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  • 201.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Dentoni Litta, Eugenio
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Interfacial layer engineering using thulium silicate/germanate for high-k/metal gate MOSFETs2014Ingår i: ECS Transactions: Cancun, Mexico, October 5 – 9, 2014 2014 ECS and SMEQ Joint International Meeting, Electrochemical Society, 2014, nr 6, s. 249-260Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thulium silicate (TmSiO) is considered as high-k interfacial layer in high-k/metal gate stacks, providing advantages in terms of EOT scalability and enhanced inversion layer mobility. In this work, we show that optimized annealing conditions for the TmSiO/HfO2/TiN gate stack provide competitive gate leakage current density, symmetric nFET and pFET threshold voltages, while retaining compatibility with CMOS processing and ∼20% higher electron and hole mobility than literature data on optimized SiOx/HfO2 stacks at EOT as low as 0.65 nm. We also evaluate cleaning procedures to facilitate thulium germanate formation on Ge channel materials and found that HF cleaning optimization is needed to allow thulium germanate formation while keeping surface roughness at an acceptable level.

  • 202.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Jayakumar, Ganesh
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Integration of Silicon Nanowires with CMOS2014Ingår i: Beyond CMOS Nanodevices 1, Wiley Blackwell , 2014, s. 65-72Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon nanowires exhibit attractive characteristics that have motivated their use as the sensor element in a biochemical sensor system. An integrated silicon nanowire and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuit chip would allow more design freedom with respect to interaction with the full biochemical sensor system, including interaction with the electrolyte solution. The CMOS fabrication process is divided into two parts, called the front-end-of-line (FEOL) and back-end-of-line (BEOL) processing. A CMOS process that allows the integration of silicon nanowires, as described in this chapter offers a vast amount of design opportunities to enhance the performance of the silicon nanowire-based sensor. The chapter describes a sensor design that allows measurement of the conductance variations of biosensitive silicon nanowires in a serial manner by using on-chip integrated CMOS circuitry. Integration of silicon nanowires can also be achieved by defining the silicon nanowires in the silicon layer of a SOI wafer.

  • 203.
    Henkel, Christoph
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Bethge, O.
    Stöger-Pollach, M.
    Bertagnolli, E.
    Impact of oxidation and reduction annealing on the electrical properties of Ge/La2O3/ZrO2 gate stacks2011Ingår i: European Solid-State Device Res. Conf., 2011, s. 75-78Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current work is discussing the surface passivation of Germanium surfaces by using layered La2O3/ZrO2 high-k dielectrics deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition for use in Ge-based MOSFET devices. The improved electrical properties of these multilayered gate stacks exposed to oxidizing and reducing agencies in presence of thin Pt cap layers are investigated. The results suggest the formation of thin intermixed La xGeyOz interfacial layers with thicknesses controllable by oxidation time. An additional reduction treatment further improves the electrical properties of the gate dielectrics in contact to the Ge substrate. The scaling potential of the respective layered gate dielectrics used in MOS-based device structures is discussed. As a result low interface trap densities of the ALD deposited La2O3/ZrO2 layers on (100) Ge down to 3·1011 eV-1 cm -2 are demonstrated. A trade-off between improved interface trap density and equivalent oxide thickness is found.

  • 204.
    Henkel, Christoph
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Stoeger-Pollach, Michael
    Bethge, Ole
    Bertagnolli, Emmerich
    Impact of oxidation and reduction annealing on the electrical properties of Ge/La2O3/ZrO2 gate stacks2012Ingår i: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 74, s. 7-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the passivation of Germanium surfaces by using layered La2O3/ZrO2 high-k dielectrics deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition to be applied in Ge-based MOSFET devices. Improved electrical properties of these multilayered gate stacks exposed to oxidizing and reducing ambient during thermal post treatment in presence of thin Pt cap layers are demonstrated. The results suggest the formation of thin intermixed LaxGeyOz interfacial layers with thicknesses controllable by oxidation time. This formation is further investigated by XPS, EDX/EELS and TEM analysis. An additional reduction annealing treatment further improves the electrical properties of the gate dielectrics in contact with the Ge substrate. As a result low interface trap densities on (100) Ge down to 3 x 10(11) eV(-1) cm(-2) are demonstrated. The formation of the high-k LaxGeyOz, layer is in agreement with the oxide densification theory and may explain the improved interface trap densities. The scaling potential of the respective layered gate dielectrics used in Ge-based MOS-based device structures to EOT of 1.2 nm or below is discussed. A trade-off between improved interface trap density and a lowered equivalent oxide thickness is found.

  • 205. Henry, A
    et al.
    Forsberg, U
    Linnarsson, Margareta
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Janzen, E
    Determination of nitrogen doping concentration in doped 4H-SiC epilayers by low temperature photoluminescence2005Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. 72, s. 254-257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A complete calibration of nitrogen concentration in doped 4H-SiC material is presented. This is done in the very large range of doping available today. i.e. from low 10(14) to 10(19) cm(-3). The samples are 4H-SiC films fabricated by hot-wall chemical vapour deposition. Low temperature photoluminescence is used as the experimental tool. For doping concentrations less than 8. 10(17) cm(-3), comparison between the intensity of various luminescence lines is used. whereas for doping hi,,her than 3 - 10(18) cm(-3) the energy position of an observed broad band allows the determination of the doping level.

  • 206. Hong, J.
    et al.
    Shul, R. J.
    Zhang, L.
    Lester, L. F.
    Cho, H.
    Hahn, Y. B.
    Hays, D. C.
    Jung, K. B.
    Pearton, S. J.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Plasma chemistries for high density plasma etching of SiC1999Ingår i: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, E-ISSN 1543-186X, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 196-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of different plasma chemistries, including SF6, Cl2, ICI, and IBr, have been examined for dry etching of 6H-SiC in high ion density plasma tools (inductively coupled plasma and electron cyclotron resonance). Rates up to 4500 angstroms·min-1 were obtained for SF6 plasmas, while much lower rates (≀800 angstroms·min-1) were achieved with Cl2, ICI, and IBr. The F2-based chemistries have poor selectivity for SiC over photoresist masks (typically 0.4-0.5), but Ni masks are more robust, and allow etch depths ≥10 Όm in the SiC. A micromachining process (sequential etch/deposition steps) designed for Si produces relatively low etch rates (<2,000 angstroms·min-1) for SiC.

