibrils (Blackwell et al. in Tappi 61:71–72, 1978; Revol and Goring in J Appl Polym Sci 26:1275–1282, 1981; Okano and Sarko in J Appl Polym Sci 30:325–332, 1985). Compression molding of the partially mercerized dissolving pulps yielded biocomposites with tensile properties that could be correlated to the decrease in cellulose I content in the pulps. Mercerization introduces cellulose II and disordered cellulose and lowered the total crystallinity reflected as higher water sensitivity (higher WRV values) and poorer stiffness of the mercerized biocomposites.

  • 204.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Karabulut, Erdem
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Marais, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Herland, Anna
    Nyström, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Nanocellulose Aerogels Functionalized by Rapid Layer-by-Layer Assembly for High Charge Storage and Beyond2013Ingår i: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 52, nr 46, s. 12038-12042Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Step by step: A robust and rapid method for the layer-by-layer assembly of polymers and nanoparticles on strong and elastic aerogels has been developed. Thin films of biomolecules, conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes were assembled, which resulted in aerogels with a number of functions, including a high charge-storage capacity.

  • 205.
    Hamedi, Mahiar M.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Hajian, Alireza
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Fall, Andreas B.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Håkansson, Karl
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Salajkova, Michaela
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Highly Conducting, Strong Nanocomposites Based on Nanocellulose-Assisted Aqueous Dispersions of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes2014Ingår i: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 2467-2476Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is challenging to obtain high-quality dispersions of single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) in composite matrix materials, in order to reach the full potential of mechanical and electronic properties. The most widely used matrix materials are polymers, and the route to achieving high quality dispersions of SWNT is mainly chemical functionalization of the SWNT. This leads to increased cost, a loss of strength and lower conductivity. In addition full potential of colloidal self-assembly cannot be fully exploited in a polymer matrix. This may limit the possibilities for assembly of highly ordered structural nanocomposites. Here we show that nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) can act as an excellent aqueous dispersion agent for as-prepared SWNTs, making possible low-cost exfoliation and purification of SWNTs with dispersion limits exceeding 40 wt %. The NFC:SWNT dispersion may also offer a cheap and sustainable alternative for molecular self-assembly of advanced composites. We demonstrate semitransparent conductive films, aerogels and anisotropic microscale fibers with nanoscale composite structure. The NFC:SWNT nanopaper shows increased strength at 3 wt % SWNT, reaching a modulus of 133 GPa, and a strength of 307 MPa. The anisotropic microfiber composites have maximum conductivities above 200 S cm(-1) and current densities reaching 1400 A cm(-2).

  • 206. Hassel, Beatriz I.
    et al.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Ytbehandlingsteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    A Study on the Morphology, Mechanical, and Electrical Performance of Polyaniline-modified Wood - A Semiconducting Composite Material2014Ingår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 5007-5023Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the morphology, electrochemical modification with respect to the wood fiber direction, and mechanical properties of wood modified by in situ polymerization with polyaniline (PANI). This polymerization formed a composite material with applications as an antistatic, electromagnetic, anti-corrosion, and heavy metal purifying materials. The polymer was found throughout the entire structure of the wood and was quantified within the wood cell wall and middle lamella by SEM-EDX. The presence of PANI affected the conductivity of the composite specimens, which was found to be higher in the fiber direction, indicating a more intact percolation pathway of connected PANI particles in this direction. The PANI modification resulted in a small reduction of the storage modulus, the maximum strength, and the ductility of the wood, with decreases in the properties of specimens conditioned in an environment above 66% relative humidity. The in situ-polymerized PANI strongly interacted with the lignin component of the veneers, according to the decrease in the lignin glass transition temperature (T-g) noted in DMA studies.

  • 207.
    Hassel, Ivon
    et al.
    Laboratory of Structural Function, Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University.
    Modén, Carl S.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Lättkonstruktioner.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer.
    Functional gradient effects explain the low transverse shear modulus in spruce: Full-field strain data and a micromechanics model2009Ingår i: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 69, nr 14, s. 2491-2496Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An important failure mechanism in glulam beams is cracking caused by out-of-plane transverse loads. It has been demonstrated that the low transverse shear modulus G(RT) in spruce contributes to large transverse strain inhomogeneities due to the annual ring structure in combination with shear coupling effects. In the present study, improved understanding of annual ring effects is achieved by the development of a micromechanical model. It relates the functional density gradient in spruce annual rings to shear modulus GRT. The geometrical basis is a hexagonal cell model, and in shear it is demonstrated to deform primarily by cell wall bending. Full-field strain measurements by digital speckle photography (DSP) show very strong correlation with predicted shear strains at the annual ring scale. Predictions are obtained by implementation of the micromechanics model in a finite element (FE) model developed for the single cube apparatus shear specimen. The low GRT of spruce is due to the strong dependence of GRT on relative density rho/rho(s)(G(RT) proportional to (rho/rho(s))(3)). This is particularly important in spruce. Even though average density is typically quite high, the functional gradient structure includes local densities as low as 200 kg/m(3).

  • 208.
    Hatton, Fiona
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Engström, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Forsling, Josefine
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Biomimetic adsorption of zwitterionic-xyloglucan block copolymers to CNF: towards tailored super-absorbing cellulose materials2017Ingår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, nr 24, s. 14947-14958Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A biomimetic, facile approach to cellulose modification is the utilisation of self-adsorbing, naturally occurring biopolymers, such as the hemicellulose xyloglucan (XG). Herein, XG-block-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (XG-b-PSBMA) zwitterionic block copolymers have been prepared and assessed for their ability to adsorb to cellulose, specifically cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). The polymers were synthesised using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerisation, employing an XG macromolecular RAFT agent (XG-RAFT), polymerising a sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) under aqueous conditions. The incorporation of the XG block shifted the upper critical solution temperature (UCST) values to higher temperatures (20 and 30 °C) compared with the PSBMA homopolymers (17 and 22 °C) and the transition was also broadened. The adsorption of the polymers to a CNF surface was monitored using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), showing that the XG block enhanced the adsorption of the zwitterionic polymer. The formation of CNF-composite films was achieved utilising a facile vacuum filtration methodology, and the targeted compositions were confirmed by FT-IR and TGA analyses. The films exhibited high degrees of swelling in water, which were investigated at two different temperatures, 5 and 60 °C (below and above the polymer USCT values). These results highlight the advantage of using an XG block for the biomimetic modification of cellulose to form new cellulose-composite materials such as super-absorbing films.