  • 207. Hu, Cheng
    et al.
    Xu, Peng
    Fu, Chaochao
    Zhu, Zhiwei
    Gao, Xindong
    Jamshidi, Asghar
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Noroozi, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Radamson, Henry
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Wu, Dongping
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Characterization of Ni(Si,Ge) films on epitaxial SiGe(100) formed by microwave annealing2012Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, nr 9, s. 092101-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microwave annealing (MWA) is investigated as an alternative technique to rapid thermal processing with halogen lamp heating (RTP) for low-temperature silicide formation on epitaxially grown Si0.81Ge0.19 layers. Phase formation, resistivity mapping, morphology analysis, and composition evaluation indicate that the formation of low-resistivity NiSi1-xGex by means of MWA occurs at temperatures about 100 degrees C lower than by RTP. Under similar annealing conditions, more severe strain relaxation and defect generation are therefore found in the remaining Si0.81Ge0.19 layers treated by MWA. Although silicidation by microwave heating is in essence also due to thermal effects, details in heating mechanisms differ from RTP.

  • 208.
    Huan, Yuxiang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar. Fudan University, China.
    Ma, Ning
    Mao, Jia
    Blixt, Stefan
    Lu, Zhonghai
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH. Fudan University, China.
    Zheng, Li-rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar. Fudan University, China.
    A 101.4 GOPS/W Reconfigurable and Scalable Control-Centric Embedded Processor for Domain-Specific Applications2016Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Part 1: Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328, E-ISSN 1558-0806, Vol. 63, nr 12, s. 2245-2256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adapting the processor to the target application is essential in the Internet-of-Things (IoT), and thus requires customizability in order to improve energy efficiency and scalability to provide sufficient performance. In this paper, a reconfigurable and scalable control-centric architecture is proposed, and a processor consisting of two cores and an on-chip multi-mode router is implemented. Reconfigurability is enabled by a programmable sequence mapping table (SMT) which reorganizes functional units in each cycle, thus increasing hardware utilization and reducing excessive data movement for high energy efficiency. The router facilitates both wormhole and circuit switching to construct intra- or inter-chip interconnections, providing scalable performance. Fabricated in a 65-nm process, the chip exhibits 101.4 GOPS/W energy efficiency with a die size of 3.5 mm(2). The processor carries out general-purpose processing with a code size 29% smaller than the ARM Cortex M4, and improves the performance of application-specific processing by over ten times when implementing AES and RSA using SMTs instead of general-purpose C. By utilizing the on-chip router, the processor can be interconnected up to 256 nodes, with a single link bandwidth of 1.4 Gbps.

  • 209. Huang, J.
    et al.
    Wang, L.
    Wen, J.
    Wang, Y.
    Lin, C.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Growth of SiC thin films on (100) and (111) silicon by pulsed laser deposition combined with a vacuum annealing process1999Ingår i: Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings, San Francisco, CA, USA, 1999, Vol. 572, nr Warrendale, PA, United States, s. 207-212Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Crystalline 3C-SiC thin films were successfully grown on (100) and (111) Si substrates by using ArF pulsed laser ablation from a SiC ceramic target combined with a vacuum annealing process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to study the effect of annealing on the structure of thin films deposited at 800°C. It was demonstrated that vacuum annealing could transform the amorphous SiC films into crystalline phase and that the crystallinity was strongly dependent on the annealing temperature. For the samples deposited on (100) and (111) Si, the optimum annealing temperatures were 980 and 920°C, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs exhibited different characteristic microstructure for the (100) and (111) Si cases, similar to that observed for the carbonization layer initially formed in chemical vapor deposition of SiC films on Si. This also showed the presence of the epitaxial relationship of 3C-SiC[100]//Si[100] and 3C-SiC[111]//Si[111] in the direction of growth.

  • 210. Huang, Yue
    et al.
    Gou, Hong-Yan
    Sun, Qing-Qing
    Ding, Shi-Jin
    Zhang, Wei
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Memory Effect of Metal-Oxide-Silicon Capacitors with Self-Assembly Double-Layer Au Nanocrystals Embedded in Atomic-Layer-Deposited HfO2 Dielectric2009Ingår i: Chinese Physics Letters, ISSN 0256-307X, E-ISSN 1741-3540, Vol. 26, nr 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the chemical self-assembly growth of Au nanocrystals on atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 films aminosilanized by (3-Aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane aforehand for memory applications. The resulting Au nanocrystals show a density of about 4 x 10(11) cm(-2) and a diameter range of 5-8 nm. The metal-oxide-silicon capacitor with double-layer Au nanocrystals embedded in HfO2 dielectric exhibits a large C - V hysteresis window of 11.9 V for +/- 11 V gate voltage sweeps at 1 MHz, a flat-band voltage shift of 1.5 V after the electrical stress under 7 V for 1 ms, a leakage current density of 2.9 x 10(-8) A/cm(-2) at 9 V and room temperature. Compared to single-layer Au nanocrystals, the double-layer Au nanocrystals increase the hysteresis window significantly, and the underlying mechanism is thus discussed.

  • 211.
    Hussain, Muhammad Waqar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Modeling Temperature Dependence of fT in 4H-SiC Bipolar Transistors2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper models the temperature dependence of fT in 4H-SiC bipolar devices. The proposed model describes variation of the constituent parameters of fT as a function of temperature. The model assumes complete ionization of dopants in 4H-SiC. However, this assumption hampers the model’s utilityat temperatures below 300◦C. The model was simulated attemperatures between 300◦C and 700◦C and a drop in fT wasobserved. However, measurements are required to prove thecorrectness of the model or lack thereof.

  • 212.
    Hållstedt, Julius.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Sidewall transfer lithography for reliable fabrication of nanowires and deca-nanometer MOSFETs2008Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, nr 1, s. 117-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today MOSFET devices are approaching gate lengths on the order of 10 nm. This sets extreme demands on gate patterning technique. This paper describes a side wall transfer lithography technique to pattern decananomeer MOSFETs or nanowires. A correlated line edge roughness leading to a very low line width roughness was demonstrated for the patterned gates. Moreover, the technology was shown to be robust and reproducible with high yield and uniformity suitable for mass fabrication. Finally, integration of the sidewall transfer lithography was performed in various novel MOSFET devices.