  • 209.
    Helander, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mattsson, Tuve
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Parameters Affecting the Cross-flow Filtration of Dissolved LignoBoost Kraft Lignin2015Ingår i: Journal of wood chemistry and technology, ISSN 0277-3813, E-ISSN 1532-2319, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the kraft pulping process, the lignin-containing by-product kraft black liquor is currently combusted as an energy source. LignoBoost is a technique that extracts lignin from kraft black liquor, resulting in a lignin-lean black liquor, which is returned to the process, and an extracted kraft lignin. To facilitate the use of the extracted kraft lignin in high-value applications, it can be refined via fractionation to produce a more homogeneous starting raw material. Hence, the aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of dissolved softwood kraft lignin during cross-flow filtration. The effects of the lignin concentration, pH, and ionic strength on the fractionation of the dissolved lignin during cross-flow filtration are investigated. The results indicate that large amounts of low-molecular-weight kraft lignin can be produced from solutions having a low lignin concentration. Furthermore, the effects of pH and ionic strength on the fractionation of low-molecular-weight lignin are identified within the studied ranges.

  • 210.
    Helander, Mikaela
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Zhang, Liming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Fractionation of Technical Lignin: Molecular Mass and pH Effects2013Ingår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 2270-2282Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, lignin from kraft pulping is used mainly as fuel, with only very small amounts being used as raw material for chemicals and materials. This work focuses on using a convenient method for separating large amounts of low molecular weight lignin from the kraft process. Low molecular weight lignin contains larger amounts of phenolic structural units, which are possible modification sites and can be used as antioxidants. Moreover, a product that has reduced polydispersity, low molecular weight, and purified lignin could be a potential material for new applications. The studied process for separating lignin from weak black liquor used a membrane with a cut-off of 1000 Da. During precipitation of the 1000 Da permeate, it is necessary to prevent formation of fairly large, rigid particles/agglomerates of lignin by keeping the temperature low. To improve the dead-end filtration, higher ionic strength is needed for the weak black liquor. Additionally, reducing the end pH will cause more material to precipitate. More sulfur was found in the low molecular weight lignin and at lower precipitation pH, indicating that most sulfur left in the lignin samples might be bound to low molecular weight lignin.

  • 211.
    Helander, Mikaela
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Zhang, Liming
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lignin for new materials - molar mass and pH effects2012Ingår i: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 243Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 212.
    Hellwig, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Karlsson, Rose Marie Pernilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Measuring elasticity of wet cellulose beads with an AFM colloidal probe using a linearized DMT model2017Ingår i: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 9, nr 27, s. 4019-4022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of wet cellulose are investigated using an atomic force microscope AFM and calculated using a linearized DMT model. Measurements were performed using a model system of gel beads made of cellulose with different charge densities, which show a high impact on the mechanical properties of the cellulose in wet state.

  • 213. Hemsworth, Glyn R.
    et al.
    Thompson, Andrew J.
    Stepper, Judith
    Sobala, Lukasz F.
    Coyle, Travis
    Larsbrink, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap. University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Goddard-Borger, Ethan D.
    Stubbs, Keith A.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap. University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Davies, Gideon J.
    Structural dissection of a complex Bacteroides ovatus gene locus conferring xyloglucan metabolism in the human gut2016Ingår i: Open Biology, ISSN 2046-2441, E-ISSN 2046-2441, Vol. 6, nr 7, artikel-id 160142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The human gastrointestinal tract harbours myriad bacterial species, collectively termed the microbiota, that strongly influence human health. Symbiotic members of our microbiota play a pivotal role in the digestion of complex carbohydrates that are otherwise recalcitrant to assimilation. Indeed, the intrinsic human polysaccharide-degrading enzyme repertoire is limited to various starch-based substrates; more complex polysaccharides demand microbial degradation. Select Bacteroidetes are responsible for the degradation of the ubiquitous vegetable xyloglucans (XyGs), through the concerted action of cohorts of enzymes and glycan-binding proteins encoded by specific xyloglucan utilization loci (XyGULs). Extending recent (meta) genomic, transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, significant questions remain regarding the structural biology of the molecular machinery required for XyG saccharification. Here, we reveal the three-dimensional structures of an alpha-xylosidase, a beta-glucosidase, and two alpha-L-arabinofuranosidases from the Bacteroides ovatus XyGUL. Aided by bespoke ligand synthesis, our analyses highlight key adaptations in these enzymes that confer individual specificity for xyloglucan side chains and dictate concerted, stepwise disassembly of xyloglucan oligosaccharides. In harness with our recent structural characterization of the vanguard endo-xyloglucanse and cell-surface glycan-binding proteins, the present analysis provides a near-complete structural view of xyloglucan recognition and catalysis by XyGUL proteins.

  • 214.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Li, Jiebing
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Shi, Chao
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    WAYS TO TAILOR-MAKE XYLAN FOR KRAFT PULPING2011Ingår i: 16TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WOOD, FIBER AND PULPING CHEMISTRY, PROCEEDINGS, VOLS I & II / [ed] Wang, L Kuang, S Hou, Q Cao, C Si, CL Zhang, HJ, CHINA LIGHT INDUSTRY PRESS , 2011, s. 596-599Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic manipulation of trees in order to produce raw material with different chemical composition, which will perform better in pulping and bleaching, has gained large interest the last decade. Most efforts have been on increasing cellulose content, and modifying the lignin structure so that the pulping will be more efficient. Less interest has been focused on the hemicellulose structures, although many important chemical reactions occur on hemicelluloses during kraft pulping. For instance, hexenuronic acid is formed from 4-O-methyl glucuronic acid, a side group on xylan. This structure is a main contributor to the kappa number in the unbleached pulp, especially in hardwoods, and requires relatively strong bleaching agents for efficient removal. Remaining hexenuronic acid in the bleached pulp may furthermore cause post yellowing. In model experiments, we have simulated kraft cooking, and shown that hexenuronic acid is formed to a much lower degree from unmethylated glucuronic acid, than from 4-O-methylglucuronic acid. A tree without methyl groups on its glucuronic acid residues on xylan, is therefore expected to be pulped to a much lower kappa number, and to be easy to bleach to high brightness stability. According to a literature study, the possibilities to make such a tree by genetically manipulation appear to be promising. There might also be other ways, in which hemicelluloses structure can be manipulated.