  • 213.
    Hållstedt, Julius
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Zhang, Zhen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Edholm, Jonas
    Lu, J.
    Uppsala University, Ångström Laboratory.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Radamson, Henry
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    A robust spacer gate process for deca-nanometer high-frequency MOSFETs2006Ingår i: Microelectronic Engineering, ISSN 0167-9317, E-ISSN 1873-5568, Vol. 83, nr 3, s. 434-439Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper, presents a robust spacer technology for definition of deca-nanometer gate length MOSFETs. Conformal deposition, selective anisotropic dry-etching and selective removal of sacrificial layers enabled patterning of an oxide hard mask with deca-nanometer lines combined with structures defined with I-line lithography on a wafer. The spacer gate technology produces negligible topographies on the hard mask and no residual particles could be detected on the wafer. The line-width roughness of 40 nm poly-Si gate lines was 4 nm and the conductance of 200 pm long lines exhibited a standard deviation of 6% across a wafer. nMOSFETs with 45 nm gate length exhibited controlled short-channel effects and the average maximum transconductance in saturation was 449 mu S/mu m with a standard deviation of 3.7% across a wafer. The devices exhibited a cut-off frequency above 100 GHz at a drain current of 315 mu A/mu m. The physical and electrical results show that the employed spacer gate technology is robust and can define deca-nanometer nMOSFETs with high yield and good uniformity.

  • 214.
    Hållstedt, Julius
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Ghandi, Reza
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Radamson, Henry
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Wise, R.
    Texas Instruments, Dallas.
    Pattern dependency in selective epitaxy of B-doped SiGe layers for advanced metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors2008Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 103, nr 5, s. 054907-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents investigations about the physical mechanisms, origin, and methods to control the pattern dependency in selective epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex (x=0.14-0.32) layers. It is shown with a comprehensive experimental study that the local Si coverage of individual chips on patterned wafers is the main parameter for the layer profile in the epitaxial growth. This was explained by the gas depletion of the growth species in the low velocity boundary layer over the wafer. The gas depletion radius around each oxide opening was in the centimeter range which is related to the boundary layer thickness. The results from these experiments were applied to grow Si0.75Ge0.25 layers with B concentration of 4x10(20) cm(-3) selectively for elevated source and drains in fully depleted ultrathin body silicon on insulator p metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (p-MOSFET) devices. The epitaxy control was maintained over a wide range of device sizes by optimized process parameters in combination with a wafer pattern design consisting of dummy features causing a uniform gas depletion over the chips on the wafer.

  • 215.
    Hållstedt, Julius
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Oehme, M.
    Institut für Halbleitertechnik Universität, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Werner, J.
    Institut für Halbleitertechnik Universität, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Lyutovich, K.
    Institut für Halbleitertechnik Universität, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Kasper, E.
    Institut für Halbleitertechnik Universität, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Leakage current reduction in 80 nm biaxially strained Si nMOSFETs on in-situ doped SiGe virtual substrates2007Ingår i: ESSDERC 2007 - Proceedings of the 37th European Solid-State Device Research Conference 2008, 2007, s. 319-322Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a comprehensive study of biaxially strained (up to similar to 3 GPa stress) Si nMOSFETs down to 80 nm gatelength. Well behaved 80 nm devices with expected strain-induced electrical enhancement were demonstrated. Special emphasis was put on investigation of substrate junction leakage and source to drain leakage. In-situ doped wells and channel profiles demonstrated superior substrate junction leakage for the relaxed SiGe substrates compared to conventional implantation. The source to drain leakage in 80 nm devices was effectively reduced by increment of channel doping and rotation of the channel direction.

  • 216.
    Hållstedt, Julius
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Parent, A.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Radamson, Henry
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Incorporation of boron in SiGe(C) epitaxial layers grown by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition2005Ingår i: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 8, nr 03-jan, s. 97-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the strain and electrical properties of epitaxial in situ B-doped (10(18)-10(21) cm(-3)) SiGeC layers (23, 28% Ge and 0, 0.5% C) has been investigated. The growth rate was shown to have a significant increase at 3 x 10(-2) mTorr diborane partial pressure. This point coincides with an enhancement in boron incorporation, which was explained by the strain compensation effect of boron in the highly strained SiGeC layers. In these samples, the total Ge and C content was shown to remain constant with increasing diborane partial pressure. The substitutional/active dopant concentration in SiGe layers was obtained by high-resolution X-ray diffraction by measuring the strain compensation effect of boron. The interaction between C and B in SiGe matrix was also investigated. This was compared with the active dopant concentration obtained from Hall measurements in order to achieve a Hall scattering factor of 0.3-0.7 for dopant concentrations between 3 x 10(18) and 5 x 10(21) cm(-3). The resistivity values of these layers were in the range 2 x 10(-2) -4 x 10(-4) Omega cm. Finally, it was shown that boron atoms in SiGeC layers locate preferably at substitutional sites in contrary to carbon atoms at both substitutional and interstitial sites.

  • 217.
    Hållstedt, Julius
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    von Haartman, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Radamson, Henry
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Noise and mobility characteristics of bulk and fully depleted SOI pMOSFETs using Si or SiGe channels2006Ingår i: ECS Transactions, ISSN 1938-5862, E-ISSN 1938-6737, Vol. 3, nr 7, s. 67-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    State of the art bulk and fully depleted SOI Si and SiGe channel pMOSFET devices with gate lengths ranging from 0.1 to 200 μm were fabricated and analyzed in terms of drain current drivability, mobility and noise performance. In general the SOI devices demonstrated superior mobility and significantly reduced I/f noise compared to bulk devices maintaining a well controlled short channel effects due to the ultra thin body.

  • 218.
    Hållstedt, Julius
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik, MAP.
    von Haartman, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Radamson, Henry
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Hole mobility in ultrathin body SOI pMOSFETs with SiGe or SiGeC channels2006Ingår i: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 466-468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The hole mobilities of SiGe and SiGeC channel pMOSFETs fabricated on ultrathin silicon-on-insulator substrates are investigated and compared with reference Si channel devices. The total thickness of the fully depleted Si/SiGe(C)/Si body structure is similar to 25 nm. All devices demonstrated a near ideal subthreshold behavior, and the drive current and mobility were increased with more than 60% for SiGe and SiGeC channels. When comparing SIMOX and UNIBOND substrates, no significant difference could be detected.