  • 215.
    Henriksson, Marielle
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Ytbehandlingsteknik.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Ytbehandlingsteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Ytbehandlingsteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Ytbehandlingsteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Novel nanocomposite concept based on cross-linking of hyperbranched polymers in reactive cellulose nanopaper templates2011Ingår i: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 71, nr 1, s. 13-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulosic fibers offer interesting possibilities for good interfacial adhesion due to the high density of hydroxyl groups at the surface. in the present study, the potential of a new nanocomposite concept is investigated, where a porous cellulose nanofiber network is impregnated with a solution of reactive hyperbranched polyester. The polymer is chemically cross-linked to form a solid matrix. The resulting nanocomposite structure is unique. The matrix surrounds a tough nanopaper structure consisting of approximately 20 nm diameter nanofibers with an average interfiber distance of only about 6 nm. The cross-linked polymer matrix shows strongly altered characteristics when it is cross-linked in the confined space within the nanofiber network, including dramatically increased T-g, and this must be due to covalent matrix-nanofiber linkages.

  • 216.
    Hollertz, Rebecca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Arwin, Hans
    Faure, Bertrand
    Zhang, Yujia
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Bergström, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Dielectric properties of lignin and glucomannan as determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and Lifshitz estimates of non-retarded Hamaker constants2013Ingår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 1639-1648Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present in this study a quantitative estimate of the dispersive interactions between lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose, which are the dominating components in wood and also extensively used to produce paper and packaging materials. The dielectric properties in the UV-visible region of spin-coated films of pure lignin and glucomannan were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The non-retarded Hamaker constants were estimated from the determined spectral parameters using Lifshitz theory for lignin and glucomannan interacting with cellulose, titania and calcium carbonate in vacuum, water and hexane. The Hamaker constants for the different combinations of cellulose, lignin and glucomannan fall within a relatively narrow range of 35-58 and 8-17 zJ, for the values in vacuum (air) and water, respectively. The estimated Hamaker constants for the interactions of the wood components with TiO2 and CaCO3, common additives in paper, in water range from 3 to 19 zJ, thus being similar in magnitude as the interactions between the wood components themselves. In contrast, the Hamaker constant is essentially zero for glucomannan interacting with calcium carbonate in hexane. The Hamaker constants for lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose determined in this study can provide information regarding the surface interactions important for e.g. adhesion, friction, swelling and wetting in paper processing as well as for the resulting behavior of paper products.

  • 217.
    Hollertz, Rebecca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi.
    Pitois, Claire
    Ariza, David
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektroteknisk teori och konstruktion.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Dielectric Response of Kraft Paper from Fibres Modified by Silica Nanoparticles2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE CONFERENCE ON ELECTRICAL INSULATION AND DIELECTRIC PHENOMENA (CEIDP), IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, s. 459-462Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Papers have been prepared from fibres that were modified by physical adsorption of silica nanoparticles. Cationic and anionic nanoparticles were adsorbed either directly onto wood fibres or using the layer-by-Iayer (LbL) technique where silica nanoparticles and a polyelectrolyte of opposite charge were adsorbed in consecutive layers. It was shown that it is possible to tailor the dielectric and mechanical properties of kraft paper by utilizing the pH-dependence of the charge density of both the nanoparticles and the polyelectrolyte during the build-up of layers onto wood fibres. With only one layer of cationic silica nanoparticles, 6.0 wt% of nanoparticles were adsorbed at pH 6, leading to almost complete coverage of the wood fibre surface, resulting in a paper with low dielectric losses and improved in-plane tensile properties.

  • 218.
    Hollertz, Rebecca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Pitois, C.
    Effect of Composition and Morphology on the Dielectric Response of Cellulose-based Electrical Insulation2015Ingår i: IEEE transactions on dielectrics and electrical insulation, ISSN 1070-9878, E-ISSN 1558-4135, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 2339-2348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Different wood-fibre based papers were characterized by dielectric spectroscopy, mechanical testing and microscopy. The data obtained were utilized to investigate the relationship between the chemistry, morphology and density of a paper and its permittivity and dielectric loss. The density strongly influences the dielectric response, but the response is not affected by the way the density has been achieved; by pressing the paper during drying or by mechanical treatment of the fibres before sheet preparation. The chemical composition of the pulp influences the polarization, dielectric loss and charge transport. It was found that paper-vacuum and paper-oil combinations can be represented by series-equivalent circuits. The permittivity of paper made from electrical grade kraft pulp, used in e.g. high voltage transformers, without any porosity is estimated to be 5.3 and tan delta to 0.01-0.02 at 50 Hz and 70 degrees C. The lignin and hemicellulose content of the kraft pulp do not affect the real part of the permittivity significantly, but the dielectric losses increase with increasing lignin and hemicellulose content in both oil and vacuum at 50 Hz and 70 degrees C.

  • 219.
    Hollertz, Rebecca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Pitois, Claire
    Dielectric Response of Kraft-Pulp-based Electrical InsulationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 220.
    Hollertz, Rebecca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Pitois, Claire
    Novel cellulose nanomaterials: Towards usage in electrical insulation2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 18th International Conference on Dielectric Liquids, ICDL 2014, 2014, s. 6893152-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Papers, foams and gels from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) have emerged as promising materials for various applications. In this study NFC from a Kraft Pulp used in traditional electrical insulation was produced with the aid of a high pressure homogenizer. Papers were manufactured and their mechanical properties as well as their dielectric responses in oil were measured. The disintegration results in a durable, flexible papers with high strength and density while the dielectric response correlate to that of Kraft Paper with similar density. This paper also includes a description on how inorganic nanoparticles was used to modify the properties of the fibres through a topochemical modification. In this latter technique a Layer-by-Layer technology was used where the charges of the fibres are treated with consecutive layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and nanoparticles.