  • 219.
    Iannazzo, Mario
    et al.
    Technical University of Catalonia.
    Lo Muzzo, Valerio
    STMicroelectronics.
    Rodriguez, Saul
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Pandey, Himadri
    University of Siegen.
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Lemme, Max
    University of Siegen.
    Alarcon, Eduard
    Tech. Univ. of Catalunya.
    Optimization of a Compact I–V Model forGraphene FETs: Extending Parameter Scalability for Circuit Design Exploration2015Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 62, nr 11, s. 3870-3875Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimization of the current-to-voltage transfer characteristic of a graphene FET (GFET) compact model, based on drift-diffusion carrier transport, is presented. The improved accuracy at Dirac point extends the model usability for GFETs when scaling parameters, such as voltage supply, gate length, oxide thickness, and mobility, for circuit design exploration. The model's accuracy is demonstrated through fitting to GFETs processed in-house. The model has been written in a standard behavioral language, and extensively run in an analog circuit simulator for designing basic circuits, such as inverters and cascode cells, demonstrating its robustness.

  • 220.
    Iannazzo, Mario
    et al.
    Technical University of Catalonia.
    Lo Muzzo, Valerio
    STMicroelectronics.
    Rodriguez, Saul
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Lemme, Max
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Technology, University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany.
    Alarcon, Eduard
    Tech. Univ. of Catalunya.
    Design exploration of graphene-FET based ring-oscillator circuits: A test-bench for large-signal compact models2015Ingår i: IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 2716-2719Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a design-oriented characterization of ring-oscillator (RO) circuits based on complementary-inverters (INVs) implemented with graphene-FET (GFET) devices. A large-signal GFET compact model based on drift-diffusion transport is benchmarked at the circuit level against a second GFET compact model based on virtual source. Transient-based simulations of a 3-cell RO yield performance metrics in terms of operating frequency and voltage dynamic range. Against these metrics, a comprehensive design space exploration covering as input design variables parameters as GFET gate-oxide thickness tOX and channel-length L is presented. Methodologically, the work presents a general-purpose design framework, illustrated for ROs, which establishes a vertical circuit-device co-design environment. Its double-fold outcome is to provide guidelines both to bottom-up dimension and size the circuit, as well as top-down refine GFET device models and in turn GFET technology.

  • 221. Iezekiel, S.
    et al.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Transistor lasers and their expected applications in microwave photonics2015Ingår i: 2015 17th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), IEEE Computer Society, 2015, artikel-id 7193352Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The transistor laser is a relatively new device that is based on the homogeneous integration of a heterojunction bipolar transistor with a laser diode. As such it offers very unique functionality, and the different device dynamics (compared to conventional lasers) offer a number of benefits, included increased modulation bandwidth, reduced chirp, reduced relative intensity noise and the option to both reduce intermodulation distortion and to eliminate the need for monitor photodiodes thorough the use of collector current feedback. Here we review recent progress in both the fabrication and modelling of this device, and point to its potential applications in a number of areas of microwave photonics, including links and optoelectronic mixing.

  • 222. Illarionov, Y.
    et al.
    Waltl, M.
    Smith, AD
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Vaziri, Sam
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Lemme, M.
    Grasser, T.
    Interplay between hot carrier and bias stress components in single-layer double-gated graphene field-effect transistors2015Ingår i: European Solid-State Device Research Conference, IEEE , 2015, s. 172-175Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the interplay between the degradations associated with the bias-temperature instability (BTI) and hot carrier degradation (HCD) in single-layer double-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs). Depending on the polarity of the applied BTI stress, the HCD component acting in conjuction can either accelerate or compensate the degradation. The related phenomena are studied in detail at different temperatures. Our results show that the variations of the charged trap density and carrier mobility induced by both contributions are correlated. Moreover, the electron/hole mobility behaviour agrees with the previously reported attractive/repulsive scattering asymmetry. © 2015 IEEE.

  • 223. Illarionov, Yu Yu
    et al.
    Smith, Anderson D.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Vaziri, S.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Mueller, T.
    Lemme, M. C.
    Grasser, T.
    Bias-temperature instability in single-layer graphene field-effect transistors2014Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, nr 14, s. 143507-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a detailed analysis of the bias-temperature instability (BTI) of single-layer graphene field-effect transistors. Both negative BTI and positive BTI can be benchmarked using models developed for Si technologies. In particular, recovery follows the universal relaxation trend and can be described using the established capture/emission time map approach. We thereby propose a general methodology for assessing the reliability of graphene/dielectric interfaces, which are essential building blocks of graphene devices. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 224. Illarionov, Yury
    et al.
    Smith, Anderson
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Vaziri, Sam
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Mueller, Thomas
    Lemme, Max
    Grasser, Tibor
    Hot-Carrier Degradation and Bias-Temperature Instability in Single-Layer Graphene Field-Effect Transistors: Similarities and Differences2015Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 62, nr 11, s. 3876-3881Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a detailed analysis of hot-carrier degradation (HCD) in graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) and compare those findings with the bias-temperature instability (BTI). Our results show that the HCD in GFETs is recoverable, similar to its BTI counterpart. Moreover, both the degradation mechanisms strongly interact. Particular attention is paid to the dynamics of HCD recovery, which can be well fitted with the capture/emission time (CET) map model and the universal relaxation function for some stress conditions, quite similar to the BTI in both GFETs and Si technologies. The main result of this paper is an extension of our systematic method for benchmarking new graphene technologies for the case of HCD.

  • 225. Illarionov, Yu.Yu.
    et al.
    Smith, Anderson David
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Vaziri, Sam
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Mueller, T.
    Lemme, M. C.
    Grasser, T.
    Bias-temperature instability in single-layer graphene field-effect transistors: A reliability challenge2014Ingår i: 2014 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, SNW 2014, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a detailed analysis of the bias-temperature instability (BTI) of single-layer graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs). We demonstrate that the dynamics can be systematically studied when the degradation is expressed in terms of a Dirac point voltage shift. Under these prerequisites it is possible to understand and benchmark both NBTI and PBTI using models previously developed for Si technologies. In particular, we show that the capture/emission time (CET) map approach can be also applied to GFETs and that recovery in GFETs follows the same universal relaxation trend as their Si counterparts. While the measured defect densities can still be considerably larger than those known from Si technology, the dynamics of BTI are in general comparable, allowing for quantitative benchmarking of the graphene/dielectric interface quality.