  • 221.
    Honorato, Camila
    et al.
    Abo Akad Univ, Proc Chem Ctr, Lab Wood & Paper Chem, SF-20500 Turku, Finland..
    Kumar, Vinay
    Abo Akad Univ, Ctr Funct Mat, Lab Paper Coating & Converting, SF-20500 Turku, Finland..
    Liu, Jun
    Abo Akad Univ, Proc Chem Ctr, Lab Wood & Paper Chem, SF-20500 Turku, Finland..
    Koivula, Hanna
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Food & Environm Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Xu, Chunlin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Process Chemistry Centre, Laboratory of Wood and Paper Chemistry, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, Åbo/Turku, Finland.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Abo Akad Univ, Ctr Funct Mat, Lab Paper Coating & Converting, SF-20500 Turku, Finland..
    Transparent nanocellulose-pigment composite films2015Ingår i: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 50, nr 22, s. 7343-7352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodegradable coatings and films of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) or a combination of CNFs and inorganic fillers, such as clay or calcium carbonate (CaCO3), can provide a replacement for non-biodegradable plastic coatings as barrier layers in packaging boards. In this work, transparent composite films were prepared from CNFs of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus using different amounts of clay and CaCO3 as fillers. The impact of raw material (softwood vs. hardwood), TEMPO oxidation levels and filler type (clay vs. CaCO3) on film properties was studied. Pinus radiata CNF films had superior mechanical properties to Eucalyptus CNF films, but no significant differences were observed in the barrier and optical properties. Clay seemed to work better as filler compared to CaCO3, in terms of its impact on film properties. Composite films with CaCO3 as filler were highly brittle with inferior properties to clay-CNF films, and an uneven distribution and agglomeration of the CaCO3 mineral particles was evident in SEM images. Based on the results, clay as filler in CNF coatings is preferred for targeting packaging board applications. Rheological characterisation of the CNF suspensions revealed shear-thinning behaviour, with the CNF from Eucalyptus having higher viscosities and lower power-law indices when compared to the CNF from P. radiata.

  • 222. Hoseini, Afshin Abbasi
    et al.
    Zavareh, Zahra
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Anderson, Helge I.
    Rod-like particles matching algorithm based on SOM neural network in dispersed two-phase flow measurements2014Ingår i: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 1705-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A matching algorithm based on self-organizing map (SOM) neural network is proposed for tracking rodlike particles in 2D optical measurements of dispersed two-phase flows. It is verified by both synthetic images of elongated particles mimicking 2D suspension flows and direct numerical simulations-based results of prolate particles dispersed in a turbulent channel flow. Furthermore, the potential benefit of this algorithm is evaluated by applying it to the experimental data of rod-like fibers tracking in wall turbulence. The study of the behavior of elongated particles suspended in turbulent flows has a practical importance and covers a wide range of applications in engineering and science. In experimental approach, particle tracking velocimetry of the dispersed phase has a key role together with particle image velocimetry of the carrier phase to obtain the velocities of both phases. The essential parts of particle tracking are to identify and match corresponding particles correctly in consecutive images. The present study is focused on the development of an algorithm for pairing non-spherical particles that have one major symmetry axis. The novel idea in the algorithm is to take the orientation of the particles into account for matching in addition to their positions. The method used is based on the SOM neural network that finds the most likely matching link in images on the basis of feature extraction and clustering. The fundamental concept is finding corresponding particles in the images with the nearest characteristics: position and orientation. The most effective aspect of this two-frame matching algorithm is that it does not require any preliminary knowledge of neither the flow field nor the particle behavior. Furthermore, using one additional characteristic of the non-spherical particles, namely their orientation, in addition to its coordinate vector, the pairing is improved both for more reliable matching at higher concentrations of dispersed particles and for higher robustness against loss of particle pairs between image frames.

  • 223. Hu, L.
    et al.
    Liu, N.
    Eskilsson, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Zheng, G.
    McDonough, J.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cui, Y.
    Silicon-conductive nanopaper for Li-ion batteries2013Ingår i: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 138-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in the development of thin, flexible energy storage devices for new applications. For large scale and low cost devices, structures with the use of earth abundant materials are attractive. In this study, we fabricated flexible and conductive nanopaper aerogels with incorporated carbon nanotubes (CNT). Such conductive nanopaper is made from aqueous dispersions with dispersed CNT and cellulose nanofibers. Such aerogels are highly porous with open channels that allow the deposition of a thin-layer of silicon through a plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) method. Meanwhile, the open channels also allow for an excellent ion accessibility to the surface of silicon. We demonstrated that such lightweight and flexible Si-conductive nanopaper structure performs well as Li-ion battery anodes. A stable capacity of 1200. mA. h/g for 100 cycles in half-cells is achieved. Such flexible anodes based on earth abundant materials and aqueous dispersions could potentially open new opportunities for low-cost energy devices, and potentially can be applied for large-scale energy storage.

  • 224. Huo, Jinxing
    et al.
    Rojas, Ramiro
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bohlin, Jan
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    Parametric elastic analysis of coupled helical coils for tubular implant applications: experimental characterization and numerical analysis.2014Ingår i: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 29, nr SI, s. 462-469Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coupled helical coils show promising mechanical behavior to be used as tubular organ constructs, e.g., in trachea or urethra. They are potentially easy to manufacture by filament winding of biocompatible and resorbable polymers, and could be tailored for suitable mechanical properties. In this study, coupled helical coils were manufactured by filament winding of melt-extruded polycaprolactone, which was reported to demonstrate desired in vivo degradation speed matching tissue regeneration rate. The tensile and bending stiffness was characterized for a set of couple helical coils with different geometric designs, with right-handed and left-handed polymer helices fused together in joints where the filaments cross. The Young's modulus of unidirectional polycaprolactone filaments was characterized, and used as input together with the structural parameters of the coupled coils in finite element simulations of tensile loading and three-point bending of the coils. A favorable comparison of the numerical and experimental results was found, which paves way for use of the proposed numerical approach in stiffness design under reversible elastic conditions of filament wound tubular constructs.