  • 226. Illarionov, Yu.Yu.
    et al.
    Waltl, M.
    Smith, A. D.
    Vaziri, Sam
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Mueller, T.
    Lemme, M. C.
    Grasser, T.
    Hot-carrier degradation in single-layer double-gated graphene field-effect transistors2015Ingår i: IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, s. XT21-XT26Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a first study of hot-carrier degradation (HCD) in graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs). Our results show that HCD in GFETs is recoverable, similarly to the bias-temperature instability (BTI). Depending on the top gate bias polarity, the presence of HCD may either accelerate or suppress BTI. Contrary to BTI, which mainly results in a change of the charged trap density in the oxide, HCD also leads to a mobility degradation which strongly correlates with the magnitude of the applied stress.

  • 227. Illarionov, Yu.Yu.
    et al.
    Waltl, M.
    Smith, Anderson D.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Vaziri, Sam
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Lemme, M. C.
    Crasser, T.
    Impact of hot carrier stress on the defect density and mobility in double-gated graphene field-effect transistors2015Ingår i: EUROSOI-ULIS 2015 - 2015 Joint International EUROSOI Workshop and International Conference on Ultimate Integration on Silicon, 2015, s. 81-84Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of hot-carrier degradation (HCD) on the performance of graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) for different polarities of HC and bias stress. Our results show that the impact of HCD consists in a change of both charged defect density and carrier mobility. At the same time, the mobility degradation agrees with an attractive/repulsive scattering asymmetry and can be understood based on the analysis of the defect density variation.

  • 228. Illarionov, Y.Yu.
    et al.
    Waltl, M.
    Smith, Anderson David
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Vaziri, Sam
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Lemme, M. C.
    Grasser, T.
    Bias-temperature instability on the back gate of single-layer double-gated graphene field-effect transistors2016Ingår i: Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-4922, E-ISSN 1347-4065, Vol. 55, nr 4, artikel-id 04EP03Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the positive and negative bias-temperature instabilities (PBTI and NBTI) on the back gate of single-layer double-gated graphene fieldeffect transistors (GFETs). By analyzing the resulting degradation at different stress times and oxide fields we show that there is a significant asymmetry between PBTI and NBTI with respect to their dependences on these parameters. Finally, we compare the results obtained on the high-k top gate and SiO2 back gate of the same device and show that SiO2 gate is more stable with respect to BTI.

  • 229. Issa, F.
    et al.
    Ottaviani, L.
    Szalkai, D.
    Vermeeren, L.
    Vervisch, V.
    Lyoussi, A.
    Ferone, R.
    Kuznetsov, A.
    Lazar, M.
    Klix, A.
    Palais, O.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    4H-SiC neutron sensors based on ion implanted 10B neutron converter layer2015Ingår i: 2015 4th International Conference on Advancements in Nuclear Instrumentation Measurement Methods and their Applications, ANIMMA 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, artikel-id 7465544Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of the I-SMART project the main aim is to develop an innovative complete radiation detection system based on silicon carbide technology in view to detect neutrons (thermal and fast) and photons for harsh environments. In the present work two geometries have been realized based on ion implantation of boron. In the first geometry, 10B ions have been implanted into the Al metallic contact of a p-n diode to create the neutron converter layer. In the second geometry one single process has been used to realize both the p+-layer and the neutron converter layer. The technological processes followed to fabricate these detectors, with a study of their electrical behavior and their responses under thermal neutron irradiations are addressed in this paper.

  • 230. Issa, F.
    et al.
    Ottaviani, L.
    Vervisch, V.
    Szalkai, D.
    Vermeeren, L.
    Lyoussi, A.
    Kuznetsov, A.
    Lazar, M.
    Klix, A.
    Palais, O.
    Ferone, R.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Study of the stability of 4H-SiC detectors by thermal neutron irradiation2015Ingår i: European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, ECSCRM 2014, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2015, s. 875-878Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two types of 4H-SiC semiconductor detectors (D1 and D2) are realized based on ion implantation of10B inside the aluminum metallic contact. The first detector shows a high leakage current after10B implantation and low signal to noise ratio. However, improvements concerning the implantation parameters led to lower leakage current and thus to higher signal to noise ratio. Moreover such detectors show their stability under different thermal neutron fluxes showing the reproducible features of the pulse height spectra and same electrical behaviour before and after irradiation. Some of future using and interesting applications of such SiC detector devices -for non-charged particles (photons and/or neutrons) are expected in the frame of non-destructive assays, nuclear reactor monitoring, safeguards, oil and gas prospection [1,2]

  • 231. Issa, F.
    et al.
    Ottaviani, L.
    Vervisch, V.
    Szalkai, D.
    Vermeeren, L.
    Lyoussi, A.
    Kuznetsov, A.
    Lazar, M.
    Klix, A.
    Palais, O.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Radiation silicon carbide detectors based on ion implantation of boron2013Ingår i: 2013 3rd International Conference on Advancements in Nuclear Instrumentation, Measurement Methods and Their Applications, ANIMMA 2013, IEEE , 2013, s. 6727997-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation detectors based on radiation-hardened semiconductor such as silicon carbide (SiC), have received considerable attention in many applications such as in outer space, high energy physics experiments, gas and oil prospection, and nuclear reactors. For the first time it was demonstrated the reliability of thermal neutron detectors realized by standard ion implantation of boron layer as a neutron converter layer. Moreover, these detectors respond to thermal neutrons and gamma rays showing different counting rates at different voltages and under different types of shielding.

  • 232. Issa, F.
    et al.
    Vervisch, V.
    Ottaviani, L.
    Szalkai, D.
    Vermeeren, L.
    Lyoussi, A.
    Kuznetsov, A.
    Lazar, M.
    Klix, A.
    Palais, O.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Improvements in Realizing 4H-SiC Thermal Neutron Detectors2016Ingår i: ISRD 15 - INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON REACTOR DOSIMETRY, 2016, artikel-id 05004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we presented two types of 4H-SiC semiconductor detectors (D1 and D2) both based on ion implantation of B-10 inside the aluminum metallic contact. The first detector shows a high leakage current after the implantation and low signal to noise ratio. However, improvements concerning the implantation parameters and the distance between the implanted B-10 thermal neutron converter layer and the active pn-junction have led to low leakage current and thus to higher signal to noise ratio. This proves the strength of this new method of realizing sensitive SiC-based thermal neutron detectors.

  • 233. Issa, F.
    et al.
    Vervisch, V.
    Ottaviani, L.
    Szalkai, D.
    Vermeeren, L.
    Lyoussi, A.
    Kuznetsov, A.
    Lazar, M.
    Klix, A.
    Palais, O.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Nuclear radiation detectors based on 4H-SiC p+-n junction2014Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, ICSCRM 2013, 2014, s. 1046-1049Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide (SiC) radiation detectors were realized by 10B implantation into the metal contact in order to avoid implantation-related defects within the sensitive area of the 4H-SiC pn junction. No post implantation annealing was performed. Such detectors respond to thermal neutrons showing consistent counting rates as function of external reverse bias voltages and radiation intensity.

  • 234. Issa, F.
    et al.
    Vervisch, V.
    Ottaviani, L.
    Szalkai, D.
    Vermeeren, L.
    Lyoussi, A.
    Kuznetsov, A.
    Lazar, M.
    Klix, A.
    Palais, O.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Radiation silicon carbide detectors based on ion implantation of boron2014Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 2105-2111, artikel-id 6849512Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation detectors based on radiation-hardened semiconductor such as silicon carbide (SiC), have received considerable attention in many applications such as in outer space, high energy physics experiments, gas and oil prospection, and nuclear reactors. In the frame work of the European project I-SMART (Innovative Sensor for Material Ageing and Radiation Testing), we demonstrated for the first time the reliability of thermal neutron detectors realized by standard ion implantation of boron atoms to form a neutron converter layer (NCL). Two types of detectors were realized; the first was implanted by aluminum to create the p+ - layer, and then implanted by boron ( 10 B) to realize the NCL. The second type was based on p+ - layer, and was implanted by 10B into the aluminum metallic contact in order to avoid implantation-related defect within the sensitive area. Both kinds of detectors reveal to respond to thermal neutrons and gamma rays, showing consistent counting rates as a function of bias voltages, radiation intensity and type of shielding.

  • 235. Jablonka, Lukas
    et al.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Abedin, Ahmad
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik, Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Jordan-Sweet, Jean
    Lavoie, Christian
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Zhang, Zhen
    Formation of nickel germanides from Ni layers with thickness below 10 nm2017Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 35, nr 2, artikel-id 020602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors have studied the reaction between a Ge (100) substrate and thin layers of Ni ranging from 2 to 10 nm in thickness. The formation of metal-rich Ni5Ge3 was found to precede that of the monogermanide NiGe by means of real-time in situ x-ray diffraction during ramp-annealing and ex situ x-ray pole figure analyses for phase identification. The observed sequential growth of Ni5Ge3 and NiGe with such thin Ni layers is different from the previously reported simultaneous growth with thicker Ni layers. The phase transformation from Ni5Ge3 to NiGe was found to be nucleationcontrolled for Ni thicknesses < 5 nm, which is well supported by thermodynamic considerations. Specifically, the temperature for the NiGe formation increased with decreasing Ni (rather Ni5Ge3) thickness below 5 nm. In combination with sheet resistance measurement and microscopic surface inspection of samples annealed with a standard rapid thermal processing, the temperature range for achieving morphologically stable NiGe layers was identified for this standard annealing process. As expected, it was found to be strongly dependent on the initial Ni thickness.

  • 236.
    Jalalian, Abolfazl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Grishin, Alexander M.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Biocompatible ferroelectric (Na,K)NbO(3) nanofibers2012Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, nr 1, s. 012904-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dense homogeneous textile composed from continuous bead-free sodium potassium niobate (NKN) nanofibers 100 mu m long and 50-200 nm in diameter was sintered by sol-gel calcination assisted electrospinning. High resolution electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction revealed preferential cube-on-cube growth of fibers in [001] direction. Raman spectrum of NKN fibers contains all the features characteristic to electrically poled orthorhombic phase. In contrast to polycrystalline ceramics, it shows relative enhancement of the Raman cross section of isotropic A(1g)(nu(1)) mode compared with polar axis defined F(2g)(nu(5)) and E(g)(nu(2)) vibrations. We interpret this as an evidence for superparaelectric state of NKN nanofibers. Spontaneous polarization inside highly crystalline nanofiber exists at room temperature though big distance between fibers prevents the settling of a net macroscopic polarization.

  • 237.
    Jalalian, Abolfazl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Grishin, Alexander M.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Piezoelectricity and electrostriction in biocompatible (Na,K)NbO3 nanofiber scaffolds2014Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 104, nr 24, s. 243701-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Single phase and highly crystalline biocompatible ferroelectric (Na,K)NbO3 (NKN) nanofibers were synthesized by sol-gel assisted electrospinning technique. Low amplitude piezoelectric response as well as electrostriction effect in NKN fibers were examined using piezoelectric force microscopy technique. Piezoelectric coefficient d(33) is strongly anisotropic varying from 75.8 to 18.3 pm/V for, respectively, out-of-axis and on-axis oriented ferroelectric domains in NKN fibers. Hysteresis P-E loop for individual nanofiber reconstructed from the bipolar E-field-induced butterfly strain curve yields: coercive field E-c = 31 kV/cm, remnant P-r = 6.2 mu C/cm(2), and the maximum achieved polarization P-max = 21.2 mu C/cm(2). Enhanced piezoelectric effect and strong electrostriction promise NKN fibers as electrically polarizable scaffolds for tissue engineering and for energy harvesting biocompatible nanogenerators.