  • 225.
    Håkansson, Karl
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Online determination of anisotropy during cellulose nanofibril assembly in a flow focusing device2015Ingår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, nr 24, s. 18601-18608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to utilize the high strength (ultimate tensile strength = 3 GPa) [Saito et al., Biomacromolecules, 2012, 14, 248] and stiffness (Young's modulus = 130 GPa) [Sakurada et al., J. Polym. Sci., 1962, 57, 651] of cellulose nanofibrils in a macroscopic material or composite, the structure of the elongated fibrils in the material must be controlled. Here, cellulose nanofibrils in a dispersed state are partly aligned in a flow focusing device, whereafter the anisotropic nano-structure is locked by a dispersion-gel transition. The alignment process has been studied by Hakansson et al., [Nat. Commun., 2014, 5, 4018], however, the location of the phase transition as well as at which alignment (anisotropy) the fibrils were locked was not investigated. In this study, the degree of alignment is determined with small angle X-ray scattering experiments and the location of the phase change is measured with polarized light experiments. Furthermore, the anisotropy of the hydrogel thread is determined and the thread is seen to still be anisotropic after six months in a water bath.

  • 226.
    Håkansson, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fall, Andreas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Yu, Sun
    DESY, Hamburg Germany.
    Krywka, Christina
    Institute of experimental and applied physics. Kiel Germany.
    Roth, Stephan
    DESY, Hamburg Germany.
    Santoro, Gonzalo
    DESY, Hamburg Germany.
    Kvick, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Innventia AB, Stockholm Sweden.
    Hydrodynamic alignment and assembly of nanofibrils resulting in strong cellulose filaments2014Ingår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 5, s. 4018-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils can be obtained from trees and have considerable potential as a building block for biobased materials. In order to achieve good properties of these materials, the nanostructure must be controlled. Here we present a process combining hydrodynamic alignment with a dispersion-gel transition that produces homogeneous and smooth filaments from a low-concentration dispersion of cellulose nanofibrils in water. The preferential fibril orientation along the filament direction can be controlled by the process parameters. The specific ultimate strength is considerably higher than previously reported filaments made of cellulose nanofibrils. The strength is even in line with the strongest cellulose pulp fibres extracted from wood with the same degree of fibril alignment. Successful nanoscale alignment before gelation demands a proper separation of the timescales involved. Somewhat surprisingly, the device must not be too small if this is to be achieved.

  • 227.
    Håkansson, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Kvick, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Measurement of width and streakiness of particle streaks in turbulent flowsArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 228.
    Håkansson, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fall, Andreas B.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Continuous assembly of aligned nanofibrils into a micro filamentManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 229.
    Håkansson, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alignment of cellulose nanofibrils in a flow focusing device: mea-surements and calculations of flow and orientationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 230.
    Håkansson, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Orientation of nano-fibrillated cellulose in accelerated flowManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 231.
    Håkansson, Karl M. O.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Kvick, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Söderberg, L. Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Measurement of width and intensity of particle streaks in turbulent flows2013Ingår i: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 1555-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibre streaks are observed in experiments with fibre suspensions in a turbulent half-channel flow. The preferential concentration methods, most commonly used to quantify preferential particle concentration, are in one dimension found to be concentration dependent. Two different new streak quantification methods are evaluated, one based on Voronoi analysis and the other based on artificial particles with an assigned fixed width. The width of the particle streaks and a measure of the intensity of the streaks, i.e. streakiness, are sought. Both methods are based on the auto-correlation of a signal, generated by summing images in the direction of the streaks. Common for both methods is a severe concentration dependency, verified in experiments keeping the flow conditions constant while the (very dilute) concentration of fibres is altered. The fixed width method is shown to be the most suitable method, being more robust and less computationally expensive. By assuming the concentration dependence to be related to random noise, an expression is derived, which is shown to make the streak width and the streakiness independent of the concentration even at as low concentrations as 0.05 particles per pixel column in an image. The streakiness is obtained by applying an artificial particle width equal to 20 % of the streak width. This artificial particle width is in this study found to be large enough to smoothen the correlation without altering the streakiness nor the streak width. It is concluded that in order to make quantitative comparisons between different experiments or simulations, the evaluation has to be performed with care and be very well documented.

  • 232.
    Håkansson, Karl M. O.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Prahl-Wittberg, Lisa
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Söderberg, L. Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Nanofibril Alignment in Flow Focusing: Measurements and Calculations2016Ingår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 120, nr 27, s. 6674-6686Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Alignment of anisotropic supermolecular building blocks is crucial to control the properties of many novel materials. In this study, the alignment process of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) in a flow-focusing channel has been investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and modeled using the Smoluchowski equation, which requires a known flow field as input. This flow field was investigated experimentally using microparticle-tracking velocimetry and by numerically applying the two-fluid level set method. A semidilute dispersion of CNFs was modeled as a continuous phase, with a higher viscosity as compared to that of water. Furthermore, implementation of the Smoluchowski equation also needed the rotational Brownian diffusion coefficient, which was experimentally determined in a shear viscosity measurement. The order of the nanofibrils was found to increase during extension in the flow-focusing channel, after which rotational diffusion acted on the orientation distribution, driving the orientation of the fibrils toward isotropy. The main features of the alignment and dealignment processes were well predicted by the numerical model, but the model overpredicted the alignment at higher rates of extension. The apparent rotational diffusion coefficient was seen to increase steeply as the degree of alignment increased. Thus, the combination of SAXS measurements and modeling provides the necessary framework for quantified studies of hydrodynamic alignment, followed by relaxation toward isotropy.

  • 233.
    Illergård, Josefin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Römling, Ute
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Antibacterial Polyelectrolyte Multilayers on Cellulosic Pulp FibresManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 234.
    Illergård, Josefin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Römling, Ute
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Biointeractive antibacterial fibres using polyelectrolyte multilayer modification2012Ingår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 1731-1741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces are a novel tool in the antibacterial battle. The preparation of such surfaces usually involves harsh reaction conditions and organic solvents. A more sustainable alternative would involve physical adsorption of water-soluble polyelectrolytes using a renewable substrate. Here, highly charged cationic polyvinylamines (PVAm), with or without hydrophobic modifications, have been adsorbed onto the naturally anionic cellulosic wood-fibres. To increase the amount of PVAm, polyelectrolyte multilayers were prepared using polyacrylic acid as the anionic polyelectrolyte. The modified fibres were characterised for PVAm content, water retention and antibacterial properties. The use of multilayers increased the total polymer content without notably reducing the water swelling. The fibres were shown to have excellent bioactive properties and reduced waterborne Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis by more than 99.9 %, which is a generally accepted definition of an antibacterial material. A large reduction in bacterial growth was observed upon addition of nutrients, although minor growth was detected after 24 h. The results further show that one adsorbed polymer layer was sufficient to obtain a contact-active surface, which makes the PVAm multilayer system seemingly unique. No polymer leaching from any of the samples was detected, indicating that the fibres work via a contact-active antibacterial mechanism. The results show the feasibility of constructing a sustainable antibacterial material using a renewable substrate and water-based solutions in the material construction process.

  • 235.
    Illergård, Josefin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Römling, Ute
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    The Antibacterial Effect of Contact-Active Multilayers: A Mechanistic ApproachManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 236.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Larsson, Emma
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Hemmer, Guillaume
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Rojas, Ramiro
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    High water-content thermoresponsive hydrogels via electrostatic macrocrosslinking of cellulose nanofibrils2016Ingår i: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 54, nr 21, s. 3415-3424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been utilized to synthesize tri- and star-block copolymers of poly(di(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate) (PDEGMA) and quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (qPDMAEMA). The block copolymers, all with a minimum of two cationically charged blocks, were sequentially used for electrostatic macrocrosslinking of a dilute dispersion of anionic TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF, 0.3 wt%), forming free-standing hydrogels. The cationic block copolymers adsorbed irreversibly to the CNF, enabling the formation of ionically crosslinked hydrogels, with a storage modulus of up to 2.9 kPa. The ability of the block copolymers to adsorb to CNF was confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and the thermoresponsive properties of the hydrogels were investigated by rheological stress and frequency sweep, and gravimetric measurements. This method was shown to be promising for the facile production of thermoresponsive hydrogels based on CNF.

  • 237. Ishikawa, Mai
    et al.
    Oaki, Yuya
    Tanaka, Yoshihisa
    Kakisawa, Hideki
    Salazar-Alvarez, German
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Stockholm Univ, Arrhenius Lab, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Imai, Hiroaki
    Fabrication of nanocellulose-hydroxyapatite composites and their application as water-resistant transparent coatings2015Ingår i: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518, Vol. 3, nr 28, s. 5858-5863Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanosized composite rods similar to 300 nm in length and similar to 20 nm in width were produced by deposition of 22-77 wt% of a c-axis-oriented hydroxyapatite (HA) on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The CNCs functionalized with sulphonic groups were covered with the HA nanocrystals through controlled nucleation and growth under a moderately supersaturated condition in a solution system based on a simulated body fluid. Water-resistant transparent coatings 2-4 mm thick were obtained via evaporation-induced assembly of CNC-HA nanocomposites by casting their suspension on a glass substrate and the subsequent growth of HA nanocrystals by vapour hydrothermal treatment. The composite coatings exhibited improved mechanical strength compared to that of crustacean exoskeletons, and potential for bone regeneration.

  • 238. Jativa, Fernando
    et al.
    Schütz, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bergström, Lennart
    Zhang, Xuehua
    Wicklein, Bernd
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Confined self-assembly of cellulose nanocrystals in a shrinking droplet2015Ingår i: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 11, nr 26, s. 5374-5380Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied how cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) self-assemble into liquid crystalline phases in shrinking, isolated droplets. By adjusting the water dissolution rate of an aqueous CNC droplet immersed in a binary toluene-ethanol mixture we can control the final morphology of the consolidated microbead. At low ethanol concentration in the surrounding fluid dense microbeads of spherical morphology are produced while collapsed core-shell particles are obtained at high ethanol concentration. Polarized light microscopy was used to follow the spatial evolution and coalescence of birefringent spheroids during droplet shrinkage. Electron microscopy reveals the resultant nematic microstructure. This method of confined CNC assembly provides thus the possibility to prepare ordered microbeads, which can be useful as templates or for their optical properties.

  • 239.
    Jawerth, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lundmark, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Gioia, Claudio
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Renewable Thiol-Ene Thermosets Based on Refined and Selectively Allylated Industrial Lignin2017Ingår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 5, nr 11, s. 10918-10925Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aromatic material constituents derived from renewable resources are attractive for new biobased polymer systems. Lignin, derived from lignocellulosic biomass, is the most abundant natural source of such structures. Technical lignins are, however, heterogeneous in both structure and polydispersity and require a refining to obtain a more reproducible material. In this paper the ethanol-soluble fraction of Lignoboost Kraft lignin is selectively allylated using allyl chloride by means of a mild and industrially scalable procedure. Analysis using 1H-, 31P-, and 2D HSQC NMR give a detailed structural description of lignin, providing evidence of its functionalization and that the suggested procedure is selective toward phenols with a conversion of at least 95%. The selectively modified lignin is subsequently cross-linked using thermally induced thiol-ene chemistry. FT-IR is utilized to confirm the cross-linking reaction, and DSC measurements determined the Tg of the thermosets to be 45-65 °C depending on reactive group stoichiometry. The potential of lignin as a constituent in a thermoset application is demonstrated and discussed.

  • 240.
    Jawerth, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, Royal Inst Technol, Wallenberg Wood Sci Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Royal Inst Technol, Wallenberg Wood Sci Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundmark, Stefan
    Perstorp AB, Perstorp, Sweden..
    Berumen, Catalina Perez
    Univ Autonoma Coahuila, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico..
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Modification of low molecular weight lignin model compounds for thermoset resin applications2016Ingår i: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 251Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 241.
    Jawerth, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lundmark, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Perstorp AB, Sweden.
    Pérez-Berumen, Catalina Maria
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Univ Autonoma Coahuila, Mexico.
    Johansson, Mats K G
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Allylation of a lignin model phenol: a highly selective reaction under benign conditions towards a new thermoset resin platform2016Ingår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, nr 98, s. 96281-96288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of aromatic material constituents derived from renewable resources poses a problem to meet the future demands of a more sustainable society. Lignin is the most abundant source of aromatic structures found in nature and is a highly interesting source for material applications. Development of controlled chemical modification routes of lignin structures are crucial in order to further develop this area. In this study allyl chloride is used to selectively modify a lignin phenol in the presence of other lignin functionalities, i.e. aliphatic hydroxyls and conjugated alkenes, under mild reaction conditions in quantitative yields. For this, coniferyl alcohol was used as a model compound in the present study. The modification was carried out in ethanol as the synthesis media. Studies on the effect of reaction time and temperature revealed optimum conditions allowing for a quantitative yield without any detectable levels of byproducts as studied with NMR, FT-IR and FT-Raman. The thermal stability of the formed product was determined to be up to at least 160 degrees C through DSC measurements. In addition, as a proof of concept, the use of the allylated monomer to form crosslinked films using free radical thiol-ene polymerization was demonstrated.