  • 238.
    Jalalian, Abolfazl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Grishin, Alexander M.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Dou, Shi Xue
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Ferroelectric and Ferromagnetic Nanofibers: Synthesis, Properties and Applications2012Ingår i: ASIA-PACIFIC INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH CONFERENCE 2011 (AP-IRC 2011), 2012, s. 012006-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As first time, ferroelectric (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O-3 (BCTZ), biocompatible (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN), and ferromagnetic Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) nanofibers were synthesized by sol-gel assisted electrospining technique. Non-woven, bead-free 100 mu m long fiber mat was formed from close-packed nanocrystals after calcination in air at 800 degrees C (BCTZ and NKN) and 1100 degrees C (YIG). BCTZ fibers are 200 nm in width whereas NKN and YIG fibers have smaller 50-100 nm diameter. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy show that BCTZ and NKN crystallized in tetragonal and rhombohedral polar phases in the vicinity of morphotropic phase boundary. Room temperature ferromagnetism in YIG fibers is indicated by a well formed M-H hysteresis loop with about 70% of remnant magnetization to the saturated value reached at 150 Oe. Broad band microwave spectroscopy revealed strong asymmetry of the shape of ferromagnetic resonance lines that conforms to a three orders of magnitude shape aspect ratio of YIG nanofibers.

  • 239.
    Jalalian, Abolfazl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Grishin, Alexander M.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Dou, S.X.
    Wang, X.
    Fabrication of Ca, Zr doped BaTiO 3 ferroelectric nanofibers by electrospinning2012Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 9, nr 7, s. 1574-1576Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As first time, (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O-3 (BCTZ) nanofibers are synthesized by sol-gel assisted electrospining technique. Non-woven and bead-free BCTZ nanofibers mat was formed and a single chemical phase was achieved after calcination of the nanofibers at 700 degrees C in air. XRD and Raman spectroscopy show that BCTZ nanofibers crystallized in the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region.

  • 240.
    Jalalian, Abolfazl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Grishin, Alexander M.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Wang, X. L.
    Cheng, Z. X.
    Dou, S. X.
    Large piezoelectric coefficient and ferroelectric nanodomain switching in Ba(Ti0.80Zr0.20)O-3-0.5(Ba0.70Ca0.30)TiO3 nanofibers and thin2014Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 104, nr 10, s. 103112-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently available low-dimensional piezoelectric materials show a low piezoelectric coefficient d(33) of merely 100pm V-1 with Pb(Zr, Ti)O-3-based materials at the high end. Here, we report very large piezoelectricity in Ba(Ti0.80Zr0.20)O-3-0.5(Ba0.70Ca0.30)TiO3 (BTZ-0.5BCT) lead-free nanostructures sintered as thin films (d(33) = 140pm V-1) and nanofibers (d(33) = 180pm V-1). The influences of lateral size, geometry, and the clamping effect on the piezoelectric performance were investigated for both thin films and nanofibers. Combining a high piezoelectric coefficient with environmental benefits, the BTZ-0.5BCT nanostructures provide the superior functions sought for highly efficient piezoelectric devices and electromechanical systems.

  • 241.
    Jalalian, Abolfazl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Kavrik, Mahmut Sami
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Khartsev, Sergiy I.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Grishin, Alexander M.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Ferromagnetic resonance in Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) nanofibers2011Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 99, nr 10, s. 102501-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous bead-free polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) nanofibers 100 mu m long and 50-100 nm in diameter were sintered by sol-gel calcination assisted electrospinning. Room temperature ferromagnetism in YIG fibers is indicated by a well formed M-H hysteresis loop with about 70% of remnant magnetization to the saturated value reached at 150 Oe. Broad band microwave spectroscopy revealed strong asymmetry of ferromagnetic resonance lines that conforms to a three orders of magnitude shape aspect ratio of YIG nanofibers.

  • 242. Jalali-Farahani, Bahar
    et al.
    Ismail, Mohammed
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Adaptive noise cancellation techniques in sigma-delta analog-to-digital converters2007Ingår i: Ieee Transactions on Circuits and Systems I-Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328, Vol. 54, nr 9, s. 1891-1899Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive noise cancellation (ANC)) techniques that extract a desired signal from background noise have many applications in different engineering disciplines. In ANC, the corrupted signal is passed through a filter that tends to suppress the noise while leaving the original signal unchanged. This paper demonstrates that the adaptive noise cancellation technique can be embedded in the digital signal postprocessing of a sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter and effectively reduces the quantization noise as well as the thermal noise at the output of the converter. The combination of ANC and the noise-shaping technique enable high-resolution analog-to-digital conversion in wideband applications where noise shaping alone cannot provide enough suppression of quantization noise due to the low oversampling ratio.

  • 243.
    Jamshidi, Asghar
    et al.
    KTH.
    Noroozi, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Moeen, M.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Hamawandi, Bejan
    KTH.
    Lu, J.
    Hultman, L.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Radamson, Henry
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Growth of GeSnSiC layers for photonic applications2013Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 230, s. 106-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents epitaxial growth of intrinsic and doped GeSnSiC layers using Ge2H6, SnCl4, CH3SiH3, B2H6, PH3 and Si2H6 deposited at 290-380 degrees C on strain relaxed Ge buffer layer or Si substrate by using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition (RPCVD) technique. The GeSnSi layers were compressively strained on Ge buffer layer and strain relaxed on Si substrate. It was demonstrated that the quality of epitaxial layers is dependent on the growth parameters and that the Sn content in epi-layers could be tailored by growth temperature. The Sn segregation caused surface roughness which was decreased by introducing Si and Si-C into Ge layer. The Sn content in GeSn was carefully determined from the mismatch, both parallel and perpendicular, to the growth direction when the Poisson ratio was calculated for a certain Ge-Sn composition. The X-ray results were excellently consistent with Rutherford Backscattered Spectroscopy (RBS). Strain relaxed GeSn layers were also used as virtual substrate to grow tensile-strained Ge layers. The Ge cap layer had low defect density and smooth surface which makes it a viable candidate material for future photonic applications.