  • 242. Jedvert, K.
    et al.
    Wang, Yan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Saltberg, A.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Theliander, H.
    Mild steam explosion: A way to activate wood for enzymatic treatment, chemical pulping and biorefinery processes2012Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 828-835Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrially chipped wood chips of Norway spruce (Picea abies) were subjected to mild steam explosion (115 - 160°C) in a small-scale steam explosion reactor. This was followed by kraft cooking or extraction in alkali at 130°C for two hours, or by an enzymatic treatment with a culture filtrate in order to investigate the efficiency of the process in opening wood structure. The results demonstrated that mild explosion has an effect on opening wood structure, shown by increased release of glucomannans during alkaline extraction and faster delignification in kraft cooks for steam-exploded samples. The effect was also shown by analysis of the released reducing sugars of enzymatic treated wood chips, which showed that the wood structure became accessible for enzymes even at very modest mild steam explosion conditions. This was not observed in untreated wood chips, used as reference. The enzyme activity increased with increased temperature during mild steam explosion, and the effect did not seem to be linear. The mechanical effect of steam explosion seems to be of great importance at lower temperatures, and both chemical and mechanical effects are important at higher steam explosion temperatures. Samples for enzymatic treatment were taken both from the edges of wood chips as well as from the middle part of the chips, and the effect of steam explosion was somewhat greater in samples from the middle parts.

  • 243.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hasani, Merima
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wells, Tyrone, Jr.
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Analyses of wood components in mild steam explosion liquors from spruce2014Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 557-566Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Steam explosion at mild conditions is an intriguing pre-treatment method for future biorefineries. Here, mild steam explosion liquors, i.e. the condensed steam generated from water-impregnated and NaBH4-impregnated spruce at various steam explosion conditions, are comprehensively characterized. The characterization includes several chromatographic techniques along with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), in order to determine relative abundances of solubilized lignin, carbohydrates, and acetate content. The findings show that the main components in the liquors originated from hemicelluloses and, to some extent, wood extractives. Arabinose side substituents of arabinoglucuronoxylan were cleaved early during the steam treatment. The amount of (galacto) glucomannan in the liquors increased from 16% for the sample from the 4 bar (0.4 MPa) treatment, to 23% for the sample from the 7 bar treatment. The effects of different conditions on wood during NaBH4-treatment were also investigated. For this treatment, it was found that the degree of deacetylation increased at harsher conditions.

  • 244. Jedvert, Kerstin
    et al.
    Saltberg, Anna
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Mild steam explosion and chemical pre-treatment of Norway spruce2012Ingår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 2051-2074Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to open up the structure of wood while retaining a large amount of hemicelluloses, in particular (galacto)glucomannans. The effects of pre-treatments on wood meal from spruce (Picea abies) with a reducing agent (NaBH4) combined with steam explosion at very mild conditions were investigated. The effects of steam explosion at 160 degrees C were studied for various residence times (5 to 35 min) on both water-impregnated wood meal and samples pre-treated with NaBH4. The findings showed that pre-treatment with sodium borohydride stabilized the reducing end-groups of glucomannans and that the treatment was effective both during mild steam explosion, for both long and short residence times, as well as during subsequent treatment in alkali. Extraction experiments at different pH and temperatures showed that the main part of the hemicelluloses still remained in the wood residue after treatment. The molecular weight distributions of the extracted material from the liquors indicated that there were broad molecular distributions and that the molecular weight averages were between 3 and 6 kDa.

  • 245. Jedvert, Kerstin
    et al.
    Saltberg, Anna
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Träkemi och massateknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Extraction of hemicelluloses after chemical pretreatment combined with mild steam explosion2011Ingår i: 16th International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry - Proceedings, 2011, s. 867-871Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to separate different wood components from softwood as a first step towards development of novel materials made from Scandinavian wood. The approach is pre-treatment with a reducing agent in combination with mild steam explosion (T< 160°C, t < 15 min); followed by extraction with different liquors. The aim is to retain an increased amount of hemicelluloses in general, and glucomannans in particular, during chemical treatments, preferably of high molecular weight. Experiments were performed on wood chips from spruce in small scale steam explosion equipment. A pre-treatment method with sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) as a reducing agent model substance was chosen. Wood chips pre-treated with NaBH 4 were compared to untreated chips, and the chips were treated with steam explosion followed by extraction in alkali. Results showed that a higher amount of glucomannan was retained in chips treated with NaBH 4 than in untreated chips. An increase in the extraction rate as an effect of steam explosion indicates a possible combination of chemical reactions that breaks up the lignin-polysaccharide network and a more porous wood structure. An experimental series with wood powder as raw material were also performed in order to study the chemical reactions during steam explosion, e. g. autohydrolysis. Water impregnated wood powder as well as wood powder treated with NaBH 4 was subjected to mild steam explosion for different retention times. It was shown that a decrease in hemicelluloses content occurred after only 5 min, and the degradation was more severe at longer residence times. However, the degradation of hemicelluloses was not as severe as in the chemical treatments at conditions corresponding to chemical pulping, and consequently might be a more prudent method to access the wood structure. Extractions after steam explosion were investigated at different pH levels, and the results showed that most of the glucomannan was still in the wood residue at the tested conditions. The stabilization of glucomannans by pre-treatment with NaBH 4 was clearly seen also in these experiments.

  • 246.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers, Dept Forest Prod & Chem Engn, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Saltberg, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers, Dept Forest Prod & Chem Engn, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers, Dept Forest Prod & Chem Engn, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    EXTRACTION OF HEMI-CELLULOSES AFTER CHEMICAL PRETREATMENT COMBINED WITH MILD STEAM EXPLOSION2011Ingår i: 16TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WOOD, FIBER AND PULPING CHEMISTRY, PROCEEDINGS, VOLS I & II / [ed] Wang, L Kuang, S Hou, Q Cao, C Si, CL Zhang, HJ, CHINA LIGHT INDUSTRY PRESS , 2011, s. 867-871Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to separate different wood components from softwood as a first step towards development of novel materials made from Scandinavian wood. The approach is pre-treatment with a reducing agent in combination with mild steam explosion (T< 160 degrees C, t < 15 min); followed by extraction with different liquors. The aim is to retain an increased amount of hemicelluloses in general, and glucomannans in particular, during chemical treatments, preferably of high molecular weight. Experiments were performed on wood chips from spruce in small scale steam explosion equipment. A pre-treatment method with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as a reducing agent model substance was chosen. Wood chips pre-treated with NaBH4 were compared to untreated chips, and the chips were treated with steam explosion followed by extraction in alkali. Results showed that a higher amount of glucomannan was retained in chips treated with NaBH4 than in untreated chips. An increase in the extraction rate as an effect of steam explosion indicates a possible combination of chemical reactions that breaks up the lignin-polysaccharide network and a more porous wood structure. An experimental series with wood powder as raw material were also performed in order to study the chemical reactions during steam explosion, e. g. autohydrolysis. Water impregnated wood powder as well as wood powder treated with NaBH4 was subjected to mild steam explosion for different retention times. It was shown that a decrease in hemicelluloses content occurred after only 5 min, and the degradation was more severe at longer residence times. However, the degradation of hemicelluloses was not as severe as in the chemical treatments at conditions corresponding to chemical pulping, and consequently might be a more prudent method to access the wood structure. Extractions after steam explosion were investigated at different pH levels, and the results showed that most of the glucomannan was still in the wood residue at the tested conditions. The stabilization of glucomannans by pre-treatment with NaBH4 was clearly seen also in these experiments.

  • 247. Jedvert, Kerstin
    et al.
    Saltberg, Anna
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mild steam explosion followed by kraft cooking and oxygen delignification of spruce (Picea abies)2013Ingår i: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 66, nr 4, s. 322-330Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper considers mild steam explosion as an initial biorefinery process step to make wood more accessible for chemicals and enzymes in subsequent extraction and isolation procedures. Wood chips were exploded at four and seven bars and the effects of the treatments were followed during both kraft cooking and oxygen delignification. The properties of the unbleached and bleached pulps, including kappa number, pulp yield, fibre length, intrinsic viscosity, chemical composition and ISO brightness, were analysed using standard methods. The findings showed a difference between treatment at four and seven bars, as the higher pressure leads to more significant visual changes as well as somewhat increased degradation of hemicelluloses. These changes however, have no apparent significant negative effect on the final pulp properties. To the contrary, a benefit of steam treatment seems that the time to reach a certain kappa number was slightly reduced with steam-exploded wood chips.

  • 248. Jin, Hua
    et al.
    Cao, Anyuan
    Shi, Enzheng
    Seitsonen, Jani
    Zhang, Luhui
    Ras, Robin H. A.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    Walther, Andreas
    Ikkala, Olli
    Ionically interacting nanoclay and nanofibrillated cellulose lead to tough bulk nanocomposites in compression by forced self-assembly2013Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry B, ISSN 2050-750X, Vol. 1, nr 6, s. 835-840Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several approaches have recently been shown for self-assembled biomimetic composite films, aiming at combinations of high toughness, strength, and stiffness. However, it remains challenging to achieve high toughness using simple processes especially for bulk materials. We demonstrate that ionically interacting cationic native nanofibrillated cellulose (C-NFC) and anionic nanoclay, i.e. montmorillonite (MTM), allow local self-assemblies by a simple centrifugation process to achieve 3D bulk materials. The composite with MTM/C-NFC of 63/37 w/w has a high compressive strain to failure of 37% with distinct plastic deformation behaviour, a high work to fracture of 23.1 MJ m(-3), and a relatively high compression strength of 76 MPa. Unlike the conventionally used sequential deposition methods to achieve well-defined layers for the oppositely charged units as limited to films, the present one-step method allows quick formation of bulk materials and leads to local self-assemblies, however, having a considerable amount of nanovoids and defects between them. We suggest that the nanovoids and defects promote the plastic deformation and toughness. Considering the simple preparation method and bio-based origin of NFC, we expect that the present tough bulk nanocomposites in compression have potential in applications for sustainable and environmentally friendly materials in construction and transportation.

  • 249.
    Joby Kochumalayil, Jose
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Bergenstråhle-Wohlert, Malin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Utsel, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Fiberteknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bioinspired and highly oriented clay nanocomposites with a xyloglucan biopolymer matrix: Extending the range of mechanical and barrier properties2013Ingår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 84-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of clay bionanocomposites requires processing routes with nanostructural control. Moreover, moisture durability is a concern with water-soluble biopolymers. Here, oriented bionanocomposite coatings with strong in-plane orientation of clay platelets are for the first time prepared by continuous water-based processing. Montmorillonite (MTM) and a "new" unmodified biological polymer (xyloglucan (XG)) are combined. The resulting nanocomposites are characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, and XRD. XG adsorption on MTM is measured by quartz crystal microbalance analysis. Mechanical and gas barrier properties are measured, also at high relative humidity. The reinforcement effects are modeled. XG dimensions in composites are estimated using atomistic simulations. The nanostructure shows highly oriented and intercalated clay platelets. The reinforcement efficiency and effects on barrier properties are remarkable and are likely to be due to highly oriented and well-dispersed MTM and strong XG-MTM interactions. Properties are well preserved in humid conditions and the reasons for this are discussed.

  • 250.
    Joby Kochumalayil, Jose
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellens Centrum BiMaC Innovation.
    Morimune, Seira
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Nishino, Takashi
    Walther, Andreas
    Ikkala, Olli
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Nacre-mimetic xyloglucan/clay bionanocomposites prepared from hydrocolloidal suspension – a chemical modification route for preserved performance at high humidityManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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