  • 244. Jarmar, T.
    et al.
    Ericson, F.
    Smith, U.
    Seger, J.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Influence of germanium on the formation of NiSi1-xGex on (111)-oriented Si1-xGex2005Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 98, nr 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of NiSi1-xGex on Si1-xGex(111) substrates with x=0, 0.05, and 0.20 at an annealing temperature of 500 degrees C has been studied by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and pole-figure measurements. NiSi formed preferentially oriented on Si, with (100), (001), and (102) parallel to Si(111) and NiSi[010]parallel to Si < 211 >. In NiSi0.95Ge0.05, (001) and (102) maintained their preferential orientations, whereas NiSi0.95Ge0.05(100) was rotated by 30 degrees, so that NiSi0.95Ge0.05[010]parallel to Si0.95Ge0.05< 011 >. An epitaxial alignment in the form of a double axiotaxy, with NiSi0.95Ge0.05(2 +/- 11) as well as (20-2)parallel to Si0.95Ge0.05{220}, simultaneously with NiSi0.95Ge0.05(0 +/- 13) as well as (020)parallel to Si0.95Ge0.05{022}, caused NiSi0.95Ge0.05(100) to tilt over the range of 0 degrees-7.5 degrees. The Ge addition also enhanced the preferentially oriented structure by reinforcing NiSi0.95Ge0.05(123)parallel to Si0.95Ge0.05(111) through the axiotaxial alignments, NiSi0.95Ge0.05(211) and (-112)parallel to Si0.95Ge0.05{220}. Observed was also the presence of NiSi0.95Ge0.05(011)parallel to Si0.95Ge0.05(111), with NiSi0.95Ge0.05[100]parallel to Si0.95Ge0.05< 011 >. In the case of NiSi0.80Ge0.20, the preferential orientations were sharply reduced in favor of NiSi0.80Ge0.20(100)parallel to Si0.80Ge0.20(111), with NiSi0.80Ge0.20[010]parallel to Si0.80Ge0.20< 011 > and the 30 degrees rotation thus preserved. The observed Ge influence is shown to be consistent with a model suggested earlier for Si1-xGex(001) substrates, which is based on the nonexistence of Ni(Si1-xGex)(2) for all except the smallest values of x. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to show that the surface steps typical of molecular-beam-deposited epitaxial Si1-xGex substrate films do not influence the growth of the NiSi1-xGex.

  • 245.
    Jayakumar, Ganesh
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Asadollahi, Ali
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Garidis, Konstantinos
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Silicon Nanowires Integrated in a Fully Depleted CMOS Process for Charge Based Biosensing2013Ingår i: ULIS 2013: The 14th International Conference on Ultimate Integration on Silicon, Incorporating the 'Technology Briefing Day', IEEE , 2013, s. 81-84Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a silicon nanowire (SiNW) biosensor fabricated in a fully depleted SOI CMOS process. The sensor array consists of 32 by 32 pixel matrix (1024 pixels or test sites) and 8 input-output (I/O) pins. In each pixel single crystalline SiNW with 60 by 20 nm cross-section area is defined using sidewall transfer lithography (STL) in the SOI layer. The key advantage of the design is that 1024 individual SiNWs can be read-out sequentially and used for real-time charge based detection of molecules in liquids or gases.

  • 246.
    Jayakumar, Ganesh
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Asadollahi, Ali
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Garidis, Konstantinos
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Silicon nanowires integrated with CMOS circuits for biosensing application2014Ingår i: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 98, s. 26-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a silicon nanowire (SiNW) biosensor fabricated in a fully depleted SOI CMOS process. The sensor array consists of N by N pixel matrix (N-2 pixels or test sites) and 8 input-output (I/O) pins. In each pixel a single crystalline SiNW with 75 by 20 nm cross-section area is defined using sidewall transfer lithography in the SOI layer. The key advantage of the design is that each individual SiNWs can be read-out sequentially and used for real-time charge based detection of molecules in liquids or gases.

  • 247.
    Jayakumar, Ganesh
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Garidis, Konstantinos
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Hellstrom, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires using STL for biosensing applications2014Ingår i: INT CONF ULTI INTEGR, ISSN 2330-5738, s. 109-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a sidewall transfer lithography (STL) process to fabricate silicon nanowires using the CMOS compatible materials SiO2, SiN and alpha-Si. The STL process is implemented using a single cluster tool for reactive ion etching (RIE) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with a maximum process temperature of 400 degrees C. Using three lithography masks, single and multiple silicon nanowires connected to contact areas can be defined. By optimizing layer thicknesses, RIE and deposition conformity we demonstrate wafer scale definition of 60 nm wide silicon nanowires using I-line stepper lithography. The silicon nanowires exhibit excellent characteristics for biosensing applications with subthreshold slopes of 75 mV/dec and a high on/off current ratio of more than 10(5).

  • 248.
    Jayakumar, Ganesh
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Legallais, Maxime
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Mouis, Mireille
    Stambouli, Valerie
    Ternon, Celine
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Fabrication and characterization of high-K dielectric integrated silicon nanowire sensor for DNA sensing application2016Ingår i: BIOSENSING AND NANOMEDICINE IX, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2016, artikel-id UNSP 99300QKonferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 249. Jayasinghe, R. C.
    et al.
    Lao, Y. F.
    Perera, A. G. U.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Cao, C. F.
    Wu, H. Z.
    Plasma frequency and dielectric function dependence on doping and temperature for p-type indium phosphide epitaxial films2012Ingår i: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 24, nr 43, s. 435803-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical properties of p-type InP epitaxial films with different doping concentrations are investigated by infrared absorption measurements accompanied by reflection and transmission spectra taken from 25 to 300 K. A complete dielectric function (DF) model, including intervalence band (IVB) transitions, free-carrier and lattice absorption, is used to determine the optical constants with improved accuracy in the spectral range from 2 to 35 mu m. The IVB transitions by free holes among the split-off, light-hole, and heavy-hole bands are studied using the DF model under the parabolic-band approximation. A good understanding of IVB transitions and the absorption coefficient is useful for designing high operating temperature and high detectivity infrared detectors and other optoelectronic devices. In addition, refractive index values reported here are useful for optoelectronic device designing, such as implementing p-InP waveguides in semiconductor quantum cascade lasers. The temperature dependence of hole effective mass and plasma frequency is also reported.

  • 250.
    Johansson, Ted
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Malin, B. Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Norstrom, Hans
    Smith, Ulf
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Influence of SOI-generated stress on BiCMOS performance2006Ingår i: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 50, nr 6, s. 935-942Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two BiCMOS processes were adapted for SOI and the performance of the bipolar devices was studied. Differences in electrical parameters were observed, in particular the current gain, which processing or doping profiles could not explain, but correlated with observed stress in transistors. Simulation of the process flow with stress included revealed that stress was generated to a higher degree in the SOI wafers in the presence of deep trench isolation (DTI). Theoretical estimations and electrical simulations with and without stress yielded results consistent with observed data. Thus, we conclude that the observed differences are caused by process-induced in-plane biaxial stress.

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